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Science Reviewer

1803, Thomas Young’s double-slit interference experiment provided the first


experimental evidence for a wave theory of light and of other forms of
electromagnetic radiation.
According to Maxwell, an electromagnetic wave is an electrical and magnetic
disturbance that moves through space at the speed of light (c=3.0 x 108 m/s)
Electromagnetic waves: radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, light,
ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays.
The waves differ from each other in their frequency and wavelength and in the
way they are produced and interact with matter.
The waves are similar in that they all move at the speed of light and consist of
moving electric and magnetic fields.
If the current moves down, the field is reversed; and while the electrons
oscillate up and down in the antenna, an alternating magnetic field pattern is
produced.
Electromagnetic wave- combined filed of electric and magnetic nature, which
is produced by the oscillating charge on the antenna.
Electricity and magnetism- can both static. But when they change or move
together, they produce a wave known as EM wave, also known as EM
radiation, EM waves are arranged in an electromagnetic spectrum based on
their frequency (f), wavelength (), and photon energy (E).
Mechanical Waves Electromagnetic Waves
Need a material medium for their Do not need any material medium for their
propagation propagation; they can travel through a vacuum
Are caused by wave amplitude and not by Are due to change in electric and magnetic fields
frequency
Are considered periodic disturbances Are just called disturbances
Have low speed Have high speed
Cannot undergo polarization Can be polarized
Electromagnetic spectrum- EM waves are often classified through this
scheme.
-extends from the longest wavelengths of radio waves up to the high
frequencies of gamma rays.
Each type of wave occupies a particular range of wavelength known as a band.
Infrared waves- produced by molecular vibration, whereas radio waves.
-sometimes called heat or thermal radiation.
The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that includes visible light waves
with red light and ends violet light.
Light waves- caused by the motion of electrons in atoms as they jump between
different orbits.
Ultraviolet radiation- darkens the skin.
Radio Waves Radio, television, mobile phones, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Microwaves Cooking. Long-distance communication. Radar. Terrain mapping
Infrared Heating and drying, night vision cameras, remote controls, satellite
remote sensing
Visible light
Ultraviolet Photochemicals, photoelectric effects. Hardening casts in medicine
X-Ray Medicine, crystallography, astrophysics, remote sensing
Gamma ray Nuclear research, geophysics, mineral exploration
Electromagnetic spectrum- one of the fundamentals of the universe.
-radiation energy that travels and spreads out as it goes.
Visible light- incredibly important to humans and a vast array of natural
organisms.
EM Radiation- can be described in terms of a stream of particles, each
traveling in a wave-like pattern and moving at the speed of light.
Photon- a bundle of energy that each particle contains.
Radio waves- have the longest wavelengths.
-used to transmit radio and television signals.
AM broadcast band- have longer wavelength (ranging from 180-550 meters)
-readily bends around buildings and other objects that might be present in
their path,
FM band- ranging from 2.8-3.4 meters)
Microwaves- are basically extremely high-frequency radio waves.
-very short wavelengths ranging from approximately 1 millimeters to 30 cm.
-it is made by various transmitters, an electronic device, which with the aid
of an antenna produces radio waves.
-used in telecommunication such as mobile phones.
Infrared- discovered in 1800 by Sir William Herschel by passing sunlight
through a prism.
-as sunlight passes through the prism, the prism divides it into a rainbow of
colors called a spectrum. He used thermometers with blackened bulbs and
measured the temperature of the different colors of the spectrum.
-another type of light which we cannot see in this region.
Thermography or pyrometry- determines the temperature of objects.
Visible light/light- portion of EM radiation hat is visible to the human eye,
-wavelength: 380 or 400 nanometer to about 760 or 780 nm
-frequency: 405 Thz to 790 THz
Ultraviolet- EM radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light,
but longer than X-rays.
-produced by high temperature surfaces.
-used to prevent counterfeits.
Non-ionizing radiatio9n- refers to any type of electromagnetic radiation that
does not carry enough energy.
X-rays- high-energy waves.
X-radiation- called Rontgen radiation, after Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen
Computer-assisted tomography- a section of human body can be imaged
using X-rays and computer technology.
Baggage scanner- found at airport terminals.
Gamma rays- generated by radioactive atoms.
Gamma-knife surgery- multiple concentrated beams of gamma rays are
directed on the growth in order to kill the cancerous cells.
Radiant energy- the energy produced by nuclear reactions at the core of the
sun.
-scientifically called electromagnetic radiation.
-streams from the surface of the Sun in waves of different lengths with the
shortest and longest wavelengths being invisible to our eyes, while the medium
wavelengths are the visible radiation we call sunlight.
Radiation- process of emitting energy by any of these two basic carriers: (1)
particles, case of high-energy protons, neutrons, electrons, atoms, and ions; and
(2) waves, either light or sound.
-can be both natural and man-made.
Ionizing radiation- measured in units called millirems.
Natural or background radiation- radon, radioactive gas from uranium found
in soil dispersed in the air; from radioactive potassium in our food and water
from uranium, radium and thorium in the earth’s crust; and from cosmic rays
and the sun.
Man-made radiation- tobacco, television, medical X-rays, smoke-detectors,
lantern mantles, nuclear medicine, and building materials.
Ionizing radiation- damaging form of radiation.
-can create electrically charged ions in the material it strikes.
-can break apart atoms and molecules, causing severe damage in living
organisms.
X-rays and gamma rays- high-energy parts of electromagnetic spectrum
Alpha particles- atomic nuclei consisting of 2 protons and 2 neutrons.
Beta particles- fast-moving electrons ejected from the nuclei of atoms
Cosmic radiation- energetic particles arriving on Earth from outer space
Neutrons- produced mainly in nuclear power plants
Radiation- created by changes in the state of an atom.
-when unstable or radioactive atoms change to a completely new atom
-more stable form (radioactive decay), some of the excess energy of the atom
is released as radiation.
Sievert (Sv) - basic unit used to measure exposure to ionizing radiation.
-measures the biological effect of absorbed radiation, referred to as the
effective dose or the weighted dose.
-takes into account the type of radiation and sensitivities of tissues and
organs.
- (1 Sv= 100 rem)
Sources of ionizing radiation
Radon- a gas formed by the radioactive decay of naturally occurring uranium
in rock, soil, and water.
-some radon gas seeps through the ground into the air we breathe, while
some remains below the surface and dissolved in underground deposits of
water.
Nuclear power plant- where radiation is created as a byproduct of electricity
generation.
In other facilities, large doses of radiation are used to kill cancerous cells in
our bodies or harmful bacteria in food and to sterilize medical equipment.
88% if the ionizing radiation exposure to humans comes from natural sources,
12 % uSv of whole bod exposure per year from all sources.
Higher exposure to radiation outside the Earth due to:
Trapped particle radiation regions near Earth (the Van Allen belts)
Solar energetic particles, which are high energy particles emitted by the Sun.
Galactic cosmic rays, which are high energy particles created outside the Solar
system by stellar flares, nova and supernova explosions, and quasars.

Radiation only becomes a problem if we are exposed to too much of it.


UV radiation from the sun here on Earth; overexposure to it may cause eye and
skin damage and in worst case, can lead to cataracts, glaucoma or skin cancer.
Ionizing radiation- can be very harmful.
-large doses of ionizing radiation on healthy tissue can result in cancer after
delay of few years.
High-energy radiation- can cause genetic mutations
-exposed to levels of radiation sufficiently high to cause mutations is more
likely to die from the radiation exposure than pass the mutation to his/her
offspring.
Dose- levels of damage caused by radiation and it depends on this factor.
-type of radiation
-part of the body exposed, and the age of the body exposed person.
Affects Human in two ways:
1. Stochastic effects- associated with long term, low level exposure to
radiation
2. Non-stochastic effects- appear in cases of exposure to high levels of
radiation and become more severe as the exposure increases.
Nature of Light: Wave Particle Duality
Plato- light consisted of streamers by emitted by the eye.
-gained support from Euclid.
Pythagoras- light originated from luminous bodies in the form of very fine
particles.
Emepedocles- a forerunner of Plato, believed that light is composed of high
speed waves of sort.
Two Theories on the basic nature of Light
1. Wave (Undulatory) Theory- light has a wave motion which starts from a
vibrating body and is transmitting at high speed.
Christian Huygens- one of the proponents of wave theory.
-explained the reflection of light using wave motion.
-proposed that light consists of a series of waves with their wave fronts at
right angles to the path of the rays.
-according to Huygen’s principle- different points of a wave front of light
set up a series of secondary waves.
-since light can pass through a vacuum, light may travel through a medium
known as ether, a mysterious substance which is not air.
2. Corpuscular or Emission Theory- light consists of tiny particles of matter
emitted by a source that travel only on straight lines called rays.
1704, Sir Isaac Newton- he contradicted the wave theory as he described light
as a stream of particles of corpuscles.
Established wave theory
1801, Thomas Young- able to study the interference and diffraction of light
James Clerk Maxwell- constructed oscillating electrical circuit, which showed
that changing electrical and magnetic fields could produce electromagnetic
radiation that could travel through a vacuum.
1880, Heinrich Hertz- demonstrated the existence of EM waves (within radio
frequency) that exhibit the same properties as the light and eventually light was
proved to be electromagnetic.
1900, Max Planck- hypothesized that the vibrating electrons in incandescent
light could only have energies restricted to certain values/
-introduced the phenomenon known as blackbody radiation, was emitted in
discrete bundles of energy called quanta (quantum). This gave birth to the
Quantum Theory of Light.
Blackbody radiation- an ideal body/surface that completely absorbs all radiant
energy falling upon it with no reflection and that radiates at all frequencies with
a spectral energy distribution dependent on its absolute temperature.
Quantum Theory of Light
Albert Einstein- published a Nobel-prize winning paper, which states that light
is composed of bundles of wave energy called photon.
19th century- several scientists observed that light was capable of ejecting
electrons from various metal surfaces.
Photoelectric effect- if light falls on a clear surface of metals such as potassium
or sodium is emitted by the surface.
1932, Arthur Compton- study of the scattering of X-rays by electrons all
required the assumption of a particular nature for electromagnetic radiation
without in anyway invalidating the wave theory of light.
1933, Louis Victor de Broglie- proposed every particle of matter is somehow
endowed with.
-Particle-wave duality wave is credited.
Galileo- was the first to hypothesize that light had a finite speed.
1675, Ole Roemer- a Danish astronomer, became the first person to measure
the speed of light over an astronomical distance.
Optics- the branch of physics, which involves the behavior and properties of
light
Light- combination of both electric and magnetic energy that can travel at
varying velocities in various media.
-must come from one source.
Luminous objects- objects that emit or send off their own light.
-radiates heat, can store energy.
-sun, stars, light bulbs, lamps, lasers, and camfires.
Non-luminous objects- those that cannot emit their own light
-in order for us to see them, a light from a luminous object must be
reflected.
-moon, cars, buildings, humans
-also termed as illuminated objects
1. Incandescence- wen an object is heated at a very high temperature (470 C),
it starts to glow and become dull red in color. The high temperature causes the
atoms to vibrate and give off energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
 The sun gives off both heat and light as a result of nuclear reactions in its
core.
 An incandescent light bulb gives off light when a wire filament inside the
bulb is heated to white heat.
2. Luminescence- used to describe a process by which light is produced other
than heating.
-2 forms can be identifies, depending on the amount of time emitted
light continues to glow.
1) Fluorescence- refers to the release of light that lasts no more than about
10 nanosecond after it begins.
-the most familiar form of the former is a fluorescent light bulb.
Light is produced when an electric current passes through a mercury
vapor in the light bulb.
 As the electrons produced from the mercury vapor collide with the
chemical painted inside the bub, fluorescence occurs. When the bulb is
turned off, the chemical stops glowing and no light is produced
anymore.
2) Phosphorescence- release of light that lasts longer than 10 nanoseconds.
-temperature is dependent
-phosphorescent materials are used in “glow-in-the-dark” toys that
will emit light after exposure to some form of radiant energy.
 The hands on certain watches and alarm clocks are coated with a
phosphorescent material, which will emit light for many hours after a
light source is removed.
Transparent materials- such as air, glass, water, and clear plastic permit the
passage of light
Opaque- those hat block light
Translucent materials- allows only some amount of light to pass through
-have both the characteristics of opaque and transparent materials.
Umbra- if the light falling on the ball comes from a point source like the
penlight, the ball will cut off all light rays that fall on it and will produce a
shadow that is uniformly dark on the screen
Penumbra- if the light comes from source larger than a point, the shadow
produced on the screen will not be equally dark because the light from the
various parts of the larger source gets into the outermost portion of the shadow.
Umbra and penumbra can also be observed during a lunar and solar eclipse.
During a solar eclipse, when the shadow of the moon falls on Earth, the rays
coming from the large-sized source (sun) tapers to provide an umbra and a
surrounding penumbra on Earth.
Light travels along a straight line
Pierre de Fermat- a French mathematician, light will take the most efficient
path that is the path that requires the shortest time, known as the Fermat’s
Principle of Least Time.
Photometry- branch of optics that deals with illumination and the amount of
brightness that a light source possesses/
Luminous intensity- refers to the brightness of a light source.
-expressed in the unit candela (cd)
Luminous flux- the luminous energy emitted from a light source.
-expressed I lumens (lm)
Light- electromagnetic radiation that has properties of waves and particles.
Middle of the 1800s- the generally accepted theory of light was the particle
picture. According to Newton, light was considered to be a stream of tiny
particles.
Late 1800s- the particle picture was replaced by the wave theory of light
Echo- is a reflected sound wave
Reflection- light waves also bounce off from a reflecting surface
Law of reflection- states that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of
reflection.
-the incident ray, the reflected ray, and the normal line to the reflecting
surface are all located on the same plane.
1. Specular (regular) reflection- when the reflecting surface is very smooth
such as mirror or a surface of calm water.
2. Diffuse reflection- when a light hits a rough surface, resulting to the
bouncing back of light waves in different directions.
The smoothness or roughness of a surface depends of the wavelength of the EM
wave.
Diffusion- a smooth reflecting surface that produces specular reflection of red
rays may produce diffuse reflection when incident upon by violet rays.
Although diffused light gives us irregular images, it allows us to regulate the
amount of light, thus reducing glare to protect our eyes.
Reflection of light may also exhibit absorption and scattering.
Absorption- transfer of energy carried by the light waves to the particles of
matter.
Scattering- reflection of light by particles.
Refraction- bending of light as it passes from one medium to another.
As light refracts, the velocity of the wave is altered, its wavelength increases,
but its frequency remains constant.
The speed of light in vacuum is usually denoted by c, for constant or Latin
celeritas (swiftness)
Also based on the International System of Units (SI), the meter is defined as the
1
distance light travels in vacuum in of a second or 299, 792, 458 m/s
299,792,458
or 3x 108 m/s. In water (2.25 x108 m/s). In crown glass decreases to 2.0 x
108 m/s.
As an incident ray passes through different media, say from air to a diamond,
the resulting ray bend. Two angles area formed in this phenomenon.
1. Angle of incidence
2. Angle of refraction
The angle of refraction increases as the angle of incidence increases.
Critical angle- when the angle of incidence produces an angle of refraction that
is equal to 90 in the medium.
Total internal reflection- the incident ray striking the boundary of two media
are reflected back into the first medium and the bounding surface acts like a
perfect reflector.
Mirage- an illusion created on a hot road wherein the sky appears to be
reflected from water on the distant road, but hen one gets there, the road is dry.
Dispersion- the effect associated with the separation of light into colors by a
prism.
Newton’s experiment confirmed that when a light was made to pass through a
prism, its components (ROYGBIV) refracted at different angles on account of
their different wavelengths.
Red light was observed to bend the least and the violet to be bent the most. This
leads to effects such as chromatic aberration in lenses.
Light travels in a rectilinear motion.
Diffraction or scattering- bending of light as it passes around the edge of a
barrier.
Optical effects resulting from diffraction are produced through the interference
of light waves.
Interference of light or optical interference- distribution of light energy due
to superposition of two light waves.
Fringe- the result of two or more waves coming together that is a dark of light
band.
In Thomas Young’s double-slit experiment, he made sunlight pass through long
parallel slits. The result was interference fringes or bands of colors.
1803- optical interference was comprehensively described by Thomas Young in
a paper titled Experiments and Calculations Relative to Physical Optics.
1. Constructive interference- when two or more waves come together to form a
larger and stronger wave, matching their crests and troughs.
-wave amplitude is amplified.
2. Destructive interference- when two or more waves’ crests coincide with the
waves’ throughs.
- the result Is that the waves cancel each other out.
Polarization- is a property of certain types of waves that describe the
orientation of their vibrations.
-can be classified as linear, circular, or elliptical.
Photon- the basic unit of light.
Linearly polarized light wave- has an electric field that occurs along a line.
Circularly polarized- if light if composed of two plane waves of equal
amplitude but differing in phase by 90.
Right circularly polarized- if while looking at the source, the electrical vector
of the light coming toward you and appears to be rotating counterclockwise.
Left circularly polarized- if clockwise.
Elliptically polarized- consists of two perpendicular waves of unequal
amplitude which differ in phase by 90.
Polarized filter- made up of material that can block one of the axes of light
oscillation.
Images are formed when light strikes a reflecting surface such as mirror or a
lens.
Object- actual
Image- the picture you see
Real images- when light rays actually intersect at the image making them
appear inverted, or upside down.
-can be formed on the screen
Virtual images- occur when light rays do not actually meet at the image
-cannot be seen on a screen
Distance object (𝒅𝒐 ) - the distance from the mirror to the object.
Image distance (𝒅𝒊 ) - the distance from the mirror to the image.
Plane mirrors- common, everyday flat mirrors that we see everywhere.
-consists of flat, two-dimensional surface that reflects the light coming
from or reflecting off another object.
Law of plane mirrors- the image is always the same distance behind the mirror
as the object is in front of the mirror.
Spherical mirror- second class of mirror in the form of a slice of a spherical
mirror.
Concave mirror- mirror that is curved inward like the hollow inside of a
sphere.
Convex mirror- mirror that is curved outward, like the outside of a sphere.
Features of a concave and convex mirror:
Center of curvature (C) – the center of the circle of which the mirror
represents a small arc
Focus (F) – the point where parallel light rays converge
-always found on the inner part of the circle
-one-half of the radius
Vertex (V) – the point where the mirror crosses the principal axis.
Principal axis- a line drawn through the vertex, focus and center of curvature
of the mirror.
Focal length (f) – the distance from the focus to the vertex of the mirror.
Radius of curvature- the distance from the center of curvature to the vertex of
the mirror.
-corresponds to the radius of the circle.
Ray diagram- traces the path that light takes in order for an individual to view
a point on the image of an object.
-to be able to describe the location, size, orientation and type of image
formed by concave of a concave mirror.
Rays- line with arrows
-drawn for the incident ray and reflected ray.
Objects are represented by arrows whose length represents the height of the
object.
If the arrows points upward, then the object is descried as upright or erect. If
the arrows points downward, then the object is inverted.
If the object is real, then the arrow is drawn with a solid line. If the object is
virtual, then the arrow is drawn with a dashed line.
1. Any ray through the focal point will reflect parallel to the principal axis.
2. Any ray parallel to the principal axis will reflect so that it passes through the
focal point.
3. Any ray passes through the center will reflect back through the center.
Principal ray- ray that leaves a point on an object facing the mirror parallel to
the principal axis.
Focal ray- ray that leaves the same point on the object and immediately passes
through the focal point, hitting the mirror and reflecting parallel to the principal
axis.
Chief ray- ray that leaves the same point on the object and passes through the
center of curvature of the mirror.
Mirror equation- expresses the quantitative equation relationship between the
object distance, the image distance, and the focal length.
𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
= +
𝒇 𝒅𝒐 𝒅𝒐
Magnification equation- relates the ratio of the image distance and object
distance to the ratio of the image height and object height.
𝒉𝒊 −𝒉𝒊
M= =
𝒉𝒐 𝒅𝒐
Lens- shaped transparent material that refracts light to create an image.
Converging lens (Convex lens) - thicker at the middle.
Diverging lens (Concave lens) – thinner at the middle than the edges.
Principal axis- line joining the centers of curvatures of its surfaces.
Principal focus- the point where they converge.
Focal length- distance from the center of the lens.
1897- discovery of electron and the investigation of radioactivity
1900- Max Planck hypothesized that the vibrating electrons in incandescent
lights could only have energies restricted to certain values. This led to the
formulation and acceptance of the Quantum Theory in the late 1920s.
Laser- light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
-device that produces an intense beam of coherent monochromatic and
unidirectional light.
-Charles Townes in 1951.
Albert Einstein- Theory of Stimulated Emission, 1917
-believed that an atom or molecule in a high-energy state is stimulated by an
imposed photon of exactly right wavelength.
Using an electric field to direct excited molecules of ammonia gas into a thumb-
sized copper chamber, Townes and his fellow researchers James Gordon and
Herbert Zeiger managed to produce a sustained output of desired in 1954.
Maser- Microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
-became instrumental in the field of spectroscopy.
Eventually, Townes teamed up with his physicist brother in law Arthur
Schawlow to demonstrate how stimulated emission might be achieved with
photons at much shorter wavelengths of light. This experiment dropper the m
replacing it with l or laser.
1960- an operable laser that used synthetic pink rugby crystals as the medium
was invented by Theodore Maiman, physicist and electrical engineer at
Hughes Research laboratories.
Atoms in the rugby crystal soak up this energy in a process called absorption.
Spontaneous emission- falls back to its original level, giving off the energy it
absorbed as a new photon of light radiation.
Holographic film plate- where the interference pattern is imprinted, creating
the holographic image.
Total internal reflection- powerful tool since it can be used to confine light.
The most common application of this phenomenon is in fiber optics.
Optical fiber- thin, transparent fiber that is usually made of glass or plastic and
is used for transmitting light.
-usually thinner than human hair.
The overall diameter of the fiber is about 400 micrometers and that of the core
is just about 8 micrometers.
The word camera evolves from a Latin term meaning dark chamber.
The mechanisms of a camera are based on the fundamentals of reflection.
Film surface of camera- light-sensitive materials records the image.
Shutter- expose he light sensor to a consistent amount of light.
In case of digital cameras, images are recorded on a digital sensor array known
as a charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal oxide
semiconductor (CMOS)
Photoelectric effect- creates a pixel map based on the electric charge generated
when photons slam into a sensitive material.
Magnifying glass or hand lens- biconvex lens.
-simple form of microscope.
-consists of two sides of glass that is thicker in the middle than the outer
edges.
-it works by bending the light that passes through it, making the image appear
bigger.
Telescope- optical device that has the ability to make far away objects appear
much closer.
-consists of an objective lens or primary mirror.
Aperture- used to gather light
Magnification- ability to enlarge an image depends on the combination of
lenses used.
-the eyepiece performs the magnification.
Microscope- produces a clear magnified image of an object viewed through it.
-consists of a base, arm and body tube.
Zacharias Janssen- a Dutch scientist, who invented the first compound
microscope in 1590.
Objective lens- the lens toward the object. (the one closest to the object)
Eyepiece- lens positioned toward the eye. (the one closest to your eye)
Stage- a hole in an adjustable horizontal platform where light rays pass.