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Chapter 4 Design of Manufacturing Processes

Chapter 4

Design of Manufacturing Processes

Factors Influencing Process Choices  Volume: Average quantity of the products produced in a manufacturing
Factors Influencing Process Choices  Volume: Average quantity of the products produced in a manufacturing
Factors Influencing Process Choices
Volume: Average quantity of the products produced in a
manufacturing system
Low volume: Turnkey project management firms such as
L&T and BHEL
High volume: Consumer non-durable and FMCG sector
firms, Automobile, Chemical Processing
Mid-volume: Consumer durables, white goods and several
industrial products
Variety: Number of alternative products and variants of
each product that is offered by a manufacturing system
Variety of product offerings is likely to introduce variety at
various processes in the system; alternative production
resources, materials, and skill of workers
Flow: Flow indicates the nature and intensity of activities
involved in conversion of components and material from
raw material stage to finished goods stage

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goods stage Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
goods stage Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
goods stage Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education

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variety High Volume Mass Production Petrochemicals, Automobile FMCGs Consumer non-durables Mid-volume

variety

variety High Volume Mass Production Petrochemicals, Automobile FMCGs Consumer non-durables Mid-volume Mid-variety Motor

High Volume

Mass Production Petrochemicals, Automobile FMCGs Consumer non-durables

Mid-volume

Mid-variety

Motor Manufacturing

Pharmaceuticals

White Goods

Consumer Durables

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& Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Relationship between volume & High Variety Project
& Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Relationship between volume & High Variety Project
& Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Relationship between volume & High Variety Project

Relationship between volume &

High Variety

Project Organizations Power plants Aircraft manufacturing Bridges & Large Constructions

Available Alternatives   Three types of flows occur in operating systems:  Continuous 

Available Alternatives

Available Alternatives   Three types of flows occur in operating systems:  Continuous  Intermittent

Three types of flows occur in operating systems:

Continuous

Intermittent

Jumbled

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& Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Processes & Operations Systems Process characteristics
& Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Processes & Operations Systems Process characteristics
& Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Processes & Operations Systems Process characteristics

Processes & Operations Systems

Process characteristics are largely determined by the flow of products in the operating system

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Continuous Flow System  Characterized by a streamlined flow of products in the operating system
Continuous Flow System  Characterized by a streamlined flow of products in the operating system
Continuous Flow System
Characterized by a streamlined flow of products in the
operating system
Conversion process begins with input of raw material at
one end, progresses through the system in an orderly
fashion to finally become finished goods at the final
stage
Production process is sequential and the required
resources are organized in stages
Examples:
several chemical processing industries such as
manufacture of petrochemicals, steel, pharmaceutical,
cement and glass
In a discrete manufacturing industry high volume
production of very few varieties (such as electrical bulbs
or spark plugs)

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spark plugs) Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
spark plugs) Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
spark plugs) Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Paper Manufacturing An example of process industry Logs and chips of wood stored Crushing of

Paper Manufacturing

An example of process industry

Paper Manufacturing An example of process industry Logs and chips of wood stored Crushing of logs

Logs and chips of wood stored

Crushing of logs and chips

Processing of

the wood

Preparatory

Drying the

Refining the

wood pulp

Wood pulp

Pulp making

Stretching

Cutting

Paper rolling

Final packing

Paper making

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“Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Cleaning & Bleaching

Cleaning &

Bleaching

“Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Cleaning & Bleaching
“Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Cleaning & Bleaching
“Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Cleaning & Bleaching
“Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Cleaning & Bleaching

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Process Industry Distinctive features  There should be balance of capacity between all the stages
Process Industry Distinctive features  There should be balance of capacity between all the stages
Process Industry
Distinctive features
There should be balance of capacity between all the
stages in the manufacturing process to maintain an even
flow of the material from the raw material stage to
finished goods
Productivity of the system is directly related to the flow
rate (or throughput) of the product
Requires huge capital investments, as incremental
addition at a later stage not possible. High productivity
implies lower cost of production and vice versa.
Need to make continuous process improvements and
capacity de-bottlenecking to maximize the flow rate in
the system
Failure of any intermediate stage in the system will have
an adverse effect on the cost (see Ideas at work 4.2 for
an illustration of this)

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of this) Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
of this) Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
of this) Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Backward Integration at Reliance Retailing Textiles Naroda Fabric Wool, Silk Complex Texturised Yarn Spun Yarn
Backward Integration
at Reliance
Retailing
Textiles
Naroda
Fabric
Wool, Silk
Complex
Texturised Yarn
Spun Yarn
PSF
PFY
LAB
PG Complex
Polyester chips
Polyester resin
PTA
PX
N-Parafins
Polyethylene
Poly Propylene
PVC
MEG
VCM
EO
Oxygen
Hazira
EDC
Complex
Caustic Unit
Fuel Gas
Ethylene
C4s
Propylene
Toluene
Xylene
Benzene
Salt
Polymers
Cracker
& Chemicals
ATF
LPG
Naptha
Gasoline
Diesel
Sulphur
Fuel Oil
Bitumen
Jamnagar
Kerosene
Complex
Refining & Marketing
Refining
Bombay
Oil & Gas Exploration & Production
Oil & Gas
High
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Process Industry  The notion of capacity  Flow rate determines capacity  Bottleneck easily

Process Industry

Process Industry  The notion of capacity  Flow rate determines capacity  Bottleneck easily identifiable

The notion of capacity

Flow rate determines capacity Bottleneck easily identifiable

Nature of inventories

Importance of maintenance Relevance of vertical integration

of maintenance  Relevance of vertical integration Operations Management Issues  Work in Progress will be
of maintenance  Relevance of vertical integration Operations Management Issues  Work in Progress will be
of maintenance  Relevance of vertical integration Operations Management Issues  Work in Progress will be

Operations Management Issues

Work in Progress will be minimal Inventory of Spares & Maintenance will be high

Joint & Bye Products are many Exploiting processing opportunities of these important

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Continuous Flow System    obtained through an assembly process     Examples:

Continuous Flow System

Continuous Flow System    obtained through an assembly process     Examples:  

 

obtained through an assembly process

 

Examples:

 

Automobile and two wheeler manufacturers,

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  Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
& Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Mass production in discrete manufacturing In discrete

Mass production in discrete manufacturing

In discrete manufacturing various components are

manufactured in discrete fashion and the final product is

In a mass production system, the volume of production is very high and the number of variations in the final product is low

Manufacturers of electrical components such as switches and health care products such as disposable syringes

The entire manufacturing is organised by arranging the resources one after the other as per the manufacturing sequence (known as product line structure)

by arranging the resources one after the other as per the manufacturing sequence (known as product

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Process Design for Mass Production Systems Pre manufacturing Activities Product A Product B Product C
Process Design for Mass
Production Systems
Pre manufacturing Activities
Product A
Product B
Product C
Machining
Machining
Machining
Fabrication
Fabrication
Fabrication
Assembly
Assembly
Assembly
Testing
Testing
Testing
Dedicated & Decentralised Manufacturing Support
Product A
Machine
Machine
Machine
.
.
Machine
1 2 3 .
m
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Intermittent Flow System  Characterised by mid-volume, mid-variety products/services  Increases the flow
Intermittent Flow System  Characterised by mid-volume, mid-variety products/services  Increases the flow
Intermittent Flow System
Characterised by mid-volume, mid-variety
products/services
Increases the flow complexities
Flow and capacity balancing are difficult but
important
Process industries use batch production methods
Discrete industries use alternative methods of
designing layout issues
Capacity Estimation is hard
Production Planning & Control is complex

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is complex Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
is complex Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
is complex Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education

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Process Design for Intermittent Flow in Discrete Manufacturing Pre-manufacturing activities Other Gear Shafts
Process Design for Intermittent Flow
in Discrete Manufacturing
Pre-manufacturing activities
Other
Gear
Shafts
rotating parts
Components
Housings
Prismatic
Sheet
Components
Metal parts
Assembly & Test
Product A
Assembly & Test
Product B
Assembly & Test
Product C
Dedicated Manufacturing Support for the products
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Layout redesign to minimise complexity in Intermittent flow: An example Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management:
Layout redesign to minimise complexity in Intermittent flow: An example
Layout redesign to minimise complexity
in Intermittent flow: An example

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An example Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
An example Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
An example Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education

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Intermittent Flow System Sources of Problems Making Production Planning & Control Complex Which Demands Special
Intermittent Flow System Sources of Problems Making Production Planning & Control Complex Which Demands Special
Intermittent Flow System
Sources of Problems
Making Production Planning & Control
Complex
Which Demands
Special mechanisms to bring order out of
chaos

A bad choice on structure & people issues Leads to Complicated Material & Information Flows Thereby

 Complicated Material & Information Flows Thereby Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory &

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

Thereby Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Thereby Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Special Mechanisms To bring order out of Chaos  Lot of paper work  Enormous
Special Mechanisms To bring order out of Chaos  Lot of paper work  Enormous
Special Mechanisms
To bring order out of Chaos
 Lot of paper work
Enormous supervision/Co-ordination
Progress Chasing/Expedition
All these finally result in
Long Lead Times/Poor Delivery
Reliability
Excess and Unwanted Inventory
High Overhead/High Cost

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Cost Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Cost Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Cost Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education

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Jumbled Flow System  Occurs on account of non-standard and complex flow patterns characteristic in
Jumbled Flow System  Occurs on account of non-standard and complex flow patterns characteristic in
Jumbled Flow System
Occurs on account of non-standard and complex
flow patterns characteristic in certain systems
 Highly customised items
 customer orders for one or a few
 Examples
turnkey project executor such as BHEL or L&T
customised manufacturing systems such as PCB
fabricators, sheet metal fabricators, tool room
operators and printing and publishing
Operational complexity arising out of jumbled flow
is high
Discrete manufacturing with Jumbled flow uses a
Job Shop structure

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structure Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
structure Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
structure Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Process flow in Job Shops Machine Machine 1 3 Job 1 Machine 6 Job 3
Process flow in Job Shops
Machine
Machine
1
3
Job 1
Machine
6
Job 3
Machine
4
Machine
Machine
2
7
Job 2
Machine
5
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Jumbled Flow System  Complex issue is capacity management  Considerable time is lost due
Jumbled Flow System  Complex issue is capacity management  Considerable time is lost due
Jumbled Flow System
Complex issue is capacity management
Considerable time is lost due to repeated setup
of processes
Due to jumbled flow, crisscrossing of jobs
in the system results in poor visibility.
Problems are often hidden and build up of work
in process inventory takes place
Cost accounting and estimation systems
are crucial as there is a constant need to
quote for specific customer orders

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orders Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
orders Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
orders Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
 

Process design for operations

 

Salient feature of alternative choices

 
 

Flow

Continuous

Intermittent

 

Jumbled

 

Characteristics

 

Product

High Volume, Very low variety

Mid volume, Mid variety

Very high variety, low volume

Characteristics

Examples of

Process Industry, Mass production systems in discrete manufacturing

Batch production in Process and discrete manufacturing

Project Organisations, Tool Rooms, General purpose fabricators

production

systems

Issues of

Flow Balancing,

Manufacturing system and layout design, Changeover management, Capacity planning and estimation

Capacity Estimation,

importance

Maintenance, Capacity

Scheduling, Production

utilization and

Control, Cost

 

debottlenecking,

estimation

Vertical integration

 

Operations

Line Balancing, Maintenance management, Process optimisation, Product layout design, Flow shope scheduling, Pull type scheduling, Single piece flow design

Forecasting, Capacity Planning and estimation, Optimized production planning and product sequencing, Group Technology layout design, Materials Management

Project Management & Scheduling, Capacity planning and optimization, Job shop scheduling, Functional Layout design, Job order costing, Work in Process Management

Management

Tools &

Techniques

 

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Product – Process Matrix Low Volume Low Standardisation One of a kind High Volume Multiple
Product – Process Matrix
Low Volume
Low Standardisation
One of a kind
High Volume
Multiple Products
Low Volume
Few Major Products
Higher Volume
High Standardisation
Commodity Products
Jumbled
None
Satellite Launch
Flow
Vehicle
(Job Shop)
Disconnected
Line Flow
Machine Tools
(Batch)
Connected Line
Auto electric
Flow (Assembly
parts
Line)
Continuous
Flow
Polyethylene
None
Source: Adapted from Hayes, R.H. and Wheelright, S.C., (1979), “Link manufacturing process and product life cycles”, Harvard Business Review, 57 (1), 133 – 140.
Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education
Layout Planning  Layout planning in manufacturing & service organisations  deals with physical arrangement
Layout Planning  Layout planning in manufacturing & service organisations  deals with physical arrangement
Layout Planning
Layout planning in manufacturing & service
organisations
deals with physical arrangement of various
resources that are available in the system
with an objective to improve the performance of
the operating system
Benefits of good layout design
Jobs in a manufacturing system travel lesser
distance
Customers spend less time in service systems
Costs & Lead time come down
Improved quality

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quality Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
quality Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
quality Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education

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Types of Layout  Process Layout  arrangement of resources on the basis of the
Types of Layout  Process Layout  arrangement of resources on the basis of the
Types of Layout
 Process Layout
arrangement of resources on the basis of the process
characteristics of the resources available
 Product Layout
order in which the resources are placed follow exactly the
visitation sequence dictated by a product
 Group Technology (GT) Layout
seeks to exploit commonality in manufacturing and uses
this as the basis for grouping components and resources
 Fixed Position Layout
emphasis is not so much on optimum position of resources
required for the process, since the product itself largely
dictates this; the focus is on gaining better control of
material flow and reducing delays

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delays Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
delays Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
delays Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Volume – Variety – Flow Implications for layout planning Variety Very low Medium High One
Volume – Variety – Flow Implications for layout planning Variety Very low Medium High One
Volume – Variety – Flow
Implications for layout planning
Variety
Very low
Medium
High
One off
variety
Variety
Variety
execution
Dis-
Flow
Stream lined
Multiple flow
organised
Jumbled flow
attributes
flow
paths
flow
Volume
High Volume
Mid-volume
Low volume
One piece
attributes
Process
Job shops;
industry; Mass
Batch
Customized
Project
Examples of
Product/
Manufacturing
Product/
Shops
operating
Service
firms
Service
systems
provider
Provider
Group
Fixed
Line Layout;
Process
Technology
Position
Types of
Product Layout
Layout
Layout
Layout
layout used

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layout used Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
layout used Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
layout used Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education

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Process Layout An example Product A L L L L D D Product B Product
Process Layout
An example
Product A
L
L
L
L
D
D
Product B
Product C
D
D
L
L
L
L
D
D
M
M
G
G
G
M
M
Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education
Product Layout An example L D M G L D L G L D M

Product Layout An example

Product Layout An example L D M G L D L G L D M L

L

D

M

G

L

D

L

G

L

D

M

L

G

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Product A Product B Product

Product A

Product B

Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Product A Product B Product
Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Product A Product B Product
Product C
Product C
Product C

Product C

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Alternative Layouts An example from Banking ENTRY Bank A Bank B ENTRY FOREX DIVISION BILLS
Alternative Layouts An example from Banking ENTRY Bank A Bank B ENTRY FOREX DIVISION BILLS
Alternative Layouts
An example from Banking
ENTRY
Bank A
Bank B
ENTRY
FOREX DIVISION
BILLS
MANAGER
WAITING
COMMUNICATIONS
RECEIVING
PAYING
AREA
KITCHEN
ROOM
STRONG
CASH COUNTERS
ROOM
DY.
REST -
MANAGER
RECEPTIONIST
ROOMS
SECY.
COMPUTER
CREDIT
ROOM
OPERATIONS
CURRENT
CREDIT
RECORDS
A/C &
ROOM
OPERATIONS
OTHERS
CONFERENCE
ROOM
VICE -
MGR.
PRESIDENT
OPS
LUNCH
ROOM
UPS
MGR.
FIXED
LOANS
CREDIT
DEPOSITS
&ADVANCES

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Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Product & Process Layout Pros & Cons Advantages Process Layout Sharing of specialized and costly

Product & Process Layout

Pros & Cons

Product & Process Layout Pros & Cons Advantages Process Layout Sharing of specialized and costly equipments

Advantages

Process Layout

Sharing of specialized and costly equipments

More flexibility

Less vulnerable to breakdowns

Large Inventory buildup

Disadvantages

Operational control

difficult

Excess Material

Handling

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Handling Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
& Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Product Layout Standardised product/ process routing

Product Layout

Standardised product/ process routing

Operational Control is simpler

High output rate is possible

Low tolerance for breakdowns

Duplication of

equipments leading to high cost

Less flexibility due to dedication of resources

for breakdowns Duplication of equipments leading to high cost Less flexibility due to dedication of resources

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Group Technology Layout An example Cell 1 L M D D L G L D

Group Technology Layout

An example

Group Technology Layout An example Cell 1 L M D D L G L D M

Cell 1

L
L
M
M
D
D
D
D
L
L
G
G
L
L
D
D
M
M
L
L
G
G

Cell 4

Cell 2

M D G D
M
D
G
D

L

L

D

M

Cell 3

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Cell 3 Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
L L
L
L
Cell 3 Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Cell 3 Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Cell 3 Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Cell 3 Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Fixed Position Layout Example from Thermax Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n
Fixed Position Layout Example from Thermax

Fixed Position Layout

Example from Thermax

Fixed Position Layout Example from Thermax
Fixed Position Layout Example from Thermax
Fixed Position Layout Example from Thermax
Fixed Position Layout Example from Thermax

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from Thermax Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
from Thermax Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
from Thermax Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education

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Layout Design Performance implications Product Total Distance Number of Line Travelled items (in

Layout Design

Performance implications

Layout Design Performance implications Product Total Distance Number of Line Travelled items (in

Product

Total Distance

Number of

Line

Travelled

items

(in meters)

Manufactured*

Product A

375,655

1080

Product B

415,125

757

Product C

288,710

301

Product D

297,110

405

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& Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Average Distance per item 347.83 548.38 959.17

Average

Distance

per item

347.83

548.38

959.17

733.60

Distance per item 347.83 548.38 959.17 733.60 * The total distance travelled includes only those of
Distance per item 347.83 548.38 959.17 733.60 * The total distance travelled includes only those of

* The total distance travelled includes only those of the items manufactured on the shop floor. The number of items that finally get assembled into the final product includes many bought out items in addition to these.

Layout Design Performance Measures Performance Measure Basis for measurement Distance travelled by jobs in the
Layout Design Performance Measures Performance Measure Basis for measurement Distance travelled by jobs in the
Layout Design
Performance Measures
Performance Measure
Basis for measurement
Distance travelled by jobs in the shop
floor
Kg - Metres of job movement for each
product
Space utilization index
Minimum space required to actual space
utilised
Material Handling costs
Rupees per month
Lead time of the processes
Hours per average product
Investment in work-in-progress
Rupees per month
Inter-departmental moves
Number and quantum of inter-
departmental moves
Utilisation of the resources
Percent to total capacity
Ease of production control
Number of job cards and control
documents generated; Size of the progress
chasing staff
Number of ownership changes
Number of times the responsibility for the
job changes hands

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hands Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
hands Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
hands Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education

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Design of Process Layouts Alternatives  Qualitative Method  Links some criteria to the closeness
Design of Process Layouts Alternatives  Qualitative Method  Links some criteria to the closeness
Design of Process Layouts
Alternatives
Qualitative Method
Links some criteria to the closeness required between
a pair of resources
Computer packages such as ALDEP and CORELAP are
available
Quantitative Method
Uses some quantitative performance measures for
assessing the impact of a layout design
Seeks to arrive at the best layout design by
optimising on this performance measure
One of the popular method used in CRAFT
Performance evaluation models using computer
simulation techniques

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techniques Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
techniques Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
techniques Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Design of process layouts Qualitative method Value Closeness A Absolutely necessary E I O U
Design of process layouts Qualitative method Value Closeness A Absolutely necessary E I O U

Design of process layouts

Qualitative method

Value

Closeness

A

Absolutely necessary

E

I

O

U

X

Especially Important

Important

Ordinary closeness OK

Unimportant

Undesirable

Department 1

 

O

Department 2

U

Department 3

A

Department 4

 

U

Department 5

 

O

Department 6

A

 

I

O

E

 

X

A

U

U

 

O

O

U Department 5   O Department 6 A   I O E   X A U

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

O O Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
O O Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
O O Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
O O Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education

1/4/2019

  Design of Process Layout Quantitative Method D i j = Distance between department “
 

Design of Process Layout

Quantitative Method

D ij = Distance between department “i” and department “j

n

n



i

1

j

1

F

ij

D

ij

C ij = Cost per unit of transporting a unit distance from department “i” to department “j

F ij = Inter-departmental flow between department i” and department “j

One can model the above as a mathematical programming problem with the objective function of minimising the total cost of the plan

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

plan Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education C
plan Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education C

C

ij

plan Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education C
Design of Product Layout  Several Mass Production Systems are in operation today  Various
Design of Product Layout  Several Mass Production Systems are in operation today  Various
Design of Product Layout
Several Mass Production Systems are in operation
today
Various sub-assemblies in a mass producer need to
be configured to match the production rate
Similarly, the final assembly stations also need to
have the required number of resources at each
station to meet the targeted demand
A product layout design
seeks to identify the minimum number of resources
required to meet a targeted production rate and the
order in which these resources are to be arranged
Technique employed for designing of product layout
is known as line balancing

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

balancing Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
balancing Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
balancing Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education

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Line Balancing Decisions & Trade-offs  Line balancing  A method by which the tasks
Line Balancing Decisions & Trade-offs  Line balancing  A method by which the tasks
Line Balancing
Decisions & Trade-offs
Line balancing
A method by which the tasks are optimally
combined without violating precedence
constraints and a certain number of
workstations designed to complete the tasks
Key decision variables are production rate, cycle
time and the number of workstations, which are
inter-related
Solving the “line balancing” problem calls for
striking the right trade-off between increased
production and better utilisation of resources
Cycle time is the ratio of the available time
to the actual (desired) production rate

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

rate Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
rate Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
rate Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Line Balancing Some measures of interest Actual ( Desired ) CycleTime  Actual ( Desired
Line Balancing Some measures of interest Actual ( Desired ) CycleTime  Actual ( Desired
Line Balancing
Some measures of interest
Actual
(
Desired
)
CycleTime
Actual
( Desired
Average
Re
source Utilisation
Number of workstations

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

& Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education oduction * Cycle time AvailableTime ) Pr

oduction

* Cycle time

d Edition © Pearson Education oduction * Cycle time AvailableTime ) Pr Sum of alltask times
d Edition © Pearson Education oduction * Cycle time AvailableTime ) Pr Sum of alltask times

AvailableTime

) Pr

Sum of alltask times

Minimum No.of work stations required Sum of all task times

CycleTime

1/4/2019

Example 4.1.  A factory working in 2 shifts each of 8 hours produces 24,000
Example 4.1.  A factory working in 2 shifts each of 8 hours produces 24,000
Example 4.1.
A factory working in 2 shifts each of 8 hours produces
24,000 electric bulbs using a set of workstations. Using
this information compute the actual cycle time of the
plant operation.
There are 8 tasks required to manufacture the bulb. The
sum of all task times is equal to 12 seconds. How many
workstations are required to maintain this level of
production if combining of tasks into that many
workstations is a feasible alternative?

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

alternative? Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
alternative? Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
alternative? Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Solution to example 4.1.  Available time = 2*8*60*60 = 57,600 seconds  Actual production
Solution to example 4.1.  Available time = 2*8*60*60 = 57,600 seconds  Actual production
Solution to example 4.1.
Available time = 2*8*60*60 = 57,600 seconds
Actual production = 24,000 electric bulbs
Therefore, using equation 8.2
57,600 
2.4
Cycle time for each bulb is
24,000
seconds
This means that the factory is producing a bulb every
2.4 seconds.
12
5
No. of work stations required =
2.4
Therefore the tasks are to be split among the five
stations such that each workstation will have sum
of the task times to be 2.4 seconds.

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

2.4 seconds. Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
2.4 seconds. Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
2.4 seconds. Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education

1/4/2019

Example 4.2.  A computer manufacturer needs to design the assembly stations in the factory
Example 4.2.  A computer manufacturer needs to design the assembly stations in the factory
Example 4.2.
A computer manufacturer needs to design the assembly stations in
the factory where the cabinet housing the hard disk, motherboard and
other accessories are to be done. The factory currently works for one
shift of 8 hours. The tasks, their duration and their precedence
relationships are given below:
Task
Description
Duration
Precedence relationship among the tasks
(seconds)
B
A
Assemble and position the base unit
70
F
B
Install Hard disk
80
C
Install Mother Board
40
A
C
D
Insert Ports
20
G
E
Install speaker
40
F
Connect relevant modules to mother board & Disk
30
D
G
Install controller
50
H
Visually inspect & close with a cover plate
50
E
If the cycle time is 80 seconds, what will be the daily production of cabinets?
If the desired production rate is 320 cabinets per day, what is the maximum permissible cycle
time?
What is the maximum and minimum number of workstations required to maintain this daily
production rate?
Design an assembly setup with 5 workstations and 6 workstations.
an assembly setup with 5 workstations and 6 workstations. Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory &

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education H

H

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education H
Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education H
Solution to example 4.2.         If the cycle

Solution to example 4.2.

Solution to example 4.2.         If the cycle time

If the cycle time is 80 seconds, then

Daily production rate =

Total Available Time

Cycle Time

Maximum Cycle Time =

Total Available Time

28,800

80

Sum of all task times = 380 seconds

Minimum number of workstations =

380

90

4.22

5

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

& Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education  360  90 Seconds Total available

360

90

Seconds

Edition © Pearson Education  360  90 Seconds Total available time per day = 8*60*60
Edition © Pearson Education  360  90 Seconds Total available time per day = 8*60*60

Total available time per day = 8*60*60 = 28,800 seconds

Since the desired production rate is only 320 cabinets, one can obtain the maximum permissible cycle time for the assembly stations

28,800

320

Minimum number of workstations is dictated by the maximum cycle time permissible

Desired

Pr

oduction Rate

1/4/2019

Solution to example 4.2. Design with 5 work stations    The precedence relationships

Solution to example 4.2.

Design with 5 work stations

Solution to example 4.2. Design with 5 work stations    The precedence relationships need

The precedence relationships need to be honoured

Workstation

Workstation

Workstation

Workstation

 

1

2

3

4

Tasks

A,D

B

C,G

E,F

Assigned

Workstation

90

80

90

70

Times

Cycle time

90

90

90

90

Workstation

0

10

0

20

idle time

Workstation

100%

89%

100%

78%

utilization

Average Utilisation =

Sum of all task times

No of work stations Cycle time

.

*

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

& Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Workstation  380 5*90  84.4% We

Workstation

380

5*90

84.4%

Pearson Education Workstation  380 5*90  84.4% We assign tasks to the five workstations on
Pearson Education Workstation  380 5*90  84.4% We assign tasks to the five workstations on

We assign tasks to the five workstations on the basis of the following two criteria:

Workstation times should not exceed maximum permissible cycle time of 90 seconds

the basis of the following two criteria: Workstation times should not exceed maximum permissible cycle time
the basis of the following two criteria: Workstation times should not exceed maximum permissible cycle time
the basis of the following two criteria: Workstation times should not exceed maximum permissible cycle time
the basis of the following two criteria: Workstation times should not exceed maximum permissible cycle time
the basis of the following two criteria: Workstation times should not exceed maximum permissible cycle time
the basis of the following two criteria: Workstation times should not exceed maximum permissible cycle time
the basis of the following two criteria: Workstation times should not exceed maximum permissible cycle time
the basis of the following two criteria: Workstation times should not exceed maximum permissible cycle time
the basis of the following two criteria: Workstation times should not exceed maximum permissible cycle time
the basis of the following two criteria: Workstation times should not exceed maximum permissible cycle time
the basis of the following two criteria: Workstation times should not exceed maximum permissible cycle time
the basis of the following two criteria: Workstation times should not exceed maximum permissible cycle time
the basis of the following two criteria: Workstation times should not exceed maximum permissible cycle time

5

H

50

90

40

56%

Solution to example 4.2. Design with 6 work stations Work Work Work Work Work Work
Solution to example 4.2. Design with 6 work stations Work Work Work Work Work Work
Solution to example 4.2.
Design with 6 work stations
Work
Work
Work
Work
Work
Work
station
station
station 3
station 4
station 5
station 6
1
2
Tasks
A
B
C,D
E,F
G
H
Assigned
Workstation
70
80
60
70
50
50
Times
Cycle time
80
80
80
80
80
80
Workstation
10
0
20
10
30
30
idle time
Workstation
87.5%
100%
75%
87.5%
62.5%
62.5%
utilisation
Sum of all task times
380
 79.2%
Average Utilisation =
No of work stations Cycle time
.
*
6*80

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

. * 6*80 Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson
. * 6*80 Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson
. * 6*80 Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson

1/4/2019

Design of GT Layout Guiding Principles  The objective is one of sub-dividing an universe
Design of GT Layout Guiding Principles  The objective is one of sub-dividing an universe
Design of GT Layout
Guiding Principles
The objective is one of sub-dividing an universe of
machines and components into sub-groups
Each sub-group of components form a part family and is
endowed with a corresponding sub-group of machines
known as machine groups
Each sub-group is referred to as a cell
GT layout design is done with a systematic analysis of a
machine-component incident matrix
Number of methods available for identifying sub-groups
Production Flow Analysis (PFA)
Clustering techniques
Matrix manipulation methods
Graph theory
Mathematical programming methods

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

methods Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
methods Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
methods Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education

Machines

Machines Before Grouping Components A 2 1 4 1 1 3 6 5   7 1
Machines Before Grouping Components A 2 1 4 1 1 3 6 5   7 1

Before Grouping

Before Grouping Components A 2 1 4 1 1 3 6 5   7 1 8

Components

A

2

1 4

1 1

3 6

5

 

7

1

8

9

10

11

12

13

14 15

16

B

1

1 1

C

1

1

1 1

D

1 1

1

E

1

1 1

F

1 1

1

G

1

1

1

1

1

H

1

1

1

1

1

I

1

1 1

J

1

1

1

1

1

1 1 1 I 1 1 1 J 1 1 1 1 1 Mahadevan (2010), “Operations

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix
Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix
Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix

Machine Component Incident Matrix

Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix

1/4/2019

Machines

Machines After Grouping Components B C 2 3 5 8 1 4 7 1 1 1
Machines After Grouping Components B C 2 3 5 8 1 4 7 1 1 1

After Grouping

After Grouping Components B C 2 3 5 8 1 4 7 1 1 1 1

Components

B C
B
C

2

3

5

8

1

4

7

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

       

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

20

18

20 18 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

20 18 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
20 18 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
D A F E I G H J
D
A
F
E
I
G
H
J

6

1

1

1

9 11

1 1

1 1

1 1

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix
Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix
Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix

Machine Component Incident Matrix

Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix
Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix
Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix
Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix
Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix
Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix
Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix
Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix
Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix
Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix
Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix
Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix
Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Machine – Component Incident Matrix

17

15

14

13

– Component Incident Matrix 17 15 14 13 Design of GT Layout Rank Order Clustering Algorithm
– Component Incident Matrix 17 15 14 13 Design of GT Layout Rank Order Clustering Algorithm
– Component Incident Matrix 17 15 14 13 Design of GT Layout Rank Order Clustering Algorithm
– Component Incident Matrix 17 15 14 13 Design of GT Layout Rank Order Clustering Algorithm
Design of GT Layout Rank Order Clustering Algorithm 1. Read each row of the Machine
Design of GT Layout Rank Order Clustering Algorithm 1. Read each row of the Machine
Design of GT Layout
Rank Order Clustering Algorithm
1.
Read each row of the Machine Component Incidence
Matrix (MCIM) as a binary word. Rank the rows in the
descending order of the binary word.
2.
If there is no change in the row order stop the
procedure. Otherwise go the next step.
3.
Re-arrange the rows based on the ranking of the
rows. Read each column of the MCIM as a binary
word. Rank the columns in the descending order of
the binary word.
4.
If there is no change in the column order stop the
procedure. Otherwise go the next step.
5.
Re-arrange the columns based on the ranking of the
columns. Go to step 1.

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to step 1. Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson
to step 1. Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson
to step 1. Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson

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Rank Order Clustering Method An example Initial Matrix Rearranged rows 1 2 3 4 5
Rank Order Clustering Method An example Initial Matrix Rearranged rows 1 2 3 4 5
Rank Order Clustering Method
An example
Initial Matrix
Rearranged rows
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
A
0
0
1
0
1
0
E
1
0
0
1
0
1
B
0
1
1
0
0
1
C
1
0
0
1
0
0
C
1
0
0
1
0
0
D
0
1
1
0
1
0
D
0
1
1
0
1
0
B
0
1
1
0
0
1
E
1
0
0
1
0
1
A
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
4
6
3
2
5
1
4
6
3
2
5
C
1
1
1
0
0
0
C
1
1
1
0
0
0
E
1
1
0
0
0
0
E
1
1
0
0
0
0
B
0
0
1
1
1
0
D
0
0
0
1
1
1
D
0
0
0
1
1
1
B
0
0
1
1
1
0
A
0
0
0
1
0
1
A
0
0
0
1
0
1
Final Solution
Rearranged columns
1 A 0 0 0 1 0 1 Final Solution Rearranged columns Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management:

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

columns Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
columns Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
An example from Lucas TVS 4 way Drill Lathe Press SS    Drill
An example from Lucas TVS 4 way Drill Lathe Press SS    Drill
An example from Lucas TVS
4 way
Drill
Lathe
Press
SS
Drill
Press
Bench
Lathe
Old layout
Revised layout
300 minutes
2 minutes
5
2
150
1
150
120

Manfg. Lead time

Manpower

Transfer batch

Space (sq. ft)

Lead time Manpower Transfer batch Space (sq. ft) Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory &

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

 SS

SS

Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education  SS One man multiple machine layout 4
Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education  SS One man multiple machine layout 4

One man multiple machine layout

Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education  SS One man multiple machine layout 4
4 way Drill
4 way
Drill
Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education  SS One man multiple machine layout 4
Drill
Drill
Bench
Bench

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Flexible Manufacturing System Definition  A Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) is  A system consisting
Flexible Manufacturing System Definition  A Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) is  A system consisting
Flexible Manufacturing System
Definition
A Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) is
A system consisting usually of numerical control
(NC) machines
Connected by an automated material handling
system.
Operated under a central computer control
Capable of simultaneously processing a family of
parts with low to medium demand, different
process cycles and operation sequences
It is an attempt to solve the process
complexities arising out of mid-volume and
mid-variety parts

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

parts Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
parts Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
parts Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Typical Machines used in FMS Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d
Typical Machines used in FMS
Typical Machines used in FMS
Typical Machines used in FMS Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

used in FMS Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson
used in FMS Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson

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Structure of an FMS System Controller Load Primary Secondary Unload MHS MHS Machine Auxiliary Tools
Structure of an FMS System Controller Load Primary Secondary Unload MHS MHS Machine Auxiliary Tools
Structure of an FMS
System Controller
Load
Primary
Secondary
Unload
MHS
MHS
Machine
Auxiliary
Tools
Equipment
Information flow
Material flow

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

flow Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
flow Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
flow Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Flexibilities in FMS  Machine flexibility: the ease of making changes required to produce a
Flexibilities in FMS  Machine flexibility: the ease of making changes required to produce a
Flexibilities in FMS
Machine flexibility: the ease of making changes required
to produce a given set of part types
Process flexibility or mix flexibility: the ability to produce
a given set of part types, each possibly using different
materials in several ways
Product flexibility: the ability to produce a new set of
products very economically and quickly
Routing flexibility: is the ability to handle breakdowns
and to continue processing the given set of part types
Volume flexibility: is a measure of the ability to operate
an FMS profitably at different production volumes
Expansion flexibility: is the capability of building a
system, and expanding it as need arises, easily and in a
modular fashion

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

fashion Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
fashion Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
fashion Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education

1/4/2019

Material Handling in FMSs  An automated storage system is used for large scale bulk
Material Handling in FMSs  An automated storage system is used for large scale bulk
Material Handling in FMSs
An automated storage system is used for large
scale bulk storage as well as for small in line buffer
storage
Automated Storage and Retrieval System (AS/RS)
Horizontal & Vertical Carousels
An automated transport system is used to move
parts and products from the storage systems to the
production operations
Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) system
Conveyors in a wide variety of forms such as
overhead, monorail, carry and free, power and free
and under floor drag chain
Gantry and Pick & Place Robots

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

Place Robots Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Place Robots Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Place Robots Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Fewer Variety in Products, Models Processes, Routing Technology Choices Fewer Stages in Production Continuous

Fewer Variety in Products, Models Processes, Routing Technology Choices

Fewer Stages

in Production

Continuous

Intermittent

Flow

Low

Flow

Complexity

Intermittent Flow Low Flow Complexity Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory &
Intermittent Flow Low Flow Complexity Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory &

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

Many Stages

in Production

Jumbled

Flow

Education Many Stages in Production Jumbled Flow Complexity of Operations Management Some indicators Many
Education Many Stages in Production Jumbled Flow Complexity of Operations Management Some indicators Many

Complexity of Operations Management Some indicators

Many Variety in Products, Models Processes, Routing Technology Choices

Many Variety in Products, Models Processes, Routing Technology Choices
Many Variety in Products, Models Processes, Routing Technology Choices

High

Complexity

1/4/2019

Design of Manufacturing Processes Chapter Highlights  Volume, variety and flow exert significant influence on
Design of Manufacturing Processes Chapter Highlights  Volume, variety and flow exert significant influence on
Design of Manufacturing Processes
Chapter Highlights
Volume, variety and flow exert significant influence on
process design in organizations.
Process industries and mass production systems
generally have a streamlined flow of products.
Mid-volume and mid-variety manufacturing systems
have intermittent flow. Capacity estimation is difficult in
such systems compared to a continuous flow systems.
Project organizations & customized manufacturing
systems have jumbled flow. Capacity estimation and
scheduling of jobs are quite difficult. Operations
management complexity is high in jumbled flow
systems.
A process – product matrix depicts the relationship
between process flow characteristics and volume of
production in any manufacturing organization.

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
Design of Manufacturing Processes Chapter Highlights…  Volume, variety and flow exert significant influence on
Design of Manufacturing Processes Chapter Highlights…  Volume, variety and flow exert significant influence on
Design of Manufacturing Processes
Chapter Highlights…
Volume, variety and flow exert significant influence on
the layout problem in organizations.
Product layouts are useful for high volume – low variety
situations.
At the other extreme, fixed position and project layouts are
useful for high variety situations.
Product layout and process layouts are used in discrete
manufacturing industry. They have several advantages
and disadvantages.
Mid-volume and mid-variety manufacturing systems can
benefit from a Group Technology (GT) layout.
Several computer packages are available for designing
process layouts. Popular among them include CORELAP,
ALDEP COFAD and CRAFT.

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

and CRAFT. Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
and CRAFT. Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education
and CRAFT. Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education

1/4/2019

Chapter Highlights…     Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 n

Chapter Highlights…

Mahadevan (2010), “Operations Management: Theory & Practice”, 2 nd Edition © Pearson Education

& Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Design of Manufacturing Processes Product layout design
& Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Design of Manufacturing Processes Product layout design
& Practice”, 2 n d Edition © Pearson Education Design of Manufacturing Processes Product layout design

Design of Manufacturing Processes

© Pearson Education Design of Manufacturing Processes Product layout design seeks to identify the minimum number
© Pearson Education Design of Manufacturing Processes Product layout design seeks to identify the minimum number
© Pearson Education Design of Manufacturing Processes Product layout design seeks to identify the minimum number
© Pearson Education Design of Manufacturing Processes Product layout design seeks to identify the minimum number

Product layout design seeks to identify the minimum number of resources required to meet a targeted production rate and the tasks to be assigned to each of these resources using a technique called line balancing.

GT layouts are designed with the objective of sub-dividing a universe of machines and components into sub-groups such that each sub-group consists of part families and machine groups.

New technology manufacturing such as Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) have the potential to simplify flow complexities in mid-volume, mid-variety manufacturing organizations due to increased flexibility.

Volume, variety & flow characteristics determine the complexity of operations management. By a careful design of the process, some of the complexities can be minimized.