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Jet Propulsion

Laws for propulsion system

• Newtons second law:
• Rate of change of momentum in any direction is proportional to force acting
in that direction.
• Newtons third law:
• For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
• Jet and rocket engines are space vehicles. They are propelled by the
reaction of a backward streaming jet of fluid.
• The jet engines are used in aircraft, while rocket engines are used for
• Satellites revolve around the earth at an altitude where the drag force
is absent. Therefore, such satellites remain in orbit forever without
any expenditure of energy.
• Generally aircrafts have two types of propulsion systems:
• Using propeller (can be driven by reciprocating engine)
• Using high velocity jets, which leave the aircraft in rear ward direction
(using gas turbines)

Propeller aircraft Turbo jet aircraft

• A combination of these two is turboprop

In all the cases rate of change of momentum of air provides a reactive forward thrust,
which propels the aircraft
Turbojet engine
Thrust power decreases with altitude. Why?
Then why aeroplanes fly at high altitude?
Why airplanes have hole at the tail
• In fact, it’s part of what’s called an auxiliary power unit. An airliner’s APU is
a hidden extra engine, typically a gas turbine engine like jet engines

• But the APU doesn’t help the plane move. Rather, when an airplane is
parked at the gate, pilots will use the APU to power onboard electric
systems—from cabin lights and coffee makers to various cockpit systems—
as well as to provide airflow to the air conditioning systems. Mainly, the
APU is typically used to start the engines as the plane is pushed back
from the gate. Once the engines are running, the APU is normally switched
off, to be restarted only when the plane is on the ground at its destination.

• APU can be started with battery power in airplane.

How do aeroplanes generate lift
• To overcome the weight force, airplanes generate an opposing force
called lift.
• The magnitude of the lift depends on several factors including the
shape, size, and velocity of the aircraft.
• As with weight, each part of the aircraft contributes to the aircraft lift
force. Most of the lift is generated by the wings.
• Angle of attack plays a major role.
• Coanda effect
• Fluid always try to go attached
with solid surface

• Pressure below wing is greater

(compared to wing above flow
Extra thrust during take off

• Thrust can be increased by

• Increasing mass flow rate
• Increasing exit jet velocity
After burner
Does aeroplane have reverse gear?
Thrust reversal, also called reverse
thrust, is the temporary diversion
of an aircraft engine's thrust so that it is
directed forward, rather than backward.

Reverse thrust acts against the

forward travel of the aircraft, providing

Reverse thrust is rarely applied in reality.

Rocket Propulsion

A propellant is a chemical substance used in the production of energy, that propels a vehicle
Schematic of solid propellant rocket
There is no fuel supply system
Gases are ejected at supersonic speeds through nozzle