Sie sind auf Seite 1von 57 CE 6303 FLUID MECHANICS

III SEMESTER UNIT 1 2

REFERENCES

Hydraulic and Hydraulic machines-

By Modi and Seth

Fluid Mechancis and Hydraulic Machinery-

By R.K. Bensal

A Textbook of Fluid mechanics

By Rajput 3

FLUID

Matter exist either in solid state or fluid state

A fluid is a substance which is capable of flowing.

The fluid consists of both liquids and gases.

Water is the substance can exists in all three states 4

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOLID AND FLUID

Solid

More compact structure

Attractive forces between the molecules are larger

Solids can resist tangential stresses

Whenever the solid is subjected to shear stress there is a definite deformation

Solid may regain partly or fully its original shape when the shear stress are removed

Fluid

Less compact structure

Attractive forces between the molecules are smaller.

Fluids cannot resist tangential stresses.

Whenever the fluid is subjected to shear stress no fixed deformation

A fluid can never regain its original shape once it has been distorted by the shear stress. 5

FLUID MECHANICS

It is branch of science that deals with the behavior of the fluids in rest as well as in motion

The study of fluids when it is in rest condition is called Statics (hydrostatics).

Kinematics is study of fluids when it is in motion and the pressure forces that causes the flow are not considered. (velocity and acceleration)

Kinetics(Dynamics) is study of fluids when it is in motion and the pressure forces that causes the flow are considered. 6

CONTINUUM THEORY

Generally it is assumed that the molecules of fluid are continuous and there is no voids between the liquid particles. This is called continuum theory developed by Mr.Knudsen

The liquid does not have constant shape and it have constant volume 7

Basic Principles Applied in fluid mechanics

S.No

Principle

Application

1.

Law of conservation of mass

Derivation of continuity equation

2.

Law of conservation of energy

Derivation of energy equation (Bernoulli equation)

3.

Law of conservation of momentum (Newton’s second law of motion)

To derive equation for forces on pipe bends, free jet etc

4.

Law of conservation of moment of momentum

To derive equation of Torque developed using sprinkling system 8  9 10

PROPERTIES OF FLUID

1. Specific Mass or Mass density(ρ-symbol called as Rho)

2. Specific weight or Weight density(

Gamma)

-symbol called as

3. Specific volume

4. Specific gravity (S)

5. Viscosity (µ- symbol called as mu)

6. Kinematic viscosity (ν-symbol called as nu)

7. Bulk modulus (κ)

8. Compressibility (1/ κ)

9. Surface tension (σ- symbol called as sigma)

10. Capillarity (h c ) 11

MASS DENSITY 12

SPECIFIC WEIGHT 13

SPECIFIC VOLUME 14

SPECIFIC GRAVITY 15

PROBLEM

1.) Calculate the specific weight , mass density and specific gravity of one litre of a liquid which weighs 7N.

i) Specific weight = 7000N/m 3

ii) Mass Density = 713.5 kg/m 3

iii) Specific gravity = 0.7135

2.) Calculate density, specific weight and weight of 1 litre of petrol of specific gravity =0.7

i) Density = 700 kg/m 3

ii)Specific Weight = 6867 N/m 3

iii) Weight = 6.867 N 16

PROPERTIES OF FLUID

1. Specific Mass or Mass density(ρ-symbol called as Rho)

2. Specific weight or Weight density(

Gamma)

-symbol called as

3. Specific volume

4. Specific gravity (S)

5. Viscosity (µ- symbol called as mu)

6. Kinematic viscosity (ν-symbol called as nu)

7. Bulk modulus (κ)

8. Compressibility (1/ κ)

9. Surface tension (σ- symbol called as sigma)

10. Capillarity (h c ) 17

SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF VARIOUS MATERIALS

Fuel oil – 0.89

Red Wood -0.51

Ice cube -0.919

Chalk Solid -2.5

Chalk fine – 1.12

Cement -1.44

Sand -2.65

Gold -19.32

Mercury

Silver -10.4

- 13.6 18

BULK MODULUS & COMPRESSIBILITY

Bulk modulus is ratio of increase in pressure to volumetric strain It is mainly used to describe the strength of the materials like liquids, soil etc. Compressibility is defined as the inverse of bulk modulus. It is mainly for gases. 19

PROBLEMS RELATED TO BULK MODULUS

What is the bulk modulus of elasticity of a liquid which is compressed in a cylinder from a volume of 12.5 m 3 at 80 N/cm 2 pressure to a volume of 12.4 m 3 at 150 N/cm 2

Given Data:

Initial Volume = 12.5 m 3

Final Volume

Initial pressure = 80 N/cm 2 Final pressure = 150 N/cm 2

= 12.4 m 3 20

Bulk modulus K = - dp

(dv)/V

Change in pressure dp = 150-80 = 70 N/cm 2 Change in volume dv = 12.4-12.5 = -0.1 m 3 Initial Volume V = 12.5 m 3

Bulk Modulus K =

-

70

N/cm 2

(-0.1/12.5)

=8750 N/cm 2 21

BULK MODULUS PROBLEMS

1. What is the bulk modulus of elasticity of a liquid which is compressed in a cylinder from a volume of 12.5 m 3 at 80 N/cm 2 pressure to a volume of 12.4 m 3 at 150 N/cm 2

2. When the pressure changes from 80 N/cm 2 to 150 N/cm 2 ,a liquid of volume 12.5m 3 is compressed by 0.1m 3 in a cylinder. Find bulk modulus.

3. When the pressure changes from 80 N/cm 2 to 150 N/cm 2 , volume of liquid is decreased by 0.8%. Find bulk modulus.

For all the above questions Answer is K=8750 N/cm 2 22 VISCOSITY

TYPES OF FLUID-RHEOLOGICAL DIAGRAM 24

TYPES OF FLUIDS

Ideal fluid

Fluid which does not contain viscosity, surface tension and they are incompressible

Also called as invisid fluid

Viscosity and compressibility plays an important role in fluid mechanics

Ideal fluids does not exist in nature (imaginary fluids)

For mathematical purposes, air and water are considered as ideal fluid

Real fluid

fluid which possess viscosity, surface tension and compressibility.

Practically all fluids are real fluids 25

VISCOSITY

Viscosity is the property of fluid which offers resistance to the movement of one layer of fluid over an adjacent layer of fluid. This resistance occurs when a tangential force is applied over it

Due to rise in temperature, for liquids the molecular bonds get loosen and so viscosity decreases.

Due to rise in temperature, for air the momentum exchange between molecules increases and so viscosity increases. 26 27 28 29 30 31

PROBLEM- VISCOSITY 32

PROBLEMS RELATED TO VISCOSITY L

dy Sleeve
33
oil
D
Shaft
N

Given Data:

Diameter of shaft D = 400mm = 0.4m

Rotational Speed N=200 r.p.m

Bearing Length L = 120mm =0.12 m

Thickness of oil film dy = 1.5mm = 1.5x10 -3 m

Viscosity μ

= 0.7 Ns/m 2

To Find:

Torque = force x radius= F x (D/2)

Power Lost = Force x velocity = F x u

Shear Force F = τ x A = τ x πDL

Shear Stress τ = μ(du/dy)

Tangential Velocity u = (πDN/60) 34

SOLUTION

Step 1 – To determine tangential velocity u

DN

3.140.4200

u

u 4.187m/ s

60

60

Step 2 – To determine shear stress

du 0.7 (4.187 0)

dy

1.5 10

3

1954N / m

2

Step 3 – To determine shear force F F = stress x area = τ x πDL = 1954 x 3.14 x 0.4 x 0.12 F= 294.5 N 35

Step 4 – To determine the torque T

Torque = Force x Radius (or dia /2)

= 294.5 x (0.4/2) T = 58.9 N-m Step 5 – To determine Power lost P Power Lost P = Force x Velocity = F x u = 294.5 x 4.187 =1233 W P= 1.233 kW Torque required to overcome friction = 58.9 N-m Power utilized in overcoming viscous resistance = 1.233 kW 36

PROBLEMS RELATED TO VISCOSITY

A square plate of 50cm x 50cm dimension weighing 500 N slides down an inclined plane making an angle 30 o with the horizontal at a velocity of 1.75 m/s. If the 2mm gap between the plate and the inclined surface is filled with the lubricating oil. Find the viscosity of oil in poise and pascal-sec. 37 38

Given Data:

Area of plate Self Weight of block W

=0.50 x 0.50 m 2

=500N

Angle of inclination of surface θ =30 o

Velocity of plate sliding du Thickness of oil film dy

Required Viscosity of oil μ

Formula used

du

dy

= 1.75 m/s = 2mm=2x10 -3 m

Force

Area

W sin

Area 39

Solution:

Step 1- To calculate shear stress

 Force W sin    

Area

Area

500 sin30

0.50 0.50

= 1000 N/m 2 Step 2 – To calculate viscosity

du

dy
1.75

1000

2 10

3

μ= 1.143 Ns/m 2 = 1.143 Pa-s (1N/m 2 = Pa) = 11.43 Poise (1 Ns/m 2 = 10 Poise) 40

PROBLEMS RELATED TO VISCOSITY

An oil of viscosity 5 poise is used for lubrication between a shaft and sleeve. The diameter of shaft is 0.5m and it rotates at 200 r.p.m. Calculate the power lost in the oil for a sleeve of length 100mm. The thickness of the oil film is 1 mm. 1 mm
Sleeve
0.5 m
Oil
Shaft

100 mm 41

PROBLEMS RELATED TO VISCOSITY

Calculate the velocity gradient and shear stress at distances of 0, 10 and 20 cm from the boundary if velocity profile is a parabola with vertex 20 cm from the boundary where the velocity is 120 cm/s. take viscosity of fluid as 8.5 poise. 120 cm/s
y in cm
20 cm

u in cm/s 42

PROBLEMS RELATED TO VISCOSITY

Two large plane surfaces are 2.4 cm apart. The space between the surface is filled with glycerin. What force is required to drag a very thin plate of surface area 0.5 square metre between the two large plane surfaces at a speed of 0.6 m/s, if

Case (i)

Case (ii) thin plate is at a distance of 0.8 cm from one of the plane surface.

thin plate is in middle of two plane surfaces

Take dynamic viscosity of glycerin = 8.1 x 10 -1 Ns/m 2 43 44 45

SURFACE TENSION

1. It is defined as the tensile force acting on the surface of the liquid in contact with gas or two immiscible liquids such that the contact surface behaves as a membrane under tension .

2. The surface tension takes place due to the cohesion between fluid particles.

3. If the temperature rises, the surface tension decreases due to loss in cohesion. 46

APPLICATION OF SURFACE TENSION 47

APPLICATION OF SURFACE TENSION 48

APPLICATION OF SURFACE TENSION 49

PROBLEMS RELATED TO SURFACE TENSION

If the pressure in a water droplet is 196.2 N/m 2 in excess of the external pressure, what is the diameter of the droplet? Given the value of surface tension of water in contact with air at 20 o C as 0.073 N/m. Given Data

p = 196.2 N/m 2

σ = 0.073 N/m

p = 4 σ

d

d= 4 x 0.073

196.2

= 1.488 x 10-3 m = 1.5 mm 50

8. CAPILLARITY

It is defines as a phenomenon of rise or fall of a liquid surface in a small tube relative to the adjacent general level of liquid when the tube is held vertically in a liquid.

Its value depends upon the specific weight of liquid, diameter of tube and surface tension of the liquid.

Capillary rise will occur only when the diameter of tube is very small say 6mm.

Capillary rise or fall is measured interms of cm or mm of the liquid. 51

DERIVATION TO FIND CAPILLARY RISE 52

PROBLEMS RELATED TO CAPILLARY RISE

Calculate the capillary rise h in a glass tube of 2.5 mm diameter when vertically immersed in (i)water and (ii) mercury at 20 o C. Take surface tension for water at 20 o C as 0.0725 N/m and for mercury as 0.52 N/m in contact with air.

The specific gravity for mercury is given as 13.6 and angle of contact as 130 o 53

Case (i) For Water

θ= 0 o

Specific Weight of water γ w = ρ w x g = 1000 x 9.81 N/m 3

Formula used:

h

4cos

d

h

4 0.0725 cos0

9.81 1000 2.5 10

3

h = 0.0118 m = 1.18 cm of water 54

Case (ii) For Mercury Density of mercury ρ m

Specific Weight of mercury γ m

Formula used:

h

4cos

d

θ= 130 o =S x ρ w = 13.6 x 1000 kg/m 3 = ρ m x g = 13.6 x1000x 9.81 N/m 3

h

4 0.52 cos130

9.81 13.6 1000 2.5 10

3

h = -0.004 m= -4mm of Hg. The negative sign indicates the capillary depression 55

VAPOUR PRESSURE

When vapourization takes place, the molecules escapes from the free surface of the liquid. These vapour molecules get accumulated in the space between free liquid surface and top of the vessel . these accumulated vapours exert a pressure on the liquid surface . this pressure is known as vapour pressure. 56

CAVITATION

The cavitation is the phenomenon of formation of vapour bubbles of a flowing liquid in a region where the pressure of the liquid falls below the vapour pressure and sudden collapsing of these vapour bubbles in a region of higher pressure causes the erosion of surrounding materials. 57