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Anatomical landmarks on Dental Hard tissue

CONTENTS
 Introduction

 History

 Definition of dental anatomy and its importance

 Human dentition

 Primary dentition
 Mixed dentition
 Permanent dentition
 Types of teeth

 Anatomy of teeth

 Clinical vs Anatomic crown

 Surfaces and ridges of teeth

 Division into third

 Line angles/ Point angles

 Lobes

 Landmarks on teeth

 Elevations

 Depression

 Summary

 Conclusion

INTRODUCTION
Anatomical Landmark is any anatomic feature—a fold, prominence, duct, vessel, etc.—
consistently present in a tissue that serves to indicate a specific structure or position.
Anatomic landmarks are used by surgical pathologists for specimen orientation and
when lost(e.g., by tumour or trauma),make assessment of margin
clearance or involvement by malignancy difficult.
HISTORY
7000 BC Evidence of ancient dentistry has recently been found in a Neolithic graveyard in
ancient Pakistan. Teeth dating from around 7000 to 5500 BC show evidence of holes from
dental drills. The teeth were found in people of the Indus Valley Civilization.
2600 BC Death of Hesy-Re, an Egyptian scribe, often called the first “dentist.”
500-300 BC Hippocrates and Aristotle write about dentistry

1563 Batholomew Eusttachius published the first accurate book on dental anatomy, 'Libellus de
dentibus'

DENTAL ANANTOMY
Dental Anatomy is defined as the study of development, morphology, function and
identity of each teeth in human dentition, as well as the way in which the teeth relate in
shape, form, structure, colour and function to other teeth in same dental arch and to the
teeth in the opposing arch.
(Wheeler’s Dental Anatomy, Physiology, and occlusion 9th edition)
IMPORTANCE OF DENTAL ANATOMY
 Helps to confine and design cavity preparation

 Helps to execute endodontic procedures

 To understand variations in morphology and treat atypical teeth

 Understand occlusion

 Execute extractions

HUMAN DENTITION
Humans are diphyodont: A diphyodont is any animal with two successive sets of teeth,
initially the "deciduous" set and consecutively the "permanent" set.

Dentition Age

Primary dentition 6 months to 6 years

Mixed dentition 6 - 12 years

Permanent dentition from 12 years

PRIMARY DENTITION
MIXED DENTITION

PERMANENT DENTITION

TYPES OF TEETH

 Incisors- Cutting the food

 Canines – Tearing

 Premolars- Tearing and Grinding( absent in primary dentition)

 Molars- Chewing and grinding


ANATOMY OF HUMAN TEETH

Enamel

Hard
Cementum
tissues
Tissues of
Dentine
teeth

Soft tissues Pulp

CLINICAL VS ANATOMICAL CROWN/ ROOT

JUNCTIONS OF THE TOOTH


 Cementoenamel Junction-

 separates enamel and cementum

 Also knows as cervical line

 Dentinoenamel junction-

 Inner surface of enamel and outer surface of the dentine

 Only visible in cross section/ can be appreciated during cavity preparation

 Cementodentinal junction-

 Inner surface of cementum lining the root

 Only visible in cross sections


SURFACES AND RIDGES
 In order to identify the specific locations they are divided into surfaces, surfaces re
named according to their positions and uses.

Outer surface Facial Surface Labial and buccal surfaces


Inner surface Palatal or the lingual surface
Adjoining surface Proximal surface Mesial and distal surface

Opposing surface Occlusal or incisal surface

DIVISIONS INTO THIRDS


1. Inciso- or occlusocervically
2. Mesiodistally
3. Labio- or buccolingually
LINE ANGLES/ POINT ANGLES
 Junction of crown surfaces are described as line angles and point angles

 Actually there are no angles or planes or points in the teeth anywhere except those
that appear from wear or from accidental fracture
 They are used only as a descriptive term to indicate location

LINE ANGLE
 Line angle is formed by the junction of two surfaces and derives its name from the
combination of two surfaces that join

Anteriors

Mesiolabial
Distolabial
Mesiolingual
Distolingual
Labioincisal
Linguoincisal

Posteriors

Mesiobuccal
Distobuccal
Mesiolingual
Distolingual
Mesio-occlusal
Disto-occlusal
Bucco-occlusal
Linguo-occlusal

POINT ANGLE
A point angle is formed by the junction of three surfaces, it derives its name from the
combination of names of the surfaces forming the point angle

Anteriors

Mesiolabioincisal
Distolabioincisal
Mesiolinguoincisal
Distolinguoincisal

Posteriors

Mesiobucco-occlusal
Distobuco-occlusal
Mesiolinguo-occlusal
Distolinguo-occlusal
LOBES
 A lobe is one of the primary sections in the formation of teeth

 Cusps and mamelons represent lobes

LANDMARKS ON TEETH
ELEVATIONS Cusps
Tubercle
Mamelon
Ridge
Cingulum

DEPRESSIONS AND Fossa


GROOVES
Sulcus

Developmental Groove

Supplemental Groove

Pits

ELEVATIONS
1. CUSPS
Cusp is an elevation or a mound on the crown portion of the tooth making up the
divisional part of the occlusal surface
CILNICAL SIGNIFICANCE:
Cusps provide strength to the tooth structure.
They interdigitate to proper occlusion
While preparation conventional cavity during restorative procedures the width of
the cavity is determined as one third the width of the cusp
2. TUBERCLE
 It is a smaller elevation on some portion of the crown produced by an extra formation of
enamel. These deviations form the typical form

3. MAMELON
Any of the three rounded protuberances found on the incisal ridge of the newly
erupted incisor are called as mamelons

4. Cingulum
Latin word for “girdle”
Cingulum is the enlargement or cervical bulge on the cervical third of the lingual
surface of the crown of anterior teeth
5. Ridges
A ridge is a linear elevation on the surface of tooth.
There are many ridges on the crown of tooth, and are named according to its location
or shape
• Labial ridge
• Buccal ridge
• Cervical ridge
• Marginal ridge
• Oblique ridge
• Triangular ridge
• Transverse ridge

Labial, Buccal ridges: The ridge running on the cerivico incisallly or occlusally
approximately in the centre of labial or buccal surface is called as labial or buccal
ridge respectively.

Cervical ridge: The ridge running mesiodisally on the cervical third of the buccal
surface of the crown. It is found on all deciduous teeth but only on the permanent
molars

Marginal ridge: These are rounded borders of enamel that form the mesial and distal
margins of the occlusal surface of posteriors and lingual surface of the anterior teeth.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: During cavity preparation the thickness of the
remaning marginal ridge determines the
Triangular ridge: The ridge which descend from the cusps of molars and premolars
toward the central part of their occlusal surface. The slopes of each side of the ridge
resemble a triangle. They are named after the cusp which they belong

Transverse ridge: The union of two triangular ridges crossing transversely on the
occlusal surface of posterior tooth forms a transverse ridge

Oblique ridge: It is present only in maxillary molars. The ridge is formed by the union
of triangular ridges of the mesio palatal cusp and the distobuccal cusp of maxillary
molar.

DEPRESSIONS
1. Fossa: In latin meaning a ditch or trench. Its an irregular depression or concavity.
Like ridge they can be classified according to the location or surface.

• Lingual fossa
• Central fossa
• Triangular fossa

Lingual fossa : Present on the lingual surface of the incisors.


Central fossa: They are formed by the convergence of ridges on the occlusal surface
terminating at the central point in the bottom of the depression where there is junction
of all grooves.

Central fossa

Triangular fossa: Found on molars and premolars on the occlusal surface mesial or
distal to the marginal ridge. ( mesial triangular and distal triangular fossa)
They are sometimes found on the lingual surface of maxillary incisors where the
marginal ridges and cingulum meet

Triangula

2. Sulcus: In Latin means furrow. It is a long depression or valley in the surface of a


tooth between ridges and cusp. A sulcus has a developmental groove at the
junction of its inclines.

Sulcu

3. Developmental groove: It’s a shallow line between the primary parts of the crown and
root. Buccal and lingual developmental groove are found on the buccal and lingual
surface of posterior teeth.
4. Supplemental groove: It is a less distinct shallow depression on the surface of
teeth , but unlike developmental groove it does not mark the junction of primary
parts.

5. Pits: They are small pinpoint depressions located at the junction of developmental
grooves or at the terminals of those groove .Example- Central pit is a landmark in
central fossa of the occlusal surface of molars where all developmental grooves
meet

Conclusion:

• Disturbances in teeth has resulted in esthetic, psychological and periodontal


problems, which can be corrected by proper treatment.
• The dental practitioner must have a through knowledge of the morphology,
occlusion , esthetics, phonetics and functions of these teeth to provide a
satisfactory dental care.
• The landmarks on the teeth serve as an important tool for studying individual
tooth morphology , function and occlusion, they also help in identifying the
part of teeth which is damaged or to be restored.

References

Wheeler’s Dental Anatomy, Physiology, and occlusion 9 th edition

Dental anatomy its relevance to dentistry, Woefel 5th edition

Wheeler’s atlas of dental form