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Bamboo Identification

Technical Report · July 2008


DOI: 10.13140/2.1.3077.4088

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YOGESH CHANDRA TRIPATHI


Forest Research Institute Dehradun
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ARCBR/Technical Report-02/2008

BAMBOO IDENTIFICATION

Dr. Y.C. Tripathi


HEAD
ADVANCED RESEARCH CENTRE FOR BAMBOO AND RATTAN
P.O. Box 171, Kulikawn,
Aizawl - 796001 (Mizoram) INDIA
ARCBR/Technical Report-02/2008

MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF VEGETATIVE PARTS INCLUDING ROOTS,


RHIZOMES, CULM, CULM-SHEATHS, BRANCHES AND LEAVES
SERVE AS A RELIABLE MARKER FOR IDENTIFICATION

Characteristic Morphological
Traits of 12 Important Bamboo Species
ARCBR/Technical Report-02/2008

Bambusa balcooa

Branching Pattern

Clump
Distinguishing Morphological Characters
Very short basal internodes.
Swollen nodes.
Prominent brown hairs present in the lower nodal portion.
Branches 1-3, if 3 middle is dominant.
Branches swollen at the base.
Adventitious roots present near the base of culm and
branch.
White rings present at the nodal ring of young culm.
Presence of brownish hairs on leaf sheaths.
Culm sheath auricle very short or absent.
Developing young culm tip dome shaped.
ARCBR/Technical Report-02/2008

Melocanna baccifera

Scattered culms

Distinguishing Morphological Characters


Clump open and diffuse, culms erect, arising singly in a well
clump separated distances from the ramification of underground
rhizome system.
Rhizome necks greatly elongated even upto 2.5 m.
Bud on the culm-node is flat and oppressed with the culm wall.
Branching usually confined from mid to upper part of culm.
Culm sheaths have ridges on the outside where narrow sword-
shaped blade is attached.
Leaf oblong-lanceolate, no cross veins, leaf sheath glabrous,
auricles bearing hairy bristles.
Young shoot yellowish-brown to brown, sheath margin and top
pinkish, ligule horse-shoe shaped, blades flagellate and
Fruiting
glabrous.
ARCBR/Technical Report-02/2008
Bambusa tulda

Branching Pattern

Distinguishing Morphological Characters


Clump A tufted bamboo.
Culms, white scurfy when young, green to grey green when
old, sometimes faint yellow stripes on the lower internode.
Leaves green glabrous above, glaucescent and puberulous
beneath.
Brown hairs on the culm sheath.
Yellow stripes on green surface in young emerging shoots,
calcareous band on one side of culm node.
White ring present above the nodal ring.
Multi-branched with middle one dominant.
Culm Sheath Upper part of the culm usually unbranched.
ARCBR/Technical Report-02/2008
Bambusa nutans

Branching pattern

Distinguishing Morphological Characters


Young Shoot has unequal caterpillar like auricles,
body dark brown, densely furnished with long curved
reddish bristles on the culm sheath, apex green.
Stem sulcate,15-18 cm in circumference.
Branches prominent at the lower nodes.
Branches usually 3, middle ones dominated.
Clump
ARCBR/Technical Report-02/2008
Bambusa arundinacea

Branches with Spines

Clump Distinguishing Morphological Characters


Very densely tufted thick-walled, spiny moderate to
big sized clump.
Culm bright grassy green, shining thick-walled, stem
sulcate.
Branches zigzag with recurrent spines usually 3 at
each node of the branch.
Leaf small to normal size, highly variable.
The young emerging shoot with blunt growing apex.
ARCBR/Technical Report-02/2008

Bambusa vulgaris

Yellow culm with green stripes

Distinguishing Morphological Characters


Clump
Erect culms – 4 to 8 m height, 5-8 cm dia.
Yellow/green culms with green/yellow strips.
Leaves, 15 – 20 cm long and 2 – 2.5 cm broad
Growth form - bunch.
Growth rate rapid.
Height at 20 Years, mature culm height - 50 ft (max).
Long lifespan.
Flower color – brown.
Branching Pattern
ARCBR/Technical Report-02/2008

Bambusa pallida

Unbranched culms
Clump

Distinguishing Morphological Characters


Culms height 15-20 m and dia 5-8 cm, olive green in
colour.
Stem almost unbranched, nodes not prominent.
Internodes 45-70 cm long, thin walled.
Young culm and lower surface of the leaves silvery.
Culm sheath 18-30 cm long, 25 cm broad.
Culm sheath Culm sheath provided with blackish gland dotted.
ARCBR/Technical Report-02/2008
Dendrocalamus hamiltonii

Uppermost portion bending


Downwards
Clump

Distinguishing Morphological Characters


Culm height 15-25 m, dia 10-18.5 cm.
Culm sheath 35-45 cm long with scanty patches stiff
brown hairs on outer side.
Uppermost top portion bending downwards.
Below and above the nodal ring white layer prominent.
Young culm sparsely white hairy.
Usually multi-branched with middle one dominant
Hairy white nodal rings middle bud may be dormant.
ARCBR/Technical Report-02/2008

Schizostachyum dullooa

Culm sheath
Clump

Distinguishing Morphological Characters


A deciduous, arborescent, tufted bamboo.
Culms 10-30 m tall, erect, glaucous green, somewhat whitish.
Culm sheath chestnut brown, covered with black, stiff deciduous
hairs, densely hairy within, decurrent into a wavy fringe bordering
the top of the sheath and ending on either side in a rounded auricle.
Both fringes and auricle edges with long stiff curved white bristles,
Long internodes ligule entire, very narrow.
Thin walled with longer internodal length (about 1 m).
ARCBR/Technical Report-02/2008

Dendrocalamus gigantious
a

b
a, b- culm sheath
a-adaxial surface
b-abaxial surface
c-leaves

Closer Culms Emerging Shoot


Gigantic Clump
Distinguishing Morphological Characters
Gigantic clump with close culms and slender branches on the upper
part.
Culms large, 20-36 m long, 15-30 cm in diameter, grey- green, covered
with white waxy scurf when young.
Culm sheath very large, blade broadly triangular may bent backward,
auricles joining base of the blades, with no bristles; ligules serrate.
Young emerging shoot looks very big and purplish in colour.
A deep longitudinal groove present just above the nodal bud/branch in
the upper part of the well developed culm.
ARCBR/Technical Report-02/2008

Bambusa bambos
a

c
a, b- culm sheath
b a-adaxial surface
b-abaxial surface
c-leaves

Bright grassy green Culms


Densely tufted clump
Distinguishing Morphological Characters
A very densely tufted thick-walled, spiny moderate to big sized
clump.
Culm bright grassy green, shining thick-walled. stem sulcate
Branches zigzag with recurrent spines, spines usually 3 at each
node of the branch.
Leaf small to normal size, highly variable.
Spiny Branches The young emerging shoot with blunt growing apex.

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