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Submitted to: Dr.Mervat El-
What is curriculum development?

• Curriculum development can be defined as

the process of planning, implementing, and
evaluating curriculum that ultimately results
in a curriculum plan.
Ralph Tyler
• Ralph Tyler (1902-1994) published more than 700
articles and sixteen books.
• Best known for The Basic Principles of Curriculum
and Instruction (Ornstein and Hunkins, 1998) which
is based on an eight year study.
• Tyler posits the problem with education is that
educational programs lack unmistakably defined
purposes (“Ralph Tyler’s Little Book, ”n d)
In his book Tyler presented the concept that
curriculum should be:
1. dynamic
2. a program under constant evaluation and
Curriculum had always been thought of as a
static, set program, and in an era preoccupied
with student testing, he offered the innovative
idea that teachers and administrators should
spend as much time evaluating their plans as
they do assessing their students.
• Since then, Basic Principles of Curriculum and
Instruction has been a standard reference for anyone
working with curriculum development.
• Although not a strict how-to guide, the book shows how
educators can critically approach curriculum planning,
studying progress and retooling when needed.
• Its four sections focus on setting objectives, selecting
learning experiences, organizing instruction, and
evaluating progress.
• Readers will come away with a firm understanding of
how to formulate educational objectives and how to
analyse and adjust their plans so that students meet the
• Tyler also explains that curriculum planning is a
continuous, cyclical process, an instrument of education
that needs to be fine-tuned.
• This emphasis on thoughtful evaluation has
kept Basic Principles of Curriculum and
Instruction a relevant, trusted companion for
over sixty years.
• Tyler's straightforward recommendations are
sound and effective tools for educators
working to create a curriculum that integrates
national objectives with their students' needs.
• The Tyler Model is:
○ one of the best known models for curriculum
○ known for the special attention it gives to the
planning phases.
○ deductive for it proceeds from the general
(examining the needs of society, for example) to
the specific (specifying instructional objectives).
• Tyler recommends that curriculum planners identify
general objectives by gathering data from three
1) the learners
2) contemporary life outside the school
3) subject matter.
• After identifying numerous general objectives, the
planners refine them by filtering them through two
1. the philosophical screen
2. the psychological screen
• In the Tyler Model, the general objectives that
successfully pass through the two screens
become what are now popularly known as
instructional objectives.
• Curriculum objectives indicate both behavior
to be developed and area of content to be
(Keating, 2006)
Tyler’s Four Fundamental Questions:
1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?

2. What educational learning experiences can be provided that

are likely to attain these purposes?

3. How can these educational experiences be effectively


4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being

1. What educational purposes should the school seek
to attain?

• Studies of the Learners Themselves as a Source of

Educational Objectives
• Studies of Contemporary Life outside the School
• Suggestions about Objectives from Subject Specialists
• The Use of Philosophy in Selecting Objectives
• The Use of a Psychology of Learning in Selecting
• Stating Objectives in a Form to be Helpful in Selecting
Learning Experiences and in Guiding Teaching
2. How can Learning Experiences be selected? Which
are likely to be useful in attaining these objectives?

• Meaning of the Term “Learning Experience”

• General Principles in Selecting Learning
• Illustrations of the Characteristics of Learning
Experiences Useful in Attaining Various Types
of Objectives
3. How Can Learning Experiences Be Organized
for Effective Instruction?
• What is meant by “Organization?”
• Criteria for Effective Organization
• Elements to be organized
• Organizing Principles
• The Organizing Structure
• The Process of Planning a Unit of Organization
4. How Can the Effectiveness of Learning
Experiences Be Evaluated?
• The Need for Evaluation
• Basic Notions Regarding Evaluation
• Evaluation Procedures
• Using the Results of Evaluation
• Other Values and Uses of Evaluation Procedures
Strengths of Tyler’s Model
Clearly stated objectives a good place to
Involves the active participation of the learner
(Prideaux, 2003)
Simple linear approach to development of
behavior al objectives
(Billings & Halstead, 2009)
Criticism of the Tyler Model:
Narrowly interpreted objectives (acceptable
Difficult and time consuming construction of
behavioral objectives
Curriculum restricted to a constricted range of
student skills and knowledge
critical thinking, problem solving and value
acquiring processes cannot be plainly declared
in behavioral objectives (Prideaux, 2003)
The Taba-Tyler Rationales
• When comparing just the two rationales it is
difficult to ascertain who borrowed from
whom and when, but we have to admit the
basic difference of the two curriculum design
approaches, which has a critical meaning not
only for researchers of modern times, but also
for those developing curricula for current
school praxis.
Tyler’s model Taba’s Model
deductive inductive

argues from the administrator approach reflects the teacher’s approach

believes that the teachers are aware of the

believes that administration should design the students needs; hence teachers should be the
curriculum and the teachers implement it. ones to develop the curriculum and implement
in practice.

her rationale does not start with objectives, as

lays the main stress on aims, evaluation and she believes that the demand for education in
control. a particular society should be studied first (see
Step 1)

This approach may be perfect, perhaps, for

pays attention to the selection of the content
market-oriented education, but inadequate for
and its organization with an aim to provide
the development of responsible and creative
students with an opportunity to learn with
individuals able to meet the challenges of the
constantly changing circumstances