You are on page 1of 10


Motor protection relay

Motor protection relay

CTMM relay
withdrawn from case

Features Application The protection usually provided for

three phase motors, while generally
• I2 conscious thermal protection. There is a wide range of Motor and effective against overloads and short
Motor characteristics in existence,
• Selectable thermal characteristics. circuit conditions, rarely take into full
because of the numerous duties for account the harmful effects of
• Built-in stalling protection with which they are used and all of them unbalanced line currents. Even a
provision for external control.
need protection. Fortunately, the modest unbalance can cause
• Sensitive earthfault protection more fundamental problems damage to a motor by overheating
suitable for either residual or affecting the choice of protection are and in the extreme instance of
CBCT feed, with instantaneous or independent of the type of motor motor stalling due to loss of one
time delayed operation option. and the type of load to which it is phase, severe rotor damage can
• Pre-trip alarm with adjustable pick- connected. occur within the normal starting
up and time delay with LED Motor characteristic must be time.
indication. carefully considered when applying The static motor protection relays
• Separate unbalance detection with protection. While this may be type CTMM and CTMFM measure
wide setting range and regarded as stating the obvious, it is the load current and the unbalance
instantaneous or time delayed emphasized because it applies more current independently, and provide
operation option. to motors than to other items of accurate protection against thermal
power system plant, e.g. the starting
• Thermal memory for several and stalling currents and times must
damage under all operating
minutes, during auxiliary supply conditions. The thermal
failure. of necessity be known when characteristic of the relay is
applying overload protection and designed to follow closely the
• Local/remote resetting facility for furthermore the thermal withstand of thermal withstand characteristic of
thermal element. the machine under balanced and typical motors; this ensures that the
• Auxiliary supply supervision with unbalanced loading must be clearly relay isolates the motors only when
alarm and LED indication. defined. the insulation life is threatened.
• Suitable for ac or dc aux. supplies.

The features in the CTMM/CTMFM
relays include the following:
a) A built-in stalling protection, I1(t),
has been included and it is a
standard fitment for both the
versions. When specified, it can be
either permanently in or effective
only under external control.
b) I0 unit is offered with an
adjustable time delay setting and
is suitable for either residual CT
connection or CBCT connection.
c) A pre-trip alarm unit has been
added as a standard fitment for
both versions along with a self
extinguishing LED indication.
d) Remote thermal reset facility is
available for both versions.
e) Thermal memory against aux.
supply failure lasting for several
minutes is provided for all relays.
f) The same relay can be used for
both ac or dc auxiliary supplies.
Also external resistors permit the
same basic relay to be
accommodated with different
auxiliary voltages.
g) Aux. supply monitoring is
provided on all versions with
‘healthy’ indication and
‘unhealthy’ alarm contact.
h) Most of the current and time
setting adjustments are with binary
switches. This provides a wider
setting range with better resolution
and accuracy (see Figure 1).
The range of types CTMM and
CTMFM relays, manufactured to suit
various applications of motors,
Figure 1:
controlled by either circuit-breakers Typical name plate details
or fused-contactors is shown in the
Table I.
One group in the series, designated These three operating characteristics and negative sequence components
CTMFM, has been designed for in the different executions of the relay (I1 and I2) of the input current. These
motor control centre applications are selected from 11 cold curves with quantities are in turn fed to separate
where fused-contactors are used. 11 hot curves having hot-to-cold thermal setting potentiometers.
These relays include a time delayed ratio of 0.33 (standard) and 11 more Instantaneous operating element I1
single phasing element and an hot curves having hot-to-cold ratio of is placed between the sequence filter
earthfault element which, in the 0.66. This extensive choice of network and thermal setting
event of the fault level being above characteristics thus gives great potentiometer. The potentiometers
the rupturing capacity of the application flexibility for the relay. provide two output voltages which
contactor, allow the fuse to blow are proportional to the positive and
before the contactor operates. Circuit description negative phase sequence
To cater for a wide range of motor Figure 1 shows the block diagram of components of the input current.
characteristics, three alternative CTMM/CTMFM relays. The inputs The voltages are fed into squaring
operating characteristics are connected in each phase of motor circuits to give voltages proportional
provided on thermal units, selectable supply are fed to a sequence filter to (I12) and (I22).
by a switch on the relay front panel. network which separates the positive

Table I (only standard curves and references are included)

Application considerations Typical co-relation of relay and motor types

Protection provided Motor Submersible CMR motor Standard Special
controlled by pump motors industrial motors for
motors high inertia
Thermal Circuit breaker CTMM 101/104 CTMM 101/104 CTMM 102/105 CTMM 103
Thermal, instantaneous
three phase overcurrent, Circuit breaker CTMM 301/304 CTMM 301/304 CTMM 302/305 CTMM 303
un-balance and single phasing
Thermal, instantaneous
three phase overcurrent,
unbalance and single Circuit breaker CTMM 501/504 CTMM 501/504 CTMM 502/505 CTMM 503
phasing earthfault and
separate built-in stalling
Thermal, unbalance and
single phasing and earthfault Fused contactor CTMFM 301/304 CTMFM 301/304 CTMFM 302/305 CTMFM 303
Thermal, unbalance and
single phasing, earthfault
and separate built-in Fused contactor CTMFM 401/404 CTMFM 401/404 CTMFM 402/405 CTMFM 403
stalling protection.

Note: This is only typical recommendation. Actual model to be choosen after considering the thermal characteristics of
motor. Refer to the commercial department for further assistance.

Overload protection/thermal
element (Th)
The output voltages from the squaring
circuits are added in order to get the
voltage proportional to I12 + 6I22.
The feed-back circuit of the
integrator causes the output voltage
of the integrator to rise exponentially
upto 105% of the relay setting
current and linearly above that
setting. The output of the integrator
is fed into a level detector which,
when the set voltage is reached,
energises an electromagnetic output
unit. This operates two pairs of
electrically separate contacts which
are used to trip the circuit breaker or
fused contactor controlling the
supply to the motor.
Thermal memory has been provided
against auxiliary supply failures. This
is achieved by opening out the
discharging path of the timing
capacitor by a N/O contact of a
separate relay that operates from
the regulated power supply.
Thermal element can be reset using
a push button provided on the front
Figure 2:
panel which initialises the integrator. Typical block diagram (CTMM 501 - 510)

The same feature can be established only on external command a simple shunt regulator. Auxiliary
by remote control also. Using a depending on the I1(t) control switch supply monitoring is provided with
curve selecting switch provided on position on the relay front panel. ‘healthy’ indication by a LED on
the front panel three different relay front panel and ‘unhealthy’
thermal operating characteristics Single phasing and unbalance alarm contact of the dc monitoring
are obtained. protection element (I2) relay.
The negative sequence component For type CTMFM motor protection
Thermal alarm element (Th (A)) of the input current from the relays, instantaneous I1 element for
Voltage proportional to I12 + 6I22 is sequence filter is fed to a level overcurrent is eliminated from the
fed through an averaging circuit to a detector which compares the voltage circuit. Otherwise, the remaining
level detector, which, when the set proportional to the peak value of the details are as mentioned for type
voltage is reached, initiates a linear input with the set voltage and CTMM relay above.
integrator for timing. This energises initiates a counter for timing, when
the set voltage is reached. This The variants available for type
a separate thermal alarm relay after
energises an electromagnetic output CTMM/CTMFM relays are shown in
a fixed time delay (25 sec., 50 sec.,
unit with two pairs of electrically Table II.
or 75 sec. selectable in the PCB).
This element has one N/O contact separate contacts after the set time
wired out externally and is provided delay. Technical data
with a self reset LED indication. Both current setting and time setting Current ratings (In)
A thermal pre-trip setting can be set are provided by binary switches.
1A or 5A.
on the relay at any value between
Earthfault protection
70-90% of thermal-trip setting by a Frequency rating
element (I0)
rotary switch provided on the front
50 Hz.
panel. During earthfault condition, the zero
sequence component of the input Current settings
Over-current and short-circuit
current is fed to a level detector
protection element Settings are expressed as
which compares the voltages
(instantaneous I1) percentage of the relay rated
proportional to the peak value of the
The instantaneous I1 element for input with the set voltage. It initiates current.
overcurrent is connected in the a counter for timing, when the set Thermal current (Ith)
appropriate output of the sequence voltage is reached. This energises
filter and is continuously adjustable an electromagnetic unit with two 70% - 130% continuously
over the setting range (600%- pairs of electrically separate adjustable. (Lower range available.
1200% of relay rated current). contacts, after the set time delay. Details on request.)

During overcurrent condition, this Dual current setting ranges and time Instantaneous overcurrent
energises an electromagnetic output setting are provided by binary element (I1)
unit with two pairs of electrically switches.
600% - 1200% continuously
separate contacts, after 100 ms
Current setting range can be adjustable (other settings on request)
delay. This 100 ms delay in
selected by a selectable range switch - for CTMM only.
operation is provided to prevent false
on relay front panel. This wide
tripping by transient starting currents. Instantaneous or time delayed
range of current setting ensures that
I0 element is suitable for either unbalance element
Stalling and prolonged starting residual CT connection or CBCT 30% - 630% in 15 steps of 40%
protection element (I1 [t] ) connection. adjustable by a 4-position binary
The positive sequence component of An adjustable external stabilising switch.
the input current from the sequence resistor can be connected to the I0
filter is fed to level detector which Earthfault element (I0)
element, to ensure stability
compares the voltage proportional especially when, under motor Dual range 10 - 160 mA/50 - 800
to the peak value of the input with starting conditions unequal mA in 15 steps of 10/50 mA
the set voltage and initiates a saturation of current transformers adjustable by a 4-position binary
counter for timing, when the set might otherwise cause operation of switch (for residual CT or CBCT
voltage is reached. This energises the relay. Alternatively, I0 element applications).
an electro-magnetic output unit with can be used without the stabilising
two electrically separate contacts, resistor, but with a small time delay External resistor
after the set time delay. setting through an option available i) 500 W for 1A relay.
Both current setting and time setting on the relay. An auxiliary supply,
ii) 27 W for 5A relay.
are provided by binary switches. I1(t) either ac or dc, is used to energise
element can either be permanently the electronic circuits in the relay.
included in the circuit or included This is stabilised within the relay by

Stalling protection (time Table II
delayed overcurrent unit I1 (t) )
Variants of CTMM/CTMFM relays
150% - 600% in 15 steps of 30%
Relay Description of units Relay
adjustable by 4-position binary
switch. type case
Thermal Instantaneous I2 I0 I1 (t)
(Alternative ranges available. Details ref. I1 size
on request.)
Pre-trip alarm unit 101–110 X 1½D
70% - 90% of thermal trip setting in CTMM
9 steps of 2.5% adjustable by rotary 301–310 X X X 1½D
switch. CTMM
501–510 X X X X X 2D
Operating time CTMFM
a) Type CTMM relays 301–310 X X X 1½D
• Ith element: 401–410 X X X X 2D
A total of 11 operating characteristic
curves (see Figure 3) are available, Note: 1. Thermal element is always provided with the following:
in combinations of 3, each of the 1.1 Thermal trip (Th) and pretrip alarm unit [Th (A)]
three curves being selectable by a 1.2 Thermal memory
switch on the front panel. 1.3 Local and remote thermal reset
• I1 element: New ref system
100 ms nominal at 2 times setting.
C T M F M 4 0 3
• I2 and I0 element:
60 - 125 ms (fixed). Alternatively,
adjustable between nominal values C T M M 3 0 2
of 0.5 to 7.5 secs. in 15 steps of
0.5 second. The latter for use when New curve ref.
setting chosen is low, or when used No. of elements
without a stabilising resistor. Time
delay separately adjustable for I2
and I0 units. Accuracy Temperature limits:
Current setting: All units operate satisfactorily over the
• I1 (t) element:
ambient range –20°C to +55°C. The
i) 4 - 60 secs. in 15 steps of 4 secs. i) Thermal element (Th)
variation in parameters is less than
adjustable by 4-position binary ±3% of nominal pick-up. the above accuracy tolerances over
switch (standard). the range –5°C to +40°C.
ii) Elements I1, I2, I0 & I1 (t)
ii) 2 - 30 secs. in 15 steps of 2 secs.
adjustable by 4-position binary ±10% of nominal setting. Thermal overshoot
switch (on request). Time setting: Less than 2%.
• Pre-trip alarm unit (Th (A) ): i) Time delayed elements I1(t), I2 & I0
Fixed time delay 25s, 50s or 75s Thermal reset facility
±10% of nominal setting or ±25 ms
selectable by link on PCB. whichever is higher. i) Local reset
b) Type CTMFM relays Thermal element (Th): By push button on relay front
All operating time data as per ±10% of nominal operation time at
CTMM relays except that I1 element 5 x the equivalent current setting for ii) Remote reset
and its timings are not applicable. hot and cold curves.
By external command through
Frequency variation: potential-free N/O contact.
Pick-up current
In operation all parameters vary less
The thermal element begins to
than above accuracy tolerances over
operate at 1.05 times nominal
the normal frequency (50 Hz): 47-
setting current.
51 Hz.

Thermal memory (against Insulation
auxiliary supply failure)
2 KV, 50 Hz, for 1 minute between
For several minutes. all circuits and the case and also
between all separate circuits. 1 KV,
Stalling protection I1 (t) 50 Hz, for 1 minute between
normally open contacts (to IS 3231
Built-in, when specified on all relays.
and IEC 255-5).
Facility provided to keep this
permanently in operation
(permanent mode) or on external
command (controlled mode) Trip units:
through speed switch or a timer, for
2 pairs of contacts (N/O and/or
covering special applications.
N/C) self reset. Make and carry
Modes selectable by switch on front
7500VA for 0.5 sec. with maxima of
panel of relay.

Auxiliary supplies Pre-trip alarm unit:

The ratings: One pair of N/O self reset contact.

Make and carry and break 35W
The basic relay is designed for with maxima of 500V 2A ac/dc
operation from either ac or dc of resistive.
30V rating. The relay is, however,
suitable for other ac/dc voltage
Auxiliary supply monitoring
supplies by using recommended
values of external resistances. One pair of N/O or N/C contacts as
Details supplied on request. required. Make and carry and break
50W subject to maxima of 250V dc/
However, standard values of rated
ac, 5A dc/ac with resistive circuit.
voltages available are: 30V, 50V,
110V, 220V and 250V (either ac or Operation indicators
dc). Other ratings also are available
on request. (i) Hand reset indicator
(mechanical) on I1 (for CTMM
Operative ranges: only), I2, I0, Ith and I1 (t) units.
80% - 110% of rated voltage. (ii) Self resetting LED for pre-trip
Monitoring: alarm units.

Aux. supply continuously monitored Overload ratings

by LED on front panel. Aux. supply
(i) Continuous - Relay setting
failure annunciation by single N/C
withstand current.
contact suitably wired out (N/O
contact on request). (ii) For 0.5 - 100 times relay
second rated current.
Impulse voltage withstand Note:
5 KV peak and 1/50 microsecond I0 element withstand: Max. setting
wave form applied both transversely continuously and 100 x setting for 3
and between relay terminals and seconds.
earth in accordance with IS 8686
and IEC 255-5. Burden
AC burden
High frequency interference
test (i) Less than 1VA/phase at rated
Relay meets the IS 8686 and IEC
255-22-1 Appendix-D to Class-III. (ii) I0 element 0.006m VA at setting
current at 10 mA setting.
DC burden
Basic relay less than 6 watts.

Figure 3:
Application diagram

Figure 4:
Thermal characteristic curves

Information required with order

Table III
(for user to fill in)

Customer ref order

Motor details CT details
Synchronous ratio /1A
induction /5A
control c.b. VA
by contr. class
rated volts accy. Imt facr.
currt. type cbct
if under rated % convnl.
connd. load Relay specn.
type of load aux. supply v.dc
thermal curve ref.
stator time const. mts if ac,
stalling currt. amps derived
stall withstand hot secs from:
cold secs contacts n.o. n.c.
starting d.o.l. (max. 2 per
asstd. unit)
details units reqd. I1 I2 I0 Ith I1 (t)
(for combns
currt. amps see Table I)
time secs I0 unit for cbct residual conn.
hot restarts, if reqd. no.
fuse and contactor details if cbct. p.o.c. overall cable
if applicable reqd. dia
A cm

ALSTOM Limited Pallavaram Works: 19/1, GST Road, Pallavaram, Chennai-600 043. India.
Tel: 91-044-2368621 Fax: 91-044-2367276 Email:
© 1998 ALSTOM Limited

Our policy is one of continuous development. Accordingly the design of our products may change at any time. Whilst every effort is made to produce up to date literature, this brochure should
only be regarded as a guide and is intended for information purposes only. Its contents do not constitute an offer for sale or advice on the application of any product referred to in it.
ALSTOM Limited cannot be held responsible for any reliance on any decision taken on its contents without specific advice.

PR:018:0199:A Printed in India.