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GUIDE TO THE USE OF THE DICTIONARY

1. HEADWORD
1.1 The headword is printed in bold type or in old bookman style and is
usually found before the derivations and given meanings.
1.2 Variants of the words and spellings are given before the definition (e.g.
eding n., also oding, kuying); in all such cases the form given as the headword is
the preferred form.
1.3 Words that are different in pronunciation but spelt the same way
(homographs) are distinguishes by stress (´) on the accented syllables (e.g. tú•ro
and tu•ró)
1.4 Variants are indicated by the designation “as used in” (e.g. bó•lo and
pu•ráng)

2. PRONUNCIATION
2.1 Ninorte Samarnon words are pronounced the way they are syllabicated.
The pronunciation is shown in the syllabicated entry.
ra•ba•da•ba
pa•nang•li•tan
2.2 A period is used in the pronunciation to show syllabic division.
ka•ba•ra•ka
ti•ni•ka•ngan
2.3 The stress syllable are given high intonation in the pronunciation.
lú•to
lu•tó
2.3 The presence of variations indicates that not all educated and native
speakers pronounce words the same way. A variant is not to be regarded as less
acceptable than the words that are given first. It may, in fact, be used by as many
educated and native speakers as the first variant, but the requirements of the
printed page are such that one must precede the other.
pa•na•li•mu•hot , pa•na•lim•ba•sog
pa•na•bi , pan•ta•bi
2.4 The –i– and –e– and –o– and –u– are symbols that are interchangeable.
The way they are pronounced vary depending on the speech community.
3. INFLECTED FORMS
3.1 These include the derivatives, in which a word developed from a basic
word as by the addition of prefix or suffix.
rig•na n. dirt
ma•rig•na adj. dirty
3.2 The inflected forms are entered whenever there is some inconsistency of
spelling or form. An inflected form that requires a pronunciation is alphabetically
distant from the main entry is separately entered and pronounced in its proper
vocabulary.

4. PART OF SPEECH LABELS


4.1 The italicized labels below, which follow the pronunciation of the entry
word, are used to indicate parts of speech.
n. – noun pron. – pronoun
adj. – adjective conj. – conjunction
adv. – adverb prep. – preposition
v. – verb pref. – prefix
interj. – interjection suff. – suffix

The following additional italicized are used;


pl. – plural p.p. – past participle
sing. – singular comar. – comparative
pres.p. –present participle
p.t. – past tense superl. – superlative

5. USAGE AND LABELS


5.1 Usage and labels are restrictive labels that serve to warn the reader that
the term is not properly available for use in all contexts. A usage label applies only
to definitions that follow it. A single entry may have standard (unlabeled) definitions
and combinations of labeled definition.
5.2 Informal signifies “cultivated colloquial,” that is, the speech of educated
person when they are more interested in what they are saying it. Informal terms are
also used in writing that seeks the effect of speech but they are not used in formal
writing.

5.3 Slang does not define level of speech, as does Informal, but a style
having features that are usually not hard to identify. Slang may occur in all but the
most formal language remains slang. A primary rule to distinguish it from
nonstandard speech is that a slang term may not be used merely to indicate the
meaning of a word; it always carries some deliberately informal connotation in
addition and suggests some intention-however dully conceived-of rhetorical effects,
such as incongruity, hyperbole, irreverence, etc.
5.4 Nonstandard, unlike Informal and Slang, indicates usages that are
widespread but not acceptable.
5.5 Poetic is used for such locations as a shortening (o’er) that is or was
common in poetry but never common in prose.
5.6 Regional is used for terms that are not common to Ninorte Samarnon
speech in general but exist in more than one locality.

6. DERIVATIVES
6.1 A word developed from a root word by addition of a prefix or suffix (e.g.
mawara and waraon from wara) are listed as separate entry.
6.2 A word formed by derivation (e.g. mata-bata which is derived from bata)
are main entries and given definition.

7. PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES


7.1 Prefix is a syllable, group of syllables placed in front of a word to modify
a new word. Suffix is a sound, syllable or syllables added to the end of a word or to
a word base to change its meaning or give its grammatical function or to form a new
word.
7.2 A large selection of these is given in the main body of the text; prefixes
are given in the form of gin-, mag-, nag-, pag-, etc. and suffixes in the form of -ngi,
-ngan, etc.
7.3 The prefix –gin, is added to a verb that states an action that already
happened, (e.g. ginpilak, gintapalan, ginbunakan, etc.). The prefix nag-, states an
action that is about to happen (e.g. maguukay, magdadalos, maglilimpyo, etc.).
Pag-, states the same as the prefix mag-.
7.4 Suffix -ngi, is added to a verb to instruct or command someone to do or
perform a particular action (e.g. dugangi, tubongi, etc.); and -ngan, tells an action
which is about to do (e.g. tubongan, dul-ongan, etc.)

8. CROSS-REFERENCE
8.1 Cross-Reference to main entries is indicated as another entry.
ha•di•a•non adj. having the characteristics and qualities
of a king.
ha•di•on adj. (var. of hadianon)
8.2 Cross-Reference to main entries is indicated by using the word see and
see also.
ya•hong n. as used in PA
mang•ko n. as used in BA
u•ha•taw n. as used in CA see mangko

9. ABBREVIATIONS
adj. Adjective
adv. Adverb
art. Article
BA Balicuatro Area
CA Central Area
chi. Chinese
col. Colloquial
conj. Conjunction
der. Derivation
Eng. English
ety. Etymology
exp. Expression
gl. Gay Language
idiom Idiomatic Expression
imp. Imperative
intj. Interjection
L Latin
LS Lineyte Samarnon
n. Noun
NS Ninorte Samarnon
PA Pacific Area
prep. Preposition
pron. Pronoun
Sp. Spanish
Tag. Tagalog
v. Verb
var. Variation
10. KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION OF WORDS
a adaw, alad, aga, amhok
e eskwelahan, egot
i iskwelahan, igot
o okang, konta, omaw
u ukang, kunta, umaw

b buta, baga, bungot


d duyan, dagat, didto
g gaway, gikan, gurang
h hangin, higot, hagkot
k kasing, kinabuhi, kuriot
l laway, likay, lubi
m mata, mingaw, moskitiro
n nanu, niya, nahibulo
ng ngaran, ngadto, ngisi
p parigo, piyasa, piguot
r rabot, rangka, raysang
s sudop, suga, sanglit
t tibod, tangga, tagay
w wara, welga, wate
y yaon, yabi, yana