Sie sind auf Seite 1von 60

Ions & Ionic Compound

Compounds

 A compound is a pure substance made up of


two or more elements in which the elements
are chemically combined

+ =
Na Cl NaCl
Compounds

 Two types of compounds: Ionic and Molecular


 Ionic compounds: composed of positive and
negative ions
Ion

 An ion is an atom or group of atoms that has


either a positive charge or a negative charge
Ion
 Ions form when atoms
gain or lose electrons to
become stable
 A atom is stable when
the valence shell is full
Positive Ion Example
 Sodium loses one electron to become stable
 Results in an ion that has a positive charge

x =

Na
Positive Ion Example

 The symbol “+” is written as a superscript to


indicate that the sodium has a charge of 1+

Na+
Negative Ion Example

 Chlorine gains one electron to become stable


 Results in an ion with a negative charge

Cl
Negative Ion Example

 The symbol “-” is written as a superscript to


indicate that the chlorine ion has a charge of
1-

Cl-
Ion
 Both ions have a full valence shell containing the
maximum number of electrons possible
 This new arrangement of valence electrons has less
energy than the previous arrangement and is stable
Cation
 When an atom
gives up one or
more electrons
it becomes
positive
 Called a cation
“cat-eye-on”
Anion

 When an atom
gains one or more
electron it become
negative
 Called an anion
(“an-eye-on”)
Ion

Ca+ions are Anions are


posi+ive negative
Writing Ion Symbols

 Write the symbol of the element and show


the ion charge as a superscript
 Example: the symbol of a calcium ion is Ca2+
 When an ion has a charge of 1+ or 1- the
symbol has no number in the superscript,
such as Na+ or F-
Naming Univalent Cations

 When an element can


form only one type of
Ca
+2 ion, the ion has the
20p same name as the
20n element
 Eg: Ca2+ = calcium ion
Naming Multivalent Cations

 A multivalent element
is an element that can
form an ion in more
than one way
 Example: An atom of
copper can form two
different ions: Cu+ or
Cu2+
Naming Multivalent Cations

 The name of an ion of a multivalent element


always contains a Roman numeral that
indicates the ion charge
 I=1
 II = 2
 III = 3
 IV = 4
 V=5
 VI = 6
Naming Multivalent Cations

 For example, Cu+ is named copper(I) (read as


“copper one”)
 Cu2+ is named copper(II) (read as “copper
two”)
 Only multivalent metals have Roman
numerals in their names
Naming Anions

 A nonmetal that has


gained electrons to
become an ion has the
the same name as the
element but with the
ending changed to -ide
 Eg: Cl- = chloride ion
Naming Anions

nitrogen  nitride
oxygen  oxide
fluorine  fluoride
phosphorous  phosphide
sulfur  sulfide
chlorine  chloride
bromine  bromide
iodine  iodide
Ion Reactivity
 Metal atoms tend to lose electrons
 Non-metal atoms tend to gain electrons
Ion Reactivity
 The farther the valence electron is from its
positive nucleus, the more easily it is
removed and the more reactive the atom is
Cation Reactivity
 Reactivity generally increases for cations as
you move down the periodic table
 Example: potassium is more reactive than
sodium

Rubidium
Lithium Potassium Cesium
Sodium
Cation Reactivity
Li
reactivity increases

Na

K
Cation Reactivity

Li  Reactivity generally increases


for cations as you move down
the periodic table.
Na
 But why?

Electrons that are further away from


the nucleus are more easily lost.
Thus atoms with more orbitals will be
K more reactive.
Anion Reactivity

 Reactivity generally decreases for anions as you


move down the periodic table
 Example: fluorine is more reactive than chlorine

Iodine
Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Astatine
F
Cl
Anion Reactivity

reactivity increases
Anion Reactivity

 Reactivity generally decreases for


anions as you move down the
F
periodic table
 But why?

Elements whose valence shell is closer to the


nucleus will gain electrons more readily
Cl because they are closer to the nucleus.
Negative electrons have a stronger attraction
for the positive nucleus when the valence
shell is closer to the nucleus.
A metal atom that has lost electrons (cation)
and a nonmetal atom that has gained electrons
(anion) will have the same number of electrons
as its nearest noble gas.
Cations

 An metal atom that has lost electrons


(cation) will have the same number of
electrons as its nearest noble gas.
Cations
 For example, neon is the closest noble gas in the
periodic table to sodium, magnesium and aluminum
Cations

 The cations Na+, Mg2+, and Al3+ all have the


same number of electrons as atoms of neon.
 This relationship is known as being
isoelectronic (having the same number of
electrons).

+1
Na Mg +2 Al+3 Ne
11p 12p 13p 10p
12n 12n 14n 10n
Anions
 Apply concept to anions
 For example, neon is the closest noble gas in the
periodic table to nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine
Isoelectronic
 Prove that these atoms are isoelectronic by drawing the
Bohr diagrams.

Ne N3- O2- F-
Ionic Compounds

 In general, an ionic compound consists of a


metal and nonmetal
 It is more accurate to say that ionic
compounds form when atoms of different
elements transfer electrons resulting in ions
of opposite charges.
 Thus there is always an electron donor and
acceptor.
Ionic Compound

 For example, this process occurs when atoms


of sodium metal (Na) combine with atoms of
chlorine (Cl) to form sodium chloride (NaCl),
or table salt

+ =
Na Cl NaCl
Ionic Compound

 During the formation of NaCl, one electron is


transferred from a sodium atom to a chlorine
atom
Ionic Compound

In general, a cation will react with an anion to


acquire a full valence shell
Ionic Compound

The attraction between the cation and the


anion is known as an ionic bond. This bond is
what holds the ionic compound together.
Properties of Ionic Compound

 At room temperature, most are hard, brittle


solids that can be crushed
Properties of Ionic Compound

Ionic compounds form


crystals that have an
alternating arrangement
of positively charged ions
and negatively charged
ions, so that when they
break their edges are
well-defined
Properties of Ionic Compound

In an ionic crystal, every ion is attracted to


every other ion in the crystal. As a result, ionic
crystals have very high melting points
ex.) NaCl melts at 800oC
Properties of Ionic Compound

 When an ionic compound


dissolves in water, the crystal
structure breaks down and
the ions become free to
move.
Properties of Ionic Compound

 Solutions of ionic compounds can conduct electricity


Naming Univalent Ionic Compounds

Univalent Ionic Compounds are


compounds where the metal ion only
has one possible charge.
Naming Univalent Ionic Compounds

1. Name the metal ion first


• The name of the metal ion is the same as the element name
• Example: in KBr, the name of the K+ ion is potassium
• Name the non-metal ion second
• When a non-metal becomes a negative ion, the ending of its
name changes to “ide”
• Example: a bromine atom become bromide ion (Br -)
• The formulas of ionic compounds often contain numbers
called subscripts which can be ignored when
determining the name.
• Example: Na3P is sodium phosphide
Naming Univalent Ionic Compounds

Example Problem 1:
Write the name of the ionic compound ZnF2
• Name the metal ion:
• Zn forms only one type of ion (Zn2+), so the name is
zinc
• Name the non-metal ion:
• The atom is fluorine so the ion is fluoride
• Combine the names:
• ZnF2 = zinc fluoride
Naming Multivalent Ionic Compounds

Multivalent Ionic Compounds are


compounds where the metal ion only
has two or more possible charges.
Naming Multivalent Ionic Compounds

1. Identify all the possible charges of the ions.


• Example: FeO
• Fe can be Fe2+ or Fe3+
• O is O2-
2. Determine which charge on the multivalent ion is
needed to make the compound neutral
• Example: Need to use Fe2+ to balance O2-
RULE:

• Although ionic compounds


are made of charged
particles, the compound
itself has no net charge
• All ion charges of an ionic
compound must add up to
zero
• The positive and negative
charges in an ionic
compound must be equal
Naming Multivalent Ionic Compounds

1. Identify all the possible charges of the ions.


• Example: FeO
• Fe can be Fe2+ or Fe3+
• O is O2-
2. Determine which charge on the multivalent ion is
needed to make the compound neutral
• Example: Need to use Fe2+ to balance O2-
3. Name the metal ion indicating the charge in brackets
using Roman numerals
• 1 = I, 2 = II, 3 = III, 4 = IV, 5 = V
4. Name the non-metal ion changing the ending to ‘ide’
• Example: FeO = Iron (II) oxide
Naming Multivalent Ionic Compounds

Example Problem 2:
Write the name of the ionic compound MnCl4

• Identify the ions that form the compound: Mn2+ or Mn4+ and Cl-
• Determine the charge of the multivalent ion that would make the
compound neutral.
• Cl4 means there are 4 x Cl- = a total charge of 4-
• Would need to use Mn4+
• Name the metal ion indicating the charge using Roman numerals in
brackets and adding the nonmetal –ide.
• Manganese (IV) iodide
Polyatomic Ions

 Poly = 2 or more
 Atomic = atoms

 A polyatomic ion is a group of atoms,


usually of different elements, that act as
a single ion

 Example: one atom of sulphur and four


atoms of oxygen form the polyatomic ion
called sulphate, or SO42-
Polyatomic Ions

 Similar polyatomic ions are named using the


suffixes “-ate” or “-ite”
 Example: NO3- is nitrate; NO2- is nitrite
 Most common polyatomic ions have a
negative charge
 However, the ammonium
ion NH4+ has a positive
charge
Polyatomic Ions
Name Formula
ammonium NH4+
carbonate CO32-
bicarbonate HCO3-
hydroxide OH-
nitrate NO3-
nitrite NO2-
permanganate MnO4-
phosphate PO43-
phosphite PO33-
sulphate SO42-
sulphite SO32-
Naming Polyatomic Ionic Compounds

Example Problem 3:
Write the name of the ionic compound LiHCO3
• Name the metal/positive ion:
• Example: Li+ = lithium
• Identify the polyatomic ion (use table):
• Example: HCO3- = hydrogen carbonate
• Combine the names. Do not change the
polyatomic ending.
• LiHCO3 = lithium hydrogen carbonate
Writing Chemical Formula for
Uni & Multivalent Ionic Compounds
1. Identify the charge of the ions in the compound
• Example: Calcium chloride
• Ca2+ and Cl-
2. Determine the number of positive and negative ions
needed to make the compound neutral
• Need 2 Cl- to balance 1 Ca2+
3. Write the metal atom first. Use subscript to indicate the
number of ions if it is more than 1. Make sure to use on
the lowest common multiple.
• Calcium chloride = CaCl2
• Wrong: Ca2Cl4
Writing Chemical Formula for
Uni & Multivalent Ionic Compounds
Example Problem 4:
Write the chemical formula for Bismuth (V) Phosphide.
• Bi5+ and P3-
• How many of each do we need to make the compound
neutral?

• Write the chemical formula using subscripts as needed.


Writing Chemical Formula for
Polyatomic Ionic Compounds
1. Identify the charge of the ions in the compound
• Example: Calcium chlorate
• Ca2+ and ClO4-
2. Determine the number of positive and negative ions
needed to make the compound neutral
• Need 2 ClO4- to balance 1 Ca2+
3. Write the metal atom first. If subscripts are needed for
the polyatomic ion, place a bracket around it first. Make
sure to use on the lowest common multiple.
• Calcium chlorate = Ca(ClO4)2
Writing Chemical Formula for
Polyatomic Ionic Compounds
Example Problem 5:
Write the chemical formula for arsenic (III) acetate.
• As3+ and C2H3O2-
• How many of each do we need to make the compound
neutral?

• Write the chemical formula using subscripts and


brackets as needed.