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TEXTILE FINISHING

TEXTILE FINISHING Bultan Sarkar Govt. College of Engg. & Textile Tech. B h

Bultan

Sarkar Govt. College of Engg. & Textile Tech. B

h

TEXTILE FINISHING

Any operation (other than preparation and coloring) that improves the appearance and/or usefulness of fabric after it leaves the loom or knitting machine.

Finishing is the final series of operations that produces finished textile fabric from grey goods.

The word "finish" means all the different treatments applied to a fabric to change such things as its Appearance, Feel or hand, Wear ability or care requirements.

Classification of Finishes

Textile Finishes are classified in several ways:

According to function

Aesthet ic Finishe s
Aesthet
ic
Finishe
s
Classification of Finishes Textile Finishes are classified in several ways: According to function Aesthet ic Finishe
Functio nal Finishe s
Functio
nal
Finishe
s

Aesthetic Finishes

Aesthetic Finishes modify the appearance and /or hand or drape of the fabrics.

Mercerization Napping And Sueding Shearing Softening Stiffening

Functional Finishes

Functional Finishes improve the performance properties of the fabric ; like durability, strength etc.

Antimicrobial/Antiseptic Antistatic Crease resistant Flame Resistant Mothproof Shrinkage Control

According to the quality

Tempora Permaan ry ent Semi Permane nt
Tempora
Permaan
ry
ent
Semi
Permane
nt

Temporary Finishes

A finish which is not stable and goes off after the first wash is known as temporary finish and these finishes disappears during subsequent washing and usage.

Calendering

Embossing

Starching

Softening

Semi permanent Finishes

A Finishing on the fabric is said to be semi permanent finish if it is stable to more than 5 to 10 washes and not afterwards.

Schreiner Calendering.

Permanent Finishes

If the finishing effect in the fabric does not disappear and remains unaffected through all the conditions of wear and washing treatments, then the finish is said to be permanent finish.

Sanforising Resin Finish Water Proof Flame Proof

According to type of machinery

Chemica l Finishes
Chemica
l
Finishes
According to type of machinery Chemica l Finishes Mechanic al Finishes
Mechanic al Finishes
Mechanic
al
Finishes

Chemical Finishes

Chemical finishes are usually applied to fabric by padding followed by curing and drying. These are also called as wet Finishes.

Stiff and transparent Flame Retardant Soil Release Water Proof Crease Resistance Softening

Mechanical finishes

Mechanical Finishes usually involved specific physical treatment to a fabric surface to cause a change in fabric appearance. This is also known as dry finish.

Calendering

Sanforising

Milling

SOME FABRICS AFTER FINISHING OPERATON

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SOME FABRICS AFTER FINISHING OPERATON Click to edit Master text styles Second level ● Third level

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Calendering machines

Calendering machines

Calendering machines
Types of calender ing
Types of calender ing
Types of calender ing

Types of calender ing

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Finishes enhancing appearance

Treatments enhancing appearance include such processes as napping and shearing, singeing, tentering

Napping and shearing

Napping is a process that may be applied to woollens, cottons, spun silks, and spun rayons, including both woven and knitted types, to raise a velvety, soft surface.

The process involves passing the fabric over revolving cylinders covered with fine wires that lift the short, loose fibres, usually from the weft yarns, to the surface, forming a nap. The process, which increases warmth, is frequently applied to woollens and worsteds and also to blankets.

Shearing cuts the raised nap to a uniform

height and is used for the same purpose on pile fabrics.

The amount of shearing depends upon the desired height of the nap or pile, with such fabrics as gabardine receiving very close shearing.

Shearing may also be applied to create stripes and other patterns by varying surface height

Singeing

Also called gassing, singeing is a process applied to both yarns and fabrics to produce an even surface by burning off projecting fibres, yarn ends, and fuzz.

This is accomplished by passing the fibre or yarn over a gas flame or heated copper plates at a speed sufficient to burn away the protruding material without scorching or burning the yarn or fabric.

Singeing machines
Singeing
machines

Tentering,

These are final processes applied to set the warp and weft of woven fabrics at right angles to each other, and to stretch and set the fabric to its final dimensions.

Tentering stretches width under tension by the use of a tenter frame, consisting of chains fitted with pins or clips to hold the selvages of the fabric, and travelling on tracks.

As the fabric passes through the heated chamber, creases and wrinkles are removed, the weave is straightened, and the fabric is dried to its final size.

When the process is applied to wet wools it is called crabbing;

Tentering / stentering machines

Tentering / stentering machines

Creping

A crepe effect may be achieved by finishing. In one method, which is not permanent, the cloth is passed, in the presence of steam, between hot rollers filled with indentations producing waved and puckered areas.

In the more permanent caustic soda method, a caustic soda paste is rolled onto the fabric in a patterned form; or a resist paste may be applied to areas to remain unpuckered and the entire fabric then immersed in caustic soda.

The treated areas shrink, and the untreated areas pucker. If the pattern is applied in the form of stripes, the effect is called plissé; an allover design produces blister crepe.

Crepe

effect

Crepe effect
Crepe effect
Crepe effect

Raising

  • 1. Napping

Using wire-covered rolls to "dig out" individual fiber ends

to the surface

  • 2. Sueding

Using abrasive-covered rolls (sandpaper, emery cloth, etc.)

to produce shorter pile surface - does cause an apparent shade change.

Special type of raised surface fabric is corduroy Sueding, sanding- creates softer hand of fabric.

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suede

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Fire Resistant finishes:

With synthetic fiber which melt on igniting by a flame, the molten moss is itself quite dangerous and a fire resistant treatment is desirable for certain end uses.

Polyester fabrics can be made flame resistant by treatment with an aqueous emulsion of xylene soluble 2,3- dibromopropyl phosphate in a pad-cure sequence.

A semi-permanent effect can be produced by treating with a mixture of ammonium bromide and brominated phosphoric acid esters.

Stain and Soil Resistant Finishes

prevent soil and stains from being attracted to fabrics.

Such finishes may be resistant to oil-bourne or water- bourne soil and stains or both.

Stain and soil resistant finishes can be applied to fabrics used in clothing and furniture.

Soil Release Finishes

These finishes attract water to the surface of fibres during cleaning and help remove soil.

Anti-microbial finishes:

With the increasing use synthetic fibers

for carpets and other materials in public places, anti-microbial finishes have assumed importance.

Anti microbial finish

Eco-friendly anti

microbial finishing agent for cotton fabrics & Garments.Useful for eliminating bacterial growth due to sweat.

Products which are commonly applied are brominated phenols, quaternary ammonium compounds, organo-silver and tin compounds which can be applied

Waterproof Finishes -Aallows no water to

penetrate, but tend to be uncomfortable because they trap moisture next to the body. Recently, fabrics have been developed that are waterproof, yet are also breathable .

Water-Repellent Finishes - Water-repellent finishes resist wetting. If the fabric becomes very wet, water will eventually pass through. Applied to fabrics found in raincoats, all-weather coats, hats, capes, umbrellas and shower curtains .

Peach Finish:

Subjecting the fabric (either cotton or its synthetic blends) to emery wheels, makes the surface velvet like. This is a special finish mostly used in garments.

Finishes for Synthetic fibers

Heat Setting: Heat setting of synthetic fabrics eliminates the internal tensions within the fiber generated during manufacture and the new state can be fixed by rapid cooling.

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