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PEMP

AME2510

Elements in LS-DYNA

Session delivered by:


Mr.Suman M.L.J.

 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru


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AME2510

Session Topics

 Element Library available in LS-Dyna


 Element formulation
 Hourglassing
 Negative volume
 Mass Scaling

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ELEMENTS AVAILABLE IN DYNA


• Different solid elements
• 8-node thick shells
• Different 3- and 4-node shells
• Beams
• Welds
• Trusses and cables
• Nodal masses
• Lumped inertias
• Arbitrary Lagrangian/Eulerian
elements
• Eulerian elements
• Element Free Galerkin
formulations
• SPH elements
• Elements for 2D-analysis

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The choice of Element Formulations


depends on
•Accuracy requirements
• speed requirements
• type of material to model
• type of simulation

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Description of Elements
1. Solids
Purpose: To define section properties for solid continuum and fluid
elements
• 8-node solid element by default uses one point integration plus
viscous hourglass control.
• Fully integrated brick elements are also available. They perform
better where element distortions are large (like soft materials, such as
foam). but are about four times more costly.
•When full integration is used no hourglass control is needed, as
there are no zero-energy modes.
•Wedges and tetrahedral are simply degenerate bricks (i.e. some of
the nodes are repeated). They cause problems in some situations so
these type of solid elements are avoided

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Solid Element formulation options

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2. Shells
Purpose: Define section properties for shell elements
Belytschko Tsay element (B-T):
•Default shell element is the Belytschko Tsay (B-T) element.It uses
reduced one-point integration
•Not recommended when element experiences excessive warping.
• Hughes Liu:Hughes Liu (HL) element available in reduced
integration and fully integrated formulations. Substantially slower than
B-T formulation
S/R Co-rotational Hughes-Liu: This type of formulation uses fully
integrated element, so hourglass deformations does not occur (but
much more costly).

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Shell Element formulation options

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HOURGLASSING
 Hourglassing is a zero energy mode of deformation that
oscillates at a frequency much higher than the structure’s global
response.
 Hourglassing typically have no stiffness and give a zig zag
deformation appearance to a mesh.
 Undesirable phenomenon that occurs due to reduced integration
(single point).
The expression “full
integration” refers to the
number of Gauss points
required to integrate the
polynomial terms in an
element's stiffness matrix
exactly when the element has
a regular shape.
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Integration

 The stiffness and mass of an element are calculated


numerically at sampling points called “integration points”
within the element.

 The numerical algorithm used to integrate these


variables influences how an element behaves.

 Dyna includes elements with both “full” and “reduced”


integration.

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 Affects brick, quadrilateral shell and 2-D elements.

 It Can be eliminated through full integration

 Can be identified through the hourglass energy reported in


the d3hsp file and other output files.

 Should normally be less than 5% of deformation energy

 Hourglass control brings additional stiffness or viscous


damping to prevent such modes.

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Element with hour glassing mode

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Element after hourglass control

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MINIMIZING HOURGLASSING
1. Avoid Single point loads
- Single point loads are known to excite hourglass modes.
Since one excited element transfers the mode to its
neighbors, point loads should not be applied.
2. Use fully integrated elements
- Fully integrated elements do not experience Hourglassing
modes. Hourglass control implemented through the use of
the keyword *HOURGLASS section
3. Globally adjust the models bulk viscosity
- Hourglass deformations are resisted by a structures bulk
viscosity. It is possible to increase the bulk viscosity of a
model by using various Hourglass viscosity type which is as
shown below
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4. Globally adding elastic stiffness


- Hourglassing can be eliminated by adding elastic stiffness.
This can be done for the entire model by increasing the
Hourglassing coefficient
5. Can normally be minimized through good modeling
practices
6. Use of a uniform mesh (i.e, Mesh refinement in general)

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NEGATIVE VOLUMES
•In materials that undergo extremely large deformations, such as
soft foams, an element may become so distorted that the volume
of the element is calculated as negative.

•This may occur without the material reaching a failure criterion.


There is an inherent limit to how much deformation a
Lagrangian mesh can accommodate without some sort of mesh
smoothing or remeshing taking place.

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How to control Negative volume


•A negative volume calculation in LS-DYNA will cause the
calculation to terminate unless ERODE in *CONTROL_TIMESTEP
is set to 1 and

•DTMIN in *CONTROL_TERMINATION is set to any nonzero


value in which case the offending element is deleted and the
calculation continues (in most cases).

•Even with ERODE and DTMIN set as described, a negative volume


may cause an error termination.

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Some approaches that can help to overcome negative


volumes include the following

1. In many cases, the problem lies in stress strain curve


2. Simply stiffen up the material stress-strain curve at large
strains. This approach can be quite effective.

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3. Avoid fully-integrated solids (formulations 2 and 3)


which tend to be less stable in situations involving large
deformation
4. Use the default element formulation (1 point solid) with
type 4 or 5 hourglass control (will stiffen response).
Preferred hourglass formulations for foams are:
- type 6 with coeficient = 1.0 if low velocity impact
- type 2 or 3 if high velocity impact
5. Model the foam with tetrahedral elements using solid
element formulation 10 although this approach may
give an overly stiff response.
6. Increase the DAMP parameter (foam model 57) to the
maximum recommended value of 0.5.
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MASS SCALING
• When FE model contains a few small or stiff elements, the
efficiency of explicit time integration method is compromised
severely, since the time step of the entire mesh is set by these
very stiff elements. Several techniques are available for
overcoming this difficulty.

• The masses of stiffer elements are increased so that the time


step is not decreased.

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How to control Mass scaling


Activated primarily through the use of the DT2MS parameter
available with the keyword CONTROL_TIMESTEP
Positive DT2MS values for quasi-static analyses or time
history analyses with negligible inertial effects
Negative DT2MS values imply mass scaling will be
implemented if time step values fall to lower than TSSFAC*
DT2MS

When the dynamic effect is big, such as in crash forming


simulation. In this case, less mass scaling and low punch
velocity should be used.

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RIGID BODY DEFINITION


 A rigid body cannot deform.

dz dy

RY
RZ

dx

RX

d n  f(d CG )  f(R CG )
 Rigid body has 6 degrees of freedom, 3 transnational
and 3 rotational.

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RULES FOR RIGID BODIES:


• Two rigid bodies cannot share the same node
M1
M2
F1

F2
CG1
CG2
n

• Constraints must be applied to part or all nodes.


Fa

M
n1 Fb
CG

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RIGID BODY DEFINITION


FEATURES FOR RIGID BODIES:

• Extra nodes can be assigned to rigid bodies.


• Rigid bodies can be merged, i.e. slaved to each other.
• Rigid bodies can be connected by joints.

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GENERAL ELEMENT
GUIDELINES
•Avoid small elements whenever possible as they will
significantly reduce the time step size.If small elements are
required,use mass scaling.
• Minimize the use of triangular/tetrahedron/prism elements.
Although these elements are supported,they are highly not
recommended.
• Avoid acute angled elements and warped shells, as they will
degrade the accuracy of the results.
• Fully integrated elements can be defined in regions of a
model where hourglass control is needed.

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AME2510

Material library of LS-Dyna

Session delivered by:


Mr.Suman M.L.J.

 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru


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AME2510

Session Topics

 Overview of material models in LS-Dyna


 Brief description of various material models

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MATERIAL MODELS AVAILABLE IN DYNA


1. Provide Constitutive equations for more than 120 material
models
2. Default parameters from best practices
3. Material Models 4. SECTIONS
• Elastic •Solids
• Elastic-Plastic •Shells
• Viscoelastic •Bars
• Rubber •thick shells
• Foams
• Composites and many more….
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MATERIAL LIBRARY AVAILABLE IN


LS-DYNA
Linear Elastic Models
•Isotropic (MAT1)
•Orthotropic (MAT2)
•Anisotropic (MAT2)
Nonlinear Elastic Models
•Blatz-Ko Rubber (MAT7)
•Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (MAT27)
•Viscoelastic (MAT6)

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Plasticity Models
•Bilinear Isotropic (MAT3)
•Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic (MAT4)
•Bilinear Kinematic (MAT3)
•Plastic Kinematic (MAT3)
•Powerlaw Plasticity (MAT18)
•Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity (MAT64)
•Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity (MAT19)
•Piecewise Linear Plasticity (MAT24)

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Foam Models
•Low Density Foam (MAT57)
•Viscous Foam (MAT62)
•Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (MAT27)
•Viscoelastic (MAT6)
Spring Damper Models
•Linear Elastic Spring (MAT18)
•Linear Viscous Damper
•Nonlinear Elastic Spring
•Nonlinear Viscous Damper

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•Elasto-plastic spring
•General Nonlinear Spring
Composite Models
•Composite Damage (MAT22)
•Enhance Composite Damage(MAT54-55)
•Laminated composite Fabric (MAT58)
Others
•Rigid (MAT20)
•Cable (MAT71)

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1.Linear Elastic Material Models


There are three different material models available in the linear
elastic family:
• Isotropic: Material properties are same in all directions.
• Orthotropic: properties have 3 mutually orthogonal planes of
symmetry
• Anisotropic: properties are independent of position at a point
within a material
Linear elastic materials do not undergo any plastic deformations and
are fully defined by generalized Hooke’s law

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1.1 MAT_ ELASTIC


This is Material Type1.This is an isotropic elastic material and is
available for beam,shell and solid elements in LS-DYNA. This type
of material is also used for modeling of fluids.
Card Format used:

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1.2 MAT_OPTIONTROPIC_ELASTIC
This is Material Type 2. This material is valid for modeling the elastic-
orthotropic behavior of solids,shells and thick shells.Anisotropic
option is available for solid elements.

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2. Nonlinear Elastic Material Models


There are three different material models available in the non-
linear elastic family:
•Blatz-Ko Rubber: Used for compressible foam-type
materials such as polyurethane rubbers.
•Mooney-Rivlin Rubber: Used to define behavior of
incompressible rubber materials
•Viscoelastic: Defines the behavior of glass and glass-like
materials.

Non-linear elastic materials can undergo large recoverable elastic


deformations

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• MAT_BLATZ-KO_RUBBER

- This is material Type 7.This material allows the modeling of


nearly incompressible continuum rubber
- Here the Poisson's ratio is fixed to 0.463

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• MAT_VISCOELASTIC
This is material Type 6. This model allows the modeling of
viscoelastic behavior for beams (Hughes-Liu),shells,and solids.

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• MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC
- This is Material Type 3. This model is suited to model isotropic
and kinematic hardening plasticity with the option of including
rate effects.
- It is a very cost effective model and is available for
beam(Hughes-Liu),shell and solid elements.

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3. Plasticity Material Models


• There are different plasticity models available in LS-DYNA
• The selection of a specific model depends on the type of material
being analyzed and the availability of material constants.
• It is very important to select the correct category for the material
being analyzed. It is less important to select the specific model within
a category, which is usually controlled by the material data available.

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• MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY
- This is Material Type 24. It is an elasto-plastic material with an
arbitrary stress verses strain curve and arbitrary strain rate
dependency is defined.
- Here failure based on a plastic strain or a minimum time step
size can be defined

s s ep

200 0.0
220 0.0002
235 0.0008
245 0.002
250 0.005
e 252 0.010

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4.Foam Material models


•There are different foam models available in the LS-DYNA
program.
•The selection of a specific model depends on the type of
material being analyzed.
•All of the foam models in LS-DYNA are primarily used in
automotive impact applications.

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• MAT_LOW_DENSITY_VISCOUS_FOAM
- This is Material Type 73.It is mainly for Modeling Low Density
Urethane Foam with high compressibility and with rate sensitivity.
- Its main applications are for seat cushions,padding on the side impact
Dummies (SID),bumpers and interior foams.
- Optionally, a tension cut-off failure can be defined

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• MAT_VISCOUS_FOAM
- This is Material Type 62. This type of Material represents the Con-
Foam on the ribs of EuroSID side impact dummy.
- It is only valid for solid elements,mainly under compressive loading

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• MAT_HONEYCOMB
-This is Material Type 26. The major use of this material model is
for honeycomb and foam materials with real anisotropic behavior.
- A nonlinear elastoplastic material behavior can be defined
separately for all normal and shear stresses.
- This type of material model is developed for the front end material
of a side impact bumper and for aerospace structures.

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• MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE
-This is Material Type 22. This model is developed for failure of
Composite materials which is used for energy absorption.
- An orthotropic material with optional brittle failure for composites
can be defined.

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• MAT_RIGID
- This is Material Type 20.Parts made from this material are considered
to belong to a rigid body.
- The coupling of a rigid body with MADYMO can be defined via this
material.
- Here global and local constraints on the mass center can be optionally
defined.

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• MAT_FABRIC

-This is Material Type 34.This material is especially developed


for airbag materials.
-This model is more suited when the fabrics experiences large
deformation.

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• MAT_CABLE_DISCRETE_BEAM
-This is Material Type 71.This model permits elastic cables
to be realistically modeled.
- In this model during compression no forces are developed

MID Material Identification


RO Mass density
E GT 0.0: Young's modulus
LCID Load curve ID
F0 Initial tensile force
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Material Models - Guidelines


• Not all material models are available for every element
type.Check the Elements Manual to see which models can be used.
• For each material model, not all constants and options are required
for input.For example,failure strains can be incorporated into a
material that does not have strain rate effects by setting the Cowper-
Symonda constants to zero.
• Make sure to use consistent units when defining your material
properties.Incorrect units will not only effect the material
response,but will also effect the contact stiffness.
•Don’t underestimate the importance of having accurate material
data. Spend the extra time and money to obtain accurate material
data.

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