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CHE1002 - Process Calculations

Dr. S. K. Behera
School of Chemical Engineering
Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, TN, India – 632 014.
Module 3

Material balance without chemical


reactions
EVAPORATION
This operation in chemical industry is used for the concentration of a
weak liquor to produce a thick liquor by evaporating a portion of the
solvent (generally water) by means of condensing steam. It may be
carried out in a single or multiple effect evaporation system.
Problem - 1
In a textile mill, a single effect is fed with 10000 kg/h of weak liquor
containing 15% caustic soda (NaOH) by weight and is concentrated to
get a thick liquor containing 40% solids. Calculate (a) kg/h of water
evaporated and (b) kg/h of thick liquor obtained.

Water evaporated

10,000 kg/h
Evaporator
Weak liquor,
15% NaOH
Thick liquor, 40%
NaOH
Let x – kg/h of thick liquor obtained

y - kg/h of water evaporated

Overall material balance: 10,000 = x + y

Material balance of NaOH: 0.15 * 10,000 = 0.4 * x => x = 3750 kg/h

Hence, y = 6250 kg/h


Problem - 2
An evaporator is fed with 15000 kg/h of a solution containing 10% NaCl,
15% NaOH and rest water. In the operation, water is evaporated and
NaCl is precipitated as crystals. The thick liquor leaving the evaporator
contains 45% NaOH, 2% NaCl and rest water. Calculate (a) kg/h water
evaporated (b) kg/h salt precipitated (c) kg/h thick liquor.
Let x – kg/h of water evaporated

y - kg/h of thick liquor

z - kg/h of NaCl precipitated

Overall material balance: 15000 = x + y + z

Material balance of NaOH: 0.15 * 15000 = 0.45 * y => y = 5000 kg/h

Material balance of NaCl: 0.1 * 15000 = 0.02 * 5000 + z => z = 1400 kg/h

Hence, x = 8600 kg/h


Problem - 3
An evaporator system concentrating a weak liquor from 5% to 50% solids,
handles 100 kg of solids/hour. If the same system is to concentrate a
weak liquor from 4% to 35%, find the capacity of the system in terms of
solids that can be handled per hour assuming water evaporating capacity
to be same in both the cases.

Water evaporated

Weak liquor,
Evaporator
5% Solid
Thick liquor, 50%
solids
Case - I

Basis: 100 kg/h of solid handling capacity of the evaporator

Let x – kg/h of weak liquor => 0.05 x = 100 => x = 2000 kg/h

y - kg/h of thick liquor => 0.5 y = 100 => y = 200 kg/h

Overall material balance:

kg/h weak liquor = kg/h thick liquor + kg/h water evaporated

2000 = 200 + kg/h water evaporated

Water evaporated = 1800 kg/h

Water evaporation capacity in case II is same as that in case I (Given)


Case - II
Basis: 1800 kg/h of water evaporated

Let x1 – kg/h of weak liquor entering the evaporator

y1 - kg/h of thick liquor leaving the evaporator

Overall material balance: x1 = y1 + 1800 ----(1)

Material balance of Solids: 0.04 x1 = 0.35 y1

=> x1 = 8.75 y1 ---- (2)

x1 = 2032.26 kg/h and y1 = 232.26 kg/h

Solids in weak liquor = 0.04 * 2032.26 = 81.3 kg/h

Solid handling capacity in case II = 81.3 kg/h


Practice Problem – 1
5000 kg/hr of an aqueous NaOH solution containing 10 wt% of NaOH is
concentrated to 50 wt% NaOH in a double effect evaporator. The feed
solution is partially concentrated in a first evaporator and then fed to the
second evaporator. Find the amount of 50% of NaOH solution produced
per hour and amount of water evaporated per day. Assuming the water
evaporating capacity of both the evaporators are same, find the
concentration of NaOH solution leaving the first evaporator.
Practice Problem - 2
An evaporator is fed with a solution containing 10% NaOH, NaCl and rest
water. During evaporation water is removed and NaCl precipitates out as
crystals, which are settled and removed. The liquor leaving the evaporator
contains 50% NaOH, 20% NaCl and the rest water. Calculate the feed
required for the production of 1000 kg/hr of crystalline NaCl.
Practice Problem - 3
An evaporator system concentrating a weak liquor from 10% to 50%
solids, handles 200 kg of solids/hour. If the same system is to concentrate
a weak liquor from 5% to 40%, find the capacity of the system in terms of
solids that can be handled to be same assuming water evaporating
capacity to be same in both cases.