Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

Effect of Night Temperature on Flowering and Fruit Size in Pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.

]
Merrill)
Author(s): D. J. C. Friend
Source: Botanical Gazette, Vol. 142, No. 2 (Jun., 1981), pp. 188-190
Published by: The University of Chicago Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2474272 .
Accessed: 12/10/2011 18:03

Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .
http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of
content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms
of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

The University of Chicago Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to
Botanical Gazette.

http://www.jstor.org
BOT. GAZ. 142(2):188-190. 1981.
? 1981 by The Universityof Chicago. 0006-8071/81/4202-0012$02.00

EFFECT OF NIGHT TEMPERATURE ON FLOWERING AND FRUIT SIZE


IN PINEAPPLE (ANANAS COMOSUS [L.] MERRILL)1

D. J. C. FRIEND
Departmentof Botany, Universityof Hawaii, Honolulu,Hawaii 96822

'SmoothCayenne'pineappleplantsgrownin a greenhouseat between25 and30 C weretransferred


for
16h nightly
to darkroomsmaintained was mostrapidat a nighttem-
at 15,20,25,and 30 C. Flowering
peratureof 20 C and was slowestat 15 and 25 C. Floweringdid not occur after3 yr of growthat 30 C.
Flowernumber
andfruit
weight
weregreatest
forplantsgrownat a nighttemperature
of15C.

Introduction houseat a day temperature of 25-30C and a night


Floweringof commercialcrops of pineapple in temperature of20-25 C. The photoperiod was main-
Hawaii is normallyinducedby the use of growth tainedat 24 h by supplementing 11-13h ofnatural
regulatorsat all timesoftheyear.Naturalflowering daylength withlightfrom500-Wincandescent lamps
is seasonal,however;theinflorescence is initiatedin mounted3 m above the plants. The radiant flux
December and flowering occurs about 3 mo later densitywas 17 k ergcm-2s-' (700 lx) as measured
(BARTHOLOMEW and KADZIMIN 1977).This suggests by a YSI Model 65 radiometerat the top of the
that flowerinitiationis inducedby a reductionin plants. Because of the distancebetweenthe lamps
temperature, shortdaylengths, orboth.For theRed and the plants, this level of radiantfluxdensity
Spanish variety, temperaturealone can control given at nightdid not measurablychangeduring
flowering; 1 mo at a minimalnighttemperature of thegrowthoftheplants.The spectralqualityofin-
16 C inducedinflorescence initiationundernatural candescentlightis givenin KLEIN and KLEIN (1970,
summerdaylengths in PuertoRico (VAN OVERBEEK p. 177). In the secondand thirdyears,plantswere
and CRUZADO 1948).In SmoothCayenne,daylength moved daily from8 h of natural daylightin the
may influence flowering,and GOWING (1961) classi- greenhouse to 16 h ofdarknessin constant-tempera-
fiedthisvarietyofpineappleas a quantitativeshort- tureroomsmaintainedat 15, 20, 25, or 30 + 2 C.
day plant. The flower-accelerating effectsof short Nine plantswereplaced at each nighttemperature,
daylengths wereapparentevenunderconstanttem- and the date of the firstfloweropeningon each
peratureconditionsof 25 C (FRIEND and LYDON plant was recorded.Ripe fruits,as judged by the
1979). developmentof an orange-yellow colorationand
This studywas undertaken to determine whether detectablearoma,wereharvested.Fruitand crown
natural floweringof Smooth Cayenne pineapple freshweightsand the numberof flowers(eyes) on
growingundershortdaylengthsof 8 h was also ac- the inflorescence wererecorded.The widevariation
celeratedbv lowering thenighttemperature overthe in time for floweringboth within and between
rangefrom25 to 15 C. different temperature treatments precludeda mean-
ingfulcomparisonof total plant dry weightsas a
Materialand methods measure of total growthat the different night
Plants ofpineapple,Ananas comosus(L.) Merrill temperatures.
'Smooth Cayenne,'Champaka 153, were obtained
bygrowing rootedcrownsin a mixtureofvermiculite Resultsand discussion
and gravel watered with Hoagland's solution Nighttemperature affectedthevisualappearance
(FRIEND and LYDON 1979). To checkthat the vol- of the plants approximately 6 mo aftertreatment.
ume ofpottingmediumdid not influence flowering, Red pigmentdeveloped in the leaves of plants
two sizes of plastic containerwere used for each grownat 15 C nighttemperature, and plantsat the
treatment:15-cm diameter,holding 2 liters of 30 C nighttemperature werenoticeablysmallerand
medium,or 21-cm diameter,holding 5 liters of had narrower leavesthanplantsat othernighttem-
medium.As therewas no significant effectof root- peratures.Plants at 30 C had well-developed mar-
ing-medium volumeon theflowering response,data ginal serrations(fig.1), ratherthan the "smooth"
fromthesetwosubtreatments have been combined. leaf margincharacteristic of this varietyof pine-
In the firstyear,plants weregrownin a green- apple.
The mean numberof days to flowering was 470
1 JournalSeriesno. 2535 ofthe Hawaii InstituteofTropical aftertransfer to alternatingtemperatures (772 total
Agricultureand Human Resources. daysofgrowth)forplantsgrownat a nighttempera-
ManuscriptreceivedAugust 1980; revisedmanuscriptreceived tureof20 C, 610 daysat 15 C, and 660 daysat 25 C
January1981. (fig.2). Plantsgrownat a nighttemperature of30 C
188
FRIEND-NIGHT TEMPERATURE AND FLOWERING OF PINEAPPLE 189

were still vegetative690 days aftertreatment,as 1400 i

shownby dissectionand microscopicexamination


of theirapical meristems.
Directassessmentsof the timeoffloralinitiation 1200-
by periodicdissectionsofplantapiceswerenot car-
ried out in these experiments because of lack of
space forthe largenumberof plantsthatwouldbe 1000\
required.However,some information on relative
nighttempera-
ratesof floralinitiationat different
turesis providedby the finalleaf numbers.For a
i
plant with a terminalinflorescence, such as pine- ." 800 150C 200C 250C

apple,floralinitiationpreemptsthefurther produc-
60 FRUIT

I: 600-

U_

400X

CROWN
200-

15* 200 25? 300

FIG. 1.-Marginal serrationson leaf of pineapple grownat NIGHT TEMPERATURE 0C


30 C nighttemperature(upper) comparedwithsmoothmargin
at 20 C (lower). FIG. 3.-Effect of nighttemperatureon freshweightof ripe
fruitand of crown of pineapple. Vertical lines representthe
SE of the mean. There was no significantdifference in crown
weights.
750 I7

tion of foliageleaves and establishesthe finalleaf


700 - - 70 number.An increasein nighttemperature from25
to 30 C increasedthe finalleafnumber(fig.2) and
delayedthe initiationof the inflorescence, as deter-
FLOWERING - 65
650
minedby dissectionsof plants grownwitha 30 C
nighttemperature. It is thereforeprobablethat the
600 -60 increasein the finalleafnumberresultingfromin-
creasingnighttemperature from20 to 25 C was also
a consequenceofdelayedfloralinitiationratherthan
550 -W5 an increasein the intervalbetweenfloralinitiation
LEAF NUMBER z and anthesis.Periodicdissections ofapicalmeristems
would be needed to establishwhetherthe delayed
500 -50
floweringat 15 C was a consequenceof delayed
floralinitiationor an increasedintervalbetween
450 - 45
floralinitiationand anthesis.
The freshweightof ripe fruitwas greatestfor
plantsgrownat a nighttemperature of 15 C (fig.3).
400 _ 40 Crown freshweightswere not different between
night temperatures of 15 or 20 C and were reduced
by 20%go at a nighttemperature of 25 C (fig.3).
The totalnumberof flowers(eyes) on the inflo-
0
150 200 250 300
0
rescencewas inverselyrelatedto temperature, from
NIGHTTEMPERATURE
OC
102 at 15 C to 74 at 25 C (table 1). This reduction
in flowernumberswas causedby a reductionin the
FIG. 2.-Effect of night temperatureon number of days numberof flowersper vertical row on the inflo-
fromtransferto alternatingtemperaturesuntilfloweringand rescence.The numberof rowsaroundthecircumfer-
on final numbers of leaves produced before inflorescence
formation.Plants at 30 C did not flowerduringthe experi- enceof thefruitwas not different.
mentalperiod.Verticallines representthe SE of the mean. Night temperaturewas clearly an important
190 BOTANICAL GAZETTE

TABLE 1
EFFECT OF NIGHT TEMPERATURE ON NUMBER OF FLOWERS ON INFLORESCENCE OF PINEAPPLE

NIGHT TEMPERATURE ( C)

15?SE 20?SE 25?SE 30

Mean no. of flowersper verticalrow.7......... . 7.7 .3 6.1 .0 5.7 .O 0


Mean no. of rowsaroundcircumference...... 1 3 13.0a .0 1301 .0
Total no. of flowersper inflorescence
........ 102 5.7 79b 1 .9 74b 2.3

NOTE.-Itemsmarkedwithsamesubscript
letterare notsignificantly at P > .05 levelin a pairedt-test.
different

determinant of floweringofpineapple,even though pineappleprobablyresultsfromeffects ofbothtem-


plants were maintainedon a shortdaylength.No peratureand daylength.Short daylengthsaccel-
flowering occurredat a nighttemperature of 30 C eratedflowering even at a constanttemperature of
even aftermore than 690 days of growthat al- 25 C (FRIEND and LYDON 1979), but a nighttem-
ternatingtemperatures. Pineapple is not a typical peratureof20 C further acceleratedflowering.
Inter-
short-dayplant in this respect. In general,the actionsbetweentheeffects oftemperature and day-
flower-promoting reactionstakingplace in thedark lengthon flowering werenot investigatedin these
periodof short-dayplantsare acceleratedby a rise experimentsbecause of the slow nature of the
in night temperatureover the range of 10-30C flowering response.Furtherexperiments are needed
(VINCE-PRUE 1975). to determineifplantsgrownat a lownighttempera-
The effectof night temperatureon flowering ture retain the facultativeshort-dayresponseor
paralleledthatondarkfixation ofCO2 (Crassulacean behaveas day-neutral plants.
acid metabolism[CAM]). The dark CO2 fixation
was greatestat a nighttemperature of 15 C and
Acknowledgments
absent at a night temperatureof 30 C (NEALES
1973). A directdependenceof flowering on CAM I thankMr. G. YAMANE, ResearchHead of Del
seemsunlikely,however.Floweringwas greatlyre- Monte Co., at Kunia, Oahu, for providingthe
tardedby increasingthe daylengthfrom8 to 16 h, crownsofpineapplesused in theseexperiments,and
althoughCAM (measuredas malic acid accumula- JOHN LYDON forhisskillin growing
plantsand main-
tion) was littleaffected(FRIEND and LYDON 1979). tainingthecontrolled
environmental over
conditions
The influenceof climateon naturalflowering in sucha longperiod.

LITERATURE CITED
BARTHOLOMEW,D. P., and S. B. KADZIMIN. 1977. Pineapple. NEALES, T. F. 1973. Effectof night temperatureon the as-
Pages 113-156 in P. T. ALVIMand T. T. KOZLOWSKI, eds. similationof carbon dioxide by mature pineapple plants,
Ecophysiologyoftropicalcrops.AcademicPress,New York. Ananas comosus(L.) Merr. AustralianJ. Biol. Sci. 26:539-
FRIEND, D. J.C., and J.LYDON. 1979. Effectsof daylengthon 546.
flowering,growth,and CAM of pineapple (Ananas comosus VAN OVERBEEK, J.,and H. J.CRUZADO. 1948. Note on flower
[L.] Merrill).BOT. GAZ. 140:280-283. formationin the pineapple induced by low nighttempera-
GOWING, D. P. 1961. Experimentson the photoperiodicre-
tures.Plant Physiol. 23:282-285.
sponsein pineapple.Amer.J.Bot. 48:16-2 1.
KLEIN, R. M., and D. T. KLEIN. 1970. Research methodsin VINCE-PRUE, D. 1975. Photoperiodismin plants. McGraw-
plant science.Natural HistoryPress, New York. 756 pp. Hill, New York. 444 pp.