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 The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound. In its later forms, it is also called
a gramophone (as a trademark since 1887, as a generic name in the UK since 1910) or, since the 1940s, a record player.
 The phonograph was invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison
 It must be the musical gadget used by Jose Rizal and other Filipinos who studied in Europe at about those times.
 It must be the popular home appliance by the upper class and middle-class Filipinos from 1900 up to the time it was replaced
by cassettes, CD players, and recorders in the 20th century.
 The 20th century marked the invention of gramophone records
 The invention made musical compositions available to many.
 19th century, only the elites or the rich could listen to live classical music concerts in theaters.
 When the phonograph was invented and mass produced sometime in 1890s, both the middle class and the lower class could
have the chance to listen to less expensive recorded concerts.
 Radio Broadcasting which was first commercially done sometime in 1920 also allowed many people to listen to classical music
and opera music.
 Many composers, musicians and songwriters explored new forms. They challenged the established music rules of the 18th
century. They introduced the so-called altered chords and extended chords; example is the bebop jazz in 1940s.
 The invention of loud guitar amplifier and sound also contributed to the new trend music.
 It is a movement in painting that started in France in the 1860s. It characterized by visual impression of the moment in terms of
shifting effect of color and light.
 Impressionist artists paints with many colors and their usual subjects are outdoor; example, nature’s landscape
 Their paintings can be bright and vibrant.
 It is a movement in painting that started in France in the 1860s. It characterized by visual impression of the moment in terms of
shifting effect of color and light.
 Impressionist artists paints with many colors and their usual subjects are outdoor; example, nature’s landscape
 Their paintings can be bight and vibrant.
 May be described generally as having refinement, delicacy, and vagueness.
 Dreamlike quality
 Impressionist artist: Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel
(moonlight, waterfalls, and fireworks)
In Philippines, Dr. Antonio Molina was one of the 20th century Filipino composers who wrote art music. He was called the “Claude Debussy of the Philippines”

What are the characteristics of Impressionism in Music?

 The rhythm of impressionism music is irregular in terms of phrases.
 It avoids the traditional harmonic progression.
 It has unresolved dissonance.
 It uses the whole-tone scale, uses the 9th chord, and also frequently uses modality and exotic scales.

 Dissonance is the lack of agreement and consistency in the progress of harmony in music.
 Modality is derived from the word “modal,” a general term used with reference to melodic and harmonic formations based on
the church modes, as opposed to those based on the major and minor modes (tonality)

20th Century Composers and Musicians

 Achille-Claude Debussy
 Born: August 22, 1862 (France)
 Parents: Manuel-Achille Debussy and Victorine Manoury
 He was the favorite among the siblings and was sent to his first formal school at the Paris Conservatoire at the age of 10.
 First documented musical experience (1870-1871) during the visit of his aunt Clementine in Cannes.
 Entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1872
 First Piano Conservatoire class: Jean-Francois Marmontel (highly regarded professor)
 A winner of the 1884 Prix de Rome with his composition, “Lenfant Prodigue”
 Received a scholarship to the Academie des Beaux-Arts, which included a four-year residence at the Villa Medici, the French
Academy in Rome, to further his studies (1885-1887)
 “Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun” was his orchestral height
 Other famous orchestral parts include “La Mer,” “Nocturne,” and “Images”
 His string quartets are pleasing and their practical difficulty is astounding.
 Famous opera: “Pelleas et Melisande”
 Died: March 25, 1918 due to rectal cancer.
 Great compositions: “Engulfed Cathedral” and “Claire de Lune”
What made Claude Debussy’s work known to the world?
1. He used special melodic passages which at times did not have specific tonality or key center.
2. He often used parallel chords which ae just really chordal melodies and enriched unisons.
3. The use of bitonal chords; whole tones and pentatonic scales (Whole-tone is a scale in which each note is separated from its
neighbors by the interval of a whole step)
4. He used modulations randomly.

 Joseph Maurice Ravel
 Born: March 7, 1875 (Ciboure, France)
 Parents: Marie Delourat and Joseph Ravel.
 He was baptized in a catholic ceremony in the local parish church of Saint Vincent, and then after three months, he and his
family moved to Paris.
 Music of Spain
 1882 (after his 7th birthday) Maurice took his first piano lesson under Henry Ghys.
 First public performance: June 2, 1889 “Third Concerto” of Moschele
 His career in the Paris Conservatoire began on November 4, 1889
 In the piano competition held on July 10, 1890 Maurice Ravel was awarded second place, making his initial year at the
Conservatoire rather successful.
 Grand Prize (July 1891) Schumann’s Sonata.
 Died: December 28, 1937 at the age of 62 in Paris.
 Famous Works: “Bolero,” “La Valse,” “Ma merel’oie,” and “Miroirs”

 There is no precise definition of the term "Modern Art", although it usually refers to works produced during the approximate
period 1870-1970. Typically, modern artists rejected previous Renaissance-based traditions, in favor of new forms of artistic
experimentation. They used new materials, new techniques of painting, and developed new theories about how art should reflect
the perceived world, and what their functions as artists should be. In addition, entirely new types of art were developed during
the period.
 According to most art critics, Modernism in painting first started with the Frenchman, Jean Claude Monet, and the French
Impressionists, for its rejection of traditional academic art forms of the 18th and early 19th century.
 The beginning of the 20th century is recognized as a period of revolution and change in art.
 Introduced a variety of new art styles that not only broke artistic traditions of the past but also pointed the way to future
 Europe was the birthplace of this styles-styles that greatly influenced the art created later in America.
Modern Art - the rejection of traditional academic art forms
Modern Art saw a shift from the traditional art forms to:
 different use of media, like photography, collage, assemblage
 Different use of space in architecture – the high-rise building (sky scrapers)
 Significant rise in Abstract and Non-Representational Art
 Social and political transformation/ non-conformity
 Artists were eager for change

 Style surround us in our daily lives.
 Style is a characteristic or a number of characteristics, that we can identify as constant, recurring, or coherent.
Artist working with the same culture during the same time often have features in common- a style shared by a particular group of
like-minded artists. A familiarity with these styles can help us situate art and artists that are new to us, which often helps with

 The beginnings…In the middle of the 19th century—a time of change… Historical subjects, religious themes, and portraits were
valued (landscape and still life were not), and the Académie (art jury) preferred carefully finished images that looked realistic
when examined closely. Color continued to be somber and conservative, and traces of brush strokes were suppressed,
concealing the artist's personality, emotions, and working techniques.
 Then a group of young rebellious painters interested in painting landscapes and still life. Experimented with a lighter and brighter
manner – both in color and technique.
Everyday - subjects and events
Lighting - Captures effects of natural light. Color in artwork is illuminated…or seems to glow
Brushstrokes - Artists have broken the solid shape into smaller pieces and blurred the edges, creating dabs of color that blend together.
Outdoor – en plein air was a common setting
Weather – weather and atmosphere were ‘captured’

CLAUDE MONET *1840-1926*

He wasn’t the first to paint this way, but the first to be “accepted” and called an Impressionist
Main subjects were nature and landscapes- en plein air
Painted same scenes day after day to capture changing of light, weather, atmosphere and the changing of seasons
The true pioneer of the impressionist- he was constantly exploring “What do I see and how do I record in painting?”


 In characteristic Impressionist style, Renoir suggested the details of a scene through freely brushed touches of color, so that his
figures softly fuse with one another and their surroundings.
 vibrant light
 saturated color
 most often focused on people in intimate and candid compositions.
 Females were his primary subjects.
 He usually used the maids in his house as his models
 Later in life he went back to more traditional style of painting
 Painted more than 6000 paintings
 *Suffered from arthritis badly - he continued to paint with brushes tied to his wrists.
Famous Counterpart Artist of Impressionist in the Philippines
 Impressionism lasted some 15 years in its purest from in Europe, but it profoundly influenced all paintings that followed
 Juan Luna and Fernando Amorsolo

 The stuff of thought is the seed of the artist. Dreams form the bristles of the artist’s brush. As the eye functions as the brain’s
sentry, I communicate my innermost perceptions through the art, my worldview.”
 To present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or
 Expressionist artists sought to express meaning or emotional experience rather than physical reality
 The art aims to reflect the artist's state of mind rather than the reality of the external world
Famous Proponents of Expressionism
 Edvard Munch and Wassily Kandinsky
Key Features of Expressionism
 Expressionist artist used strong emotional colors and wild brush strokes.
 The stressed irrationality of the world, the natural and the social world
 The world of the supernatural was a strong influence, of ghosts, magic, monsters, strange things happening, to mythic tales,
 Individual alienation from the natural world and from the social world — The individual does not feel like they belong in either
the social world or the natural world and are alone and abandoned.
 The impact of industrial, capitalist society on human beings.
The specific influences of Expressionism on films are:
 The influence Expressionist painting can be seen in the way the film set was painted and built.
 There is a strong use of darkness and light, especially of shadow.
 There is also use of strange angles in making Expressionist cinema, strange camera perspectives.
 The story is sometimes taken from Gothic myth, the 14th century, e.g., Caligari, Dracula, ghosts.
 The supernatural has a very strong place in the film.
 There is the appearance of irrationality, in the world, in the people, and in the story.
 Emotions are strongly expressed.
 The film and the world appear to be insane.
 An insane world is not a place where there is a happy ending.

 Cubism was a truly revolutionary style of modern art developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. It was the first style of
abstract art which evolved at the beginning of the 20th century in response to a world that was changing with unprecedented
speed. Cubism was an attempt by artists to revitalize the tired traditions of Western art which they believed had run their course.
 The Cubists challenged conventional forms of representation, such as perspective, which had been the rule since the
Renaissance. Their aim was to develop a new way of seeing which reflected the modern age.
 Cubism was invented around 1907 in Paris by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque.
 Cubism was the first abstract style of modern art.
 A Cubist painting ignores the traditions of perspective drawing and shows you many views of a subject at one time.
 The Cubists introduced collage into painting.
 The Cubists were influenced by art from other cultures, particularly African masks.
 There are two distinct phases of the Cubist Style: Analytical Cubism (pre 1912) and Synthetic Cubism (post 1912)
The Great Cubist Vision
1. The limitations of perspective were also seen as an obstacle to progress by the Cubists. The fact that a picture drawn in
perspective could only work from one viewpoint restricted their options. As the image was drawn from a fixed position, the result
was frozen, like a snapshot - but the Cubists wanted to make pictures that reached beyond the rigid geometry of perspective.
2. They wanted to introduce the idea of 'relativity' - how the artist perceived and selected elements from the subject, fusing both
their observations and memories into the one concentrated image. To do this the Cubists examined the way that we see.
3. When you look at an object your eye scans it, stopping to register on a certain detail before moving on to the next point of
interest and so on. You can also change your viewpoint in relation to the object allowing you to look at it from above, below or
from the side.
4. The Cubists tried to show different sides of an object or person on one plane. This desire to show "all sides at once" or multiple
views became known as "simultaneity."
5. Therefore, the Cubists proposed that your sight of an object is the sum of many different views and your memory of an object is
not constructed from one angle, as in perspective, but from many angles selected by your sight and movement. Cubist painting,
paradoxically abstract in form, was an attempt at a more realistic way of seeing.
6. A typical Cubist painting depicts real people, places or objects, but not from a fixed viewpoint. Instead it will show you many
parts of the subject at one time, viewed from different angles, and reconstructed into a composition of planes, forms and colors.
The whole idea of space is reconfigured: the front, back and sides of the subject become interchangeable elements in the design
of the work.
 An early twentieth century art movement which ridiculed contemporary culture and traditional art forms.
 It was born as a consequence of the collapse during World War I of social and moral values which had developed to that time.
 Dada artists produced works which reflected an attitude that was often absurd, playful, emotive, intuitive, and sometimes
mysterious or surreal.
 Dadaists typically produced art objects in unconventional forms produced by unconventional methods.
 Several artists employed the chance results of accident as a means of production.
 The word dada means several things in several languages: it's French for "hobbyhorse" and Slavic for "yes yes." Some experts
say that the name Dada is a nonsensical word chosen at random from a dictionary.

Physical Fitness- defined as the optimum level of health where healthy individuals can perform daily activities free from any form of
Fitness Assessment- a series of measurements and tests that will help identify the status of one’s physical fitness.
Body Mass Index- one of the most demanding fitness assessment tests today because in most of all the fields in different profesions
they use this as part of the physical examination to assess if the person is healthy and unhealthy.
BMI Formula
Weight in kg
Height in m2
Rating: Underweight <18.5 Healthy Range 18.5-24.9 Overweight 25-29.9 Obese> 30

Lifestyle Diseases
1. Family history and premature heart disease
2. Cigarette smoking
3. Alcohol use
4. Physical inactivity
5. Unhealthy diet
Healthful Eating Habits
1. Eat a variety of food everyday
2. Maintain children’s normal growth through proper diet and monitor their growth
3. Consume fish, lean meat, poultry and dried beans.
4. Eat more vegetables, fruits, and root crops
5. Eat a variety of food cooked in edible or cooking oil
6. Consume milk, milk products, and other food rich in calcium
7. Use iodized salt but avoid excessive intake of salty food
8. Eat clean and safe food
9. Avoid drinking alcoholic beverages.

Consumer- Anyone who uses a service or a product.
Consumer Health - A science concerned with helping you select health products and services wisely
Consumer health is not just about buying health products and services. It also involves knowing the facts and having a deeper
understanding that enable people to make wise decision.
Benefits of a Wise Consumer
1. Saves your money, time, and increases your satisfaction
2. Protects your health
1. The right to safety. Consumers are protected from dangerous products.
2. The right to be informed. Consumers are protected from misleading advertising.
3. The right to choose. Consumers have the right to make their own choices.
4. The right to be heard. Consumers can speak out when they are not satisfied.
Factors that Influence your Purchase
1. Price (which cost more?)
2. Convenience (we pay more for convenience)
3. Family and Friends (These people influence the decisions that you make about products)

Health Consumer- is someone who examines health information in products and services. The consumer is the one who purchases
and utilizes the goods and services.
Health Information- is everything that is seen, read, or heard in relation to human and community health. A wise consumer needs
carefully evaluate health information or else they will fall victim to fake or substance health products.
Health products- include medicines, medical equipment, and related devices.

Over-the-Counter OTC Drugs

The following are the risks of using these drugs:
a. Pain relivers like aspirin and ibuprofen can harm the stomach lining and lead to ulcer, while large dosages can cause kidney
b. Acetaminophen, used for fever and pain reliver for children, if taken in heavy doses, can cause bleeding and liver pain. These
pain relievers should not be taken on an empty stomach. They must be taken with food and a glass of water to avoid irritation
to the stomach lining.
c. Prolonged use of nasal sprays that relieve congestion can cause blood vessels in the nose to swell and can worsen
congestion. This is called the rebound effect. It can also result to bleeding and loss of the sense of smell.
d. Frequent use of laxatives destroys flora in the intestinal tract, making constipation even worse. Exercise and high-fiber diet are
safer alternatives for promoting normal defecation.
 Skin Care Products (skin rejuvenators, moisturizers, deodorant and anti-perspirants)
 Hair Care Products
 Oral Care Products (toothpastes, mouthwashes, and gargles) *Odors are carried from the intestines to the lungs exhaled by
the mouth. Bad breath may be symptoms of infections, tumors, or diabetes. Excessive use of mouthwash can dry the mucous
membranes, making the throat even more irritated.
Criteria for Evaluating Health Information
What? 1. Is there a list of contents in the product
Content of the Product label? Are the contents clearly listed?
2. Is the information up-to-date?
3. Does it indicate the side effects?
Why? Is the information provided to promote or sell a health
Purpose of the Health Information product?

Who? 1. Who is the source of information?

Source of Information 2. Is the source credible and trustworthy?
3. Is the source verifiable?
Feedback/Response 1. Does the source of health information
respond to comments and queries?
2. Do sources of information allow
customers to give comments and