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Kavita Kumar was born in 1936 in Rawalpindi (now in Pakistan).

Having completed her Master’s from Delhi University, she has
been teaching Hindi as a foreign language in India and abroad for
more than twenty-five years to aspiring learners from all over the
world. Besides live lesson delivery, she works with long distance
learners over the phone and Skype, using study material especially
designed by her for online lessons. She lives in Milwaukee,
Also by the same author

Hindi for non-Hindi Speaking People Workbook

Hindi English Phrasebook
Namaste-Eine Einfeurung in die praktischen Gebrauch
des Hindi Grammatik
Namaste-Eine Einfeurung in die praktischen Gebrauch
des Hindi Grammatik Arbeits Buch
Reise Begleiter - Hindi German Phrasebook
English for Hindi Speaking People, Parts 1 to 4

Kavita Kumar

First Published by
Rupa Publications India Pvt. Ltd 1994
7/16, Ansari Road, Daryaganj
N ew Delhi 110002

Sales centres:
Allahabad Bengaluru Chennai
Hyderabad Jaipur Kathmandu
Kolkata Mumbai

Copyright © Kavita Kumar 1994

All rights reserved.

N o part o f this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, or stored in
a retrieval system, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission o f the

ISBN: 978-81-716-7350-6

Sixth impression 2015

10 9 8 7 6

The moral right o f the author has been asserted.

Printed at Gopsons Papers Ltd, Noida

This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way o f trade
or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired out, or otherwise circulated, without the
publisher’s prior consent, in any form o f binding or cover other than that in
which it is published.
P reface to Third Edition
The third edition has been facilitated by the valuable feedback
and unstinted support of users and learners who very kindly
pointed out some printing errors that had crept in the previous
edition and offered useful suggestions .Two new chapters have
been added. Keeping in view the needs of the learners, the
existing matter has been rearranged and further fortified with
added explanations and word-power.
I thank:
My students for the constant feedback by way of comments,
suggestions, reviews of my teaching abilities and study material
specially tailored to accommodate varied requirements of learners
from all over the world.
My family and friends for their patience and understanding.
Any suggestions, comments or criticism of this new edition will
be welcome.

Kavita Kumar
November 12, 2007

Prompted by the overwhelming positive response to the first edition from

several quarters in India and abroad, I have revised the book thoroughly and
restructured it along the following lines.
1. The text has been split into 51 units, each of which deals with one
particular grammar point. Of these, six new units cover in detail verbs, nouns,
pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and postpositions. A brief account of sandhi,
sam as (compound words), upsarg (prefix), months and dates according to
Hindu calendar is given as an appendix.
2. In each Unit, language structure is followed by tabular presentation
and plenty of examples with their English translation.
3. An exhaustive table of contents gives a detailed list of the subheadings
in the units.
4. Detailed indexes both in Hindi and English have been incorporated
at the end of the book for easy reference.
5. A comprehensive glossary of grammatical terms is given to enhance
the utility of the book.
6. The use of intimidating grammatical jargon has been deliberately and
carefully avoided so as to make the subject intelligible and palatable to those
lacking linguistic background.
To gain maximum benefit from self study, the reader is advised to use
this book along with the accompanying practice and help book which includes
three sections, viz., fill in the blanks, substitutions, and translation from English
to Hindi. The supplement also has an appropriate key to make it fully self-
contained and independent.
The revision and restructuring tasks have benefited greatly from the
unstinted and highly valuable help, advice and suggestions from Kristofer
Edlund (Arboga, Sweden), Barbara Steitencron (Tubingen, Germany) and
Cecilie Glomseth (Norway) to whom I am greatly indebted. I particularly value
the friendly advice, guidance and support from Reinhold and Tanya Schein
from time to time. Sincere thanks are due to A. K. Tiwary & R. K. Pandey of M/
s. Graphics Media, Ravindrapuri, Varanasi for composing the matter to my
satisfaction. I also wish to thank Ms. Lila Huettemann of Heidelberg, Germany,
for her interest in my work as a Hindi teacher.

Kavita Kumar

October 31, 1996

Having been engaged for over a decade in teaching Hindi to
foreign students of several nationalities, I was concerned at the lack of
a satisfactory text which would fully meet a student’s requirements. I have
attempted to design these lessons with a view to introduce the readers
to vowels, consonants, phonetic transliteration and speech patterns, in
an easy-to-follow, readable style. Grammar structures have been explained
first and are then followed by reading and comprehension passages.
Glossaries and exercises have been given to enable the learners to
asse ss their performance from time to time.
Situational dialogues have been included in order to enhance the utility
of the book for tourists and other visitors to India. The dialogues should equip
the reader to cope with routine tasks happening in daily life.
The English translation of Hindi structures may, in some cases, be
found to be not very precise or accurate by English speaking people. I am
concious of this anomaly which arises from the inherent bilingual organization;
the accuracy has had to be occasionally sacrificed with a view to teaching good
Hindi for which a word-for-word translation was considered essential, and
which may not exactly be the same as a native speaker might use.
Because of differences in syntax and speech patterns between Hindi
and various foreign languages, I have had to respond to a variety of queries,
questions, and doubts from my students; this kind of interaction has been a
strong motivation and driving force for undertaking and completing this
venture. I have had the good fortune of interacting with a number of discerning,
critical, and enthusiastic students, some of whom have themselves been
involved in teaching their own native language as a foreign language in other
countries; they have read portions of the manuscript and given valuable
comments, criticisms, and suggestions, which I greatly value. In fact, the
teaching plan incorporated in this book has been successfully tested and has
enabled many students, without any prior knowledge of Hindi, to learn to read,
write and speak the language fairly fluently.
Apart from my former and present students to whom I am grea'ly
indebted, I wish to thank Mr. Kamal Malik of the Affiliated East West Press Pvt.
Ltd., New Delhi, and the editorial staff of Rupa and Company, for their helpful
discussions, advice, and encouragement. Gyanendra Prasad Shukla deserves
special mention for typing both Hindi and English scripts.
Any comments or suggesstions for improvement of the text will be
greatly appreciated.

February 25, 1994 Kavita Kumar





Introduction 1

Hindi Alphabet 3

• Vowels (TTT)

• Consonants (cqa^ii) 4

• Nasal vowels (ar^diRl't' T4T) 5

• Use of Candrabindu (^-slV 'i T4 otPt) 5

• Nasal consonants (3FJ>'iiRlct> ci|cwi-i) 5

Use of 'anusvar' (3FJT4TT TJT 9%T) 5

• Modified Letters from Persian 7

• Syllabic, intra-syllabic use of vowels 7

• Visarga (fatf'F) 8

• Guidelines for pronunciation 8

• Conjunct letters (Hgtfi 3rar) 9

• Consonants and intrasyllabic forms of

vowels written together 10

Pronouns :

• Nominative c a s e -1 (3>rrf -1) 12

• Pronouns : Oblique case (ti4nm - 13

• Simple postpositions (<t>K‘t> f^F?) 14

Possessive case 14-15

Verbs of being (fell ‘gFTT’) 16-18

Vocabulary - Verbs 19

Present Simple (WTRT ) 20-24

Language structure and model 20

• Uses of the present simple tense in Hindi 221

• Reading -1; Reading -2 22-24

Past Habitual (3P£if 25-26

• Language structure and model 25

• Comprehension 26

Imperative 27-30

• Language structures 27-30

• Uses of Imperative 30

Compound postpositions 31-37

• (* + ....... ) 31

• & + ........) 33

• <&+.........) 35

• Uses of ‘ aitT, ^ rRV 36-37

To have W I?RT' 38-39

• Inanimate objects 38

• Animate objects 39

Present and past progressive tenses 40-41

• Language structures 40

• Examples 41

Present and past perfect progressive tenses 42-43

• Language structures 42

• Examples 43

Past simple, present perfect and past perfect tenses 44-55

• Nominative case -2 — Subject + ^ 44

• Changing the verb infinitive to past participle 45

• Language structures : past simple, present perfect,

past perfect 46-49

• Examples : Past simple, present perfect,

past perfect tense 49-52

• Uses of past simple tense 53

• Uses of past perfect tense 53

• Uses of present perfect tense 54

Future simple tense 56-60

• Language structures : 1 Future simple 56

• Future continuous tense 58

• Future perfect tense-1 58

• Future perfect tense-2 59

• Planned future 59

Presumptive language structures 61-64

• Language structures 61-63

• Examples 63-64
Use of the verbs ■j'fHI, ^TT, ^Hl, ^TPTT 65-68

English equivalent 'have already + PP’

Use of the verb 'to like': 1. <*><.11 69

2. el'll / 3pE0T cPMI 70

3. '4 3(H 1 71

As soon as 72-77

• Use of ‘v.r. + cf + f t ‘ 72-75

• Use of # - As soon as 75-76

• Use of ‘v.r. + 3TT, tt i + .qT, *St, «ff’ + % ....

No so o n er... than ... 76-77

Ability structure - can, could, be able to 'tl+HI' 78-82

• Language structures 78-80

• Uses of 81

• Use of the verb ‘CFTT’ 82

Subjunctive 83-85

• Present subjunctive 83

• Past subjunctive 83-84

• Future subjunctive 85

Probability - ‘tT'HNii’, use of 7 W , Ft fl+di t 86-92

• Present habitual probability 86

• Present progressive probability 87

• Past probability 87-88

• Future probability 89

• Compare and comprehend 90

• More on : It is likely, X ^ flH ii 91-92

Frequentative Structure 93-97

• Present simple frequentative 93

• Past habitual frequentative 94

• Imperative frequentative 95

• Future frequentative 96

Apprehensions (3TIWT^>I9tER?) 98

ESI Use of "EfTlFTT — want 99-104

X want to have Y :

• Present simple, past habitual, future simple 99

• Past simple tense 100

X wants to do Y :

• Present simple, past habitual, future simple 101

• Past simple tense 102

• A wants B to have or do something 103

PP1 Use of — to express need or desire 105-106

Use of present and past participial constructions 107-112

• Adjectival use 107

• Adverbial Use 108

• Adverbial use of PPC to talk about the lapse of time 109

• Adverbial use of IPC in time expressions

of simultaneous activity 109
• Reduplicative use of IPC and PPC to
express continuous action 111
Use of semintically related PPC as adjective
or predicate 111
Use of PPC of related verb pairs as adjective 111

The repeated use of PPC of verbs of movement 111

Stative use of PPC as predicate : intransitive passive 112

Adverbial use of PPC/IPC of FPTT, «fHT, <eHI,

<flcHI as time expression 112
Use of PPC and IPC as noun 112

Use of the suffix — TTeTT 113-118

[(v.r.+ %)+TM] 113

Noun+TTefT 113

Demonstrative pronouns + TTeTT 114

Adjective + TIcTT 115

Predicative use of TlcTT : X is about to do Y 116

'X' was just about to do something

when'Y 'happened 117
Compare and Comprehend - 1 , 2 118

Use of the absolutive participle; - conjunct 119-122

Compulsion compounds : Use of I?PTT, TS^TT, 123-129

Inner compulsion 125

External compulsion 125

Moral compulsion 127

Language structures expressing probability

and compulsion 127

Continuative compound : 'keep on v... ing1 129-133

Use of v.r. + cfT, %, # + TFTT for continuing activities 129

Use of v.r. + cTT, ct, + ^TPTT for progressive activities 130

Use of v.r. + 3TT, tr ^ + 7!PTT for continuing states 131

Use of Compulsion + continuative compound 132

Continuative compound in the Passive Voice 133

Inceptive compound : 'v.r. + ppm i '; •m u 134-136

Permissive compound 'v.r.+ % +^TT’ 137-143

Conditionals: use of 3PTC%, 3PTT ....rft 144-147

Expressing wishes : use of ^191’ 148-149

To be used to doing something 150-154

‘X’ 4T 3fT# FPTT / ‘X’ 4ft 3fT4rT fpTT

Verbs (fifar) 155-177

Verb agreement 155

Intransitive and transitive verbs 156

Causative -1; Causative -2 157-167

Compound verbs 168-171

Conjunct verbs 171-174

Sense verbs 174-175

Sound verbs 175-176

Nominal verbs 177

Passive voice (4»*f 178-190

Nouns (WT) 191-205

Gender 191

C ases 197
Number 198

Declension of the masculine noun 198-199

Declension of the feminine noun 199

Use of infinitive as noun 204-205

Pronouns 206-219
Personal pronouns 206-207
Definite pronouns; Indefinite pronouns 208-212
Interrogative pronouns 212-216
Relative pronouns 216-218
Reflexive pronouns 218-219

Adjectives 220-240

Declinable adjectives; Indeclinable adjectives 220-222

Adjectives : base form, comparatives, superlatives 222-227

Pronominal adjectives 227-231

31W, 3FT%, 3Tpft 231- 232

Adjectives of quality 232- 233

Adjectives of num ber: cardinals; ordinals 234-235

Multiplicatives; Aggregatives; Fractions 236-237

Distributive adjectives

Indefinite quantity adjectives 238

Participles used as adjectives 240

Adverbs 241-246

Classification 241-244

Adverbial usages 244-246

• Participles used as adverbs 246

Use of postpositions 247-259

• Use of 247

• Use of ^T’ 247-251

• Use of %' 251-253

• Use of ^T’, 253-255

• Use of 255-257

• Use of "TT' 257-259

Conjunctions 260-266

Interjection 267-268

Punctuation 269-281

Particles 282-283

Time expressions 284-289

• What time is it ? 284

• How long does it take ? 285

• Use of time expression cT^, % flTH etc. 287

Usages 290-309

• when else (3?lT w ) , what else (3?k w ) e tc . 290

• God knows (‘*TJTTTT 290

• Echo words 291

• Uses o f'7!' 292

• Uses of *TT, %, 293

• Use of 'or else' Tm ) 294

• 'not even' (^t 7Tf?t) 295

Use of '*TT’ (only) 295

Use of ’ft (also) 296

<5F7T, SF^, 3F"ft (After all) 297

Ft-^T-Ft (certainly); (exactly the same) 297

27t% # (not at all); 3tk Ht W (of course) 298

^ I?t (even if) 298

*fc=rr 299

+ adj — (much more than) 300

eft - conditional 299

eft (introductory use) 300

'5*fr c^t«t?t rtft (somehow) 300

^Hft ^qf ... r^f (progressive) 301

^pf 4F / % / pft cPt (exactly the same as before);301

'X' ^t 'X', 'X' PP W P^TT (not to speak of X) 301

P^T PF / % / pff (for a long time); 302

Ft #t (for no reason or purpose) 303

'X' 'X' - nothing but 'X' 303

PPT 'X' - PPT 'Y' (whether X or Y) 303

PT1FF ^t (hardly) 304

Flf? Pp? ’ft Ft (come what may); 304

F t FTFt (Do what you like) 304

(v.r.+%)+ (v.r. +%) + FFT/ F%/«l4l

(it almost happened) 305

• fftp?t-e?t-fttFcf (in no time) 305

• (v.r. + ^ ) +I?t -i-^PTT 305

• (v.r. +%) + ^ H T 306

• Reduplicative expressions 306

• Relative adverbs : R«r, «t«ld+1 RFT 306

• Use of some abstract nouns and their adjectival forms 307

• ^TT (to be visible); ^TT (to be audible) 308

Compare and comprehend 309-321

• Use of stative verbs, change of state verbs 309

• Use of #RTT I, TMT t 309

• Use of 3fPTT, RPT^TT 310

• Use of ... cnrrf^r, % 3U

• More on pres. cont. tense 31£

• Use of -T ... ^ ... ift 31*

• Use of 3nR%/3PR .... <Tt 315

• Useof 3PTT .... <Tt / 317

• Use of ’ft, eft, 318

• Use of IPC, PPC 319

• Use of ^ - emphatic 320

Antonyms (Rtfln) 321-322

Synonyms (viftRHt) 323-325

Sound words (w^llcH'h '?T®?) 326-327

Idioms ( g ^ ) 328-336
Proverbs (dlTlRcIFT) 337-338

READINGS Key structure Page

TTRTCTcTR Pres. Simple 339

<£FFT TT Imperative 342

Ri^ hi tt Pres. prog, tense 343

FFT^ TT I'Mcl Pres. prog, tense 344

*)<.1 TIH Recapitulation 346

?tw Past progressive 347

RTT hR fk Possessive case 348

Vocabulary : Blood relations 349

TR RTF? TT Time 350

TJF T^FT sft ? Past tense 351

TFT 3TR 3T#tR tf ^ ^T ? Past tense 353

3TFT T^t TFT %TT TR « t>cii ^ ?Miscellaneous 355

TtefR TF TTFF Ft FFT I Pres. pert. 356

3TT 3TF Te?t Pres. perf. cont. 357

s5ft t5R TtfcTF Can, Could 358

T f f 3TT Can, Could 359

1%TTF T>T FtFT ? Fut. tense 361

t ^ F tfM T t R T^t # T TFT f Planned fut. 363

Vocabulary : Planets, zodiac signs 364

R-18 dl^Fidl 3Tk TTd4) SRR PPC; IPC 365

R-19 T?t3TT Cont. comp. 369

R-20 ^FT ^ Prog. comp. 372

^gcT 3t^«i Adjectives 374

pel'll afRcTt ^>T 41^'i Adjectives 377

3«si«ik % Adjectives 379

Letters: 381-385

An aplication 381

A letter from daughter to father 383

A letter from older sister to younger sister 385

R-25 Recipes 388-389


FcW 390

Vocabulary : 392-394

fats 392

grains 392

spices 393

cooking 394


SffFT 3>T W f? ? What's your name? 395

^ ifttPTTEmf ^ [lei'll t Appointment 396

cjTT Ft ? How are you? 397

3FSt I t s t Come! Be seated! 397

R'HHlel % Hiring a rickshaw 398

^FFFT Hospitality 399

^ TTC?fT *jcf W i | ; Asking directions 400

*IT^t q-m e Traveler in Varanasi 401

fr - In the Bank 403

Changing money in the bank 403

Opening an account 404

Encashing Traveller's cheques 405

EE-9 3?fT «(ld41d Consulting the doctor 406

Vocabulary: body parts 407

j'M'i TT Buying medicine 408

Buying medicine 409

EE-10 51‘txfii^ -Post Office: Buying envelopes, stamps 410

si'txai'l ^ - Sending parcels abroad 411

EE-11 jj+H TT Buying vegetables 414

• Vocabulary : vegetables % TFT 415

EE-12 TeT j't'M TT Buying fruit 416

• Vocabulary : fruit Tcft TFT 417

EE-13 FT f^PF^T Dialogue - marriage in India 418

EE-14 TTTTT T^TFT TT - 1 Railway station 421

T^ypT TiC - 2 Railway - information 422

EE-15 tflFT % Tft Weather 426

APPENDIX -1 Hindu calendar months, dates;

mathematical calculations, seasons

days of the week 428

APPENDIX - 2 tffor (Sandhi),*PW (compound words) 431-437

GLOSSARY: Grammar Terms 438-440

INDEX-English 441-450

INDEX-Hindi 451-456

★ ★ ★

adj. adjective
adv. adverb
B.H.U. Banaras Hindu University
C-1 causative-1
C-2 causative-2
Compul. str. Compulsion Structure
Comp. v.i. Compound verb intransitive
Comp. v.t. Compound verb transitive
Cond. str. Conditional structure
Conj. Conjunct
Cont. comp. Continuative compound
d.o. direct object dirctcase plural dirct case singular
Eng. English
exp. Expression
f. feminine
EE Everyday Expression
tut. future
G gender
Hon. honorific
idm. idiom
imper. imperative
inc. comp. inceptive compound
inf. infinitive
Inform. Informal
infl. inf. inflected infinitive
Int. intimate
Inter. interrogative
IPC Imperfective
Participial Constructions
i.o. indirect object
m. masculine
n. noun
nm noun masculine
N number
nom. case nominative case
obj. object oblique case plural oblique case singular
Pi- plural
non-prox. non-proximate
Past hab. Past habitual
Pres. ind. Present indefinite
Pres. pass. Present passive
Pres. perf. Present perfect
PP Past participle
PPC Past participle construction
PP„ postposition
prog. progressive
Pron. pronoun
prox. proximate
R Reading
redup. reduplicative
refl. pron. reflexive pronoun
rel. relative
repet. repetitive
sg. singular
subj. subject
subjunc. subjunctive
V. verb
v.i. verb intransitive
v.r. verb root
v.t. verb transitive
'X' any indefinite subject

changes to
Hindi uses the Devanagri script of Sanskrit, believed to be a divine
language. Its alphabet is arranged in a fascinating, scientific order, beginning
with the velars, moving forward through the prepalatals, palatals and dentals
to the labials. Each row has five consonants produced in distinctly separate
regions of the mouth, again very scientifically arranged; the aspirates following
the non-aspirates, ending in nasal consonants, thus giving a soothing rest to
the learner.
Devanagri script is written from left to right. There are no capital letters.
Being a phonetic language it has no pronunciation ambiguities. There
are no silent letters. The language is almost read the way it is written.
Indian perception of life in every object is imbibed in the language;
hence only two genders, masculine and feminine are recognized grammatically.
The native speakers grow up with the language and learn the genders naturally
without any special effort. Foreign students are advised to learn the gender
with every new noun-word. The sound of a word is the master key initiating the
intuitive lead to accurate gender-determination.
During my years of teaching the Hindi language to foreign students,
particularly from European countries and America, I have often noticed the
difficulties caused by several constructions where the subject is followed by
(ko), the causative verbs as well as the use of the same word (kal)
for tomorrow as well as yesterday.
Language is after all a mirror reflecting the culture, religion, philosophy
and social structure of a country. The basic Hindu belief admitting the
supremacy and omnipotence of the creator of the universe, accepting Him as
the doer of all activity and assuming for the people a very humble passive role
as recipients of His grace or wrath is reflected in the language. Instead of the
subject in the nominative case, language constructions with the dative case of
the subject (i.e. subject followed by ) are found in plenty; the underlying
concept is that the subject is not actively doing the action but things are actually
happening to him. For instance while an English language speaker says, 'I
am hungry.', 'I hurt myself.', or 'I like it', the corresponding constructions by a
Hindi language speaker are 'mujhko bhukh lag! h a i., 'mujhko cot lag! hai' etc.,
meaning respectively 'To me hunger is.', 'To me injury is.', or 'To me it pleasing
The profuse use as well as availability of the causative verbs does not
sound strange in a society like ours with ages'-long, deeply-ingrained caste
structure where a class of people has been recognized as mainly existing for

providing service to those higher up in the caste hierarchy - without any guilty
conscience perhaps ! Naturally the native speakers did not consider it worth
their effort to devise any syntactic formation to express the meaning of having
something done by somebody; instead they learnt dexterously to form causative
verb roots by a quick morphological process, in fixing '3U' (a) or ^T’ (va)
between the transitive or intransitive verb roots and their ‘HT’ (na) endings.
Our impressions of the Time as an eternally revolving wheel without
any beginning or end never presented any justification for the use of two
distinctly separate words for the time past or immediately following the present.
The verb endings are enough of a clue to help the smooth functioning of our
worldly business.
Students will certainly come across several similar constructions while
learning the language. However, if interpreted and understood in the religio-
socio-philosophical background as briefly explained above, they are easily
comprehended and mastered.

★ ★ ★
Hindi A lphabet ( l ^ t quF*ileii)

Vowels ( ^ t )
Devan- Trans­ Vowel Position Pronoun­
agarT literation symbols ced as

3T a (this is inherent in
the consonant) shut, cut

3TT a T (follows the consonant) bar, car

J i f (precedes the consonant) hit, sit

i ' t (follows the consonant) seat, heat

3 u O (subscript) put

3; U e\ (subscript) fool, pool

w r c (subscript) grip, trip

e (superscript) hate

$ ai (superscript) bat,mat

0 > (follows the consonant) boat, coat

3fr au (follows the consonant) thought,


Consonants (om«m )
nonas­ aspi­ nonas­ aspi­ nasal area of
pirate rate pirate rate articulation

TF F F F Velars
ka kha ga gha na
F t? *(% ) F
ca cha ja jha ha Prepalatals
z z F <0 F (Dt)
ta tha da dha n Retroflexes
F s
rha Flaps

F ST Z £f F
ta tha da dha na Dentals

F <T F F
pa pha ba bha ma Labials
F T <=t(?T) z
ya ra la va Semi-vowels

sa ?a sa Sibilants
ha Glottal

ST F F /s l Conjunct
ksa tra jna (gya) consonants

The first vowel F is inherent in all the consonants for phonetic ease. The

consonants without the vowel ‘3T’ called FH (hala) have a subscript stroke

called (halant) FcR^ written left to right downwards e.g. ^ ^ ^ etc.

■ Nasalized vowels (3TT)-iiRi't> ^ r ) :

Use of 'candrabindu' (~)

All Hindi vowels have their nasalized form where the air passes freely
through the nasal cavity. They use the symbol (~ ) a crescent with a dot
above it, known as 'anunasik' (apjniRi't') or 'candrabindu'

It is written above the headstroke of the vowel e.g. (mam), (vaham),

or above the headstroke of the consonants to which the vowel is affixed.
Examples :

| (hum); (cum).

However if the vowel symbol is a superscript, only a dot ( ) is put instead

of a 'candrabindu' ( * ) to avoid crowding. This of course is the rule. In
practice, however, growing laziness is visible in printed matter, books as
well as newspapers and only a dot ( ) is being used to indicate nasal
vowel sounds. Nasalized vowels is transliterated as'm '
Examples :
^ chTrh; nahlrh; thTrh

■ Nasal consonants (sTJTTftnp =*T5PT)

Use of'anusvar' (vH-jwTT) ( )

**" The Hindi alphabet provides a nasal consonant at the end of the first
five groups of con son ants i.e. the velars, the prepalatals, the
retroflexes, the dentals and the labials. Of these the nasal con so­
nants and of are not used independently but as conjuncts pre­
ceded by som e vowel and succeeded by som e consonant.

3TSTf (ahg); (rang); (ranj).

The remaining three nasal consonants ’T, -T, can be used indepen­

Examples :

3PJ (anu); (kan); SR (dhan);

RT (nam); SIFT (am); *R (man)

*s* When these five nasal consonants precede the members of their
own series, they can be and are usually written as a dot ( ) above the
head stroke of the previous consonant but read before the following
letter. This is known as 'anusvar' (3P|W ^)


TJT (rang)
3F]^T/3F^T 3T5T (anda)
H*"t^\/Hr<4\ F ern a n d a)
WTT/RRT 'W (campa)

•a* When 'anusvar' is used for nasal consonants preceding V, V, ‘cT’,

V, ‘?T’, V , V’, it denotes different sounds and is transliterated as
'm '

•a* Used before V, V, it is usually pronounced as a nasal vowel.

e.g. TO samyat samvad

*a* Used before V, ‘cT', V it is pronounced as ^T’

e.g. FTSTT samraksa samlekh

WTT sam sar (FT hams

•a* Used before 1?', it denotes the sound of Ls '

e.g. ftfs? simh

*a- Used before “^T’, it denotes <irT' sound.

e.g. 3T9T am s

Modified letters from the Persian language :
¥ qa (qadam) a step
¥ kha <fHM (kharab) bad
R ga (gazab) disaster
«T za (zevar) ornament
^ fa WcT (fasal) crop

•s’ Vowels have their syllabic as well as intrasyllabic forms (page 3). At
the beginning of a word or when used with som e other vowel, they are
used in their syllabic form.
Examples :
■ 3 ^ (ab), 3fR (aj), ^3 (is), (Tkh), 3 ¥ (us), 3i3 (un), (ek), rH<t>
(ainak), 3TRT (os), (aurat)
■ srr^r (ao), (aie), sns; (aum)

*s Sometimes after consonants also syllabic form of the vowel is

(kal), ¥ $ (gau), ^ (maT)

•s* When used with consonants their intra-syllabic form is used as shown
¥ + 3t -
¥ (ka)
¥ + 3TT = ¥T (ka)
+ \ = (ki)
+ f = i t (ki)
¥ + = 1 (ku)
¥ + 3; = \ (ku)
+ w = f (kr)
+ R = (ke)
+ = (kai)
¥ + = (ko)
¥> + air = (kau)
¥ + 3f = i (karh)
¥ + 3T: = (kah)
*** T + Rj = ■5 (ru) = o^'ii (rukna)
J + 3; = ¥ (ru) = ¥ 3 (rup)

w A table of consonants and intra-syllabic forms of vowels written together
is given on page 10.

Visarga (f^pf) ’

w Visarga is written as two dots one below the other like colon (:), and
is transliterated as 'h1, It is pronounced as ah (3f?). It occurs mostly
in loan words from Sanskrit such as Wf: prayah, <5^ duhkh, t5:
chah, kramasah etc.
**■ Hindi being a phonetic language, its pronunciation doesn't have many
ambiguities. It is almost read the way it is written.
*3* There are no silent letters. Also there are no capital letters in
Devanagri script.
Some guidelines for the pronunciation of the inherent ‘3T’
**■ Inherent final ‘3T’ is not pronounced e.g. is kal and not kala; ^Tcf is
kamal and not kamala; is camcam and not camacama

1. Inherent final '3f’ of mono-syllabic words is always pronounced e.g. ^
na; ^ va,
2. When a word ends in an ‘3f’ending conjuct consonant, the final ‘3f’is
actually pronounced, e.g. netra; ^ 5 candra; apfrnf ayogya
3. When a word ends in V preceded by a syllable ending in V , oR’ the
inherent final ‘3T’ is actually pronounced. e.g.tMtj*t rajsuya; priya;
f^PTfhT nindanlya
**" Inherent '3T' in the second syllable is not pronounced :
Q In three syllabic words ending in any long vowel, e.g. cis<w larka;
lark!; larke
Q In four syllabic words e.g. camcam; FcRcf halcal

E xceptions:

1. When the second syllable of a four-syllabic word happens to be an 'af

ending conjunct consonant, its inherent '3T’is pronounced,
e.g. netrahTn, PcWFT satyakam

2. When a four-syllabic word begins with a prefix , the inherent ‘3f’ of its
second syllable is pronounced, e.g. 3tl<*HUI araksan; pracalan
**■ Inherent ‘3f ’ in the third syllable of the four-syllabic words ending in a
long vowel is not pronounced e.g. TIHSHI samajhna; 3prct agarce,

Conjunct Letters 3fSR)

In Hindi the formation of conjunct letters (i.e. combining of two or more
consonants) is as follows:

While combining consonants

(1) when the preceding consonant ends in a vertical stroke, this stroke is
dropped, e.g. 3, XT, ^T, cT, ^1, T3, ^T. 3T, «f
^ + *T = c*T Vya ^ + I? = ccha ^ + if = ht dhya
^ + if = nf pya ^ ghna + «r = if jna
+ if = nf gya ^ + Z = nda + cf = FeT lla
(2) when the preceding consonant does not end in a vertical stroke, conjunct
is formed by placing a downward stroke below the preceding consonant
and putting the following consonant by its side e.g. 3, z , 3, 3, 3
3 3 / f ddha, 3 3 / 1 dda, 3 3 / f tta, 3 3 / f ttha, \ + if = 3T dya,
ftl/lS ddha
(3) when the preceding consonant is written on both sides of the stroke, we
may use part of the consonant falling on the right side of the vertical stroke
or put a downward stroke below it e.g. ST etc..
ip + ^ kka; ^ + *T5 = W phpha, tp + 3 = 33 phta
(4) when ^precedes any consonant, \ is written as (r )ontopofthesucceeding
consonant but read between the two letters.
e.g. 3f + ^ ^ (ark) ST + ^ + 3 = St4 (sharm)
(5) when “T ’ follows a consonant without inherent ‘3f’, it takes the form of
a stroke under the preceding letter as shown below:
e.g. 3T + T = ^ (kra) ^ + T = 3 (vra)

Reading: conjunct consonants

+ t = 33 kram

^ + o = ® TStT raksa
n* + o = oo 000 vakt
^[ + 0 = ^0 rpOTcT khyal
^ + *5 = 'R? 3r,+9i accha
«^ + O = wf cROT lajja
0[ + O = R OcOT/OOT patta
^ + F = ^ 0*01 nanha
z + r = 0 ? /f o f/o r^ pattT
o + o = o ? /I 3l|l/3|^Sl adda
0. + s = 0 ? / ¥ TTfT/TT^T gaddha
O; + 0 = O fe n vidya
^ f^n§i siddha
^ + 0 = S SR dwar
0 + 0 = 0? f^rft/ffe^t chitthT
0 + 0 = F 0^0 hrasva
ir + o = or son brahma
o; + o = w OTfl bahya
^ + x = >3 ^tor sravan
^ + o = rt 0*0% namaste
^ + o, + t = or orror sastra
o; + = f hfday
^ + o = ^ 3?M ostha
o? + Off = f ffSr krsi

★ ★ ★
Table of consonants and Intra-syllabic
forms of vowels written together

FT FF ftr F?t FT ft ft ft?r ft FT

O 3
TF TFT # ft ft # ft TF
1 3
F SIT f^r ft 3 ft f T ftr F F
3 3
F FT fa ft sT ft ftr ft t ft F
3 3
F ft fa f t ft ft ft r Ft ft F
1 3
15 ®T % f t T5
O 3
ft ft # ■# 15 15
ft ftT fa f t ft ft ftr ftr ft ft
3 3
3T 5TT Hr ft 3 ft fr ftr ftr ft ft
Z FT fa ft
3 t t ftr ftr Z Z
z FT ft ft 3 3 ft % ftr ftr z Z
z FT ft ft
I 3 t f ftr ftr ft ft

z 5T ft ft 3
ft 1 ftr ftr ft Z
F cTT ft ft 3 3 ft ft ftr ftr ft F

ft ft! fa ft
3 3
ft ft ftr ftr ft ft

ft FT ft ft ft ft ftr ftr ft F
3 3
ST SIT ft ft ft ft sir ftr si ST
3 3
•T FT ft ft 3 ft ft ftr ftr ft F
F FT ft ft 3 3 ft ft ftr ftr ft F

FT FF ft r ftt ft; ft 'ftr FT FT

’S 3
«r FT ft ft 3 3 ft % ftr ftr ft ft

F FT ft ft 3 3 ft ft Ft ftr F F

F FT ft ft 3 3 ft ft Ft ftr F F

ST FT ft ft 3 3
ft ft ftr ftr ft F

T FT ft ft ft t fr ft f T
3 I
ft cTT ft ft
3 3 ft ft ftr ftr ft ft

F FT ft ft ft ft ftr ftr ft F
I 3
ft ftT ftr ft 3 3 ft ft ftr ftr ft ft

ft FT ft ft ft ft ftr ftr ft ft
3 3
F FT ft ft ft ft Ft ftr F F
3 3
F FT ft ft 3 ft t Ft ftr F F

ST STT ftr ft
3 3
ft ft ftr ftr ft ST

ft FT ft ft 3 ft ft ftr ftr ft ft
ft FT ft ft 1 3 ft ft ftr ftr ft ft

P ro n o u n s : Nom inative C ase -1
2 (f l^ T F T : - 1)

see pgs 206-219

* 1 we
(maim) ham

you (intimate sg.) 3TTC you formal; sg./pl.

(tu) ap honorific; sg.

W you (informal sg./pl. )


cji? dlJl you (informal pi.) 3TFT crTlJl you (formal pi.)
(turn log) people (ap log) people

non he, she, it % they

proximate (vah)

proximate W he, she, it they

(p|tt>dc(clT) (yah)

<t*il what (sg.) WT-^JT (what all

kya kya-kya pi.)

who (sg.) 'I’l'i who (pi.)

kaun kaun

^ T - ^ T who all (pi.)


Pronouns: Oblique Case see pg. 206
TJST (mujh) me FR (ham) + any ppn.
cjTT (tujh) you (intimate) (turn) you (informal sg./pl.)
cThlt (turn logom) you (informal pi.)
3TTC (ap) you (hon. sg.) 3fN/3nq (ap logom) you (formal pi.)
■^T (us) him/her (far) (un) them (far)
^ (is) him/her (near) ■^T (in) them (near)
f^T (kis) what, whom etc. (sg.) (kin) what, whom etc. (pi.)
(kisT) someone (sg.) (kinhim) someone (pi.)
• s ' Oblique pronouns are followed by one of the simple postpositions given
below or som e compound postposition, (see page 31).
Pronouns in accusative or dative form take the case ending *q>t ’ after
them. Some of them have an alternative contracted form as shown in
the table below:
^fi't'l, ^ to me FR^f, to us
cjsi'hl, to you (intimate)
cfRPt, to you (informal) 3flWf to you (formal)
cpT cM to you people(infor.) SIFT Hhtr 33 to you people(formal)
to him (far) 3 'lchl, 3T% to them (far)
to him (near) ^ to them (near)
farf to whom, (sg.) R>'ict>), to whom (pi.)
to someone (sg.) R>-$ct>) to someone (pi.)

Simple Postpositions in Hindi

to, for accusative, dative
% from, by instrumental, mode, ablative
since, than, with expression of time, comparatives
9T on, at ] locative
0, genitive, indicates possession
«■ Postpositions in Hindi function like prepositions in English. They follow
the noun, hence they are called postpositions. See pages 197, 247.

★ ★ ★
P o sse ssiv e C ase (^ w m * * * )
The p o ssessive form has the case endings 44,

**■ These endings precede the object p ossessed .

**■ They agree with the number and gender of the object p ossessed
and not with the number and gender of the possessor.
‘t'HCll CIS'M Kamla's son (
WTReTT #1 <=TS% Kamla's sons (m. pi.)
^ReTT Kamla's daughter (f- sg.)
't'Hell 4?) cisRiqi Kamla's daughters (

If the object p o ssessed is in the oblique case i.e. if it is followed by a

postposition, the masculine singular object is also preceded by

Examples :
Case m. pi.
Direct ^RTcTT m 4^=TT % m
Oblique <=r>-Hcii % 'EfT +ppn 't'Hcu % + ppn
Direct 3lPtd ^ sff^TcT %
Oblique 3|pTeT % +ppn arf^TeT % + ppn
,ppn = postposition
1a. ^ReTT brother of Kamla.
1b. ■fHcii % cR W T Room of brother of Kamla.
1c. ^ window of room of brother of Kamla.

In example 1a precedes TTf b e c a u s e i s in masculine singular.

Inexamplelb.^FT preceding changes to ^ because isfollowed

by another postposition ^T.

In example 1c. 4>Tfollow in g*^ also changes to ^ and<t>*KI changes

to 4 ^ because of the following postposition 4ft.

Some more examples : (see pg. 18)
1. #HcTTa the nest of a bird.
2. f%f^TT % in the nest of a bird.
3. their house
4. <w i»ir the door of their house
5. % W R l % 37TT above the door of their house
6. % 4?) two months vacation
7. 4^ ^ T t ^ during the two months' vacation

Pronouns in the P ossessive case f-pl. English

^RT my, mine
B^TRT F^rrft our, ours
aa your, yours (intimate)
pro your, yours (informal)
fPT cTHTT4tT cl)i?l % cJJT M 4?) c]TTcfhTt 4t) your/yours/ (informalpl.)
31lM=hl 3fN% STFRtT 311441! your.youis (formal; honorific)
3TPT ci|i|) 4W STPT cTtiTT % 3TR clh?l 3IN d)1?! youpeople's (formal; honorific)
his, her, hers, its nonproximate
W44 $fl4i) proximate
34411 their, theirs non-proximate
$44> S'I'fl proximate
R>H4t! whose, singular
R>-I4>l Rm*! whose,plural

**" T h e‘an’, ‘it’, endings of p ossessive pronouns depend upon the

N and G of the object p ossessed and not that of the possessor.

see pg. 254

★ ★ ★
Verb of Being - ‘t^TT*

The verb FPtt (= to be) is used in two ways :

(1) It conveys the being or existence of a thing, (see models 1,2,3 given below).
(2) It is used as an auxiliary of the main verb in all three tenses, present, past
and future in varied forms such as indefinite, continuous, perfect, etc.
(explained under separate headings in following chapters).

Model 1. Use of Wt*TT - present tense

Subject Verb
In the
present t i
tense ‘FPTT’
<J, FF, FF, F?PT (sg.) TFT, FFT-FFT (what all) %
agrees with
the number TJF, c£F cTlF
and not with
the gender FF, 3TR, %,
and person. F?PT (who pi.), F?PT-F?PT (who all)

Model 2. Use of FtFT past tense

ej, FF, FF, (sg.), FFT FT m. / f.
In the past
FT, e^F, 3TTF, %, <=h)-1 (pi.), •f’ld-'hl'i «T m. / # f.
and the
future tense
‘tPTT’ / Model 3. Use of FtFT future tense
agrees with / m.
the gender \
and number.X * ■|FT, F)<£i||
Person is \
FF, FF, F?PT (sg.), TFT dlJll FPft
important TJF, cjFdPl #P)
FF, 3TN, %,

Put *44T’ at the beginning of a sentence to change it to interrogative.
Put ’ just before the required form of Ft4T to change it to negative.

Examples :

1. 44T TJ4 it ? Are you ill ? :

2 . t 4#f f i I am not III.
3. w 4 i ^i^Tcfr t ? Is he diligent ?
4. 4 # f, 4 1 i t n d l 4 # f t I No, he is not diligent.

Sometimes the present form of ’ is used for future.

Examples :

1. f^41ctt 4^4 ^ ? When is DiwalT ?

2. 44T feTTcft 4 T 4 f t ? Is DiwalTthe day after tomorrow?
3. fcfT cft 4 T 4 f 4 # f I DiwalT is not the day after
4. f c f lc f t 3T4ef fc p r 1 1 DiwalT is next week.

Sometimes the present form of “lt4T’ is used when a situation or task

that began in the past, continues in the present and might continue in
the future.
Examples :

1. 4 1 4vf 4 # T ? % # 4 4 11 He has been ill for several months.

2 . 4T#4T 4IpT % STT 4T %I The postman has been at the door
since long.

1. 41 3F4T 11 He/She is inside.

2. % <g^i § I They are happy./ He(hon.) is happy.
3. ^ 4 4TTT4 I f ? Are you annoyed ?
4. 4F t I He/She is at school.
5. 14 44 4 ^4 t I It is sunny at this time.
6. 3TT44T4 ( # 4 t I The sky is blue.
7. 444; ( 414) t I The street is clean.

8. srrn 1 1 You are very kind.
9. 41hk I I am sick.
10. TOT ( 11 The mangoes are sweet.
11. ( 11 The milk is cold.
12. TO F it ( TO R t ? Is the yogurt sour ?
13. TO ( TTHT 11 The fruit is fresh.
14. teTT ( TOt 3?lT cffrTT 11 The food is stale and spicy.
15. FF ( Pi ^TTI He was disappointed.
16. TO ( teTOT ^ 1 We were troubled.
17. TO cjR (m.) TOT t ? Where were you yesterday ?
28. TOT FTte?T (f.) M I It will rain today.
19. TJF (m./f.) tTOT t e t t / t e M I You will be ill.
20. TO TO HMdFR' ( te n ? Will it be Tuesday tomorrow ?

More Examples — Use of p ossessive case

1. FF t e t ( 11 This is my book.

2. f f t e r *rrf ( 11 He is my brother.
3. t n t e (f.pi.) t ? Are they your sisters?
4. if t e t e ( 1 ? Whose children are they ?
5. t t e t e t e n t (f.pi.) t ? Whose books are these?
6. TOF> te n TO F R t t ? What does her father do ?
7. t e nT^ nn tor ( n r o 11 My brother's room is dirty.
8. g ro t te t ff R roter ( Your daughter's birthday is on
28 (ar^ster) s ite t e 11 28th April.
9. t o to (f.pi.) Tjrot ft We will come to your house
3ttefr i
10. f f ftemn t e r n ( 1? Whose camera is this?
11. t fte te t e f r t ( 1? Whose toys are these?
12. FF f t e t e j^PTF ( 1? Whose shop is this?
13. RTOT TOR ( 5HH4K F 1 Their servant is honest.
14. TORT FF TOFF ( ^fe'TO t 1 Kamla's son is intelligent.

Vocabulary : Verbs
**■ All Hindi verbs in their infinitive form have ‘TT’ ending :
uTFTT (v.i.) jana to go
3TFTT (v.i.) ana to come
(v.i.) uthna to get up
tSTT (v.i.) baithna to sit
<dHI (v.t.) khana to eat
^TT (v.t.) prna to drink
W tt (v.t.) dekhna to see
(v.t.) sun'na to hear
^TFTT (v.t.) sunana to narrate
(v.t.) sumghna to smell
(v.t.) cakhna to taste
(v.t.) kharTdna to buy
sH-11 (v.t.) becna to sell
^leRT (v.t.) bolna to speak
(v.t.) kahna to say
yes'll (v.t.) puchna to ask
tMdi (v.t.) karna to do
f?FTT (v.i.) hona to be
H0o*i 1 (v.t.) pafhna to read; to study
WTT (v.t.) pafhana to teach
teUfHI (v.t.) likhna to write
(e1<PlMI (v.t.) likhana to dictate
*i)tfHI (v.t.) slkhna to learn
HM1HI (v.t.) marhgna to ask for
^TT (v.t.) dena to give
rFiT (v.t.) lena to take
dlHI (v.t.) lana to bring
(v.t.) bhejna to send
(v.i.) calna to walk
*rPFTT (v.i.) bhagna to run
^FTT (v.i.) sona to sleep
^PTFTT (v.t.) jagana to wake somebody up
wTFFTT (v.i.) jagba to wake up

★ ★ ★
P resen t Sim ple ^ cN h )

Language structure : Present simple tense

subj. + obj. + v.r. + cfT, ift,

nom. case (if any) eft %, t

agree with the N and G

of the subject.

•s* This structure is used in the active voice both for transitive and
intransitive verbs.

Model v.t. <fti-il (to eat); v.i. “TFTT (togo)

subject object m. f. Ft-TT

ft HXl <slldl f
T F , *IF, - uTRTT ^Trft 1
wfRft ftr
F F , 3TFT, ft, ft -

**" Plural endings are used with singular honorific expressions.

**■ For negative constructions, put before the main verb.

In the present simple tense, the auxiliary verb ‘FftTT’ is dropped in
negative constructions; for feminine plural 'v.r. + <ft' is used.

1. ft ■qiqci ^Trft ^ncIT/^Trft I I don't eat rice.

2. ft 'Tift ^nft/Wlrft I They don't go to school.

*#■ For interrogative constructions, put “FFT' at the beginning of the
sentence before the subject.

1. W cJF FTFTT Tt# Ft/TIT# Ft? Do you eat rice ?

2. TFT FF TFFFT ^ncTT t / m # Does he/she go to school ?

|U ses of present simple tense in Hindi

For all activities carried out daily or at regular intervals.

1. 3 w 3 # f ftt f a # I learn Hindi three times

# F F T /# ff# f I a week.
2. F fd l # ^F F 'J H 'I let 1 1 Father goes for a walk daily.

For eternal truths and popular beliefs.
1. 3FT 1F: T I7 F fa m 1 F t# 1 1 Finally truth wins.
2. # # " • F T F F T T ^TTcTT t ; One bitten by a snake sleeps.
f a w m- F T Ch i c l T tF T 1 1 one bitten by a scorpion cries.

Scientific truths:
1. F T # # 3m F T # tc T F T 1 1 Water boils at 100° Celsius.
2. S IT # % f a y t # f 1 The earth revolves round the

□ Recurrence :
1. T F 1"- « T F - 5 [ F F F # F F T 3TTFT t , Whenever he visits us, he
f a - F - f a f # ft# ^ ft ?: 3 t M 11 brings along some trouble.
2. F F -F F F I S 1- 3TTcfr W K dl F T F F T # Whenever there are floods,
#T T ifa t 1 millions of villagers become
Live commentary:
1. F « H # f l m-hon- 3 P F T 3TTct 1 1 The Prime minister comes in.
2. F F f a ' ’1- ctlfcH'MI,pl F F # 1 1 The viewers clap.
Immediate future
1. 3T F # m- F eR T T f 1 Now, I shall go.
2. fa t, # • c jfa t 3TFFT OTFT Come, I will show you my
f a n # f l garden.

Reading - 1

1. SlffteT FFT TTScTI ft I Anil studies here.

2 3FJ FFT FScft f t 1 Anu also studies here.
3. ft FFT fftFTF F3ft ft 1 They both study science here.
4. aft ftft^R fft fftFTR FSlft ft 1 Mr Devendra teaches science here.
5. afftRft yflell ftt FFT FSTcft ft 1 Mrs. Sheila also teaches here.
6. ft FFT Slftftt Mfilftl ft I She teaches English here.
7. ftlftl 3THTTFRT FFTeT ft 1 Both the teachers ask questions.
8. 31Pi el 3?tT 3FJ «iqi«t ftft ft I Anil and Anu give answers.
9. srfftef 'ft«r ^JFF FTR R3FT ft 1 Anil gets up every day at 5 o'clock
in the morning.
10. FF Rcftt-RFftf FTFT 4R<1l ft, He quickly has a bath, has breakfast
RTFcTT FRFT ft, ftFR ftldl ft 1 and gets ready.
11. FftftR FfEIFT ft 1 He reaches college at 9 o'clock.
12. 3T^ ftt ^JRF cWFF FTR Rft Anu also gets up at about 5
^J5cft ^ 1 o'clock in the morning.
13. FF % t l FRrft ft 1 She walks every day.
14. °TF H<x»cTi Hh She studies two hours, has a bath,
FRcft ft, ’JRT FReft ft, tftR Reftt- does'Puja' and then has breakfast
Re-ftl -1iv?cil FRrft ft 1 quickly.
15. ftt ftt Fft FFftR FfFeft ft 1 She also reaches the college at 9
16. ft ftPft FftTFT 12 (f R f ) Fft WFT They both have lunch at 12 o'clock
<ftIcl ft I at noon.
17. ft HN Fft RTF fttft ft; WT ^T U: They have tea at 5 o'clock; they
dft *K cftccl ft I return home at 6 o'clock in the
18. ft ftPft Tfa 3RFFR FSft ft I They both read the newspaper
19. ft STTFTTIFFft FT m t *JRft ft I They listen to the news on the
20. ft ftrftt F^-Frftt ^TF#T ftxfft ft I Sometimes they watch TV.
21. 3TPTH fftFR FRTFT ft I Anil plays the sitar.

22. 3FJ TFTT TTTcft 1 1 Anu sings a song.
23. 3TfcniH<t> ^1% f | The teachers often listen to music.

Reading - 2

3TFT W f ?

: 3 (P ld ^fl, 3TR TTT <Mrl t ? Mr Anil, what do you do ?

3 )fd d : t fe lT # f 1 1am a student.

■^Hd : 3ITT T m H6cl !? ? What do you study ?

3 |p ld : t f^TPT W |l 1study science.

T JW : ^ s 5 tr 3TFT T*fT cb<c1 ? Mr Sudhir, what do you do ?

W 3TFT felT sJ f t ? Are you also a student ?

■ # f^T T ^f 1; No, 1am not a student;

^ 3T Sm W f 1 1am a teacher.

T^Tcf : sm w M<picl ? ? What do you teach ?

: ^ fe fF T W T f 1 1teach science.

^ T ef : t^ fld l ^ t , STTT T m ct’ <r?l ? ? Miss Sunita, what do you do ?

: 3 fa a r ff f i 1also am a student.

: 3TR T*fT t ? What do you study ?

W 3 tN f e f F T TTpcft t ? Do you also study science ?

^% T T : ^Tff, # % TFT *T5rft; No, 1don’t study science;

^ TPflcT # s R f t f 1 1learn music.

•hHel : 3TH W T T ? fft t ? Where do you live ?

^•■fldl : iM lfeW T TFrft f l 1live at Godoliya.

T^Tcf : a u r Tfrr et>I^«i 3nr¥t t ? How do you come to college ?

^•ftcTT : <M R'rJl % 'W eld 3TRft i | 1 1come to college every day by

't'Hd : srfftcf 'ft, 3TR TFft ft ? Mr Anil, where do you live ?
3iPt ci : ft ftt ftftfcRT ft TFcTT f j I also live at Godoliya.
4^*TcT : 4*fT 3IK ftt f e f t ft Do you also come to college
snft ft ? by rickshaw ?

3|plCl : ^rftf, ft fftfft ft No, I don't come to college by

3FFT 1 ft UlsRxri ft 3TTcTTf 1 rickshaw; I come by bicycle.

ct'*td : =FTT ^ FI^fftcT ft 3t]ft- Do all students commute by

^rft ft? bicycle ?

3|pid "ft, SfPWrR « i ^ d ft Well, most students commute

3nft-«nft ft i by bicycle.
4o^ fttf’ ft 3flft ft | Some students come by bus;
f e f t ft snft ft i some students come by rickshaw.

4vRcT : 3tr cifti ferft «rft What time do you arrive at

F p ft ft ? college ?

3)pld FT dhi cfTWT ^ wft ('ft) We people arrive at college at

‘Plcld F|ftft ft 1 about 9 o'clock.

^Tcf : 3TFT dftl ^ (ftt) ft fefft From 9 o'clock until when do

wft cRt ft TFft ft ? you remain in the college ?
SlPfcf : FF cftJT Fj^F ^ (ftt) Often we remain in college
ft WF 4ft % , (?5:) 4ft cW from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.
44^4 ft XFft ft 1

Read R-1

★ ★ ★
P ast Habitual ^ d + ld )

The language structure of the past habitual tense is exactly the same
as that of the present simple except that the past tense forms of ‘t^TT’
i.e. ‘*TT’, ' are used to agree with the number and gender
of the subject.
Language structure: Past habitual tense

subj. + obj. + v.r + rTT, rft + *n, *), *St,

nom. case (if any)

agree with the N and G of the subject

Model v.i. "fPTT (to go); v.t. ^PTT (to eat)

subj. f. sg.

raidi ®TT I, you (intimate)

*IF, 'hid, W «tld l *TT «TRft he, she, it used to
eat /go
we, you (informal)
3TFT, %, tFTrft sift you (honorific)
F?FT (pi.), «TRfr «st they, who (pi.)
3?Ft-^ F t (who all)

» Put before the main verb to make negative sentences.


1. #"■ «(x|4d if xiiqci tFTcfT *TTI i did not use to eat rice in my childhood.
2. ^ F '3f ^ t d#f ^cTT I Formerly, he didn't use to get up
early in the morning.
w Put ‘5FTT’ at the beginning of a sentence before the subject to make
interrogative sentences.

Examples :

1. W W FT if ^FFtef TTT% £f ? Did you use to eat rice in your

childhood ?
2. TFT FF"1' T]FF «fr3t F6cll KIT ? Did he use to get up early in the
morning ?


1. FTT ( FFTTTT if T # $ I We used to live in Banaras.

2. ( FF FfjTT 3f FS% ^ I The children used to study in this


3. FF Ft^cT ( FFT F#f FfrTT *FT | This hotel didn't use to be here.

4. FF ( F^ft 3FJFf^FF Fl?f Ffcft She never used to be absent.


5. FFT FF (f.) T]FF FRft *ft ? Did she use to go for a walk in the

6. FFT T£F (f.) FfTF FScft «ff ? Did you use to study a lot ?

7. ftFT (m.hon) F^FTT FFl^ trFJ Father always used to bring

FFFTT c=n% ^ I presents for us.

8. FTFT (f.hon.) ^*)Dll FFT^ feTF Mother always used to cook

WlR^d # 1 ^FTTcft «ff I deliciousfood for us.

9. irtt F#f FFF ( FT FFF ^T My older sister used to shout at

FT r^UrcllcD *ft I me all the time.

10. FF ( FFcff % % FT F5FF: We used to climb up the tamarind

FFTft TTlt $ I tree and eat tamarind.

See R-9, Ft-10

★ ★ ★
Im perative

■s’ In Hindi the imperative language construction varies with (1) tense and
(2) the form of the pronoun ^ tJ*T, 3TFT of the 2nd person addressed.

**■ Language structures and given below are used for immediate
commands to be followed in the present and language structure is
used for deferred commands to be followed later.

Language structure Present Imperative RRi+ld)

1. ^ +v.r.
2. c)TTA|*T cTftT + (v.r. + sfr )
3. 3TR/3TN/c%T + (v.r. + ^ / m )

■*■ When the v.r. ends in a consonant (see example 4- model 1) vowel
symbols for ‘3ft’ and V are used with ‘^T’ and '3 ^ ' respectively.


Infinitive (cfm) 3TPT (eft^T)

1. ^TPTT (to go) «fT '^rwt ^rntT

2. (to sleep) *ft

3. (to narrate) ^TT ^TT3TT

4. (to sit) % ts t


^ 1tt3 ! You (intimate) read !

^3T3tT ! You (informal) e a t!
3TN ! You (formal) teach I

Language structure Q subjunctive imperative

**■ Another very polite form of present imperative is 3TFT+ (v.r. + tj; )
This is not used with c^ort^f

Model Q

Infinitive 3im

«1MI - - ullU,

ttlHI - -

- -

Language structure Q future imperative (mtST faltl+ici)

1. ^ or c p ( # tt) + infinitive

2. ‘am + (v.r. +

**■ ‘Irrespective of the gender of the person addressed as 'arm', ‘m ’

ending is used.
Model Q

Infinitive m ./f. m ./f.

^ /g T r (c fm ) 3rrr ( c f r r )


Hit'll q fe iy n


1 • tITT ■t>t'ii I Cross the road carefully !

2. am anpft m SZTPT <.R=i^ ii l Take care of your health !
3. ^FSTT TfmT&ft % ?TmT *RT W I I Don't quarrel with your classmates.
4. wiTtNie m ft *i«ticitt><. l Please drink boiled water in the

Given below is a list of irregular verbs that change differently
from the rules explained above.
verb inf. % 3* 3TR 3TPT

RPTFP f^TT pres. imp. fut.imp. pres.imp. subjunct. fut.imp.

^RT RT fj'ii 4)Rip, cf

efRT eM 1 c ftftR ef

R^TRT rr: rrcrt R^fftpr R ft

#TT * fa ff # n itftr c ; ftp?

yfl'll ftp S t 'ftRT 3 R r, ftp ?

#TT f^T3?r ^TT tftftp r ftp ? tflftpyil

tU s iy ii

WV s53Tt
O t5^TT

«■ When verb roots end in long ’ or *3;’ they are changed to short and
short before adding ‘3ft’ or ^ Y 1^ ’ I Also in som e ca ses the
consonant ^T’ is infixed before a d d in g ^ / ^ |

e .g . # T T =s> ftf3Tt; = » *53?!; # T T =s> it f t p r

Negative imperative is made by putting t*Rf’ or ‘-T’ before the verb.

Usually ‘*RT’ is usedwith or *5 ^ ’ and V is used with ‘3fN’. However
there is no strict rule and in spoken language ‘Ref’ is often used with
‘3 n r and V with or ^ ’ I


3TPT -T 3 fit!, I Please don't sit here.

3 fN *TPT R I Please don't drink tea.
cJR dPl ^ PT RR -^<sl I Don't climb up the tree
RcT R ef <alci) Don't turn the tap on.
R u ft RR ^ T ^ t I Don't turn the light off.

Simple responses to requests, com m ands:
Response sR W T f / « H l r f t f I
Imperative : ^M TT'G TW tl
Response 3T*ff i| I
Imperative W t !
Response 3 p ft ^ ? T T f / W r i t f I
Imperative F F ftftc T T ^ I
Response : 3 P ft ftcTRTT f / ftc F c ft f I
Imperative FT <r(I'-h ^<1 !
Response 3 n ft ^FTFT f / F R T f t f I

U s e s o f Im p era tiv e

1. f w 3TFrrtt tff Please have dinner with us next

FfaFT I tIRiV, | Sunday.
2. ^FT ? Would you like to have a cup of tea?


1. 3TN W T F ff I You sit here all evening and study.

2. TTtT FFHT SFF I Stop making a noise.
3. ts% % Fgct 4<4MI FTTf I Close the door before sitting down.


1. f W FF % Tf FFF Could you help me to move the

i table please ?
2. fT O iTft 3TTt fifTCFFT^r | Could you pass me the salt please ?
3. fFFT F hftt 3 RT^r | Could you bring the chair out in the
garden ?

See R-2, pg. 342

★ ★ ★
C om pound P o stp o sitio n s

■ Compound postopostion (% + ...)

% on
% under
% outside
% 3F5T inside
% H iy, % near
% snrr ahead
% *ff# behind
% in front of
% *rm with
^ « fK /% after
% Mgc) before
% Rm i /R h i x % without/ without X
% 3 |fM ^ k 1 /% 3teTM besides
% if about
% tIFT at the place of
% fere; for
% rerm because of
% y elcl because of
% reV reft because of
% inspite of

«*■ Noun or pronoun + (%+ ...) eg. ^ W ’ are written as shown below.

1 Noun + TRT’

TPT % MKH near Ram

% MW near the table

2 Pronoun+ ^ W

c£F c?RTt % TM near you people (informal, pi.)

3TR% TO near you (formal, honorific, sg./pl.)
3TR c^HTY % FTCT near you people (formal honorific, pi.)
TO^ TO near him/her (proximate)
TO% TO near him/her (non-proximate)
$-!<?> to near them (proximate)
tot? t o near them (non-proximate)
to near whom (sg.)
f^T% TO near whom (pi.)
TO near somebody
^ to near some people (pi.)

3 But:

^ + %TW =S> ftft: TO near me

FT + %TO =» FFlft TO near us
^ TRT =5> ftft TO near you (intimate)
+ % TFT =>> g>*Fi'l TO near you (informal)

Comprehension -1
1. ^ 3FR "FcS I Climb up the tree.
2. % 'fl^ 73F I Keep under the table.
3. *R T> ^TFT «TT3?T I Go out of the house.
4. TO^ % 3FTT 3rrm I Come into the room.
5. TO$ TO tfe m Sit next to her/him.
6. TTjel 4'4<fl4> 7FF7I Stay near the school.
7. TfOTTOft 4?t F l i t % 3TPt gfrFT The policewan was ahead
FT^f 8ft I of the Prime Minister's car.
8. # f M T ft i Behind him were horse riders.
9. <lH % ^TT % ttinft 3TFT % ftF ^ I In front of Ram's house are mango
10. TF 0«l FT*? TTO
C\ m<ft t I She goes to school with me daily.
11. TF TO 3fft % ^TTcTT t I He sleeps after 10 o'clock.

12. ft 4T4 «rft 4> 45c) 4J15ft) I I get before 5 o'clock.
13. ftcf ftt fft-TT W T ^ I Cook without oil.
1 4 . 4>4c1l % R )4I T R ft TTTftt 4 5 4 ) Except Kamla every one had worn a
1^ ^ 1 sarT Kamla.
15. 4^ft ft 4JF?Tft 3)|clR4d # T # T t ? Besides you who else is in the room.
16. ft «flft ft F4 4F5 RFTrft f l I know everything about him.
17. TFT arfftcf ^ F5T 3RFT RldT % I Ram often goes to Anil's house.
18. 54lft fcfF ^FTT ^TT3Tt I Cook food for us.
19. RTR ftftFT ^ 44444 3TM «nft 4T Because of bad weather children
F ill are at home today.
20 . 4ftf % Rift ft 44.9IM t I Because of heat they are troubled.

Compound Postpositions (4ft +...)

4ft d <.4i, 4ft 3ttT in the direction of 4ft sf^dd because of

4ft d<5, 4ft ftffft like 4ft 4RcT about
4ft 3Ff?n compared to 4ft 4^4F ft because of
4ft d45 in place of 4ft HK4id through
4ft f f t w compared to 4ft 47^ like

**• Noun or pronoun (4ft + ...) + ftft d T V are written as shown below.

1 Noun + ftft cR4i’

4T 4ft d<4> in the direction of house,

<MI 4ft d<4) in the direction of the king.

2 Pronoun + ftft dOb’

cftftl 4ft d<4> towards you people (informal pi.)

3TR4ft/3nTT cftftl 4ft d <4i towards to you/you people (formal hon.)
4J7T4ft/lFT4ft d<4) towards him/her (prox./non prox.)
^ T 4 ft/^T 4ft cTTF towards them (prox./non prox.)
R |44ft/R 'd4ft d<4) towards whom
f f tf tW /f f t^ f t cRF towards somebody

3 But:

+ Fit FTF) =*> FftFTFT towards me

FF + Fit cKFj =*> FFTft d<F> towards us
^ + Fit dOfr =*> MtdTFT towards you (intimate)
cJF + Fit FTFj =*> ^ F fftF F F towards you (informal)

Comprehension - 2
1. F F eTcTT *FlyiF>< F?t c R F F lrtt 1 1 She sings like Lata Mangeskar.
2. FTFT F>t d<H> F I Dont' go in the direction of the city.
3. F F F f^ T F^t 3 f)T FT T it f I We are going in the direction of the
4. s t if f s « r e W * t n ^ w r t § 3 tt i Because of you I was also welcomed.
5. F F F ? t FIFTT ^ FOF ? F # f «RTT W TCNT I I cannot tell anything about him/her.
6. TFT F>t 3Ft?TT FFFit FFF yFltl Compared to Ram his sister is more
F ^ T O ^ fe 1 1 intelligent.
7. ^ F T t t cF F T F T # F?t F F F % * tft Because of your negligence I had
d fid Flf^T I a big loss.
8. F fc T ^F T ^t "HTF Ftcft, F t T h f % If I were in your place I would drown
^ F F T rtt I myself because of shame.
9. TFTf % W t ^flFTT F?t H K F id Sharma ji sent for me through his
■g^t ^di ^rt i servant.
10. eFJ F>SlPlF) F?t PltFd Fifadld, I find poems more interesting than
3rfsJF> cFTrft f I short stories.
1 1 . F ^ f t r ? t ^ t Tj^FTt F F f* m F?t Hardly anyone is shameless like
*11^ P lc f'jF FtFT I this friends of yours.
1 2 . *tTT F F t 3TM FTFT TfteFt F^t I feel like sitting indoors and
F F T F 3 F F T t S F F iJTFFfF ^TFT watching television instead of going
FlU, I out to play.
13. t ^ 3TTF £ t F?t F T F F t F I am also thinking exactly like you.
14. FTt FT F F R F?t 3ttT I just saw him going in the direction
Fir) ^<FI I of the post office.

«*• % is used before *# (beyond), (without), (far)

1. What is beyond this mountain?

2 . F T # T T T i F #T T cft # T firT #?TTcT In front of us was a huge field
iFT-T TT I without greenery.
3. srE# FT TFFT TFT % # K # t ^T I ? How far is the children's school
from here.

# can be in place of # before - arri, i t # , ^

1 . T#t n r r % ^ p fiti The train arrived before time.

2 . TfTsfr ^ t tt# an# ttt nt i i Gandhi ji was walking ahead of
every body.
3. TFft t^ht # tt # i t # ! i Rani lags behind every body in class.
4. TPTT # TF# Tl'Tffcl'h FTfvFT The cultural program will be before
fmii i food.

US’ Normally #RTT, t i n , “T iT ’, ‘TlV are often used before noun or

pronoun + # as shown in the examples below.

1. t o r # rr # t # 3 # Titrr tt T>n I did not eat anything except khicari

T it <aitii i for a whole month.
2 if n r t%n # t f t # M f i I drink tea without sugar.
3. n tn 3nr# i tf tft t ft ; I will not be able to do this work
ft# # i without you.
4. t# ntT # m T bm r i i Everyone was troubled because of
5. ■ip # T # # n FT #FFT TFT TT I I was dying from hunger.

IS­ X # T # / T # X # is synonym of X # TTW , X F i nTF #

All of them give reason for an activity.

OS' However‘X # T # ’/ T # X # is used when the reason is too strong to

be ignored or neglected.

■S’ t i n + v .r. + tr’/ v .r . + xt +

1 ftd i (ft-11 TFF f t r 1cannot stay without eating even
■tft 7?T xraT i for a day.
2 Hsft <He11^ Riv, ftn l (ft'll dcll5 Don't decide anything without
feTCr) X® fftvfa ^ ft^T | taking advice from me.

o r Often %’ is u sed after so m e p o stp o sitio n a s sh ow n below .

eg. % W fft ^ W ^ «fTFT $

1. tft strft m % w r f t % 1saw you pass by my house.

Pi+fift sn i
2. THt^TT % *ft# ^ 3TT34T 1 Come from the backside of the
3. x m r r ^ w ^ F^rft m x t xr^err A road to our house goes from
XTcTT 1? 1 near the post office.
4. 3fM 3i^Hdlei ^TFT ft 3FFT FT There was strict vigilence on
3FFT ft FTFT «ift<fl<ft FT T^f people going from outside into
f^TTPfr ^ 1 or from inside out of the hospital.

S o m e more com pou n d p ostp osition

x f t #FT -Y dX from 'X' to 'Y'

Xft FRTX - via 'X'
x f t ft i N t - through 'X'
X % FSXT (= X % yFTFT') - more than 'X'
x x t ftx r (= ftr x m ’) - with 'X'
x ft) # f x t (= ‘ft; f t r r ’) - without 'X'

1. W dftft % cW i T d dftft d4> Put up the tent from this corner

ct>r1ld el 41 Ft 1 to that corner.
2. ft fM F S ft FftTT fftecft XTXFT 1 1will go to Delhi via Lucknow.
3. XTT % ferq 3TTFft) FXTft You will have to go through our
TTcft ft ft FftX XFTT FtFI 1 lane in order to go to their house.
4. <^cdl ft <siftei d^ft <ft 51*4 •tfitx in games Anil is far ahead of you.
ftt 1 1
5. ft ft! dft efaX ftfftT XTXft 1 1will go to temple with mother.
6. x i Don't go without me.
7. XXdft sftxX>T <rt«1ft dl^l Heft) 8ft 1 Except her everyone had worn a

Useof'3ftT’ (f.), ‘cRxP’ (f.) — Direction

1 As a rule ‘‘ft’ precedes '3ftT' and “dTV (meaning direction). However,

when expressions ' (right), ‘dft;’ (left) precede them, “f t ’ is used
instead of “ftV.

Tfftr ft dT4i To the right of the temple.

Fl^dT f t 3ftT To the left of the post office.
2 When it is a movement towards a certain direction only 4?) precedes
3ftT or dTTT.

1. F^cf ftf dTTi 'STTSTTI You go in the direction of the school.

2. 4F ftt 3f)r «ndT I1 He goes in the direction of the shop.

3 When ‘3flT’ or ‘dT V are used to mean more than one direction or
location,^? precedes them.
1 . % % ftftf d7<T cdTrj 73% |
People were standing on both
sides of the table.
2. % % ^TTTf aftr cfft Tables and chairs had been
ft I arranged all around the tree.
3. dsm % ft-rf 3t)t 3u<tft Tte Men were running on both
t! 2r i ides of the road.
4. ^ ft f t r d^Iftft dTETTft ft I Girls were dancing all round the well,

4 When location is meant, both f t /f t t + adjectival expression +

'aftr’/'d T V are used.


1. Tff^T f t Tift 3T1T 11 Canteen is on the right side of

• <$>"-cT1h 4% Tift f t r 11
2. ftft ft- ft/ftt TTft ftr fttd tc5T I? Who is sitting on the left side of
the minister?
3. tJdft/ftt dfft 3TtT TJdftt Tcft His wife is sitting on his left side.
tft I I

★ ★ ★
9 To Have W F far)

■ Hindi language structure corresponding to the English verb "to have"

regarding possession of inanimateobjects where the ownership is not
necessarily permanent.
Language structure Q

subj. + %W + obj. +
agree with the of the object

( 1
eft, <p?ft key
3m#, ^ #
# # (f.pi.) t

Put *SRT’ before the subject to make interrogative.

W 3m # W t ? Do you have the key ?

•** P u t b e f o r e t / t to make negative.

^ W ^ 11 I don’t have the key.


1. m # % W t I My child has many toys.

2 . ^ # ’qrcr # # ^ «t#T I 1 She has silver pots.
3. 'WeTT % W ^TT t ? What does Kamala have ?
4. ^ # W o 11 He / She has nothing.
5. # tf# W I? Does anyone have a Banarasi saree?
6. ^rff, wt # tf# w sprraft ^r#r No, nobody here has a Banarasi
^rff 11 saree.

7. T F ft % W 4?FT-TTT # F T T t ? Which camera does Rani have ?
8. 4FT 344^ Hid Tgc74'T t? Do you have small money?
9. W 3lfaeT #; w Tnfr t ? Does Anil have a car ?
1 0 . FT, TFT F # 1 1 Yes, he has a car.
11. 3tf# fft R>chi tfft fft t ? How much time do you have
12. 4TTT f^PT? FT F4% ? I I have only two weeks remaining.
1 3 . 3TW W 4? t# t 'sft 11 I don't have a single penny today.
1 4 . 3TF1% Hid 4 ? l4 -q T |'i % FF% j, ? What ornaments do you have?

■ Hindi language structure corresponding to English verb 'to have'

regarding p ossession of animate objects such as one's kith and kin,
limbs of the body and also permanent p ossession s such as land, etc.


possessive personal 1. Relations such as 1

pronouns or brothers, sisters, or
nouns with children etc. t
44/% /4it 2. Limbs of the body
3. Permanent possess- agrees with
ions such as house, number of
property in general the object


1. TFT rfM FF% ? I Ram has three sisters.

2. Ft F^TT <Tpf f? I I have two strong legs.
3. ^T% 4 ^ f*TF 11 They have many friends.
4. ift 3^T # T 4F%' f I I have two brothers and three sisters,
5. FFTTT Ttef 4444 11 We have a house.
6. TFT 4^ FTTcT «p^N-X5fFRK t I Ram has a lot of landed property.
7. FTT 4 ^ 4?f IS: cTht f? I This insect has six legs.
8. TMT 4417TT 4?f ^ TFFI TT4> King Dasrath had no progeny till
TTTTFT 4 I this time.

★ ★ ★
P re se n t and P ast
P ro g ressiv e T en se s
(W r* T c k Fh 'H ^

Language structure : Present progressive tense

subj. + obj. + v.r. + TFT, 7%, + ^ t,

nom. case (if any) T#t Ft, t
agree with N and G of the subject

Model: v.i. TTTT (to go); v.t. TTTTT(to eat)

Subject v.r. m. f. f Ttt

ft t
TfT (who sg.), W
r]T, c£T cftT W
FT, 3TR, %, 7f, t Tt (who pi.)
t Tt - t Tt (who all)

**■ Put “m ’ before the subject to make Interrogatives.

TTT TF TT TFT t ? Is he going?

TTT r)T T3 Tl? Ft ? Are you studying?

Put ‘Tiff ’ after the verb root to make negative. '-Tiff ’ may be put before
the verb root with slight shift of emphasis. Auxiliary ‘f Ttt ’ is usually
dropped in negative sentences in the present progressive tense.

TT Tiff TFT I lam not going.

TF TS Tiff TFT I He is not studying.

More Examples: Present simple progressive

1. 45%
O mpl- Fftp 7? f I The dogs are barking"1.
2 . fftrftft’s U||d,-*-md, ^ 7# ft1 The cat is mewing.
3. 7fft ft I It is snowing.
4. FlfftiT Ft 7 # ft I It is raining.
5. eis^m.pi. ^ FT 7ft f; | The boys are climbing up the tree.
6 . T#"- FFT? TFT ft1 The sun is shining.
7. '♦'■Hell'- F # Fell Tift ft I Kamla is turning the light on.
8. TTF1"' FTft «j?IT 7FT ft1 Ram is turning the light off.
9. FT#" TFft at TFT ft1 The washerman is washing the
10 FT# FcT 7 # ft1
. The train is moving.
11. Fftf SR FT TRTfRT 7FT ft I Somebody is knocking at the door.
12 . ftf- T^ft Fft ^JefT Tift ft1 Mother is putting the child to sleep.

Put FT, ft, ftt, ftf to agree with the N and G of the subject to make
sentences in the past progressive tense.

Examples : Past simple progressive

1. FeT Tftef TFT FT I Somebody was turning the tap on.

2. FT#FT- FIT FRT TFT FT I The postman was delivering the mail.
3. TJF"1 TeT fftr FT TFT T I tI ^ ?
What were you doing all day
yesterday ?
4. TFT FTT- 5Jj5 # T Tift ftf ? Was she telling a lie ?
5. ft#"- # FTFF ft 7ft ft I The minister was giving a speech.
6 . Fld|J|U|m.pi. ft 7ft ft I The audience was listening
7. Rqeii^lmpl- fftrR %eT 7ft ft I The players were playing cricket.
8 F ftrmpL %^T
. 3TFRF ft 7ft ft I The viewers were enjoying the game.
9. TeT FTTF Fft ?#■ TFT FT Tift ft! ? Where were you going yesterday
evening ?
10 . FF"lpl fftftFT ft^ft FT Tft ft I We were going to see a film.
11 . TFT TJF1"- FTTF ft WTR TT 7ft ft ? Were you doing business in India ?
12. Tft! ft m'FT7rT FFF TR TFT FT I No, I was touring India.
See pg. 312; R-3-4

★ ★ ★

P resen t and P ast Perfect
11 P ro g ressiv e T en se s
(dldc^dl ^ ^RFT ^ le r)
In Hindi the present perfect progressive is like the present simple progressive
**■ A time clause usually follows the subject. However its position can
shift with emphasis.

«*■ Time expressions relatedto pointas well as period of timearefollowed

by the same postposition %’ (unlike 'since' and 'for' in English).

«*■ Unlike the other perfective tenses in Hindi, in the present progressive
p erfect,th esu b jectisin th en om in ativecase(n otfollow ed b y)b oth
for transitive as well as intransitive verbs.

■s* We use this language structure to talk about activities that began in the
past and continue upto present; they may or may not continue into the

Language structure : Present perfect progressive tense

subj + time expression + obj. + v.r. + <.Sl, Tf? + ^ F t, ?

nom. case followed by %' (if any)

agree with G and N of the subj.

M odel: Present perfect progressive tense

subj. time clause obj. v.r. m. f. FPn

n TS t
dlddK % d'Tld TFT, 1
Rwci %
F*T, 3TN, % TdTft % fofFT M
<jdI T$\ t
d'H (pi.) TTTcf % [sWc

•a* For the past perfect progressive tense, use FT, instead
of f , t , Ft, 1 1
Present perfect progressive
1. 1 have been waiting for you since
FT T^t f 1 7 o'clock in the morning.
2. FFTTT # 4 TTTcT % i f “|F ^ Kamla has been working in a bank
FTF# t l for three years.
3. XT4> ^*+cl % <4lR.J#l Ft Tf?t i 1 It has been raining for one week.
4. ^F F>4 % PlcK full'll Tit How long have you been learning

Ft ? to play the guitar ?

5. TR ‘f ^t t ’ TFfte^ F* IcTF; # F Ram has been saving money for

TTTef % FFT TFT i 1 three yearsto buy a scocrter.
6. FF Plsicl FTF 4 ^ % FT?
O Fs?f He has not been doing anything for
F^T TFT (i) 1 the last five years.
7. FFft T^cT % f^FTlif Ft TTTcT % %eT The students of our school have not
ylctFlPtcll FFT F#( 7T? t 1 been participating in the sports
competition for two years.
Past perfect progressive
1. FF Ft F^f % IlMt ite r TFT FT 1 He had been learning Hindi for two
2. TFT FTTF F ^ % FT TTPT) FT TFT Ram had been cleaning the house
FT 1 since 12 o'clock.
3. TJF <HKF i F>F i FFRR FT T i How long had you been doing
2r? business in India ?
4. TF i TTF^ i focTT, FF F?i FFf % When 1 met Robert, he had been
FTTF-WT FT TFT FT 1 travelling in India for several years.
5. T5FFTT Ft i t % FFfFTFT F^FT The students had been having a
FT FFTT FT T i ^ 1 debate on environmental pollution
for two hours.

★ ★ ★
P ast Sim ple T ense
12 (flIH H J W T )

P resen t Perfect T ense (^ F ^ I ct)

P ast Perfect T ense ^TcT)
In Hindi, language structures in the past simple tense, the present
perfect tense and the past perfect tense are very similar with only
slight variations.
nr in all these three tenses, the student must carefully discriminate
between transitive and intransitive verbs.
■3* For both transitive as well as intransitive verbs, (v.r. + 3CT, ~i) is used.
» For transitive activities, the verb endings agree with the N and G of the
However if the object is not clearly stated, form of the verb is
■3* For intransitive activities, the verb endings agree with the subject.
nr The subject of a transitive activity is followed by ^ in the past simple
and other perfective tenses as shown in the tables given below:

Nominative case - 2 (¥9cW

singular plural
^ I & & We
You (intimate) %
You (sg. informal) You (pi. informal)
You 3IN')/3nTT cil'Tl %
(hon.; formal sg./pl.) You (formal pi.)
he, she, it (near) they (near)
he, she, it (far) vj'gR they (far)
who (sg.) who (pi.)
somebody (sg.) I V ^ somebody (pi.).
'X' ^ where 'X' stands for a proper noun.

qlcm (to speak), ^cHI (to forget), cTPTT (to bring), q^'ii (to talk
nonsense) though transitive verbs, their subject is not followed by ^
in the past tense, and the verb agrees with the subject.

WRTTT (to cough), i (to sneeze) are intransitive verbs but their
subject is followed by ^ in the past tense; the verb is always in m. sg.,
third person form.

Changing the verb infinitive to past participle

Q Vowel symbol for 3fT, f , f is added to the verb roots ending in

(to taste) W fast R#

<4lcHI (to open) talcii facft # #
c~n rv
IrWfUl (to write) leKPtl ffafT fa # lek^l
(to get up) \36l 3# 3#
tSRT (to sit down) ^61 t# t£ f

‘^T’ is added to the verb roots ending in ‘3fT’, ‘aft’ ‘i^ ’-t * long '
changed to s h o rt‘s ’ 1


<3I'll (to eat) iftWI Rrcf
RRT (to sleep) rRt fa f Rtf
*#TT (to drink) fan Pm # if

‘3TT’ is added to th e verb roots ending in <3^'; long “s ’ is changed to

s h o rt‘s ’

infinitive fpi.

to touch *53?T
O IP ¥ I*
to leak w IP S*

Q Irregular v erb s:

infinitive f-pi-

•*><.'11 to do fe<1l fen;

SMl to be W1 IS & &
«IMI to go nn; -ni
^'ll to give fe n fe l ft ft
el'll to take lei <11 eft eft

Language structure Past simple tense : v.i. 3<SHI

subject (v.r. + 3U/qT, \ f , i )

agree with the N and G of the subj.

Model Q Past simple tense : v.i. «fPTT

subject m. f.
^ nn, nn
%5T, nf
chl'i, nm
nn, cjn(eTtn),
3rm(<feT) nn[ t£f, n f
(PI.) (who all)

Language structure Present perfect tense, v.i.

subj. + ( v.r. + srr/Ti/^ ) + i t , ? t, t

agree with the N and G
of the subj.

Model Q Present perfect tense : v.i. ^TTFT

subject main verb auxiliary

m. f.

* f

+1h , fft

F^ Ft


*), F?tF (who pi.) %

chtH-chtd (who all)

To make past perfect tense, use «TT, 4t, instead of I , Ft,

Model Q Past perfect te n s e : v.i. FTFT

subject main verb+auxiliary main verb + auxiliary

m. f.

3, SL FF,

FF, F^lF FFT FT F^ ?tt


FF, 3TR )
FF F^ #
*t, F?TF (who pi.)
FtF-FtF (who all)
Language structure Q Past simple tense v.t. W T

(subj + %) + obj. + ( v.r. + W /T I /f /i )

agreeTwitiTNTand G ^f the object

Model Q Past simple tense : v.t. 'SfTFTT

subj. object verb

tt-d <i (

( <414,

3 ^ (f sg )

^ (f P i) qff

Language structure Q Present perfect tense v.t. WTT

(subj.+ ^) + obj. + ( v.r. + a n / i y ^ ) + 1, I

agree'with N and G of "the object

Model Q Present perfect tense : v.t. ^TFTT

subject object verb

ti'-cKi ( <4141 S? 1

e-cA ( it; ? 1


STFT cl) 4)%, 3 ^ (f sg.) q £ tf i

3 ^ (f-P1-) q£t 11

**■ To make past perfect tense, use *TT, instead of t , t I

Model Q Past perfect tense v.t. <4MI

subject object main verb+auxiliary

f f ^t, tf'-cui <4141 FT t4TC( «T
3rIH■-), 3TTF dhil^, Htd't' F^t ?st
3<d4i F^t €

Past simple tense v.i.

1. TF ( 444 3fT4T I He came yesterday.

2. 4F^T ( 444 3(T^ | My sister came yesterday.
3. (f.) FTCcf 4*4 Ff^ff ? When did you arrive in India ?
4. ■*¥ (f.) 'HKd FF^ 9^4) I I arrived in India last week.
5. 4F ( 44F <5FTT ? Where did he stay ?
6. 4F ( #TZ44 $ 3FTTI He stayed in a hotel.
Past simple tense v.t.

1. 4 ^ ^ FF; 4>Tt ( FF^ I The child wore new cloths.

2. Ffa4F ( .)^ rM I He bought a magazine.
3. FF% <4MI ( 44T4T I We ate food.
4. ^Ff% Ft W FFTft FRftffTT (f.) 4^ I They waited for us for two hours.
5. FFfFT FfepT (m.) 41?f R>4l I You didn't work hard enough.

Only v.r. + 3TT is used:

(1) When object is not given. Examples 6,7.

(2) When object is followed by som e post position. Examples 8,9.

6. ^Ft% 44T fefT ? What did they do ?

7. ^ t 4FT 44?T ? What did the teacher say to the
8. ^ !4T 3 ^ * ^ FSTI I read this book.
9. TJ4T% er§4tt fFTTOT I He/She called the girl.

«■ Native speakers use compound verbs frequently in the perfective
constructions. See page 168-171 for better comprehension of the

■a* WHT is used as compound verb when the main verb is intransitive. See
pg. 168.

Present perfect tense v.i.

1. ^ (f.) 3TT Iff t I The mail has come.

2. (f.) T^TFT FT 3IT t I The train has arrived at the station.
3. FF ( Ft W 11 He has gone to sleep.
4. t ( 4tFTT #T TJtr f | He (hon.) has fallen sick. /
They have fallen sick.
5. nlttH (m.)FTef FFT t? I The weather has changed.
6. ^3IT ( '^Tf W 11 The well has dried up.
7. TiFFT ( W t I The cloth is torn./ has got torn.
8. ^ S J(m .)W W t l The milk has curdled.
9. ¥ ( m .s g .) W F lw tl He has gone mad.
10. ( <fKl4 Ft FFT 11 The engine has developed a fault.
11. UFFt FTef ( Ft FT( § I His hair has turned grey.
12. ( PtT W t I The child has fallen down.
13. 3TPT ( FT t I The mangoes have ripened.
14. W 3fFT (m.)Rreft TIH f ? Have you been to Delhi ?
15. # (m.) Rc-ct) F^ft Feff W I No, I have never been to Delhi.
16. F*rf ( #T 11 It has stopped raining.
17. ?R#T ( ^tFTT % PtT F f I? I The picture has fallen from the wall
18. W TOT T R FT FTfT FFT t ? Has Ram gone to work?

•a* ^TT, ^TT are used as compound verbs when the main verb is
transitive. See pg. 170.

Present perfect tense v.t.

1. 3FT^ ( WT TiT frFJ H e/S he has cleaned his/her shoes,

f I
2 ^ 4<4MI ( T>T fePTT I have closed the door.
t I
3. T*TT FTff (m..)^T fcPJT t ? Have you had a bath ?
4. ^TT TJTrff (m .sg.)t^ft^ eT fePTT t I Somebody has taken my umbrella.
5. W 3TR 4F 3Hd«tk ( Have you read today’s
93 tePTT t ? newspaper?
6. 3ft r)?Fft f^rxr ( I have bought you a bar of
W&TT t l / w f o feRTT t I chocolate.
7. T^ft F9 feTCr (f.) «Hl£ She has prepared tea for all of us.
t l/^FTT ^ I I

8. 3ft 3ih-T) WTcft % feTCr -mi I have made a new dress for
TT9 ( «HI4I t l/^TT f^ n my younger sister.
9. % 3Fpft tff&ifr ;39FTC Kamla has sent presents to her
( ftft t / ’fcf fa r t I friends.

Past perfect tense v.i.

1. «(■*>*)I ( TPTT sfT I The child had fallen.

2. 3JTTT ( W ^pr ^ | The mangoes had ripened.
3. T*lf ( FT 9 ^ *fT I The rain had stopped.
4. (f.) Wef ^FT T(^ ?fi ? Where had you gone last year?
5. % ( 399% 9FT W 3TF( «T ? When had he come to your house?

Past perfect v. t.

1. TTCT W F ft ( Grandfather had narrated a story to

I us.
2. tft ^ tot <£r i n n *it i Ram had killed Ravan.
3. TTT ^ rtf 3TE# ftlSTT (f.) The teacher had given us a good
*ft I education.
4. ftFifirr TfrsSt ^ 3n«n4t Mahatma Gandhi had sacrificed all
% (el if, 3PPTT (m.) c4MI all his belongings for the freedom
f^EtT *TT I of the country.
5. gneT sIKVngf % RTcT 3Ffar The Mughal Kings had had several
w r W (f.pi.) «ff i beautiful monuments built in India.
6. TMT ^ ^rft; ftt (2<sl <,i ( The king had the announcement
f a n sn i made in the village.
7. ^ F t ■qror 3TT^ % Wet (f.) He had learnt Hindi before coming
«ft I to India.
8. ^ % OT FT ^t?T% ^ ^ The minister had read his speech
3FRT R O T ( ^ H<s<t><. to me before delivering it on the
^ trt m i stage.
9. cfiTT TTfk^ % 95ct ^ F f He had sold his old car to his
3FFft y F f t 4FT ( 3ft^ ^ brother long before he bought
4?T *ft I this one.
10. R ft ^ +IH)|lt)' % FFFf RTT The minister had put a new proposal
yuiN ( TW R I before the workers.

Uses of the past simple tense, the present perfect tense and the past
perfect tense.
In Hindi there is quite a bit of overlapping regarding the use of these tenses.
It is clear that all three relate to the already completed activities and
processes. The decisive factor in making the choice is not so much the
length of time which has elapsed since the completion of the activity or the
event, as its relevance or irrelevance to the present. More than the
theoretical rules, one needs experience with the language to be able to
use the appropriate tense in a given situation.

Given below are som e guidelines for new learners.

Q U ses of the past simple tense (d w H

■ When talking about an activity or a state resulting from som e activity

in the proximate past;
■ When the speaker mentions 'when', 'where' or 'how' som e activity or
event happened;
■ When the resulting state has no significant, meaningful relevance to
the present.

1. e?*T (m.) 1?9% WTTO | We went to Sarnath last week.

2. Tpft (f.) 3TT3T I Rani went back to Delhi this morning.

■ When talking about activity in the immediate future.

1. ^ 3TRT l You go; I will come.

2. ^ W gsrr uHStl I You may consider this work as
already finished.

Q Uses of the past perfect tense ^

The past perfect tense is used:

■ When an activity, process orthe resulting statetookplace in thedistant


1. # (f.) ^ # tVJIU6 I had gone to Canada in 1966.

2. ytciHMl ^ W 'RKrf tR When had the Muslims invaded

3)|stiHul (m.)f%*iT ^ ? India?

■ When two things happened in the past, the preceding activity is

expressed in the past perfect tense and the succeeding activity in
the past simple tense.

1. ^ % ( They had already eaten when I

‘T'RT ^ I arrived at their place.

2. FF FF TJFF Ft FR F^, R ft When we got up in the morning,
<tLKU FT ^ ^ l father had already left for office.

■ In Hindi the past perfect tense is used even for activities that took place
in the proximate pastandforwhich the past simpletense would be used
in English.

1. TIF 3TIF ^FF FFlt FFT 3TFTT FT I Ram came to our house this morning.
2. cJFR Ft t^FT FFT Ft I You just said so.

■ Use of past perfect tense for immediate past

3. 3T#-3pft FF FF FFFf 3TFFT FT He came just now to tell me that

1% FRF 41d FFT t I India has won the cricket match.

4. Ft FTF RirF R I had come to take you with me to

FI*} Tt 3TTFT FT I TJF Ft ^FR see a film; you are already ready to go
#T I somewhere.

■ Use of the past perfect tense for simultaneous activities

1. t£ t # *St ^Fcft ( No sooner had I sat down to study

Fcft F^ I than the electricity went off.

2. feRr (?) 2) Rr No sooner had the children gone

FFf ( Rift I out to play than it began to rain.

B Uses of the present perfect tense ( ^ f FrfFTF FFcT % FFtF)

•s' The present perfect tense is used :

■ When the completed activity or process has relevance to the

present and when 'where', 'how' and 'when' of the activity are not

1. FFT FTFi ( 3TT t ? Has the mail come ?
2. ^ (f sg.) FjpT FF> F“f ^ I I have become very tired.

3. ttr (m.) R^f rt f s r 11 Ram is sitting in the chair.
4. WTT ( t3T feRT t ? Have you already eaten ?

Compare and comprehend:

1. 3ft ^RTRT ( RRR fetRT 11 I have already cooked.

2. c]Rft <stMI RR HR>lRI ? When did you cook ?
3. 3 ft 3tft ^ HSc-1 (flHI RR>I I had cooked before you came.
4. ftfapff % RTS ( R^T frRT The student has learnt the lesson.
5. R rft RI5 ( RR RTR f^RT ? When did he learn the lesson ?
6. Rtft tRjel 3[ft % Rfft f3 He had learnt the lesson before
RTS ( RK RR frRT RII coming to school.

■ Use of the present perfect tense for recurrence of an activity in the


1. rr - rr rtr 3rnf t , RR-RR Whenever floods have come,

R£IRlO 11 epidemics have spread.
2. RR-RR RF RFT 3TRT 3 , RR-RR Whenever he has come to my
Rtf RRkT eTRT 11 house, he has brought some crisis.

■ Use of the present perfect tense to describe a state.


1. 3?|RR ( ^RTR 11 The woman is lying on the ground

2. R"ft ( *5R RT 3 f t 11 The children are sleeping on the
3. 3f (f.) RfR RR3 f I I am very tired.
4. gTRRf ( % RT R ft t I The books are lying on the table.

See R-12, R-13

★ ★ ★

Future Sim ple T ense
In the active voice, for transitive as well as intransitive verbs, the future
simple tense is as follows:
Language structure Q : Future simple tense

subj. + obj. + v.r. + ~5, TJ, + FT, ft, (if any) 3ft, T(
-< _
agree with the N and G of the subject

Model Q where verb root ends in 3fT, 3ft

^fprr (to go) ^ft^TT (to sleep)
subj. m. f. m. f.
fj, FF, FF, FFT
cpt-T (who sg.) ^TTtnn ^Tfufr dlfuil ¥ftnff

fJF, Refill FTSTflf “TWhft frt3Thfr

(who pi.) FfT^t ^ fr

«*■ Verb roots ending in “Sf* are conjugated as shown below. Long
a n d '3S' are invariably changed to short V ,
Model Q
subject obj. pfFn (vt) to drink t|F7 (vt) to touch
m. f. m. f.
ft Ptsm tfv&ll
o ^o f i
% ^ f^JTT PM t I ' t ’ll
F F ^ 'I FFT
gp?, ftHcftF M hft usfnft
w Pt^jft
(who pi)

B When the verb root ends in 3T (i.e. when it is not followed by any vowel
symbol), vowel symbols for ‘s ' , V , ‘a r t a r e added to them
followed by “FT’, t ’, ‘t ’ to agree with the number and gender of the

Model Q | FSFT (v.t.) to read; t^FT (v.i.)tosit

subject verb intransitive obj. verb transitive
m. f. m. f.
* t^lft F^tt
t t F (who sg) t^FT f& t q&n F ft
3 ^
cJF', (JHclbl ts t t t t FSFtt
FF,3TTF,%t, A2V£\
t f F (who pi.) m q6Jll fM

Conjugation of the verbs tFT (to take), ^tFT (to give), FtST (to be) is
slightly different.
Model Q
subject verb tF T ^FT tF T
m. f. m. f. m. f.
* cfFT fft |JF ft fTF ft
tSFT t s t
F?tF (who sg.) ctJll M t*TT tft FfaTT M

^F.gHdbl n rt t t Ft t t
t,F?fF (who pi.) M tt Ft t t

1 FF (m. sg.) 3T4W 3TFtitt i He will certainly come.
2 (m.) FF=T F^ FTt <3 O f FT I I will buy a new car tomorrow.
3 3fTF t (m.) vlct tflsif) I I will turn in early tonight.
4. FT<ft (f. sg.) R>d"t F t i | t t ? What time will the train depart ?

Future Continuous Tense
Language structure
subj. + obj. + v. r. + TFT, TTT, X§\ +
future form
nom. case (if any) of f Ftt
^ .. ^
agree with N and G of the subject.
Examples :

1. ■>¥ (f.) FTT HHH HIFI F>T Tomorrow at this time, I will be
C ^i travelling.
2. TTTF ^ FTT F^t F ^ t ( H3 In the evening at 4 o'clock the
7^ Fffi I children will be studying.
3. FFet ^TFTT FFt FF ( f^eft 3 Next Sunday we will be sightseeing
T!> F f t I in Delhi.
4. FFF H4I FTF F^T Hldl «ft F>T At 7.15 in the morning, my mother
Tft) Ffift I will be praying.

Future Perfect -1
Language structure
subj. + obj. + v. r. + ■^)cM, t|%, ^£1 + future form of
nom. case if any f T=tt

agree with N and G of the subject.

«*• This structure can be used both for transitive and intransitive activities.

1. FF ( F7T FF F«f FF> Rrctl By 10 o'clock tomorrow we will

fi | f
Tyt* Ft^t i have reached Delhi.
2. FF (m. sg.) FF, Ft HFR% By 1995 he will have become
FFi FTFcTT FF ^FH FlJll I a doctor.
3. FF cJF (m. sg.) FF% FT H^f I'1, By the time you arrive at their place,
% (m. sg.) TFTFT TFTFT F t i|F> they will have already eaten and
Ft^t I gone to sleep.
4. ^FSF 3T5cT FF> T|l| F^t HiHci (f. sg.) By 15th April, the wheat crop will
H»c ^4^ Fhft I have been harvested.

Future Perfect - II
Language Structure
subj. + obj. + v.r. + past form + future form
with % of eMl/<Hl ofFRT

agree w itfU h e ^ a n ^ ^ ^ f the object

**■ This structure can be used only for transitive activities.

1. RF FF FRF 3TTF7IT, FF% By the time he arrives in India, we will

TF^ F?t f Rio °FFtRT (f.) FR ^t have made proper arrangements
F ttf l for his stay.
2. 3FT?t F^f «Hd(l % H6ct I?t FF% Next year before January, we will
FFT FT (m.) TTftF fcfFT FfTT I have bought a new house.
3. FFFT FFF F R F«f FF> 3TFT% RF Will you have finished all the work
FFF (m.)FR tePTT FtFT ? by 4 o'clock tomorrow ?
4. F>k-H y ^ l ftci-t % FFet ^ Before getting admission in the
f{R4t FTRT (f.) 3 R # cRF college, will have learnt Hindi very
cftFW tl well.

Planned Future (x *fixH()

Corresponding to the English language structures such as 'to think of doing
something', 'to plan to do something' etc. Hindi language uses expressions
such as ‘XFR^ Fit r If FT’, *XFR% FF FTIFT FRFT’ etc.

Examples :

1. 3TFTF?t F*tf Fit tsf^Fl

FR ( We are planning to go to Nainital
=t%fTR RFt F?t RtF TI? t I during the coming summer vacations.
2. FFFff FS T#t t I (m.) F?f^ 3?R Prices are going up. I am planning
FFR ■*><.') F?t RlF TFT I? I to take up some other work.
3. FTTRFFF FRTt FTFT FljF FlRFI These days many thefts are taking
Ftrft f I (f.) FT FF <flFI FRT^ place in our city. I am thinking of
Fit f If Tftt e| I insuring my house.

4. im (m.)f^4T WT^ 4?t My brother is thinking of going abroad.
T5T t I
5. Tpft (f.) 44T RcTRT 4?t # 4 Rani is intending to learn car driving.
T^ t I
6. *f (f.) 3PTr) F9% RTR^ WT^ 4?t # 4 I am planning to go to Bombay next
^ fl week.
7. gyMH^I ( m . h o n . ) i f The Prime Minister is planning to
W t 4?t # 4 t£ t I reshuffle the cabinet.
8. ftrW ift (m.hon.) 4 ^ -4 ^ snfSfo- The Finance Minister is planning to
^fricP?f % STTT ^?T 4?t 3TsfcH^STT improve the economy of the country
4 t ^414% 4?) 4 f4 Tl? t I by new economic policies.
9. 3TN (f.) 4TT4 WR4 44T 47*3 4?t What are you planning to do after

4 f4 T$\ t ? going to India ?

10. F 4 (f.) 3PTrt T^RTT 4?t 344$ 45T We are you planning to com e
3||^t 4?t tf)4 Tt? f? ? to your house next Sunday.
11. if (f.) 4IT4 WRIT 444 44J 444 I am planning to work in India for some
444 RTT$ 4?) 4 f4 Tf?t tj[ I time.
12. if (m.) 4R$ «H|i) 44 44TRT4T cHII'J I am planning to set up a garments

4?t 4 t4 Tf?T (| I factory after going to India

See R-16, R-17

★ ★ ★

P resu m p tiv e
( 3 P 17TFT t ^ tt)

We use presumptive form when we are sure that something is true (or
untrue), but our certainty about the existence of something is based on
presumption and not on first-hand knowledge.
Language structure Q : Presumptive present habitual

subj. obj. + v.r. + cTT, + future form

nom. case if any of FtTT

agree with the subject

Model Q : v. t. <f(Ml (to eat); v. i. «fPTT (to go)

m. f. m. t. m. f. m. f.
* fTTT
W ^irft ?t^TT <fiicl Fffit

«lldl 'Jllrl “ficft


Language structure Q : Presumptive progressive

subj. obj. + v.r. + XFT, Tl?, + future form

nom. case + if any of#TT

agree with the subject

Model Q : v. t. M i (to eat); v. i. «TFTT (to go)

Language structure Q : Presumptive perfective -1 , v.i.

subj. + past form + future form

nom. case of v.i. of FfaT

agree with the subject

Model H : v. I. «fPTT (to go)

m. f. m. f. m. f. m. f.

Fht Ft#


IIF^T #TT Ft# #t Ft#

Language structure Q : Presumptive perfective - 2, v.t.

subject + object + past form + future form of FHl

with % of v.t.
agree with the object

Model Q : v.t. W (to eat)

^ 3^. #cfT w it object eaten m. sg.

3TPT#I Wf F# object eaten m. pi.

t €t 131^ # # object eaten f. sg.

F t# object eaten f. pi.

Language stru ctu re^ : presumptive perfective with

subj. obj. + v.r. + ^>T, + future form

nom. case + (if any) ofFTn

agree with the subject

Model Q : v. t. ^PTT (toeat); v.i. FTTT (to go)

m. f. m f. m. f. m. f.
* fin
TirfF Mir TTfft Ffft

Frfpr dl jfl & dljt' dl-jfl

ir m
FFftlF jjFftF

**■ Presumptive perfective constructions with ' ^ i i ' are possible both
in the ca se of transitive and intransitive verbs. They take the subject
in the nominative case.

Present presumptive

1. FF (f.)sPTM || She is a resident of Bengal.

FTFT FMd, t?hf) I She must be eating rice and fish.

2. Tpft FfteTT 3t'lc) ^ I Rani's examination is due next month.

FF (f.) STH^cT f^T FT Hfirfl Ffflt I These days she must be studying the
whole day.

3. <Hpld % FIFT 'ft FF FT Anil's uncle's house is not far from his
FFetFf Tf ^T F#fl F F F R T F T college. He must be visiting him every
TTWFF FT 3F ft focft WRIT FfFT I weekend.

4. 3TRF>cT ipff FlpT 1? I % d lJl <H It is very hot these days. They must
d<ul-dld % feTF «llc) Flft I be going to the swimming pool for
swimming daily.
5. 3TR (f.hon.) FT FF TfF TOT TFF You must be doing all household
F T ft F fft I chores yourself.

Present progressive presumptive

1. TO PPP TPtf-PT 3 WPT Mother must be cooking food in the

®1 1 T!?t 1 kitchen at this time.

2. Piell ^ I P PPP 3PPPTT PS Father must be reading a newspaper

#Pt 3?R PTP-PTP PIP i t Tf? i t ’it 1 at this time and drinking tea at the
same time.

3. W^( «pft% if T t ?t'it 1 The children must be playing in the


4. p y H P 'il sp w i p r -p p p if The Prime Minister must be making a

PIPP ^ Ffit 1 speech at the Boat-Club at this time.

5. PIPPjcT % P jjt if 3TFFS *HI These days they must be enjoying

Fffi 1 themselves in Madurai.

Perfective presumptive

1. Tpft ^ PKT Rd PPP R>PT PT I Rani had worked all day. She must
PF PPP pi Jlt 1 have been tired.

2. t +e1+el FP Ffit 1 They must have gone to Calcutta.

3. 3TTF% F>FcTT ^ W I FT R w You must have seen Kamla at Lanka.

FtFT 1

4. 3TTPP?f foefTP P it ^PTff She couldn't have stolen your book.

# ftl

5. dp-t p pt pcrrf ih ft i He must have driven the car fast.

6. PP FF FT % 3FFT 7JTT IFT% We made a lot of noise when we

F |F PTtT PPM 1 F P T tp friM entered the house. Our neighbours
% p i FTPR TjPT FtPT 1 must have heard us.

★ ★ ★

Use of th e v erb s
15 ( ^ M I, ^-TT, «lMl)

Use of the verbs ^ d i ’, ‘^•TT’, ^RT’, «iMi’ to denote that the action
(1) has already been done, (2) had already been done, or (3) will have
already been done by a certain time.

Language structure m use of ^ > 1 1 present habitual

subj. + obj. + v.r. + ^4>cii, + #FTT
nom. case (if any) present/imperfect

agree with the N and G of the subject.

Language structure EQ use of present habitual

subj. + obj. + v.r. + + StrTT, + s?RT
nom. case (if any) #1%, present/
"5 ^ s?lrft imperfect

agree with the N and G of the subject.

The above given structures are used to talk about activities that are
habitually completed by a certain time.

1. y rt tt 3?!Ci db'i % H6c^l t?t

it (f.) FTFT 3?R ’JJfT ^R ^+ dl i? I Usually I am done with my bath and
• ¥PT: ^TT 3?fTt % I?t Puja before the others in the house
it RTFT 3?|t ^«fT ^R eld I I? I get up.

2. 3WN+ % 461'i % tIF^' Tpft TfI5

^R sft I RanT used to be ready with the lesson
• arturw #r tTST^ % Tpft before the teacher taught,
rfrrrc ^ r elrfl sit i

Language structure Q use of ^ f d i perfective tenses

subj. + obj. + v.r. + + t?RT
nom. case (if any) in the required tense
agree with the N and G of tKe subject.

» This language structure is used both for transitive and intransitive
verbs with subject always in the nominative case.
Present Perfect

1. *¥ ( RFTT W ^ I I have already eaten.

2. 4 ^ ) ( 4R I? I The children have already taken bath.
3. ( m ^ t 11 The teacher has already left.
4. t ( ^ t 11 They have already arrive.

Past Perfect

1. FTT^ 4T 4i|4T, When I reached the airport, the plane

( ^ «Tr I had already taken off.
2. «P4 F*T lf^?*T’( When we got to the cinema hall, the
Ft " 5 ^ • film had already begun.
3. t T^eTT % foctT, 4F (f.) 3FT% When I met Kamla, she had already
Rdl 4^ 4?t <fi«K ■Jd’l 4t I heard the news of her father's death.
4. '44' % (m .)^ t 4T 3TFT, f( # f j When he (hon.)/they came to my
m I house, I had already had dinner.
5. R4 ^feRT R^^t, ^ f t ( 4FT When the police arrived, the murderer
% m "544 m I had already left the scene.
6. 3fOTFT4f ( 4F ^td4> tT?T The teacher already taught this book.
Perfective Future

1. F4 ( 4F 444 444 4TT4 4^t We will have finished this work by 4
4K 4«f 44> 4>T ^[4> Ff*t I O'clock in the evening tomorrow.
2. fTF F m t m: 4?) m o m r By Monday our house will have been
( Ft ^ F tft I repaired.
3. ^ 4 44? F R f f ( 4J¥ Monsoons will have begun by June
Ft Ff^t I 22 .
4. 444 4]4F 10 4«t 44> PHI{l TUft Tomorrow by ten o'clock our train will
( RcrTl mf/4 ^[4^ ?t>ft I have arrived in Delhi.
5. Ft He will have become a doctor by July
«jefT? F4> 4F (m.Jsi'tc <. 4 4 "j+l 1996.
Ftm I
6. qq anrfWr ng^R, When I arrive in America my elder
qq Tf^PT (m.) qq ^ r r Ft7!! I brothers house will have been already

1. qq % ■g<t>, vi'E? 9IF< When they have eaten, take them

^ 'Ill'll I out for side seen.
2. q q q^T 3)4^ +IH ^t f^PTiT ^+1, When you have finish your work, come
Tn?T 3TT qRT I to me.

Language structured! use of ^TT’, ‘^ T f

subj. + obj. + v.r. + term, + #RT

+ ^ feltr, f^r in the required tense
eft. *

agree with the N and G of the object.

*»■ This form is applicable only in the case of transitive verbs.

*** v.r. + <=tTT is used when the action is completed to the benefit of the
subject himself.
**" v.r. +^TT is used when the action is completed to the benefit of someone
other than the subject.

1. <flMl M lelMl 11 I have already eaten.

2. qf % <aMl H'M f^qr t? I Mother has already cooked food.

Compare and com prehend:

la. # ( f . ) 3 ^ q s ^ f i I have already read the book.

lb. ( q s eft 11
2a. qutlfR+l (f.) jperq; qsr ^ 11 The teacher has already taught
2b. aspqtPm ^ ^ t f ¥ ( qST 3t 11 the book.
3a. qi? (m.) 3PT^ ^ WT q>T qqq 11 He has already cleaned his
3b. 3n% ^jit ( WF q r shoes.
feTCr f I
4a. (HH 4>T Ft ? Have you already had a bath ?
4b. 4^TT CJH-) tHM (m.) 4>T tePIT 1? ?
5a. PtrTT 3fM 44 W^TVfrf 4? Father has already read today's
f 1 newspaper.
5b. Rai ^ t ^ 3fM 44 «HNKM5( (m.)
43 feRT t 1
5a. ■ftrr Tr f ^ f t , ^ By the time I reach America, my
4T 44FT «Ff ^44 Ft4T 1 brother's house will have been built
5b cFF # 3|H'(t<tn ^ By the time I reach America, my
s n f 3 3ppn w p t *R4T ferm brother will have had his house
fnii I constructed.

«*■ For Intransitive activities, alternative constructions with ‘^ m i ’ are

possible. See sentences 6-8 given below.

6a. T^Tcf ^ (f.) 3TT ^ h t The police has already arrived at the
t I place of accident.
6b. jpfc'TT m (f.) 3TT ^ t I
7a. ( ^ 4 Ft *[4>t t 1 Shops have already closed.
7b. ( Ft ^ f I
8a. ^TT f*TF ( ^ 11 My friend has already gone.
8b. %TT fifF ( ^cfT W 11

★ ★ ★

To Like
^TTT, #TT,

3TRT, 3 p ^ T eRTTT

Language structure Q : q>m

subj. + object + + T>T + cTT, eft + FfTT
nom. case (noun / in the required
v. inf.) tense

w In the past simple, present perfect and past perfect tense, sub + ^ Is
used; <t»MI and fta l agree with the number and Gender of the object.
1. 3 ^PTT W T f/ I like Indian food.
T*Tcft f| I (pres, simple)

2. *IWT ^TTT W T ^Tcf %/ In childhood we used to like to

I(past hab.) swim.

3. HKUtflO W T q#f He never liked non-vegetarian food.

I (past simple)
4. PTrt) 1Tt?TT^ W B ^ 11 They have liked our dresses.
(pres, perf.)
5. “PIT 3fPT ^ B q Rl^HI ^<snl Would you like to come with me to see
/^ < D ? (future simple) a film?
6. *i£(, 3tb ■qr tr <5ii h*p < No, today Iwould like to stay at home.
cj>(^j||/4>^jj) | (future simple)
7 yii^<t % iptkt ne•■<5 q They may not like our life style.
^ I (subjunctive)

Language structure Q | : Ft-TT/ ci'iii

subj. with + object + W?/3T5^T cPTcTT + tFTT

r noun/i 3fs§i ePT% in the required tense
Iv.inf. J 3TEt$) cPIrf)

agree with N and G of the object


1. F^ ^fFTT W T t/3TE?5T We like to see films.

eTTRTT 11 (pres, simple)

2. ftN t W 1 W <f I/3TESST They like to study Hindi.

cbidl 11 (pres, simple)

3. dd'hl <dH I ddldl d^f / He does not like to cook.

3T£?5T cPIrtT I (pres, simple)

4. I like Banaras1 sarees.

3TE# cTfTrft 11 (pres, simple)

5. W Dlftdfta ^rfficf WT W Mother liked classical music.

3Te??t cTTRTT qT l (pres, hab.)

6. w n snq^r w What did you like to do in your

2TT ?/3TESJT ePTcTT *4T? (past hab.) childhood ?

7. f^T '4T %PHT W ? I/ I liked to play all day.

3fE?5T ePTcTT qT I (past hab.)

8. W STFPFt 3fM Would you like to eat in a restaurant

w r r w r Fhn ? / cpM ? this evening ?
(fut. simple)

9. ^ ^TS#T TT ^ I would like to see katthak dance

Md^<( ehll/3^«i eht^TT I on television.
(fut. simple)

Language structure Q : 3TFTT

(subj. + ^t) + obj. + + 3TFfT + FFn

in the required tense;

agrees with th ^ ^ m c K T o f the obj.

**■ TRP^ 3TPTT is used particularly when one likes or dislikes something
through personal experience or contact with that thing.
•a? 3TRT/5t^rr is declined in agreement with the object that pleases or
displeases in the required tense.

1. gsf giFft (f.pi.) 3tw ^ I usually like old films.

3Tfcft t I (pres, simple)
2. ftcTT 6HKI TIcT cW Father didn't use to like our staying
WIST T^TT ^T#f 3fTcTt «TT I out late at night.
(past hab.)
3. g?) ^nftcf (« 3nf | 1liked the music concert (only after
(past simple) havingvisited the music concert,
one uses this form).
4. ( Did you like the flat?
3iwr I (past simple)
5. g?T LMl4) ( ^IpT I have liked Punjabi dress very
3nf 11 (pres, perf.) much.
6. gif 'JTTCcT ypf|u| «Tl<n ( I had liked the country life of India
^IpT W "4 3TRTT *Tf I (past perf.) very much.
7. g% ^3HTcW *FT W I ( 1did not like the food of that
o ^Tlff 3fPTT I restaurant at all.
(past simple)
8. 3TR ?TR7TFT 3TWT I 3fN You must certainly visit Sarnath. You
W ^*TFT ( will like this place very much.
3THTITT | (future simple)
9. Hldl «f) ^TRxfhT tU^>Rl My mother will like Indian culture
( sngift i very much.
(future simple)

★ 1 ★
As Soon As (dictt>ifcicf» 2»<J-d)
U s e o f (v.r. + t ) +

» This language structure is used to express activities immediately

following one another - almost simultaneously occurring!

*»* Irrespective of the gender or number of the subject of the subsidiary

clause (v.r. + cT) form is used.

« Also whether the main clause is in the present, past or future tense, the
subsidiary clause has always [(v.r. + %) + ].
Language structure

■ when the subject of the two sentences is different and living, use:
subj. + ^ + (v.r. + %) + i?t,..........................


1. ■rt 11 Mother goes.

2. TtcfT 11 The child cries.
=£> ^ f?t TtcTT 11 As soon as mother goes, the child
(pres.simple) cries.

1. snctT «TTI The teacher used to come.

2. ^ i The students used to study.
3. 3TU||r|<t> % 3TI^ ^ As soon as the teacher came the
(past habitual) students used to study.

1. t£ l I sat down to study.

2. TtFHFT 3fT TPCT| The guests came.
=£> ^ 3tT7im As soon as I sat down to study,
(past simple) the guests came.

1. You will call me.
2. 3TT37nT I 1will come.
sn^nrri As soon as you call me, 1will come.
(future simple)
1. FF TNfof I We will give you a signal.
2. cJF ^IFT «TPTT 1 You go out.
H> FFft WT ^ As soon as we give you a signal
“TRT1 (imperative future) you go out.

■ when the subject of the two sentences is different but that of the ‘as
soon a s’ clause is nonliving, ^ ' is usually dropped.

1. c4)FK f | The festivals come.

2. ^ 'Ttr «Mq|<) |f | Everybody gets new clothes made.
h > cql^K 3f|% f?t W cft^T ^ As soon as the festivals come
1 1 everybody gets new clothes made.
(present simple.)

1. *nfb?TFt% cpff i It began to rain.

2. eTlJl 'Hl'l'l ePt 1 People started running here and
HO F ^ # HtF As soon as it's began to rain,
ppr% cPt i people started running here and
(past simple) there.

1. tJF Pi^c-Pf) 1 There will be sunshine.

2. FP stpftt ^ t ^ t l We will sit in the garden.
HO t£T Pl+ekl # F*T 1 As soon as there is sunshine we
will sit in the garden.
(future simple)

■ when the subject of the two sentences is same.

subj. + ( v.r. + + i?t,...........


1. *TT 3TTcft ^ I Mother comes home.

2. Ttf 1RT tTFkft t I Mother cooks food.
=4> TTF 3TRf i?t RFTT 44>lrTl t I As soon as mother comes home,
(present simple.) she cooks.

1. arsEim; arm i The teacher came to class.

2. 3TOTW ^ WTT to T I The teacher started teaching.
=*> srs n w % 3ti^ f t m As soon as the teacher came to
I'M I 1 class he started teaching.
(past simple)

1. f%r w r i?\ i Father will return in the evening.

2. 3tW T ^ i Father will read the newspaper.
=s- ftcn wr cfterf 3t^ r As soon as father returns in the
4(oj) I evening he will read the news paper.
(future simple)


1. tl% f t ( As soon as it is morning, the

ePT% 11 (pres, simp.) birds begin to chirp.
2. «ra£ TRT cThT ( W lff % As soon as there is snowfall,
^TFTt ^ 3TT ^TRf 11 (pres, simp.) people in themountains come down
to the plains.
3. ^SIT Ft^f e?t WF ( w t % As soon as it became evening, the
feTCT % 8r I (past hab.) students used to sit down to study.
4. sprtfa’T^ (m.) <rTlet>< ^6r) I?t As soon as I got up in America,
^rw %ft # I (past hab.) I used to drink tea.
5. ^ rr ^ trfft “cnr’ As soon as I reached the office, I gol
( ftefT I (past, simp.) his telegram.
6. ttt % 3n% 'it ( y<tH i t As soon as mother came, the

TTC; I (past, simp.) children became happy.
7. gfeTCT % 3TRt #) ( ^TFT As soon as the police came, the
W ®TT| (past perfect) thief ran away.
8. 'iiRl'M ^3% 1?) ( As soon as they saw the heroine, the
eRT I (past, perf.) audience had begun to jump.
9. 33% pR>fa %cf f \ F% ^f%T Inform us as soon as he decides.
%tPrb7TT l (fut. imp.)
10. ^ (m.) W3T H'hri t?f W 3fT As soon as the food is ready, I shall
yii*j|l I (fut. simp.) eat and come.

U se of ^ t / ^ rf ..... 'As Soon As'

An alternative construction corresponding to the English 'as soon as'

is with ...
**■ The tense used in “3% I?t............’ clause corresponds to the tense
used In the main clause.


3 ?) W T ftc=RTT I, t IfMt
i | I (pres, simple) As soon as I get time, I learn Hindi.
m fife# f I
2 %% ft PlcTT ITT % Pl+dc) t,
3%) ePTcf 11 (pres, simple) As soon as father gets out of the
PfcTT % 3T % Pieicl ft, house, the children begin to play.
3"%) ^el') d Jir) 11

3 r?t 3F g3fT, F3 3 3 F t I As soon as he was ready we set out.

33% ^3TT #1% l?t F3 "Ref 3^ i(Past simple)
4 . %% {?) Hildct> % 333, F3%
3T Mfft 3 3 f^EfT I As soon as the landlord told us, we
H3>m ♦iild't' % 33% %, F3% vacated the house.

H*t>H Weft f^TF l(past simple)
5. «l% ft f *t m am
I (fut. simple) As soon as we buy a new house,
= ■Tm ^TT w fc ft f t am w # l we will give you a party.
^rarf i
6. ^t?t f t gst ^flmft PtMt, t ?nft
I (fut. simple) As soon as I get a job, I will marry.
= Hfafft focfit f t *TF& ^ T T I

No S o o n e r ....... Than
Given below is another language structure in Hindi used only when any
two activities immediately followed one another in the past. It
corresponds to the English 'no sooner..........than' structure.

Language structure:

subj. + (v.r.+3fT/tr/f)* + f t + 2TT/?t* f% ------- [v.r. +31T/tt i / i y

In the active voice:

«s** when v.t., both the main verb and auxiliary verb agree with the object;
the subject is followed by ’ I see examples 1,2,3.

w * when v.i., both the main verb and auxiliary verb agree with the subject
which is in the nominative case. See examples 4,5,6.
1. JR HSrtl f^TT f t *TT PHI^. No sooner had I started studying than
3TT tttt | the guests came to our place.

2. *TT ^ WTT m^PTT ft «TT No sooner had mother started

fa % ’ W T Ft W I cooking than the 'gas' finished.

3. vJtST^ IsIHI W ft ®ITfa No sooner had he eaten food than he

3TT% crtt began to feel dizzy and became

Ft 44l I unconscious.

4. FF cfcT # FT SR FT No sooner had he lain down than

TstdtddWI I someone knocked at the door.

5. t FT % f t F # # *t 1% ^FRTUR No sooner had they got out of the

FFf Ft% orft I house than it began to rain in torrents.

6. FT# Fcft # # #> ##T No sooner had the train moved than
# H t # T FF # R FF> F^ I some-one pulled the chain and it
stopped again.

7. F^ FFT T fM # # 1% *Tt No sooner had I bought the new

FTF FF> g^JdFT # F^ I car than I met with an accident.
8. T3F% 3TTF ufcTTf # # 1# #T FF No sooner had he lit the fire than
ftfeFFT FR FFT I the gas cylindar exploded.
9. FFFFT F F F7 3TTtT # ?t #T # S No sooner had the speaker come
R FFT F?FT #F# crft I on the stage than the crowd
began to throw stones at him.
10. Fiai-Rdi FT % Pif>c-I # ^ f% No sooner had the parents left the
F^% # # #F% e # I house than the children began to
watch t.v.

★ ★ ★
Ability S tru ctu re
Use of F^TT (can, could, be able to)

Language Structure Q |
subj. + obj. + v.r. *T^TT f?FTT
nom. case (if any)
in the appropriate tense
to agree with the N and G of the subj.

Model Q tfpFTT Present Indefinite. Same model for v.t. and v.i.

v.r. m. f.
it f
cJ^.^IF.Tt-T tsfT I

{Ff.arPT^^t, ETT
(who pi), I
(who all)

Examples :

1. cfc t A f ^ t 11 He/She can swim.

2. 3F tf't'ctl 1?1 She can speak many languages.
3. t ^TT’ "ETeTT ^T^cTT I I cannot drive a car.
4. W ^ t tf ? Can you ride a horse ?
5. W cJH % ^TT *p3Rft #T ? Can you climb up the tree ?
6. ch*-ldl 3TT% 3<r?l *<14 FW>cff ^ I Kamla can sew her clothes herself.
7. T*TT ^JT 3pM EfT Ft ? Can you go abroad alone ?
8. % 3"% TF I They cannot live in a cold country.

Model «4>4i Past Habitual
subject v.r. m. f.
^ 45?,*4?, 444TT «4 444ft «St
4?T4(who sg.) w

r]4,rj4clhl, 4S
F4,3T4T,t,*f, 4fT 44>r) 444ft 8ft
4?T4 (who pi.),
4?r4-4?T4 (who all)


1. W R # (f.) «TgcT 3TE®T t r I used to be able to swim very well in

sft I my childhood.
2. 4Fcf 4 e? (f.) 4>^ *TTOt( ^leT She used to be able to speak several
tf'fcfl sft I foreign languages earlier.
3. 4*4 3n4 (m.) 4Rcf 3TT%% 44^ Could you speak Hindi before coming
flMt ^teT 444t ^ ? to India ?
4. 4^ (m.) 4>T^', 4) 4>§4 If you had worked hard, you could
^ 444 3tt 44% Sr i have come first in class.

Model «4>4i Past simple

Examples :

1. % SHifl K44 4>T ^ I They could not help us.

2. F*T T^TR TO+PI+’ PT We could not go for a picnic last
■r «rr i Sunday.
3. t *npT <M; t$ ^ FTT I ran very fast; nobody could defeat
TFFT I me.
4. 4^41 ^ *f PfT 'W TH?5 ^l,Al ^ The child fell into the well, but
^3% ^TT ^1% I luckily we could save him.

Model Q tty'll Future simple

subject v.r. m. f.
* # c\
^ T ev*1F, w ,
(who sg.) W

FP, 3TH, «IT

%, (who pi.)

Examples :

1. ^ TTOT^TT ^5FT H I He will be able to eat spicy food.

2. 3f ^R T P fe R ^T#f W l P4>jnT I I will not be able to work so hard.
3. W <JP P<T4 3R tTTft ? Will you be able to help me ?
4. 4?R tct; ^r 'pft rf p ^ ptt ? Who will be able to take part in the
play ?
5. 3TFT «lr41 IB'-'Tl 4ld fl'ti'l I You will be able to speak Hindi soon.

«■ A f-ii has no progressive form.

**■ Put “'tiff’ between the main verb and tHRi; it may also be placed
before the main verb and tf4HI with a shift in the emphasis.

U ses of 'flu'll’
To express physical or mental ability or inability to do something.

1. 3 W fj 1can cook.
2. TW t l *TR1T1 1 Ram can swim.
3. ^ *R "43 ft ? Can you climb up the tree ?
4. 3 3(Wt fS 3?R fem f 1 1can read and write English.

□ To grant or to make a request for permission:

1. 4*IT 3FfT 3fT ^Jef^TT f ? May 1come in ?

2. 3ilM 3TT %1 You may come in.
3. 3t^ 3TFT RT ? 1 You may go home now.
4. c]R fRT W ^W1> ^ "FT tf’t'd ft 1 You may take this book tomorrow.
5. rfT *fTT 9l«t+Wl y4l'l fR U+d) ft 1 You may use my dictionary.

□ is sometimes used to denote the idea, ‘X1 could have done

something but for som e reason didn't.

1. fR 4RT TTcT ^t ftr^RT RT 1 We could have gone to the movies

last night (but didn't).
2. r)R 3R 2) | You could have come to the party (but

a To express probability of an event:

1. 3FTR WTftTT 3TTTPfdt % 1 It may rain today.

2. % fH RRcT cffZ' f 1 They may return to India this year.
3. fR R^f 4?t ^f|^t ^ f^TRcTF RT We may go to Simla during the
Rf% !? 1 summervacation.

B To offer to do something for somebody.

1. t R[RR RT T^t 1; W 3TH % 1am going to the market; could 1

Iet>J, <£« cTT R+d) i | ? bring you something ?
2. 3TTR 4R5 Rf?t ePT f; RRT You look somewhat tired; could 1
3TFlt> fciR 4R5 RR RR>dt ^ ? help you in any way ?

Use of the verb ‘'THT'

‘tTFTT’ is used instead of 'tty'll’when one is able to manage to do

something by putting in som e extra effort or alternatively one is not able
to do something despite special effort.

Language Structure Q use of 4147 (can)

subj. + obj. + v.r. + 4T4T + F)4T
Nom. (if any) in the appropriate tense
to agree with the N and G
of the subject

Examples :

1. 41?f ^TeT Hie!) I I am unable to walk.

2. 4F 41?) dirt Hlcfl I She is not able to speak English.
3. ^ «tipT % tr F p r I could get home with great
difficulty today.
4. STOW % 414^ *¥ 4>K 4dMI Despite much effort I was not able
41?) 4T^ I to learn to drive a car.
5. 4 % 4?) FMcf WfW f; The patient's condition is very bad;
Shti < cftF 4% W4T 41?) Hl*^l I the doctors won't be able to save

★ ★ ★
Subjunctive (tf*n^rpf)
Given below are the basic subjunctive language structures used in

■s’ Subjunctive in Hindi can be used to express possibility, probability

apprehension, w ishes, permission, passive, imperative and
Language structure Q Present subjunctive

subj. + obj. + (v.r. + FT, Ft^t, Ft

(if any) agree with the number and gender

of the subject

■s’ This language structure can be used both for transitive and
intransitive verbs.

Model Q Verb 'tdHi' (to eat); Verb '«tHi' (to go)

main verb FtFT

Subject Object
m. f.
it <aidi Ftck
rj, FF, FF 'FlrTT FTT?ft tr
FF, 3TR, it 'Flcl

Language structure Q Past subjunctive

a) : Intransitive verb

subject + (v.r. + 3TT, Fj, ^) + FtcF, Ft, Ftaft, Ft

agree with the number and gender

of the subject

Model (23 Verb ^ m i ’ (to go)

Subject main verb #tqT

m. f.

^t, 3F, *le? W

inr, 3TR, 3tiqcTTfT, TTTT tr

% *

b) : Transitive Verb

(subj. + ^) + obj. + (v.r. + 3fT/m, tj, f) + I),

(if any) agree with the number and gender

of the object

Model 0 2 V erb‘W=TT’ (to eat)

Object main ver

Subject + % m. f. m. f. 5tqT

%err / Tt^Y TfTRT / #r

cflcM %
3TFF*, 3imc?|J|t %

/ 'dftnT W3; / <ai{ #r

Language structure Q | Future subjunctive

subj. + obj. + (v.r +

(if any) agree with the number of the subject

This structure is valid both for transitive and intransitive verbs and
is like future simple without the endings *TT, it, *ft I

» Future subjunctive does not discriminate between masculine and

feminine; it relates only to number and person.

Model Q v.t. ^fPTT (to eat); v.i. «TPTT (to go)

Subject m. f. main verb

■%rTT trrfr «n3)

— —
•hl'i, ftt

FT, 3TFT, 3TFT cTTT, — —


★ ★ ★
Probability (*THI<Hl)
20 W , t , f t ^TWT t

Probability expressions l9TFK’ (perhaps), “Ft «t>di t ’ (it is likely), *FFF

t ’ (it is probable) ‘FFFFT’ (probably) correspond to English'may',
'might' 'may/might + have + pp' etc.

W can take the normal as well as subjunctive verb ending.

Language structure Q Present Habitual Probability

probability + subj. + obj. + v.r + cTT, ^,rft + FtF, Ft, Ft3Tt, Ft

expression nom. (if any)

Model v.i. 3PFTT; v.t. *fFTT

probability main verb f Tft

expression subject m. f.
* 3TRTT 3TR?t Ftc£
WFF fJ,FF,FF 'tftlcd ^FTcft
Ft FFkTT t rjF, rjF cTtF 3TT^ 3TTrft FtFt
FFF 1 3TTF, ?t <aict ft

Examples :

1. ¥TTFF FF1"- FTTF ^ t <^ddl Ft I Perhaps he plays in the evening.

2. Ft FF'cfT t ^ " pL 3 rM FMT F It is likely that they don't know the

Ft I English language.

3. Ft FF^TT t FFT F FFrft Ft I It is likely it is not hot there.

4. FTTFF FF1"- FFFF FTFT Ft I Perhaps he goes to the office on


5. Ft y+di I %n,pl 3IFUFF ^ Ft% Ft I It is likely they sleep in the afternoon.

Language structure Q Present Progressive Probability

probability + subj. + obj. + v.r + 71?, T.f?l + 6 lcf?, Ft, Ft3TT, Ft

expression nom. (if any)
case agree with the subj.
Model v.i. «TFfT(to go); v.t. <FMl (to eat)

probability main verb

expression subject m. f.
ft 3TTTFT 3TTT^t Fts


Ft TfFTfT 1 cjF, TJF eft’ll 3TTTI 3TT7# trat
t 3TFT, %, Tf TFT7% TFTT#t Ft

Examples :

1. Ft FF7TT t ^t^"- FFTfT FF FTct TJF It is likely somebody is listening to

TFT Ft I all of our conversation.
2. Ft FF7TT f? FF*"- FTFFTT flMt TftTF It is likely he is learning Hindi these
TFT Ft I days.

Language structure Past probability v.i.

probability + subj. + v.r + 3TT, TT i + fTF, Ft, Ft

expression nom. case
agree with the subj.
Model m Past probability v.i. '3TFTT’

prob. exp. subject m. f.

Ft FF7TT t TJF.cJF clbl 3ttc; srrf
FK, 3fN;

Examples :

1. TTFF? FF "■ FTT RFJT W Ft I Perhaps he went to Jaipur

2. TTFK ill^V- TPFT FT F 3Tff Perhaps his train did not arrive
Fti on time.
3. #T ^T^cTT t RTF^t TTl^- ^T % It could be that their train
#ri departed late.
4. #T TTFTTT f TFT 3tR 3FFt 3|RW>|(1 Ram might have met his boss today
% f*1cTT Ft I
5. Ft TRTTT % FIT ^ F?t FTFT- The wheat crop might have been
3 R # g f Ft I good this time.

Language structure £ 2 Past probability v.t.

probability + subj. +obj. + v.r + 3TT, H, ^ + Ft, Ft

agree with the obj.

Model 2 3 Past probability v.t. ‘tdlH I’

^cTT ^FIT Ft 1
Ft FF kTT t RTF*, Tt^t TFT^ Ft 1
TTFF, FFF t FH%,^Ft% <lR.i|T Ft 1

Examples :

1. Ft TTFTTT t RTT^ cTF’FTFcT"’- W r Ft I It is likely that he saw the Tajmahal.

2. Ft FFTTT t d-gt't gTl'fl FFT %^t They may have sold the old car.
3. TTFK TRFt% TFft F>t <Fdcl *t T Perhaps they did not invite Rani to the
gcHFI Ft 1 party.
4. tt'rr t rtt% f e # it enrr It is probable that he saw the Red
itm Ft 1 Fort in Delhi.
5. Ft TTFTTT t RTT% RTFTtcTTTr FR It can be that he changed places.
‘ trWT Ft I

Language structure Q j Future probability

probability + subj. + obj. + v.r + ^f, tT git, tt

expression nom. case (if any)

written together agree with the subj.

Model Q Future probability

* 3fl*


Ft FTFTT t WT(5^ T) 3TT3?)

t 6H,3TFr,

Examples :

1. Ft <r)<=r>m t WT ^Ft FF"’ 3fFI% fTT It is likely that we will come to your
3iT^ I house in the evening.
2. t %mpl 3P1^ F*Rt 'Jilt!,345678 Probably they will go to Jaipur next
3. W *IF JRFF tjtftf I I might buy this book.
4. W F>eT fe rft I I might go to Delhi tomorrow.
5. Ft ^ fctt t iraPFr^™ # 3rc% The Prime Minister might resign from
FF % ^ ^ I his post soon.
6. 3(H ^ F Rf, F>t Ri <<<<{ STT; Ft This morning Ritu had a headache;
«4>di ^ FF’*9- itll'H F>t c;idd it T she might not be able to come to
3TT T # I the party in the evening.
7. W 3)M 3TwiM+mho"- % F>STT it Perhaps the teacher (hon.) will come
3fT^ I to the class late today.
8. Ft *FFFT | 3 M W W *nRW- Ft I It might rain by evening today.

Compare and Comprehend: Future: Probability

1.3RFT FFTTT I FF ^FF 3TT5 F^t He may have breakfast at 8 o'clock

FTFFT f 3: I in the morning.
I will have breakfast at 8 a.m.
2.3T:FnFF FJTm/l- pl- 3Flct WTT ^ 3TR% Perhaps we will come to your
FT 3TI^ I house next Sunday.
2. F: FF’1’1'■pl' 3TJTi~r W IT F^t 3TTFFT FT We will come to your house next
FTFTt/FITnft I Sunday.
3.3T:Ft FFTTT t FF 3TTF FTP? F^t ^T He may not come home until late in
FF> FT F 3TIF | the evening today.
3. F: FF 3FF 7TTF F^T ^T FF? FT Fl?f He will not come home until
STTTttiT I late in the evening today.
4.3T:F^t F fe lF Fs?f FT TFT I Ft FFTTT Hari is not working hard. He may
t FF F tM F #TI not pass the examination.
4. F: Fft FfeTF F#f FT: TFT I FF Hari is not working hard. He will
F tM F#f f Ftti not pass the examination.
5.3T:WFF 7' p' FF FT FFTTT They"1pl may wajt for us at the bus
WTTT F ^ I stop.
5. F: V ,pl- FF 3TF% FT FFTTT FFFTT They will wait for us at the bus
FTTT/Fi^ff I stop.
6.3f:?TTFF 3TIF % PRT PR^ I I might see you again.
6.F: 3TFT % PfTT fafFT/fiRflft I I will see you again.
7.3RFT FFTTT !? FF^^ 3TTF TTF ferF She / He might go to see a film
^TF% FTF I tonight.
7.F: FF 3TM TRT forF He / She will go to see a film
FTFFT / FTT^ftl tonight.
8.3r:^F"- FF effeft FF W$F Ft I Buy this lottery ticket. You might
FTTFF <JF cftF FRF TFF ^ d FT3TT | win Rs. 3 lacs.
8. F: TJF FF effect FF P w TfftF FT I Buy this lottery ticket. You will
rfF1"- PlRFd 1?t T?fF dKd TFF certainly win Rs. 3 lacs.

More on f t t (it is likely); 'x' ^ t dlddi (to think of doing 'X')

1. I% 'PIT I hear you are planning to buy a

^ Xt f t l TJTfTXT new TV. What brand of TV are you
^PT-TTT XTfapt TT planning to buy ?
fXRT t?
*?•} sp5t cpt Wm i f t w*t>di % I haven't decided yet. I may buy
t 'artf^rsT' xrftf i 'Onida'.
Tff fXf ^ XTT^ 4?t # T XT? f t ? Where are you going to put it ?
XTPTf *f T3%%5T> X^ I I may put it in the drawing room.

2. c[P 3PFf fo f % TR foePt ? When are you going to see your

3 p f tOw 3 f r X # t l ft XPT cf Tt t I am not sure. I might see him this
T3% 3TM WT ^ t H tc^ I evening.

3. c^P f T ^ f 4 ? t X ST^ 1j f t ‘t 'T 'l % What are you thinking of doing after
*nf W fJX^ ^ t f t f X t f t ? finishing college ?
^ 3ptt cPT X # fetT I XTPTft I haven't decided yet. I may go to
3TPtfs% arnttoTRisi America for further studies.

4. 3Tpm ^PT-xtt ^ tx xrfR^t w\ What car do you intend buying ?

fXRT T??
3pft WPT X # fTT^T I f t TPTkTTt I am not sure yet. I may go in for a
^ ‘rnxRtxfi 'Maruti'.

5. W T T X P ttf fw te P T xf TT?f 3THr I Kamla did not come to the concert.

TTf T|3rT fPTT? What could have happened ?
ft xtxkTT%Tf 41hk ft ft i She may have fallen sick.

6. 3 f% f f r t t 4H hi<3TTt ? fi% $ xr They know all about our plans.

TnRjfft i
Ft w ft t TRFtR FFrtt f R t They may have been
TjHt f ! i eavesdropping on us.
FFT ^T tfNcI Ft d'-Fl't 3ltTt ^ t Do you think they could have told
FrnFT #nTT ? others ?
Ft TTWT f? TFFf% R^fT ^ t FrTT Well, they may have told somebody.
R f T Ft I
7. FT «)•■<; 'l^l FT | W Fucfl The house was not locked. It is
«m i ^ R rft % vdru ^rft R fi i strange that no one answered
FF RRl3 FTTT 11 when I rang the bell.
RR tF # 1 ? Ft W d l t What's so strange about it ? They
% Ft T^ Ft sftT TFFt% F ^ may have been sleeping and might
Re^rt tjj'fl iff F Ft I not have heard the bell ring at all.

8. W 3TN FFTcT f ^tc=T TTh?FT FT Do you know how the fire at the
3TRT ^Tt cl'fl ? petrol station began ?
Ft WFT t R rtt % FcRt g f Someone may have dropped a
RFrarnf R fj 4t Ft i lighted matchstick.
Ft W en t R^ett R FTT 3TTFF ^f There could have been an electric
Ftt Ft i9 short-circuit.

9. ftiR ^ 3n% off 3F-1 R fi He had promised to come to the

FT I FF FFt FI?f 3TFTT ? meeting. Why didn't he come ? I
*f RtR f f I am worried.
Ft W t T3% ^ t f «T¥ft FFF He might have had to do some
FFT R I other important work.
Ft TfFFTT t W F FT ^FFT *T He may not have received the
RpRFTl information in time.

★ ★ ★
21 F requentative S tru ctu res

These structures are used usually to emphasize thef requent repetition

of a certain activity in a certain time period in all the three tenses,
present, past, future as well as the imperative speech.

In this structure changes to I

*** Frequentative form in all three tenses indicates that the action is taking
place more frequently within a certain time-period.
**■ P u t ' ^ ’ before (v.r. + 3rt/*n), and drop the auxiliary'FfaT' at the end
to make negative sentences.

|J | Frequentative present simple tense

Language structure

subj. + obj. + (v.r. + 3rr/*TT) + + f, #r,

nom. case (if any) (invariable) t, t

to agree with N and G of the subj.

Model v.t. ^fFTT (to eat); v.i. «TRT (to go)

^TcTT ^
n <t>t^ <|
^ 3F, ^F, t
(sg .)W tfiWT t
ufWT Ft 1 m sg. / pi.
c|F, cTtn-
‘FTcft Ft 1
FT, 3TFI, %, if, 1 1 m. pi.
^ T - ^ T (who all) TRcft t f. pi.
Examples :
1. WT WT ft<r<T)Vc ft WIT m ft ff? Do you eat in a restaurant ?
2. f t ftwfftw ft T#f w n n rft i We don't eat in a restaurant.
3. WT TF iM ftRl WIT ^Mdl ft ? Does he go to the temple daily?
4. W TFT -hR i WTT 4>ldl I He doesn't go to the temple daily.
5. FT t#Il*H ftft TFT 3ITTT 'Mr) ft I In the evening we come here.
6. I T ftR< ft TTT TWT 4141 ^Tcl The devotees sing hymns in this
t I temple.
7. TFT F I Tlftft Tft ftt dlCkd ft) tftftt On the second of every month the
IftcTT m f t t I washermen meet here.
8. wt % ftr tt ttttt % f t i r r ft In the rainy season the cuckoo
<+>l4d tttt wicft ft i sings on mango trees.
9. w f t yIl-H Tft R><ftd. <ftcli f i r ) ft I Children play cricket in the evening
10. tttt Tift m - wrfftrT tjtttt m ft Grandfather usually narrates stories.
ft i

^ Frequentative past habitual tense

Language structure

subj. + obj. + [v.r.+ W/TT ] + TWTT, f l f t + tt, ft,

nom. case (if any) (invariable) TWft ftt, ft!

agree with N and G of the subj.

Model Q v.t. WTT (to eat); v.i. WTT (to go)


TF, Tftr sg. WTT Twft ft! f.sq.

£?^H, c^T, 3TPT, wn wrft ft

ft, ft, f id pi., TWft ft!

Tftr Tftd who all


1. w tjf 3pi% w m THr) ^ ? Did you use to eat eggs ?

2. FF 3f^ Tiff WPTT ch<rl sf I We didn't use to eat eggs.
3. TTT 4F h’R< "1141*t><dI *TT ? Did he use to go to the temple ?
4. 4 F 'Pff^T Ts?f "TTOT<t><dl *TT I He didn't use to go to the temple.
5. F F ^TTOT if TFT ^ I We used to live in Banaras.
6. 4F FtcTcT 4FT =T#f T>3TT F>TFT *TT I This hotel didn't use to be here.
7. 4F 3T^#2RT T # ^3fT 4TTxft She never used to be absent.
*ft I
8. W 4F T)WF % feF!; ^TRT 4><.dl Did she use to go for a walk in the
4t I morning?
9. W Tf^T dgd XTST <=r»<cfl *ft ? Did you use to study a lot ?
10. ftcTT fW FFlt feftr B9FR TTFfT Father always used to bring presents
4><.cl I for us.

B Frequentative imperative
Language structure

subject + object + (v.r.+ 3TT/4I) +

^T/3TFT (if any) (invariable) or

■s’ The imperative frequentative is used to command or request the

second person, or'3TN’ form, to carry out som e activity with
more regular frequency, in the present or future tense.

M odel: Verb ^TS-TT

Subj. Obj. v.r. + 3iT/*IT ■Mdl

pres, imper. fut. imper.
3TR ■flftliyn


1. ^ HTFT % TTST 4>i I Study carefully.

c£q STH ^ H<£l «t>0 I
3TFT HJFf % TCT 41 Rid, I
2. 3tN q ftqT 41fclU, I Don't drinkg coffee.
3. 3)h41 41"l qqid+t. <.<eil + 0 I Keep your things safely.
4. WT^MT qfrFT q WTT qnft I Don't eat spicy food.
5. Pwftd ^ q % T fq rr q?t f^rcrr Visit the doctor regularly.
4)ftrq; i
6. cjq Tt"f Dq "INI +< h 11
You go for a walk.
7. rjq ^MI4H 3r stft % w qr^TT I You study carefully in the hostel
8. 3tq% % q§r % bw qgq qq ffcqr Don't argue with people older
q fm i than you.
9. snq q rer h i 41 qqiciqK I4qi In India, boil water and drink.
qStfaqqr i
10. f tq omqiq f^zrr qSlRi^n i Do exercise everyday.

Frequentative future simple tense

Language structure

subj. + obj. + v. r. + aq/qr + qq^TT/qq^ft, q^TTT/qrWt

nom. (if any) (invariable) q*f)it/4><)4)l q ^ / q ^ 'f l
agree with N and G of the subject.

subj. obj. v.r. + 3fT/qr 4><qi

m. f.
n +MII +£41

^ qf, q? qqT,
q^qn q ^
+1h I 4 d l« l qsr
cjq, ^qiHlq q>tpt ■+><141

Fq, anq, 4, 4 qr^f q^jft


Examples :

1. RM Tf'- m eHII«K 1 This year 1will study with

2. Rf^ST 3 FTTft RTF T?t They will not need our help in the
3nTWPdt,',fl ^3(T 4 ^ I future.
3. STRThft RkllfH-a % FR™p1’ Riff R#f We will not go anywhere from the
«TRT T>^*t 1 coming weekend on.
4. FT FRTTT 3fFWt tlePTtT 1will phone you every Sunday.
faiRI 41<Plll |
5. RieT % 3><t>l^, pl' 3TT5 «!'■<; ^3TT From tomorrow the shops will close
1 at 8 o'clock.
6. m f "TTg ^3cR ^ ^ 5Rmp' Tfal As soon as rainy season ends we
‘h't'l 'TPTT T>^7t 1 will go for walks daily.
7. RTTR «TTT>T f N t RtcTT WTT 1 1will speak Hindi, when 1 go to
8. tffadRf
O "N FR’npl' f t a t n T ^if 1 During holidays we will swim
9. T^f ^ m- frqr 3ttr ttirt w it i In summer 1will eat mangoes daily.

10. RTTTRI % ^flRR FRn,pl- iJRcTT Rpft During the rainy season, we will
fa n i drink boiled water.

★ ★ ★
A p p re h e n s io n s
(m w ft t ^ tt)

Use of
ftFT F f t 1% Lest......
F ft .... F I am afraid.... might......

Examples :

1. FTT f Ri F I 4>ft ftFT F f t Move a little fast, lest the film

1% H r ?’ ^ ft ftc/ f# f t ^ F ’ begins (before we get there) / I am
^<5- F ?t «iif l atraid the film might begin.
2. F?f fftft % FFTcF F ft fftw^ f t I For many days Kamla has not been
FTT ftft FT % ftftft T O FF seen. Last time while returning
FlfftfT ft ftft F^ f t | F ft ftFTT F from my house, she got wet in the
F ft F t/ ftFT F f t fft ftFTC F ft Ft I rain. I am afraid she might be sick.
3. IFFT ftFR FT3ft, F ft ftFT F Ft fft Take the umbrella lest it rains and
FlfftfT 3TT RTC; f t r rJF #rr FTtft I you get wet.
4. F F ftft FFRFT 3RT FIF> FT TTft I Put the poisonous medicines on
F ft F f t T£ FT TF F ft I /F ft ftFT the shelf, lest the children touch or
F f t fft 4 f t T5
FT TTT ft I eat them.
5. f F FTT fftTF % Ft f f t R FFft % You buy two tickets for this film in
ftT T ftF ftl F f t f t F T F f t f f t advance lest we go there and don’t
FF FFT Rift f t r fftFR F fftft I get any.
6. stffteT ft ftrc; Rtfft 3rrft ft FFft We ought to rent a house for Anil
ft fftriF ft ft ftFT Fifftri before he comes lest he is put to
F ft f t 3 f t FT Fftfflftt F Ft I inconvenience when he arrives.
7. <JF 1ft fftd f t TjFF 3TT5 f t FF> Be sure to be at the manager’s
ftftRT TT1FF ft FT FgF FTFT I house by 8 o'clock in the morning
F f t f t F f t fft ft e f t t F g f t lest he leaves the house before
ft FFft FT ft fttFFT FIM, I you reach there.

★ ★ ★

The verb WTT is used to express a desire (a) to have something or

(b) to do something.

Language structure Q 'X' wants to have 'Y‘

subj. + obj. + EfTFTT + #TT
nom. case (noun)
m. orf. in thcMequitechense to
sg. or pi. to agree with the subject.

Model Q Present simple, past habitual, future simple.

^rr, ^ 4IFdl | / TT d l|i|| m.

* shoe, shoes TTFcft f / # f.
rj, FF, TF, tt# , rn to TTFcIT % / W ti # tt m.
‘pH saree, sarees TIF# 1 / # T to t f.

w. VllPtf, dUA diFc) # / 2r 4IFlI) m.

fto r peace, job TTFcft Ft / # TIFt# f.
FT, 3TPT, %, 3IKIH, 4 IFcl I A "Ento- m.
chl'i-ct?l'i rest, respect TTF# t / # T#>ft f.

Examples :

1. # (f.) Tm #IH<ilA I just want honesty and truth from

^TTF# f I you.
2. ^ TFTT FT ( f t o 3TITW At this time we just want rest.
3. W TTT # (m.) TJT 3 °# ‘t o r I want a cold beer at this time.
4. t o r f*TT ( fto ft W T TF My friends want a map of Delhi.

5. 3f (m.) Ft ftfft ft, I wanted a job but at the same
FTF !?t fWcT I time respect.
6. f f (f.) F r f t fft Fierfl *ft? What did she want from you?
7. FFT (m.) #FT FT What kind of a house would you
want to have?
8. TJF (m.) ^ft-FT ^T FT F W Which sunglasses do you want, the
FTF% Ft, cTlH FTcTT? red ones?
9. ft (m.)T>FFftFRFlSFTf, *(& F # l I want a green car, not brown.

SQ Past simple te n s e : X wanted to haveY

(subject + ft) + object + FTFf, F it, Ffi?t, FTi?t

«■ To make present perfect or past perfect tenses use t / t or FT, ft, ftt,
ftf respectively.


1. ?[Fft ifllPd ( Ft Fftt F#f F ltt I You never wanted peace.
2. TJFft Ft FF F^F EFT ( FTFT You have always wanted only
t 1 (present perfect) wealth.
3. ftft Fftw fiPT? 3 F # fttTF ( I have always wanted only good
F i t 11 (present perfect) friends.

**■ Only ‘FTFT’ will be used:

• When the gender of the object is not known.

4. ftFT Ft 3ft Fftt F#f FTFTI Something like this I never wanted.
5. rjsft 3Fft fttFT if FFFTFT FFT What have you chiefly desired in
FTFT t ? your life.

• When ‘‘ft ’ follows the object

6. 3ft r£F4Tt ftt-FFT % FTFT t , I have wanted you from my heart

ftft ^ t F#f I not your money.

Language structure Q 'X' wants to do 'Y‘

mpresent; past habitual; future:

subj. + obj. + main verb i?RT
nom. case (if any) (infinitive)
in the required tense
to agree with the subject
Model mPresent indefinite; past habitual; future simple
FlFdl |/F T m.
It FIF<ftf/*5t F lffl f.
g,FF,FF, FIFdl S/FT m.
(sg.) g?t ^TIFrft t/« tt fM f.

3*. FT^t, FI%FI Iflfkdl ftf% F t/ *t FIFli m.

gF Cl)*l FTFrlt F t/ «5t FT#rft f.
f f ,3itf,%, FlF<t#/il 'FT^t m.
^TFcft ff/sff Fief'f) f.

Examples :
1. (f.)^T ^t »?t ^ I don’t want even to see his/her
W rft I face.
2. ^ (m.) f a r TIFT I never again want to come to this
3TFTT W cT T I city.
3. W g F (f.) ^ FSFT Do you want to read any magazine?
4. f f f f f f f (f.pi.) Fipr FFtt
At this time we are all very tired
f 3?TT FtFT ^TFrft t I and want to sleep.
3 3FF ( F*ff F?t wf|^f if Where do you want to go during
F>FT «fPfT F1F% ? ? summer holidays?
6. 't'HWl % <1*1 ^ t 3PT^ uFaf^T FT Kamla has invited Ram to her
gciiFi t , FT^g FF ( ^FTT birthday but he does’nt want to go.

7. *K+K ( F fc# F>F FRFT TheGovernment wanted to reduco
FTF# «# W J F R F F # I the prices but could not.
8. FF ( WT 3T&TT # # # ^ We wanted to return home
FT cTt<TFT FlFri *t I before it got dark in the evening.
9. % ( f R ’£[F% FTFT FlFcl They wanted to go out wandering.
# I
10. FFT <|F (m.) F tf FFT WTTT FRFT Would you like to do some new
F1F#? business?
11. FeT FTTF F t 3TFT ( FFT What would you like to do
W T FT##? tomorrow in evening?
12. # (m.) 3TM WF F?T +1^ f#<51 I would like to see some hindi film
f#FF ^TTFT FTfFT I this evening.

Language structure 2 3 Past simple tense 'X' wanted to do 'Y'

subj. + # + obj. + v.r. + F T #,# + FTFT, FT#

FT#, FT#

to agree with the obj.


1. # # 3nh# ( #T T # FfcT FT# I very much desired to learn English

H F FFF I (past simple)but could not.
2. F F # 3FT# # F F 1>M # FTpT # He wanted to do many things in his
<t>IH ( FR# FT# FT FF life time, but remained nsuccessful.
3TFF5eT TFT I(past simple)

«s* Put 1?/# ’ or ‘FT, # , # , # ’ after the appropriate form FTFT forthe
present perfect or past perfect sentences respectively.

3. # # Ft f|FF # F#F g)*FKI FcTT I have always wanted to do your

( # FRFT FTFT t l(pres. perf.) good from my heart
4. # # a n # F^Ft # F#FTT #f#FT '•JTF I have always wanted to put (
FTcT# FTi? f I (pres, perf.) moral values in my children.

5. hicii-R cii % Our parents have always wanted to
<t><.*fl % I (pres, pert.) fulfil our desires.
fi. thflT "3H% ct><*11 *T Til{’l He had never wanted to do like this.
«TTI (past perf.)
7. ^ % a n ^ T 3frrt ^ tN t Mr. Kapoor had all his life wanted
( ■tx.'fl RTi?t *St I (past perf.) to serve others.

Only 'v.r. + ^TT + RIFT’ will be used:

• When <JFt’ follows the object.

TtMl «HMI He wanted to make me his friend.

When the gender of the object Is not explicitly stated.

TR ^ 3PT^ % fcTcr «(gci Ram wanted to do a lot for his

<t»<df W W rj, *IW % children but destiny was not with
*TR ^Tlff I him.
10. 'd't? 'ft <idl dlJH, Whatever I wanted to give them
3(<r41tt'K f^RT I they refused.
• When it is intransitive activity.

11. RTcf ^fFTT RIFT R l I had always wanted to go to India.

12. FR* F^T9TT R R TFRT W T RT I We had always wanted to live

Use of ‘RI'gTf' when Awants Bto have or do something.

Language structure

(subj.1) + fig'll + FtRT + f^ + (subj. 2*) + obj. verb

if any subjunctive
in the appropriate
tense to agree to agree with
with subj. 1 subj. 2
‘subject 2 may be som eone other than subject 1 or the same,
w In this language structure if subj. 1 is followed by *%’, usually ( RIFRT
+ FtRT) are used in the 3rd person form.

w This language structure Is used chiefly when Awants Bto do something.
However It can be and Is often used when A wants to do something
himself. See example 4 given below.
1. $ (^TFFT f ft; 3 ? # $ jr I want to quickly save money and
travel through the country.
2. TJ3 (m.) Ft 3 3 Ft ft; 3T if You just want that everybody in
3 3 # 3 cpFTCT ^t g33 3Ff I the house obeys your command.
3. F3 ( 3TF^ f ft; 3R 3 ^ 3 3TT We want India certainly to win the
I match this time.
4. TJ# ( 3TFcft t 1% 3F 3R 3 $ Annie wants to live in India for a
O 313 # ^FT # 3TO 3 few year and learn the language and
3 T fft 3 P # 3TF # f t I culture of this place well.
5. 3T3T # (f.hon.) 3TF# I ft; #3T Mother wants Sheela to learn
I dance.
a TT3 ( 3#f 31F3T 3T ft; 3 3 # Ram did not want his wife to learn
Mc-fl "Jc^ I dance.
7. t^TT # ( 3TFft *t ft; ^ Father wanted me to be a teacher.
sruiift+i 3^1
8. F3 ( 3<?f 31F# *St ft; TFT # We did not want that Ram's
TflfttftFcft^Ftl wedding should take place in Delhi.
9. T*ftT ( % Tft3 # t 3TFT % Ramesh has always wanted this
■3?l% Hldl-ftcTT 71? I that his parents remain happy.
10. ( # 3ft3T ft; The officer would certainly want that
^HcTFT # T F f e F T 4 # l you work harder.
11. srsziTW ( # Tft3 3 # The teachers would always want this
ft; f # n # 3 # stft %^ i12 that the students listen to them
12. 3 3 3I3T3 ( 3T3W 3t ft; All mothers would certainly want their
•33% d # U<fy«l 3 ” F 3 Ft I children to be accomplished

★ ★

Use of to express
24 need or desire
Language structure:
subj. + + obj. + + i^TT

*Appropriate form of FtFT in the required tense Is used when fiR?f Is

used to express desire or want the past and the future tenses as
shown below.
Examples: Present tense
1. 3TT#r W x|#cr ? What do you need ?
2. yi<£l HI'fl Fll<?F I I need water
3. TPT TFT FTI%Tr ? What does Ram need ?
4. TFT StTOPTTjT? ? Do you need anything ?
5. 3?WT T>T5 31TTIFFlf^ I I need some rest.
6 . F^r t# tt f # tt| We need peace.

In several parts of India, when the object needed or desired is plural

TiR?«t is used instead of as shown below

1. F1FT 4ft TTlfM I Mother needs sarees.

2. ^ Ti?5 I I need some books.

Examples : Past tense

1. ^ T>TFT ( ®TTI I needed a kurta.

2. 3% FTT (f. sg.) ^Tf^T sft I He/She needed help.
3. (m. pi.) *TI They needed some forks.
4. w u ^ r? p F T ^ fe n t(f.p i.) #i Kamla needed your books.
5. ■rrffar T?T FTl^ ( I The patient needed medicine.
6 . TW *FT FT Ftr T*rf (m. pi.) Ram needed new clothes on his
^F#tT e) | birthday.

Past auxiliary corresponds to the N and G of the object desired.

Examples : Future tense
1. ^ 3*FKT 'FRTT FtTT I I will need your shirt tomorrow.
2. 3JT[^ SHrl F^f 3tTF^ ^Irl T # tr I will need your cups next week.
# tl
3. TRTf ^ FT? T#Q; Ffift | I will need some chairs the day
after tomorrow.
4. ^ TF> TFT TT T # T (jbTT I I will need a big house.
5. F^f SIFa 3?R FTT We will need one more car from next
4lls?iT, Fbfi I month on.
6. «l»4l F>T Te4t-i?t T^ I4>cM -qi^ij, The children will soon need new
# ftl books.

«■ Note that this use of 4lfi?U is different from its compulsion structure
usage where (subject W f) + object are followed by a main verb in
infinitive before adding fiR?h

■ Alternatively 'need' can be expressed by use of 'XF?t uTFTrf fTtt\ 'X

F?t •HI4!J4't>0l FtTP

Language structure :
subj. + obj. + FtTT
with n./ (v.r. +
in the required

1. ^ 11 I need an Indian friend.
2. Hi 3|l4W+"cn 11 I need to learn Hindi.
3. -4M F?t T¥TT t ? What do you need?
4. <J>% F^t 3ti4^4'dl Do you need something ?

★ ★ ★
Perfective and Im perfective
Participial C o n stru ctio ns
TTij c^Fh H + r le l+

■ Imperfective participial constructions (IPC) indicate ongoing activities.

■ Perfective participial constructions (PPC) indicate completed activities.
In Hindi they are used as (1) adjectives, (2) adverbs and (3) nouns. When
used as nouns they take the place of nouns they modify.

Language structure : PPC Language Structure : IPC

(v.r. + 3TT ) + pT cTT,) + pr


**" Use of §3rr, p , ^ is not obligatory.

s As adjective they agree with the number and gender of the noun they
■ Adjectival use

1. ?3n Tin ^ 11 The man sitting in the room is my

(PPC) brother.
2. UHxl-ri ^ The stories written by Ramchandra
M I1 (PPC) are very interesting.
3. TrerfM cf^t All fish entrapped in the net were
Tift «ff I (PPC) writhing.
4. if TJSfcTT '§3TT In the rainy season we drink boiled
Tpft 11 (p p c ) water.
5. -qclcTl ^ ^TT^t if ‘HcT "ElSt I (IPC) Don't get on the moving train.
6. %PT $ p ^ t | Call the students playing in the field.
7. «ierf) ^ W if p *ft "TFT cTt I You also take a bath in the
(IPC) flowing Ganges.
8. ft? gncfft f%RW Tit I (IPC) The drowning men were screaming.

Adverbial Use

m As adverbs they usually agree with the subj. or the obj. as shown below:

1. Ttrft 3TT# I (IPC) The girl came crying.

2. CTC4JT TIM §311 xleiT W | (IPC) The boy went away singing.
3. ebHdl ^ 373IT TTT TTST r[3n Kamla found the purse lying on the
W l (PPC) road.
4. c?PT m i TT 7^ People were playing cards sitting
£f I (PPC) on the grass.

Hr However such agreement with the subject or the object is not obligatory
and the present as well as past participles used as adverbs are often
in the neutral Vform.


1. 7 ^ |T( 3IT^ I (IPC) The girl came crying.

2. cMR ^ W M I I (IPC) The boy went away singing.
3. 3TUllH^ % 'I t'd 'Met The teacher caught the student
ft* *RF§T 1 (IPC) copying.
4. W 4 ^ TTtfl -1H() Have you ever seen the peacocks
^3T t ? (IPC) dancing?
5. o 'hHi'Ji) w l T7 1saw some important papers
^77* |T* 1 (PPC) scattered on the floor.
6. TJ5) R*11 Riel ^ ct'£l «IMI 1 Don't go anywhere without meeting
(PPC) me.
7. 7pft TUI 71^4? *17 fjft Ran! found this child lying on the
tnj f a n 1 (PPC) road.
8. 'JI4M 3IKrft 5 USI XJ5TTT f|Cr A young man carrying a stick ran
^ <?fa 1 (PPC) behind the child.

m If the subject or the object have any postposition after it, certainly only
V form of the required participle is used.

1. dU'l +61 I He said laughing.

2. %3U+1 <1^ ^JFF <rlId FT % I see him coming out of the house
Pl+clcl p FWtT i | I every day at 7 o'clock in the
3. Tpft +t Tt% §T[ H«pFt Everybody was pained to see Ran!
pTI crying.

|~3] When used as adverbs, the subject of the participle and the subject of
the finite verb are not necessarily the same.

1. FF^ ^ t FFF feTtT We heard an old man shouting for

3+rro* p T g v, (IRC) help.
2. ftt+Tft ^ +t p The hunter saw the birds flying.
^ftt I (IPC)
3. FT % F^t l«Hi tain *1^1 Mother did not let the child sleep
foTTI (PPC) without eating.
4. vjU't «Uelt> +>t hR<. % UH'j He/She found the baby lying in
fH W I (PPC) front of the temple.

m Adverbial use of PPC to talk about the lapse of time from the end of a
complete activity until the present.

subject + is used in this structure.

1. ^ TTTcT Ft Ftr It has been several years since I

t I learnt Hindi.
2. F ^ FF FT 3firr p xfTT TTTcT Ft It has been four years since we
f | came into this house.

■ Adverbial use of IPC in time expressions of simultaneous activity:

{(v.r. + ^ ) + F F F /F F F }

pT| The subject is in the nominative case, when the imperfective participial
construction and the main verb are related to the same subject.

1. tjp TfalT ^ t T O ^?R-R£R R Don't look here and there while

^sFTT 1 taking the exam.
2. 3 *it% ^?R f 1 1turn the light off when 1sleep.
3. *T?t RTRT H*l W 7? 1don't like to speak while eating.
4. ^ftRT F*tW H<Sci gRiff Sheela always use to listen to music
«5t 1 while studying.
5. Rdl *ft ^ RT % Pt*t>clct RRR Father had ordered at the time of
3fFt9T ftRT RT1 leaving the house.
6. RRT 'ft % RRR RF 3>FT RT 1 Grandfather said this at the time of
his death.
7. ^ <TTrR % cft£% TOT f F t t RT 1shall come to your house while
3TT3t^ 1 returning from the office.

Iff When the subject of the IPC and the main verb are different, ’
follows the subject of IPC

8. tftct TRT ^RTFTT 1 Don't turn theT.V. on while 1sleep.

9. ftdT ^ % tr % P(4>df) W As the father was getting out. the
ftFRTR 3TT TJTT| guests came.

[~6] Adverbial use of IPC to express the length of time from the beginning
of the activity to the present time. It indicates activities in progress.

1. 3fFRFt fM t tffacf ^ fccTRT RFR How long have you been learning
Ft JNl f?? Hindi ?
2. ■git siit^k *pfar 4R I have been learning classical
Ft 11 music for ten years.
3. TTR^ RRRT Tpf ^eT Robert has been playing the tabla
Ft f? I for several years.
4. Tfft %^t ^ t ^8 Htocl IR* My daughter has been studying in
RRF ^ #r RCr f I this school for twelve years.

Reduplicative use of IPC and PPC indicates continuous action

1 . % FFT FTTt-FT^ (IPC) I am tired working continuously since

F F T ^ l |l the morning.
2. F eftt-F c# (IPC) TF W I1 The child is tired walking
3. %F1T (PPC) 3TT W l | I I am bored sitting idle.
4. FHeti ^ - # ^ ( I P C ) ^ Kamla is watching TV lying down.
T ^ tt I

Use of two different but semintically related PPC as adjective or


1. $ T^t-fcT# cisf ) % FTft M I want to marry an educated girl.

2. ITT FT ^ f )f TFcTT t ? Who lives in this delapidated
3. W-^tcTT 3TTFft F*ft I have never seen such a useless
^ tf l man.
4. TFT fifTT f £ - f £ F i t H^'idi I1 Ram always wears torn clothes.
5. TFT TJFFTCT 4?) FFFft 11 The story of this novel is streotype.

Use of PPC of related verb pairs as adjective.

1. t Tj^ft-TJFT^ FRT FT f%WTT I don’t believe hearsay.

FTrft l
2. cjF^ ifFT FFT-«m i f TFT R'Hs You spoiled my already fulfilled
f^TT I job.
3. 3iMFci c%T fa^-Rtcuv, These days mostly people buy
FF% Fftl% 1 1 readymadeclothes.
4. 3TM ^ ft F4?t-HFi£ # t F t Rc'cfl Today the cat ate my cooked ‘khTr’.
ITT F f I (milk and rice sweet dish).

The repeated use of PPC of verbs of movement.

1 . FT 5 i t a F t ^TTT^ W I He went running to call the doctor.

2 . F? FTFT-FFTT 3TF% FltTft F t FcTT% He arrived running to tell his
F ^F I neighbour.

Stative u se of PPC as predicate : intransitive passive

1. ft f tr fftft ^ f I These apple are already sold.

2 ftR dftl Tpf 11 The table is already lain.
3. fttRR # Tift 11 The wall is coloured blue.
4. RcftRT fclRRT I|3fT 11 The carpet is rolled.
5. if TRft tjft in? ft I These clothes are washed.
6 fttRRt RT ^ ? T f o r R'ft ^ f I Beautiful pictures are hung on the walls.
7. Tiwf RT OTTRlf'RRpft JJrflft 1ft Carpets from Afganistan are
ff t f I spread on the floor.
8. «RTI nift t % RTRft RFT j|3rr RTI The child lay in front of the temple.

Adverbial use of PPC/ IPC of iftRT, RPR, TFRT, R3RT, “fin'll as time

1 . TPftft ftr ^ «psf grr f | It has been two years since I

bought this house.
2. FRftt TTR RR 3T%rf *(RRT R#f I It is not proper to wander alone
so late in the night.
3. ft 3TR RR?
O TRT Tl? eft Trff I I got up quite early today.
4. RF sRIRl fft-T Rt 7 # ft I She is sleeping so late.
5. RF TtR 3TTfft TTR ftfft RT He comes home past mid-night
H|4dl t I every day.
6. RR RTRRT % TTTTT ft TFft ^ ft It is not possible to stop killings
RTRFTT trc^TT RRR R#f I in the statewhile this Government
is in power.
Use of PPC and IPC as noun
1. RTt ( 4ft RR RTT) I Don't hit the ones who are (already)
2. ftl^i (obi. m. sg,) TRT fftWRT 1 What to teach the one who has
already studied!
3. RTRt (obl. RR TtRt I Don't stop the ones who are going.
4. ftldrft (obl. f. sg.) ^T RR Rfaft I Don't interrupt the one who is
See pg. 319; R-18
★ ★ ★
26 The Suffix ^Te!T' ( 4 ^ 4 ^

The suffix ^MT' frequently used in Hindi denotes various things with
different kinds of words. Colloquially, It is used chiefly in association
with nouns, adjectives, adverbs and the oblique form of the infinitive.
It is an adjectival suffix and hence subject to change like any other
adjectivefollowingtherulepertainingto'3n>, V , form .sg.,m .pl.,
f. sg. and pi., respectively.

Q [(v.r. + ^) + qidihl *9/ q '*9 /pi] can be used to convey two

th in gs:
(a) it is equivalent to the English suffix 'er'; the one who does a certain

helper 'ii^qicii111-*®- singer

^tcT%^TcTTm“9 speaker nq^qicii m*9 dancer
listener ^■q^qicii"'*9 seller
qcs^Mim89 reader/student leKq'lqicii m*9 writer
4di^<(Mrs9 teacher ^ f k ^ W " s9 buyer

(b) It is used to convey that something is about to/expected to happen,


s n ^ T c tr89 about to come ^ rr^ M T 59 about to go

^tcT^rictr ^ about to speak p1^qicir,s9- about to be
FF o 11 He is about to speak something.
^F || He is about to go next week.
Q Noun + FMT indicates
4+HqMlms9 houseowner
% ^ W "'S9' wealthy, owner of much money
owner of a shop/shopkeeper
Cost or value
^ n ?rr f^ re u9 a ticket that costs ten paise

W mt f e w s5- an envelope that costs fifty paise
Made of something
WRvroncTT ^ r msa- a marble building
■f^IcTT ’E|Tms9- a brick house
Seller of an article
w R t ^ k i c r '39 one who sells bread
3(u^c(ieiin,s9- one who sells eggs
one who sells fruit
Driver of vehicle
ft^ T r T T 89- one who drives a rickshaw
+K<tldlm-88- one who drives a car
«s(ycjM|ms9- one who drives a bus
Wearer of a dress
W f a i e r r 89- he who is wearing a turban
cTfcT *n#ncftms9' she who is wearing a red sari
0 Demonstrative pronouns + W , used to point to a particular person
Aieqieii, this one, that one; ^RlTef, these ones, those ones
^T-BT 31efT/-% ^TeT/-^ft left which one/which ones


1. i)t!<tlcft fe tN 159- i Give me this book.

2. I Show me those shirts.
3. 4TcTT ^pR:ms9 efl^, Which coat shall I bring,
^*14 Id I tl’ti'J'tldl ? the brown or the white one ?
4. ^<.NIe1l eTT3Tt I Bring the brown one.
5. 4T<=T Wftf, Which apples shall I buy,
TTfihrr^ *TT «^4l<ri ? the expensive or the cheap ones ?
6. Buy the cheap one, please.
Which sari shall I wear,
sdm cil ^ 'Meft'tlcTl ? the green or the black one ?
Wear the black one, please.

9. ?TtT The boys who are making noise may
i go out.
10 f R s r q i^ q icil 4ST %?Ff si^ ii I
. The salary of those who work hard
will increase.
11 . TTFTt « ^ 4 le tmpl- 3WR The resident of cities are often very
w 3frr w«ff rift I1 cunning and selfish.
12 . <>41*11*1 4>T^4T^mpl' WW P^yil Those who excercise everyday will
Tp I always remain healthy.
13. ftH4ldl 4>Tif^Tms9 «fipT The last day's programme was very
lH4> *TTI interesting.
14. <-RT d ^ , <Wc-l dl t ^ <mdl<1leR Call that girl with long, black, and
cTS^t 4?T *R RRT qclldt I thick hair to me.
15. k=T%
3 if ’TFT R ^ m # npl' All those people who participated in
c?hT 3TM Flht I yesterdays function, must be tired
Adjective + ^TcTT, 31^, TTcft, to single out one in a group, e.g.
>:Hcfl4lc,?l ( the black saree;
dlH'Mldl ( the house in front
spider) ( the people in the neighbourhood

When added to an adverb or the name of a place, it indicates position

or residence; ^TeJTchanges t o ^ when thefollowing noun is followed
by a postposition as shown below; ^Tcft is invariable e.g.
1. 'fl^Hidi w t r s9- the room downstairs
2 . in the room downstairs
3. d lH ^ld l <U 4H r89- the front door
4. 414l«lm,9obl RT on the front door
5. Rrc-ft<1ldl qRc(Kmsg. the family that belongs to Delhi
6 . fcrSkler lR=IK"v“90bl ^ to the family that belongs to Delhi
7. the back lane
8. ''ftkTefi Tlcfr s3°bl 3 in the back lane
9. dHWIdl R fi# r-89- the upstairs' neighbor
10 TTTtTTft ^m sg.obl. to the upstairs' neighbor

Predicative use of 4TcTT : X Is about to do Y (4p5 ^TcTT FtTf)

Language structure Q

subj. + obj. + (v.r. +%) + FTcTT, + 1?RT (in any) 4T^, in the required
Fleft tense

to agree with the N and G

of the subject

Examples : Predicative use of 4TcTT

1. W ^ '^ '4 1 eft 11 Mother is about to go to Bombay.

2. 4F 3tW R H i^ ld l 11 He is about to read the newspaper.
3. 4F *TRT «HI')4lcft 11 She is about to cook food.
4. 4F W I dl}4ldl % I He is about to go out.
5. % (m .p l.)^ c ftd ^ td f I They are about to return home.
6. 4p5 FF feUsi^left f I I am about to write some letters.
7. fasipff ^TWETRmX' Rl+Uld The students are about to complain
■M^lcl f I to the Vice-Chancellor.
8. 4F jpFH ^ d ^ l d l 11 He is about to open the shop.
9. FF <41^41^ 11 We are about to eat.
10. ^fftcTT 'll^lcft 11 Sunita is about to sing.
11. +nf*H ^ i^ 4 ld l 11 The programme is about to begin.
12. % FT4RT «FF <M;}4lc) ^ I They were about to close the door.
13. ^TftW Ft^4Tcff 11 It is about to rain.
14. <M*TT ’TRcT dl}4let I I Prof. Thomas is about to go to
15. ?ft 3tf%eT RTTR ^ Mr. Anil is going to start a new
4>^4ld f I business.

'X' was just about to do something when 'Y' happened

Language structure B
subj. + obj. + (v.r. + %) + I?t + TIHT + *1T, *) + ...
nom. case (if any) ^Icf 4t, Sft

to agree with the N

and G of the subj.

s ' This is used when one event in the past just about preceded (but did not
actually take place) the other one in the past.

1. ^ sg: sWc < | was just about to go when the

HIM 3TT HTJ I doctor came.
2 . 5Hn, pl SIHIHTcI #1 3P^T We were just about to enter the
41el ^ Lbld4' f) W I hospital when the (hospital) gate
was shut.
3. FHTft 39 Our examinations were just about
1% DfeWT 5) W t HftSH to start when I got jaundice and I
H ^ H^t I could not take the exam.
4. s9; H t^ TTeft *ft 1% £cfr#T I was just about to sleep when the
4u<fl «l«fl I telephone bell rang.
5. M 'ER m , FHmpl- H^ When they came to my house, we
«tl'j t?t 4 lei ^ I were just about to go for a walk.
6 . StTsSV39 3TT% ^ 4Tef) The storm was just about to come
M 3?fT ^T4I% when we shut all the ventilators,
fcfcr | windows and doors.
7. ^ 39 =Tj? Ridl«t <g A**-} i?t TTef) I was just about to buy the book
M $4>H4U % ^ TJ^p 3?k when the shopkeeper showed
foelT^I me another book.
8. p' # 4THT HT % glelH The killer was just about to run
4?) T5T 3TT HljM) | away when the police van arrived

Compare and Comprehend -1

1a. "Tl% E>t TTIFT 3TT I As soon as I left the doctor came.
1b. s?t TTcft Site* W I was just about to leave when the
3TT tttt | doctor came.
2a. ^ ^feTCT TFT 3TT The killer had just fled when the
police arrived there.
2b. T?^ TT fT The killer was just about to flee
TFT 3TTF f t l when the police arrived there.

In sentences 1a and 2a where (v.r. + %) + is used, though almost

simultaneous, clause one points to already completed activity.

In sentences 1b and 2b where (v.r. + ^)+TTcTT +l?f is used, the activity

in clause one is about to take place (but has not actually taken place)
when the activity in caluse two takes place.

Compare and Comprehend - 2

1. %mpl' 11 They are about to go.

= ?
2. Tuft1-’9' 11 The train is about to depart.
= Tn^t, S9- c\ T?T 11

★ ★ ★
A bsolutive Participle

_ C onjunct
Absolutive participial construction (referred to as - conjunct) is
used in Hindi primarily to join two (or sometimes even more than two)
sentences having the same subject but two (or more) different activities,
one preceding the other.
Language structure

subj. + obj. + *v.r. of the + TO/% + main verb. + FHT

(if any) preceding of the final
activity activity

in the appropriate tense.

In ca se the v.r. of the preceding activity is tWV ( v.r. + $ ) is used.

* Only root of the main verb is used; compound verbs can not be used

1. I 2. cT F ^rR fttl
She works. She plays.
1+2.^F T O 11 She works and then plays.

**■ Colloquially, use of is more common.

■3* The subject of the absolutive and the subject of the finite verb are
•s - Subject is used only once at the beginning of the compound sentence.
See examples 1-6 given below.
**■ Subject agrees with the verb of the final activity. This is important
in the past simple tense and other perfective tenses. See examples
7,9 given below.

U ses of FR - conjunct
Q Activities following one another - same subject
1. cjF FTOTT RT3T1 I 2. cJF 3TTF cTT3ft I
You go to the market. You bring mangoes.
1+2. W RTFR 3TTF ctrat I You go to the market and bring
Present habitual
3. FTF F% vibrft ^ I 4. ^ FRcft f I
I get up at five o'clock. I worship.
3+4 ff ftf f % w t : ^ rr f r & f i I get up at 5 o'clock and worship.
He will eat food. He will go to the office.
5+6. FF FFFT *fTFR FFFT I He will eat food and go to office.
Past simple
7. FF FWT % 3TRTI 8. 'dtf'l 3Hd«IK F5TI
He came from the office. He read the newspaper.
7+8. FFFT $ 3TTFR 3(FfFTT F3TI He read the newspaper after
coming from office.
9. 3raWR FFT | 10. FF FFcR FFT I
He read the newspaper. He went to the office.
9+10.FF 3ra«fTT F3FR FFcR W I He read the newspaper and went
to the office.

CT Adverbial use of FR - conjunct - simultaneous activities

Examples :

1. FF f W ^leTT I He said, laughing.

2. SPTF cl'llFR F3t I Study with concentration.
3. FtFt # 7 FFF> FK FRFT I Look both ways before crossing the
Q Time expressions

1. Ft FFFR FF ftFF: I Ten past two.

2. rfhT FRFR 4tfl Fh f F' I Twenty past three.

Q 'F + v.r. + ’ = 'instead o f «t«tl*t)
1. amt F tT5=FT # ? r eft I Instead of studying further, he opened a
2. FF F fftw WT Instead of going to school, he went
W l to see a film.
Q ‘v.r. + Fn: + *ft’ = in spite of (F>
1. Ftfft FRF ft <F«M ftt Frft Inspite of having lived in India, he did
tft# I not learn Hindi.
2. TFT FFFT tpft rftFR ftt w i t F#f I Inspite of being so rich, Ram is not
[he below given construction is used to emphasize that a certain activity
will very certainly, under all circumstances take place.

subj. + obj. + (v.r. + FR/#i) + Tf, Tft, Tft + FT, ft, ift
if any
agree with the subject

1. ft '<■# 8 F R T fft I I will certainly learn to use computer.

2. FF «ll‘tR TftrtT I He will certainly go abroad.
3. TFT, ^ t fttFFT t Tjft FR% TFFT 11 Whatever Ram plans, he certainly
accomplishes it.

«*“ Use of FR /% is not always obligatory e.g. ft 3TFTT, « ls «im i I

1. FF *^+1 T5tF W I He went without me.

= FF yi'h) tftFFR W I
2. «tMK % 3TFT ft 3fT3Tt I Bring mangoes from the market.
= «im K % 3TFT elFR FTSTt I

Q Some idiomatic u ses with V t ’

• eldR

1. Tft TTTS ft ftFR TRftfa T?T He was very sick from 1960 to 1992.
«tM<1 FF> FF Fgd «flHK FT I
2. FFT % ftFR FTT FF> FF ftF All the fields from here upto that
FFlft ft I corner are ours.
3. «lld ^Ft F'ISI If? Concerning what, there is a dispute
among them?
4 3t 3tto t o f t o 3HrHdM 1will go to the hospital with my
4I*'I1 1 friend.
5. FF to f t ’ft to r Mind can use any support for
F^FTT Ft FFFT 1 1 concentration.

• to r
1. ff CKfMcfc % f 1+ < tocft d l-to 1 1will go to Delhi via Lucknow.
2. ^ T3to FFT t o r 3 fto FFT 3fltoT 11 will go to him and then come to you.

• tosFFT

1. TFT 3Ft FF 4ldd ff 3TTXT| All except Ram came to the party.
2. Tjtot t o t o t F f to % All the women there except me had
t o t FFft # 1 worn sarT.

• to f c r *t

F to '41'f t o FclFK FFT FtFT f?! Who knows what the future has in
store for us!

El Use of t o ’ as adverb.

1. ff tot'FT ftftt titt i We went to Agra together.

2. t o FFT TjWT: T3FFF TFT t o t o 1 never hurt him deliberately.
■cjTFFrr i
3. FF R$HF>< FFTft t o TJF TFT FT 1 He was hiding (himself) and listening
to our conversation.
4. FFTTT FT t o r % TTTTFT 11 Our house is adjacent to the temple.
5. F^FT '^'Sd’T. FT % Fid 3TTFT1 The child came running to the mother.
6. 3FFft g t o TTFId+T t o 1 Keep your books carefully.
7. FTto tofFT FcTt 1 Look ahead and walk.
8. t o t FTTFfT t o f t t o ^t 1 He/She felt hopeless and gave up the

★ ★ ★
C om pulsion C o n stru ctio n s
28 6ft E R l )

‘5 f a T \ t*npTT'( ‘must1’have to1, ‘ought to‘

Compulsion constructions involve the use of ^Hl, MsHi, as shown
in the language structure model given below.
Language structure
Nature of
subj. + obj. + main verb + (1) forms of Ft=TT inner
(if any) in infinitive (in all tenses)
with q t (1) transitive (2) qqqr + F^TT external
(2) intransitive in all tenses
(3) qiBq moral

*** When the main verb is transitive, use (v.r. + ) to agree with
the number and gender of the object.
Examples : Inner compulsion

1. aqqf) T O IcH't'fl 1 1 -------- r I must write a letter to my

2. qRfT ^ f^T T feRrFfT t h / mother.
3. "g^T 3Fpft RTcTf qq leRfHI 11 ^ I must write letters to my
4. 3Rpft RRTT qq f I^ mother.
External compulsion
1. ^ arq^ft iTRTT ^ Icltd'fl qq<ft 11 —j I have to write a letter to my
2. 3Rpft qRTT 'ft q f IeKct'f1 '’TScft ? / mother.
3. appft T O # qq IcKfMi q?rfT 11 ! \ I have to write letters tomy
4. 3FFfT Hiol q?T qq M^ct t I mother.
Moral compulsion
1. 3qpft TqTcTT q t fq^l feRFft qiBu, I — -y I should write a letter to my
2. 3Tqpft T O q t ftf|q r fePsFft l/ mother.
3. gsf qq ^t 'qrarr q t qq fcRqqT qiflq I ' \ I should write letters to my
4. q q ft T O qq feRqt I mother

fad<£! (f; sg.) letter; fatter ( letters; ^ (m. sg./pl.) letter/letters

In the examples given above we have seen how the main verbs lets'll,
MSTT change their form depending upon N and G of the object.

Where the object is implied (not clearly stated), masculine singular

form of the verb is used.

1. 3^ 11 Now I have to study.

2. WTT 11 I have to study four hours daily.
3. W l 4lfi?M, I Your ought to study a lot.

is a transitive verb. Since the object to be read is not

specified and its gender is unknown, masculine singular 3rd person
form is used.
Intransitive infinitives retain their final TT whether it be a case of inner
compulsion, external compulsion or moral compulsion.
tar The sentences 1-3 given below are examples of inner compulsion. The
necessity or compulsion to go to Calcutta is felt by the subject. It is not
imposed on him from outside.

1. ^ 'hd+rll «TRT I1 I must (have to) go to Calcutta.

2. 4k=I4h TT “iHT £fT I I had to go Calcutta.
3. ^ ‘tKi't'di «TRT FfJTT I I will have to go Calcutta.

The sentences 4-7 given below are examples of external compulsion.

In these sentences, the compulsion to go to Calcutta is external. The
circumstances force him to go.

4. 4'eR’TfT mIMI 1T5cfT % I Present habitual compulsion

5. ^ 't'd't'dl «imi Msdl ®TTI Past habitual compulsion
6. ■t'd+'dl «imi I Past perfective compulsion
7. ijff 'fd't'xii «1MI M^ill I Future simple compulsion

In thesentence 8 given below, the compulsion to go thefather is moral.

fa n 11 g?) My father is sick. I should go to see

«TFTT I him.
^ precedes the infinitive to make negative sentences.

Internal com pulsion: Use of FfaT

1 . ^5) ^TT 4>PT ( ■MHI 11 I have to do housework.

2. w r anr Fifeiff (f.pi.) tsrfM) f ? Do you have to buy sarees?
3. I must (have to) prepare sweets.
4. fM t ( tfltsFfl t1 They have to learn Hindi.
5. cinirw ( 11 I have to exercise.
6. Tg#r 3i w t (m.pi.) i I had to buy some newspapers.
7. ^ FTcTT «j>TT^FT ( 4><HI *111I had to telephone mother.
8. SHrK if FTEf ?R> 5PPT Tomorrow I will have to work in the
( 4>t*ii FhTT l office until 5 o'clock.
9. «im K «i H i ^ I I have to go to the market.
10 . i^T FHft ^ 7FTT (v.i.) You will have to stay at our place
pi'll I for a few days.
11 . 4xT 'T'Hcil WTT (v.i.) tlHT I Tomorrow I will have to visit Kamla.

IRS' For habitual inner compulsion putFtdT, Flcf, Ftrft between the main verb

and the required form of Ft^TT.

1. if FIT +4^ ( I have to wash clothes three

£Tt3 F ft t I times a week.

2. 'lW < TJFI> ftcfT 'I eel I'll The servant had to give bath to father
(v.i.)Ft?IT *fT I in the morning.

External compulsion : Use of FFFT

1. ^ f^T FTT FTC FFlf ( I have to take medicine four times a
Ol'fl FFcft 11 (pres, simple) day.

2. FRTt ^9T RwfodldF In our country we dont have to

% iritT anNft (f.) learn English to study at the
FF^t I (pres, simple) university.

3. FT FFF i^TF» (f.) FFF^ft FFrft She has to wear spectacles all the
1 1 (pres, simple) time.

4. FT R d RdRR The administrators used to confront
dd TThTTI ( d>Tdl Hsai dT I ugly situations every day.
(past hab.)
5. <M *jdF Hid dR T3<5dT MSdl I had to get up every day at 5 o'clock
qT I (past hab.) inthe morning.
6. % 3*f R ^F*T RdTT d% dTdd % I could not come to your birthday
dl% 3TT dR, ddlRi %T ddl party as I had to work till late.
W ( ■tx.-ii TT5T I (past simple)
7. dR R i 3§t Rd?!T -Tiff M r , *j% dT Since I did not find a rickshaw, I
%dcf «TRT dFT I (past simple) had to walk home.
8 . gfr TTT% % W fr TTT^Rdd dd R ldT On the way, I had to get the tyre of
3tdi i> tq m d37 I (past simple) my cycle repaired.
9. Rid 4) %4cT ^TFTT ddT ? How far did you have to go on foot?
(past simple)
10 . 3fTdd% 3Fpfr ^cfl d% yil<Tl TT How much money have you had to
R krt % t (m.) frsR n tst t ? spend on your daughter's
(present perfect) wedding?
11 . 13% 3Td% dftdTT % '*TTuT-dtslTrT He had to work very hard to
dlpT dRw d ( d><dl dFT «TTI support my family.
(past, perf.)
12 dR . dR sn % u%Rf R tt diF% You will have to work hard if you
Ft dt d fe rd ( d>TdT want to pass the examination.
d%dT l (future simple)
13. dRRi 3IM Rl^dT’ d#f 3ddT, Since the driver has not come
dddT %d%T % «TFfT dldT I today, I will have to go to the
(fut. simple) office by taxi.
14. h 0«1 d% FTTTd dl|d <fUI«( t ; W The patient's condition is very bad;
13% 3HddM % dTFTT d% I you will have to take him to
(subjunctive) hospital.
15. #r TTddd % 3PT% TFdTF 13TT dd She may have to be operated upon
‘3nq%TFT’ 4>Tdl d% l(subjunctive) next week.

■ Moral compulsion : use of

1. «TFTT -qiRiJ, I 1ought to go.

2. STN^T mrw if TF^TT 1 You ought to live in India.

3. W F^T9IT Tf TFft This book should always be on the

^Tflq 1 table.

4. ar&tlM+l 3>T 3fT4T Students ought to respect their


5. «Kr1l«T «TRT 4 |!e?H 1 1ought to have visited Sarnath.

6. 3TR^t *TRcf fiMt ^rritT You should have learnt Hindi in

#1 India.

7. 3FHT W 1 ^Teff 'i4 mi You should not have wasted your

*n i time.

8. 3fTWt 5RT% 3W cTF By now you ought to have returned

cftzrr M ^ETTf^ «ft 1 these books to the library.

9. anWr % xt«f 6u^ m-fl % You ought to have a bath with cold
^f¥T^ 1 water every day.

10. tpt in # im^apft % Ram ought to drive the car

■qciiM, 1 carefully.

Language structures expressing probability and compulsion

Language structure Q

subj. + obj. + inf*. + ^ + ti'Kii + t / t

with (if any)

«■* When v.i., the inf. has always ,JTT' ending.

w * When v.t., the inf. has <5TT', ending to agree with the N and
G of the object.

Language structure Q

Ft TTFFT t + (subj. + Ft) + obj. + inf. + F t / F f


la . ft , f m i$st t r f f ffft t w r
FF FFFT t I Mother, I may have to stay back in
lb . FT, Ft FFFT t 3TM *£St t r F F the office until late (later than usual).
2a. P rtt F t srn t F F t ^'?f-s «TFn
FF t I Father may have to go to England
2b. Ft FFFT t ftdT F t 3m t FFt next week.
tiffe «TRT F t I
3a. 3FTtt tc ft F t STT^t FT FIFf t t F t
3TFFT FFPTm*9 ^FHI FF FFFT t I Mr. Sharma may have tosellhis house
3b. Ft TTFcTT t 3PFft t t t F t TTT^t % at his d au g h ter's m arriage.
FFF STFf t t F t 3)FFI •Hcr»l*1m-“9
%FFT F t I
4a. F'*‘5 F t ft>tt t t FFF FT?f t t
The Centre (the Central Government
’f t f p1 tF tF F T tt FF F F tt f I
4b. Ft FFcTT t ^ T t F t tt W t may have to send the army
F #f t t tFRT F T tt F t I anywhere any time
5a. tST t TJ9t?t# H tt % teTTT F t' F§F
FOF ttP *9 t t t FF• FFntt t I We may have to make many sacrifices
5b. Ft FFFT t tw t T^l^lct ettt % to bring prosperity to the country.
ftnt; F t FpT FptH)13®- t t t F t I

★ ★ ★
The C ontinuative C om pound
29 (P ic a m t t s r t )

Use of 'main verb+ TF'TT/ corresponding to the English 'keep on

doing something', 'go on doing something'.

nr This language structure is used to talk about activities done continuously

or repeatedly over a period.

**■ While the simple continuous tense refers to progression of activity at

a point of time, the continuative or progressive language structures
dealt with in this chapter refer to progression of a certain activity over
a period of time.

Except with compulsion compounds FtTT, ms'll, where 'subject

+ is used (see the language structure given on pg. 132 below), in all
other forms the continuative compound agrees with the subject in the
nominative case.

Language structure Q v.r. + <TT, %, + TFTT

subj. + obj. + v.r. rfTi TFTT j?Mi
nom. case (if any) *
in the required tense

*to agree with the N and

G of the subject.
Examples :

1. tf%? i The children keep on playing.

(pres, simple)
2. TFft Mfirfl I Ram used to keep on studying.
(past hab.)
3. F*rnpl- TI? I (past simple) We kept on laughing.
4 ^ *9 ^ T^t 11 She has continued learning Hindi for
(present perfect) several years.
5. #"■ cPTIdK TTRTT I had been taking the medicine
TFT «TTI (past perfect) continuously for four months.

6 . F*T cftiT 3FTft HFf'-e1 4lFTIrf I We will keep on repeating our
(future simple) demands.
7. TPFFT t %n, pl 3 fl^r 3TT-«TTT They may keep on inviting you again
jd lrl 7 ^ I (probability) and again.
8 . 3n*r ^ r f t hft 3 n t Tfltr i Keep on coming to our house.

W TtPTT (idiomatic use) = to lose, to be dead

1. ^flcT # ^ As soon as I saw him/her, I lost my

8S>- ^TTrft T$\ |
2 . tecT TTTeT 3TTFT t# " 1“9 ^ 1 1 TFT I Her husband died last year.
3. % f^TRT if ciPTt ^ M - During partition of the country people
lost all their possessions.

Instead of ‘TF^TT’, ^fPTT’ is sometimes used in the above given

language structure. However the connotation is different.

It conveys the sense of disapproval. Examples 1-8

Progressive change in the state of things. Example 9-16.

Exam ples:

1 . ^IF"1-89 «i)ddl T M 11 (pres, simple) He goes on talking.

2. TF*-89- dlcfl I (past hab.) She would go on eating.

3. ^Tf if tttvPnt)189- fcT-SlfctfcT In this country unemployment is

«(T 11 (pres, prog.) growing day by day.
5. if t 3n^T«r tf^ ^ tf1""- Inspite of my repeatedly calling him,
^ddl TFT *TT1 (past prog.) he continued moving ahead.
6. f^ l4 Im-!9- sfwiH't’ % The student went on talking
T>TTT W I (past simple) nonsense in front of his teacher.
7. sg. appf) cpgpft ^TTTTT Without asking (for our consent) he
W , F ^ r 89 Tin I went on telling his story; we kept
(past simple) on listening (to it).
8. Will you also listen to something, or
? (fut. simple) just go on talking ?

As one grows older, one becomes
^Tcft t , ?qf ?^f onict^lR^i more tactful in worldly affairs.
O %t «t<orfl '’Ileft % I
(pres, simple)
10. Trqt-Tjq) e<JTr q<pcfl utirfl %, As it becomes colder, people
ci)'i'"pl Meii)' % continue to come down from the
3fftf ^ 11 (pres, simple) hills.
11. 21 ^ % sfTC f^T" f tJft After June 21, the days gradually
^ t 3lk Tlcf p1 become shorter and the nights
TSflrfr f? I (pres, simple) longer.
12. «Fncft 71i , ^ t t p ' Mother went on making poories
^1 ^ tjtt | (past simple) (fried Indian bread) and we went
on eating.
13. ^ W ’-59- TTpft % a t t As the crow went on putting stones
% aTC 5 [eldI Jl-MI, into the pitcher one by one, the
c#-caf 71% Hl'fl",sg water level kept on rising.
3trcrr THU I (past simple)
14. 7 ^ - 7 ^ ^7% t mP' 3FFTT m One by one they went on staking
'Zjp aia 7R el 4 let Tpr ^ FR7t and loosing all that they had .
7 ^ l (past simple)
15. 3?IT T i^ P ' «J%Ft% As the Kauravas grew older their
7177, 7T^ ^1% % f^TT Tpjl mutual hatred went on increasing.
7T%| (past simple)
16. ^7T a m a ^Ta^T You go on packing and putting the
Tiif) % c R M v4lchJM I things aside; I shall go on having
(fut. simple) them loaded in the car.

Language structure Q v.r. + 3TT, 77, % + T^TT

subj. + v.r. + 3TT + 7FTT %FTT
nom. case ^ in the required tense

to agree with the N and G of the subject.

This structure is used with ststive verbs such as 3eni, <^TT,
4^I glii, <.<ai ill'll etc.

It Is used to talk about ongoing, continuing states.

1. TFtft 11 The old woman keeps on sleeping
all day.
2. efF^mo' f^T TF*t ^ I The boys used to keep on sitting all
3. TRT W f TFTI The child lay all night in the cradle.
4. y ? R f' pl FT T O ^Tft cTT^ TTT The books used to keep lying on
^ TF^t «ff I this shelf all the time.
5. cjTPgT* p1 ^ ^ST 3Tc=TPnft Your clothes are always kept in this
T ^ TF% f I cupboard.
6. F » r p1 TrgscT^: q n t ^ t f i We use to keep on lying on the beach.
7. T F t/ T f ^ I Keep lying down.
8. T F t /7 f ^ l Keep sitting.

Language structure Q Compulsion + continuative compound

A. subj. + obj. + v.r. + % + TF^TT + •qilt?iy,xult?n *IT
+ (if any)

B. subj. + obj. + TFTT MF^TT Ft-TT

+ q»f (if any)
in the required tense always
in 3rd person form.
1. arrM'Ft 1MS% TF^TT I You ought to keep on studying,
(present advice)
2. 3fTM^r MfePT ^ 7% t f ^TT qif^Q[ You ought to have kept on working
*TT I (past advice) hard.
3. g^ Ip'll MSClI t | I have to keep on studying.
(present compulsion)
4. g it T s t TPRT W T I I had to keep on studying.
(past compulsion)
5. g ii M<£cf Cp*11 Jl I I I will have to keep on studying
(future compulsion) Hindi.
6. gif ffMt tfltdcl c.P'ii «*t>cii I?1 I may have to keep on learning Hindi,
(probability: compare with sentence 7, page 130)

Continuative compound in the Passive Voice

Language structure Q

(sub. + %) + obj. + [v.r.+ 3TT] + + TiFfT + ^TT

or g «licl
in required tense
% STTT wllcfl

to agree with the N and G of the obj.

This use is rare. In everyday spoken language TIRTT is dropped.

Examples :

1. H<KI^ if if citff STCT During Navratri1, Ramayana is

<IMI4U|,S9 'jfTcff T?cff t I continuously page read by people in
their homes.
2. H T3#psRm-P|- 3flfc cFF The Vedas and Upanisads etc.
fv T ^ « ll c ) 7% I were being written for centuries.
3. f^T At 'Durgapuja', Durga Saptsati used
f^RRR “girf W^lfcf’ W - 89- to be recited at our place all the
f^TT RTcTT TPcTT C(T I time for ten days;

See R-19, R-20

★ ★ ★
Inceptive C o m pounds - To
BeginTo Do S om ething
(v.r. + ^ ) + WTT;
Language structure Q |
subj. + obj. + (v.r.+^) + ePMI + el’ll
nom. case if any in the required tense

agree witiT the subject

E xam ples:

1. qx.-q|h's9- tft d>T The child begins to laugh on

el'ldl t I seeing his mother.
2. o rnn i The dog began to bark.
3. t$ldmpl' 3nmTO' % «l# l?t !(iU The students will begin to make a
ePt'Tf I noise as soon as the teacher goes.

Language structure Q

subj. + obj. + v.inf + + cr><'i i + 6Mi

with or (if any)
without % see the notes given below

w When the subject is without and ‘gtdT’ agree with the

subject. Examle 1,2.

When subject is with but object is actually verb infinitive( transitive

or intransitive) used as noun,, v.inf. +9JTF fodT is used. Examples 3,4.
When subject is with # , and noun object is given, v.r.+d T / # / # + 'Mdi
+ FtdT to agree with the number and gender of the object is used.
Examples 5 ,6 ,7 .
1 . W 3TNdT anct # W T Do you begin to cook as soon as
^ dfTrft t ? (pres, simple) you get home ?
2. araTiw % 3i# # q?Tr The students will begin to study as
I (future simple) soon as the teacher comes.

3. % w d r *9 i The guests began to eat.

4. ^ <Hr-sg- f^TT I The child began to cry.
5. WF? % FS^ft F*t I The students began to read the
(past simple) book.
6. FT^t ^ FHIFKFFm,5 FSFT The traveller began to read the
foFT I (past, simple) newspaper.
7. at4t % FSFtmpl q)% The washerman has begun to wash
11 (pres, pert.) the clothes.

Compare and Comprehend

la. Fft f t f ! # '’1 FFFFI')

cTFcft f I (pres, simple) As soon as it is morning, the birds
lb. fF F #1% ftflFT'P'- 4F4FRI begin to chirp.
FSTrft 1 1 (pres, simple)
2a. wf ftf ^ # w ^ r p'- As soon as it is 5 o'clock in the
?PT% ? I (pres, simple) evening, the children begin to play.
2b. WT FTF # ^ " ’•P
* #c=FTT
f I (pres, simple)
3a. FFn' pl' T^cT
% dldrl i?t F<J^ As soon as we came back from
ePRt ^ I(past habitual) school, we used to begin to study.
3b. F ^r p' ^ ? r % cfte% f ? ft
^ I (past habitual)
4a. ^mpl- 3HF FF>% % FFel dl-S^
ePT% ^ I (past habitual) They used to start picking the
4b. ^ p'- 3TTF % FF?) FtFTF mangoes before they ripened.
£)/F>T ^ I (past habitual)
5a. <s)xt)i,ipI- tto F3% c=p ) l The children began to read
(past simple) the lesson.
5b. P' °bl- % FTS FSFT f^FI I
(past simple)
6a. HcW'-p' ^JcF F>T^ ePft I (past simple) The dancer began to dance.
6b. Fcf'Fl ^ ^JcF F > m I'f'Fl I
(past simple)
7a. f ^ n f h p 1 cnt 11 The players have begun to play 7b.
7b. feenIM % ^cFTT tr cricket.
f^IT 11 (pres, pref.)
8a. «r«u ■dd') d JI1 ^ I (pres, pref.)
8b. 4 ^ i ' pci'll ^J¥ f^fT f / 'f i i The child has begun to walk.
f^TT 11 (pres, pref.)
9a. TTC^ # T ^ fiMt1 FfcTi
cPTf «7T I (past pref.) Robert had begun to speak Hindi
9b. TRT1' i # T if %^V in three months.
FtcFft eft I (past. pref.
10a f t g*ihlplTfS^ c t i i I As soon as we reach school, we
(future simple) will begin to study.
10b. Rget f t FRmpl FSFT
I (future, simple)
11a. 3fFT FF> 31^0^1 H gii, By the time you arrive in America,
t 3 fM ^tef^ cPT ^FT fFT I I will have begun speaking English.
(future perfect)
11a. 3TFT FF cFF SPTfrTT Fgifi,
ff% «i)eHI T>T li4l f ) Jll I
(uture perfect)
12a. Ft FFRT % if"’7' f¥v?T « : FTH
e P |l (subjunctive) I might begin to eat meat after
12b. Ft TR>cTT I if"171- FFFT FTF going abroad.
RPTT WK ^ I (subjunctive)
14a. ftrf i " 171 ^ s i i if ^ ii- fts F>ri'
I (subjunctive) Perhaps I will begin to worship God
14b. W ifm/l ^S li if TJFT-FTS in my old age.
^ I (subjunctive)

★ ★ ★
P erm issive C om pound
31 «ftsrc» t ^ t t )

,r Corresponding to the English language structure 'to let X do Y', Hindi

u ses (v.r. +^) + as shown b elow :

Language structure Q Permissive compound : Imperative

subj. + person obj. + obj. + (v.r. +%) +

or3TPT (if any)
to'agree with
the one the one for the subject
requested whom permission
to grant is asked for
t _____

,r The subject is seldom explicitly stated in the imperative language

constructions. Also the object, when contextually clear, is at times

(c[JT) f) I (you, informal) Let me eat.

(3tN) <31-I I (you, honorific7___^^'
3FT? 3TT% | Let them come in.

Language structure Permissive com pound: Present simple

subj. + person obj. + obj. + (v.r. + %) + ^cTT, ^ + I, t

+ (if any) M St, I

agree with the subject

ur Use the Language structure given above for past habitual tense; only
put m, instead of f , t , Ft, f I

l ^ diciiq ^ I let my children swim in the pool.

M fl

2. ftcTT Fft sr^rarr ‘ftFfar Father often lets us see a film.
^ 1 1
3. 3TSTFR> RaiRRl ^«1et'let'4 ft The teacher lets the students read
w ft ^cTT f? I in the library.
4. ft ?ft -9M Tftefft ftft ft I They used to let us play in the
5. ftf Fft FTO Tift TFtft ftftt ftf | Mother did not use to let us eat

Language structured! : Permissive compound: Present/Past

progressive tense

subj. + person obj. + obj. + (v.r. + ft) + ft + T F T + ^ o r « tT

+ 4ft (if any) Tft % ft
Tft ft «St
I ft

in the required tense;

agree with the subject

1. <. HFHlft f t 3F4T 3fft ft The servant is letting the guests

TFT t I come in.
2. s rft tjs) qsft ^r#f ft f t fti The children were not letting me

Language structure Q : Permissive compound - future simple

subj. + person obj. + obj. + (v.r. + %) + ^TT, f f t

■ftt (if any) ft^T, ftft
ftft, f tft
3ft, ftft
agree with the subject.

1. ft ^ Hfift ftft | Mother will let me read the book.

2. fftrr f t 3ft ftr*r ftrftf ^rft 3ft 1 Father will let me go to see the film.
3. sroFTTErft Fft Trft ftrrft ftft 1 The principal will not let us play the
Language structure Q : Permissive compound: Past simple tense
subj. + % + person obj. + obj. + v.r.+^ + fen, fe(, fe, fe
+ feF (If any)
1. when v.i., always 3rd person
2. when v.t., agree with the object

1. nT ^ fe j I Mother let us eat bananas.
2. *) {) «ieH % fecT% -IeH fe n I My sister did not let me talk.
3. *TT ^ ^ fe I Mother let me read the books.
4. nT % 'Tm ^ctf H6d% fe n I Mother let me wear the new shirt.
5. 3Tti|lHtt> ^ «ldl fel «ll'i fe n I The teacher let the students go.
6. S lftm tt % fet 3PTf The officer did not let the employees
3tT% f e l I come in.

■*■ Use the above model for present perfect and past perfect tenses by
putting#, #, or*JT, *ft, after fen, fe(, fe as shown below :

1. nt # hs'I fe # /fe Mother has/had let me read the

*Sh book.
2. atfeprt) % +4xii0 fer 3f ^ t 3rr% The officer has/had let the employee
fe n # /f e n m i come in.
3. nf % d^l ‘J'df fen Mother has/had let me wear the new
t / fetT «TTI kurta.
4. WT-feTT %*!?) cfeft My parents have / had let me learn
fe t / f e # I swimming.

Language structure Q : Permissive + Compulsion compounds :

subj. + person obj. + obj. + (v.r. +%) + fen + + fe n
+ fet + fet (if any)
in required tense

1. to agree with the object when v.t.

2. always 3rd person form when v.i.

Examples :

1. 3 Wl d'Tld ^dl We have to let our children listen to

HSdl t I music.

2. 9T*rf ^ 3PT% «M<. Mr Sharma had to let his son buy a

taCte^ new car.

3. ^ W f t %€j ^ sJIsIMW 3 T?^ I will have to let my daughter stay in

^TT TT%7TTI the hostel.

Language structure Q : Permissive + advice compounds

subj. + person obj. + obj. + (v.r. + %) + ^TT + dileK

+ 4?f (if any) ^

(1) agree with the object when v.t.;

• 'dilfK’ may be used when obj. pi.

(2) always ^TT’ form is used when v.i.


1. 3fl4lT| 3TT% ^ R ^ l 41^ You should let your son go abroad.

2. 3tTWt I$r You should let us hear a story from


3. Hldl ^>f qWl Mother should let the children wear

new clothes.

4. si'rc < ^ The doctor should let me eat


Language structure Q : Permissive compound + + «TT
('X' should have let 'Y' do something)

subj. + person obj. + obj. + (v.r. + %) + ^TT + -qiBu, + FT,

+^t (if any) 2f,

(1) agree with the object when v.t.

(2) always 3rd person form when v.i.


1. TR ^ tt FiieK ^TTI You should have let Ram go.

2. TPT 3TFFFT 3Fpft ^ tTT; ^ f f Ram should have let you read his
■qiteu, l book.

Language structure : Permissive + subjunctive

3PTT + subj. + person obj obj. + (v.r. + ^) + f, Ft, ^

+ (if any)
agree with the subject

1. 3PTT 3TM F ^ rft ? What if I don’t let you go today?

2. WTF FT g?) ft^FT ^I Mother may let me go to see the film.
3. Ft FT>cTT t 3ttznTfF> *5TFt FF The teacher may let the students
F3% ^ I read this book.

Language structure m : Permissive + continuative

subj. + person obj obj. + (v.r. + ^) + ^FT + TipfT + FTFT

+ ^t (if any) in the required
^rtt tense
agree with Ihe subject.
Examples :

1. FT ^ t FtcT^ M t TFrft s? I Mother always lets the child play.

2. 3TSqTcIT> WFt FtT Ih6I^ TFT% The teachers always let the
TFTfll students eat sweets.

Language structure m Permissive + present presumptive

subj. + person obj. + obj. + (v.r. + %) + icTT + gi'ii/el'Tl

+ 4^ (if any) F ti/F tit
irft # t/M

agree with the subject

Examples :

1. 3F q r *TTS^> He must be letting the children

^cTT FhTT I watch plays on T.V.
2. 3jq% jirat 4f>t 3Fpft <t*K You must be letting your friends
I drive your car.
3. TFfr qfifM 3pq% Rani must be letting her neighbours
Tf cTRcf q M M fM I have a party in her garden.

Language structure Qj] : Permissive + past presumptive

subj. + person obj. + obj. + (v.r. + %) + felT + FFTT/M

+% +^t (if any) Rq I^Pt/fM

(1) agree with the object when v.t.

(2) always I M fiM ’ when v.i.


1. Rid I ^ % <J*f> rli'l «il'1 Rqi Father must have let you go
plJli I swimming.

2. j*^)% 4f>t '4jCdM’

O They must have let the children
felT FTHT I play football.

3. TFft % 3PPft ^ Rani must have let her sister wear

Ry, plR i new clothes.

4. ttM w ft 3^ M it Ram must have let you read his

M i books.

Language structure KB: Permissive compound : Passive voice
subj. + person obj. + obj. + (v.r. + %) + + «TFTT + 1?RT
%/% STTT + (if any) in the'required

to agree with the object

**■ When the object of the verb is (1) followed by (2) not explicitly stated
or (3) verb intransitive, then always 3rd person form of ^PTT and
is used.


1. The students are allowed to read

4<£^ <?) wild) ? I books in the library.
2. ?% R f ^ ^ ^T t Rl( We used to be allowed to wear
^ 2r i new clothes at festivals.
3. T>?T ^ ^TT 3 T ^ Rl^HI Yesterday for the first time I was
«ll'l f^TTTW
TI allowed to go alone to the movies.
4. Ft t WFt ^ t W The students may not be allowed to
Rill «TK(I swim in the Ganges.
5. FFTt WT ^ t IpT 4>tncR In our house the children are not
•Tiff Mid Rill ulldl I allowed to read these books.

★ ★ ★
C onditionals
32 (U S e Of 3P R / ^ / 3TlR% ....^t....)

« In the conditional construction, the occurence of an activity depends

on the fulfilment of a certain condition ('X' depends on 'Y').
» Depending upon the degreeof probability and the tense in question, one
of the structures given below is used.
*»■ The subsidiary clause containing thecondition begins with ‘<sl»K',
‘3PR%’ etc., the main clause begins with “eft’ I ‘3fTR’, ‘apTT^’are
usually dropped in spoken language.
•»■ The judgement regarding the degree of probability is subjective to
som e extent and hence there is quite a bit of overlapping in their use.

Language structure Q : Highly probable condition; future tense

3PTT+subj.+obj.+ (v.r. + t3[, + ^TT, if,) + eft + subj. + obj. + (v.r. + ~£, tf, + ttt, if,)
A aSt ift * aft, xl: Tft
______________ ' r r '
agrees with the subj.
i _______ ^ r "
agrees with the subj.

•s’ This language structure is used when in the future there is high
probability of fulfilment of the condition.
1. 3THT 3TFT <jdlCu|, I f If 3tgw if you call me, I will certainly come.
3TT3pff I
2. 3THT If Ifnfif, I f IfPlT If If you get wet in the rain, you will
l fall ill.
Language structure Q : Less probable condition; future tense

3PTT+ subj.+ obj.+ (v.r.+ 3TT, tt | ) + I f + subj.+ obj.+ (v.r. + tr + tit, if,)
(if any) a If, ^ If

1. agrees with the

subj. when v.i. agrees with the
2. agrees with the subj. as shown
obj. when v.t.
*** This language structure is used when in the future there is somewhat
less probability of the fulfilment of the condition.

1. 3PTT eft If you called me, I would come.

3)ldi'Tl I
2. 3PR *ftxt, dt «Thi<. Ft If you got wet in the rain, you would
I fall ill.
Language structure Q : Least probable / unrealistic; future tense

3PK+ subj. + obj. + [ v.r.+^, xt 3ft, ^ ] + eft +subj. + obj. [v.r. + xt 3ft, xl]
T '— T ’— r "
agrees with the subj. • agrees with the subj.

fulfilment of the condition contained in the subsidiary clause is very
low or even imaginary.

1. 3PR stn xjst^c=rr^, eft 3rra I If you called me I wouldcome.

2. 3RR faftxff Ft^, Ft 3TRJT9T If I were a bird, I would keep on
XJFeft Tix I flying in the sky.

Language structure Q : Impossible condition; past tense

1. agree with the sub. when the main verb is intransitive.

2. agree with the object when the main verb is transitive.

•** This structure is used, when in the past, if the condition contained in the
subsidiary clause was different from what it had actually been, then
consequently the dependent activity contained in the main clause
would also have been different.

1. WT 3TFTR ^ ^FTM FtcTT, R If you had called me, I would have
3TT^ Ftrft I come.
2. 3HTX cjF F^f R F 'RiT FtTt, R If you had not got wet in the rain, you
«flFK f go; Ft% I would not have fallen ill.

Language structure Q

agree with the subj. agree with the subj.

nr This language structure is used in all three tenses i.e. the present, the
past and the future tense.

1. 3TFT Fjr ^ TTFF i[5T iMt, Ft How nice it would be if she were
Ricmi 3TE0T FTFT I (present tense) here at this time.
2. 3FTT 3TFTFft RFTrft FT <JF FFft If you came to our house at coming
FFT 3fR, eft FF F |F T|9ft Diwali, we would all be very happy.
Ftdt I (future tense)
3. 3TFT rJF 3TF% R?5Tt ^ R d If you had invited me on your last
FT ^cTRft, Ft ^ 3TF?F 3fTeft I birthday I would certainly have
(past tense) come.

Language sturcture Q

3PTT + subj. + obj. + v.r. + FT, ^ + FtFT, Ftct + Ft + subj. + obj. + FtFT, Ftft
eft Fftft, Fftft R e f t , Fteft

agree with the subj.

agree with the subj.

w This language structure is used when the final activity contained in the
main clause depends on habitual, regular doing or not doing of the
activity contained in the dependent clause.

1. ^ ^!? Tfaf TTScTT f?tcTT, 3TE& If he had been studying everyday, he

3Wf #RTT I would have passed the exam with
good grades.

2. R?qa ^rfT I?RTT, <T) sra' ci^> If I had been taking bribes, I would
anfrr FfaT i be very rich now.

3. f f a cifTOR M f , <Tt If you had been exercising daily,

3TR <foTTC H Ffift I you would not be ill today.

Progressive conditional

1. 3P1T % 7^ Ft, eft "3^% If they are working, don't disturb

^ fR I (present) them.

2. 3PR cJT? FT^t tJR "EfcTT7^ Ft%, If you had been driving slow,
eft 7T Ftcft I (past) accident would not have happened.

3. 3PR 3F 3nTT# Trff <£t tJdRii)'

O ”N If she were coming here during the
WT 3TT7f?t 5tcft, eft ^ teH^T next summer holidays, she would
#RTT I (future) have written to me.

See pg. 315-317

★ ★ ★
W ishing !
Use of ,chl$r to express wishes

Language structure Q

+ subj. v.r. + cIT, rft, cff

agree witff the subj.

a 1 This structure is used when one w ishes the situation in the present to
be different from what it is.


1. 4F?r 3fR Ftcft ! I wish it would not be so cold today!

2. FF7T anFsft sfter ! I wish I could speak in English at this
Language structure Q

FFW + subj.* + v.r. + 3TT, tr, + FtFT, Ft^t, tM),

agree with the subj.

subj. + ^ is used if main verb is transitive (example 3, given below)

»*■ This structure is used when we wish that things in the past were
different from what they had been.


1. 4F?! ^ Fftft ! I wish I had settled abroad !

2. FF9T % FFl\ -T 3im Ft^t ! I wish they hadn't come to our house!
3. FF7T W Pi uT'MR feRT FtrTT ! Iwish they hadn't taken this decision!

Language structure Q

FF7T + subj. + V.r. + tr, 3Tf, ^

agree with the subj.

«*■ This is used when:

1. One simply w ishes fulfilment of one's desires.

2. One wishes the situation in the future to be different from what it is in

the present.


1. % TTP#t fan ! I wish I catch the train on time !

2. W # if Ft ^ ! I wish I pass the exam !
3. ‘FT9T w gsj ^ Ft ! I wish it is not so foggy tomorrow !
■ To make negative sentences put <7T’ or beforetheverb. However
‘•T’ is used more than in spoken language.

Examples :

1. cpr?T ^rf «fT# ^FTT ^ ^3Tc[ ! I wish you would not eat stale food.
2. W?T «TT^I 'QPTT ^ I wish you had not eaten stale food.
Ftcn !

See pg. 317

★ ★ ★

To Be Used To Doing S om ething
34 (4 T 3TT<ft #T T )

The Hindi language structure corresponding to the English language

structure 'to be used to verb+ing something, is as follows. There are
two possibilities:

1. 'X' 3TT^t f?RT; 2. 'X' 3TKcf #TT

3TT^t= habituated (adj.) 3TRcf=habit (

'X' may be a simple noun or a verbal activity.

**■ In sentence structure 1:

1. The subject is always in the nominative case -1 (i.e without % etc.)

2. The verb agrees with the gender and number of the subject.
3. The possessive postposition ^T, precedes and agrees with the
gender and number of the subject.

Model Q : 'X' 3TT^t Ffal; Present simple

Past habitual

m. if, TJ, FF, FF, chl'l FF ft

t. if, ^ FF, ^TF, F?tF F?f ?ft

cT^5ft ^ 3TT^t
m. FF, c|F, SIN, %, if, %
f. FF, TJF, 3TFT, %, if, F?t €

Past simple

m. if, TJ, FF, FF, +1h FF Ft

f. if, TJ, FF, FF, F?TF F?t Ft Ff
eF # # t 3TT^t
m. FF, TJF, 3HF, %, if, % Ft FF
f. FF, TJF, 3TTF, %, it, F?f Ft F |

For pres, or past perfect constructions, add respectively t , Ft, t ,

or *TT, *ft,

Future Tense

m. if FF Ft FFFFT
f. if Fft Ft 'FT3Fff
m. (J, FF, FF, F?H, FFT FF Ft «1|iJ,FI
t. ^ FF, FF, F^tF, FFT Fft Ft FTTTjft
TTOft ^ft%
m. cfF, <|F eTlJ| % Ft «tT3Tfif
t. TJF, cJF dlF F?t Ft FTFFft
m. FF, 3TR, if, if, F?H Ft Ft 'FlCtjf
t. FF, 3TR, %, if, F^M F?t Ft FP^ift

Model H : X arrest gt^T
t am, is, are
F*T, % (am, is,are)+not
ePRft 'X' was, were used to
3TN °FT m F^f stands for was not, weren't drinking
3 *)/3dF>l +FT F^ PN or lassi
T3%/T3^T *FF F^ Pron.

f5p%/f^T^T *FF ^IU,'H shall or will get

s + It is a softer expression as if it happened or will happen naturally.

* It is a forceful expression meaning due to the circumstances the
subject got used to the thing or activity in question or will get used to
the thing or activity in question.
■s’ In this sentence structure, 1. Subject with is used. 2. P o s s e s s iv e ^
precedes 3fKcf (f. sg) 3. The auxiliary FtTf agrees with 3fKcf I

Examples :

la. 3lpM FT til") 3(|<5d

11 (pres, simple) Anil is used to sleeping on the floor.
lb. arf^TcT (m. sg) "i4)d FT F*T
3TT^t t l(pres. simple)
2a. ddcri) TTF^T F?t 3iKd Flff # l
(pres, hab.) She was not used to wearing a sari.
2b. FF (f.) TIT#) FFF% 3fT^t Fsff
I (past hab.)

3a. F?t 3TTFF

F f l (past simple) She got used to spicy food.
3b. FF (f. sg) # F F F^ 3iT^
FT l(past simple)

4a. Tpft iff 4vi? ^ <1-1 3lKd
i t 1^ 11 (pres, perf.) Rani has gotten used to living on a
small amount of money.
4b. Tt-ft tt Tl^ 3TT^t it i f
11 (pres, perf.)

5a. (f.) i f f 4?t STT^t if f ft, 1T1J

T O ft Tl%-<lcl ^ Trrff 4?t 3H^t it
i f ft l (past perf.) I was not used to heat but living
constantly in India I had gotten
5b. i f f i f strict if f ft, 1T1J 1K1 used to it.
if Tlcf-llct ^ i f f i f 3TK1 11
i f ft l (past perf.)

6a. ^ IcflT 9ll(lRl> W H it i f

3ftH l^ft if f I t e^cf! I (can; pres.)i can never get used to doing
so much physical work.
6b. f (f.) H i t 9llARl> H I U lf i f
3Ttff Hft if f it m f I (can; pres.)

7a. cjf? 3TT1T W 3tlf-3TTl !><.f i f

31711 it I t l f t I (fut. simple) You will get used to doing your work
7b. 1 1 (m.) 314-11 1>IH 3 tlf-3 H yourself.
% 3tft It ^T3TtTt l (fut. simple)
8a. Hie) ^ Iff 3ttT 1>K id i f i f
3fRl if f ft I H f 11T 3fM,
l i t le ft ft i f 3tt? <t>K Idlf
i f 3fR7t i f i sn ^ t i f At first I was not used to driving
3TtT 4>K Idlf i f 3||<tc1 it i f on the right. When I came here,
I soon got used to driving on the
8b. Hie) ff (m.) i f 3tlT HT Idlf H right. Now I have gotten used to
3lft i f f I t I H ff (m.) l i t 3TT1T, driving on the right.
ff (m.) le ft tf i f 3ttT HT Hdlf
H 3tff it H t I 311 f (m.) i f
3TtT H I TOFt H 3tff ft HT f l

9a. F% Tr[3F %T % 33% 3% 3TKF
i T3R f *t (f.) 3 3 F u i %T f %
#3 «tr<51 '33% 3% 3TKcT 33 3^ I We were used to getting up late in
33 % F% 333t 33% 3% 3ITFF 11 the morning. When we went to
India we soon got used got used to
getting up early in the morning.
9b. F3 (f.) Tj3F %T % 33% 3% 3TT%t Since then we are used to getting
%t I 3 3 F3 (f.) 3 3 F 3 i %T F3 (f.) up early.
Vfa i% 3c%t 33% 3% 3fT%t Ft 3^ I
33 % F 3 (f.) 3 3 # 33% 3% 3TT^t t

10a.33 3F (m.) 3Trr%33 3TPTT, 33^T 33Ft

3133 33% 3% 3TTFF 3#f I #3
£ 333% 3?%t 33% 3% 3TTFF
1% 3^ I 313 333% 3<r^l %HH 33%
3% STIFF e?1 When he came to America, he was
not used to eating early. He soon
1Ob.33 3F (m.) 3th (l^l 3n3T, 3F 3e%t got used to eating early. Now he
%M3 33% 33 3H%t 3 ft 3T I 3%3 is used to eating early.
f% 3F 3e%t %133 33% 33 3TT%t
FT 33T I 3T3 3F «3<5) 3t33 33%
33 3TT%r t I

★ ★ ★
Verbs : C la ssific a tio n s and U sa g e
35 (f^ r m : TTcjf

Verbs are the part of speech that expresses existence, action or occurence.

Verbal agreement rules in Hindi (fifarr pPPT):

Subject - verb agreement (t>rfR TFPt)

Verb in the required tense agrees with the subject when the latter is in the
nominative case without any postposition.
Examples :

TFT F5FT 11 Ram reads a book.

‘t'Hcii Tfa l Kamla ran fast.
%^Ft I The boys will play in the field.

Object - verb agreement (cr>*fRi y4)Ji)

When the subject is followed by some p o s t p o s i t i o n e t c . , verb

in the required tense agrees with the object provided that the latter is not
, followed by any postposition.

Examples :

TFT % l Ram read the book.

FT W ? 3HFT l I liked the house.
' l l % srm tW I ’Roti' was made by the servant.

Neutral - verb agreement (*TFt TPTfF)

When both the subject and the object are followed by some postposition,
verb does not agree with either of them and is always in the masculine
singular 3rd person form.
Examples :

TFT % ^rFFi F3TI Ram read the book.

Ft s»TTT hwRif I ^ Mf >^I FFT I The fish were caught by the
Verb classification:

■ Intransitive verbs f^TT): They do not require a direct object to

complete their meaning e.g. ‘F'FTT’, \d6di’, “tr o T , '<Hl’ etc.

■ Transitive verbs (F+*f+ f^FT) : These verbs require a direct object

implied or explicitly stated, to complete their meaning eg. r<flMI’, ‘FTOT’,
“TO FT’ etc.

■ Stative verbs (R*tRlFldT> f^FT) : These verbs tell about the being or
existence of a thing. In Hindi, I#PTT' used alone with a noun or an adjective
is a stative verb e.g.
1. W 11 2. TO TfFT tl
■ Change of state verbs (f^rfcT Wm) : These verbs
convey the meaning of some change in the state ‘^TPTT’ and ‘TOFT’ are
examples of such verbs.
Examples :

1. Tpft 41hk Ft I Rant became ill.

2. TJ^ftFT FTTOT to F f I Sunlta became a doctor.

■ Causative verbs ( t <.uii*f<t> f^qiR) : These are verbs where'X‘causes

'Y' to do something.
Hindi grammarians have further classified them into causative -1 and
causative -2.
**■ Causative -1 includes all verbs where 'X' directly causes 'Y' to do
something. Study the examples given below to comprehend the distinction
between causative -1 and the ordinary transitive verbs.

Examples :
1. FT TFTcft f? I FT TO% FtT Rto |J! e? I
Mother eats. Mother feeds the baby.
2. RFl'4f FScfT 11 3TBTTFT> RfSIFff H<Sldl t I
The student studies. The teacher teaches the student.
3. WTOT TTtcTT f I FtoTOft ^ 11
The child sleeps. The maid-servant puts the child to
Causative -2 relates to verbs where 'X' uses some agent to cause 'Y' to do
something. Study carefully the examples given below to comprehend the
distinction between causative -1 and causative -2
Causative 1 Causative 2

1. to to feellrfl 11 1a. t o ^ t o to dWtl'f! % fiplddIrf) 11

Mother feeds the child. Mother has the child fed by the
maid servant.
2. toff to 3R% to H6lc) ? I 2a. to n to 3tot ^ to 3fuim<ii %
Father teaches his son. Father has his son taught by
the teacher.
In the examples 1,2 mother causes the child to eat, father causes the son
to read.
In the examples 1a, 2a mother initiates the servant to cause the child to eat;
father initiates the teacher to cause the son to read.
Language structure : Causative -2
Initiator + mediary + obj. + causative verb + to n
subject. agent followed
by to in the required tense
Use of the mediary agent is not obligatory. Ex. 1,3.

•*' Mediary agent and object can mutually change places in a sentence.
Ex. 2,4.
*r In all ca ses except those mentioned below, subject is in the nominative
ca se and the causative and the auxiliary verbs agree with the subject.
S ee examples 1-7,18 given below.
»r 'subject to is used in the past simple and other perfective tenses.
S ee examples 8-10.
'subject + to' is used in compulsion and advice structures with tonr,
n sm , m fto I S ee examples 11-17.
»*' In both these ca ses the verb endings agree with the object.
I. nito « ihm to I Have the luggage kept in the car /
(imperative) on the train.

2. t 1 3Ffk F>Ft % tjeraicft f I I have my clothes washed by the
(pres, simple) washerman.
3. FFft 3)4-1 3fFFf FjFT Our neighbours are getting a
well <3,441 TI? t l(pres. prog.) dug in their courtyard.
4. 7Pft TtTFT ^fl^T % F+4lifl «ft I Rani used to have her food cooked
(past hab.) by the maid servant.
5. FF% 3PT% FT F?t -H Last week I was having my house
FJTFT *5t I(past, prog) repaired.
6. ^ F tf % FTcT 4>ci4l-1 F?t FtF I am planning to have my hair cut
T!?t ^ I (planned future) by the barber.
7. t 1 RlTl+K % 3 m t RfF 4-14I3M1 I I will have my picture made by a
(fut. simple) painter.
8. FF F^t F#TM % I had my watch repaired by the
•t><4l^ I(past simple) watch- mender.
9. 3tr^ f f f Tst R t f ) hfftf t ? By whom have you had these
(pres, perf.) plants planted.
10. F f R FF F4>l-i FF, ^---{lo Ft FFTF We had had this house built in
4-14141 FT I (past perfect) 1950.
11. Fief FtpT FS fR 11 My hair grows very quickly. I have
FT F^sTF R f FT +d4l-) FF% t I to have it cut every fifteen days.
(present compulsion)
12. 304 t) FFT 3)44K <4<14 Ft FR?t ?ft I His car used to breakdown often.
stfft “FTR’ ^ ^IF FTT Often he had to send it to the
4><4HT FFTTT FT I garage and have it repaired.
(past compulsion)
13. ^ F FTFt Ft JTpft F it TTfk Ft; You may buy a used watch if you
FT-TJ FFF?T 3flTT R f <514i like; but you may have to have it
+ L4HI FF FFFTT 11 / repaired every now and then.
TJF FTFT Ft JTT-ft F it <4Cl4 ctt;
FTFJ Ft F+dl % 3ITF R-T
•M4MI F f I (probable compulsion)

14. 3TT^t 3FFft 3 M ^ ^T tT You will have to have your eyes
¥ 9 % 3TT# % 3TTTT % 4>TTFft tested by an opthalmologist
I (future compulsion ) regularly.

15. f^ lR ^ 31^ ^ w ft I think you need to have your jacket

Ul'+i 4?) 3TIWRRTT t I cleaned now.

16. 3TR% WFft% WH ^IpT d d The grass in your garden has

t; 3TN ^ % l&cHHI grown much; you ought to have it
4ile?n I (advice + causative : mowed by the gardener.
present/ future)

17. 3UHcf>l 31d rfd> 3PT^ 4?) X5ffr[ You should have had your blood
dTTdpft *ft I tested by now.
(advice + causative-past)

18. <l4) 3I<HK dKddiff % 3rT% frT^ Rani often keeps on getting
WdTrft TFcft 11 dresses brought for her from
(continuative + causative) Calcutta.

Derivation of causative verb roots

All the causative verbs are always transitive.

Their derivation from intransitive or transitive verbs is a morphological

process. No special syntactic device is used to form causative

There are no hard and fast rules as to their derivation. It is best to learn
them individually.

Usually ‘3TT’ or eTT’ is inserted between the v.r. and ‘dT’ ending to make
causative-1 and ^T’ or ‘an’ is infixed between the v.r. and ,;TT’ ending
to make causative - 2. See Table page 162-167

Some guidelines to their formation are given below.

When V.r.'does not end in any vowel symbol, add3T tomakec-1,and to make
Examples :
v.i. c-1 c-2
3tHT(v.i.) 3SHT 333HI
to get up to cause to have s. o. caused
s.o. to get up; to get up; to cause
to lift to be lifted
When the 1st syllable of the verb root has ‘s t ’ ending, change it to *3” before
inserting'3TT’ or *31' to make c-1, c-2 respectively.

v.i. c-1 c-2
<Hi ■ScTFTT tjcHHI
to cry to cause s.o. to have s.o. caused
to cry to cry
When the first syllable has Tf ending, it changes to V before inserting
'3TT' or ^T’ to form c-1, c-2 respectively.
v.i. c-1 c-2
fete HI felcMMI
to lie down to cause s.o. to have s.o. caused
to lie down to lie down
When the first syllable of the verb root h a s ‘3TT’, *3;’, f ' ending, it is
changed to short '3T', ‘3 ’, V before inserting 'srr' or ‘3T’ to make c-1, c-
2 respectively
c-1 c-2
to run to chase to have s.o.
s.o. away chased away
#pRT (v.t.) RT<dHI few mi
to learn to teach to s.o. to have s.o. taught
35=n (v.i.) Sal'll
to drown to drown s.o. to have s.o. drowned
When there is a single syllable verb root, normally long vowel is changed
to short one, eff’ is added to make c-1, eraf is added to make c-2.

Single syllable verb root with 3ft ending changes to “T

c-1 c-2

1. WFTT (v.t.) feeTFn fac-HMI

to eat to have s.o. fed
to feed

2. t¥T;tt(v.t.) foefHT P)d<1MI

to drink to offer to to offer s.o. to
drink drink through s.b.

3. ttHl (v.i.) yd<1MI

to sleep to put s.o. to have s.o. put to
sleep sleep

»r Some verb roots have only c-2 form.

v.t. c-2

1. Mmi Trapn
to sing. to have sung by x

2 <?Hi
to row to have rowed by x

3, 4t-n
to sow to have sowed by x

4 c-HI feRTRT
to take to have taken by x.

Table of verbs for ready reference

v.i. v.t. c-1 c-2


to come to call to send for


ste-TT 3lfeFTT —

to boil to boil to have

boiled by s.b.

to be uprooted to uproot to have uprooted
joini \d6MI
to get up to lift or to cause s.o. to have lifted or
pickup to get up picked up

‘t'ldTT — +d<1H I
to be cut to cut to have cut

to do to cause to have
s.o. to do done
— ‘t'PMl/'t'tfC-ll'll
to say to cause to say to send word to s.b.

to eat to cause to to have s.o. fed

to be dug to dig to have dug

wRl — <f|dMl
to be open to open to have opened
— %TT —

to row a boat to have a boat rowed.

WFTT Recil-ll,^ldMl fed^Ml, t^d<fHI
to play to cause s.o. to have s.o.
to play caused to play

tTotT W fT WTT, Tf^HT
to be fixed to fix in or to cause to be fixed
in or buried to bury in/or buried
to melt to melt to have melted
Rr^n R um —
to fall to cause s.o./ to cause to be
to fall; to drop dropped
Rk'ii —
to be to surround to cause to be
surrounded surrounded
tjcHI OlcHl —

to be to dissolve to cause to be
dissolved dissolved

to revolve to cause to to have caused
revolve to revolve
^T T WTT —
to climb to cause to to have
climb caused to climb

to shine to cause to have caused

to shine to shine
’J't'MI —
to come to to finish; to cause to be
an end to settle settled
■^HHI —
^ H l
to ooze, to cause to have oozed
to leak to drip
WH'll —
to be printed to print to cause to be
fee'll ^TT —
to be pierced to pierce to cause to be

O ’ $C\}i'TT tir^TT —
sJdHI, t« 4 H I
to be released to release to cause to be
t$d4MI, tfdHI
to touch to cause to be
'jPPTT/'jfFRT — 'SPIRT «r|i4m
to wake up to cause to to cause to be
wake up woken up
oil'll ^PTT —
to go to send to have

NdMI [dcim-ii
to live to cause to have s.o.
to live caused to
Els'll —

to be to assemble; to cause to be
assembled to join assembled; to
cause to be joined.

— sjdl-ll
to swing to cause to swing to cause to be
dlcHI dd4HI
to be post­ to postpone to cause to be
poned postponed
dtk-H! —
caciMi ctfc-WHI
to go for to cause s.o. to to cause to be
a stroll go for a stroll taken for a stroll
zCz\ ^ \ d terr —

to get to break to cause to be

broken broken

W" O
— ^<4dHI

to sink down to cause to to have s.o.

sink/drown drowned


<jMi —
^ 3 fp n /w n ,
to carry iteTHT/jp^HT
to have carried
^Wdl —
ifd’ldl ^•Mldl
to be tired to tire to have s.o. tired
R=TT Rdldl fe=RR7
to give to cause to to cause to
be given be given by s.o.
R<sidi ^TT R<stldl Rw h i
to be visible to see to show to have shown
gcTTT a'Ri —
SpTFTT, fyddidl
to be washed to wash to have washed
fdd'ddl fdd>ldd l — Rr+ddH!
to emerge to take out to have taken out
to be to bring up to have
brought up brought up
fta i ftddldl —
to melt to melt to have melted
Rd^TT —
to be beaten to beat to have beaten
%PTT —
to be ground to grind to have ground
to be torn to tear to have torn
I'MHI Hid’d l —
f^T H T
to be thrown to throw to have thrown

• I
to break to break to have broken
^c=FTT ^dPTT —
to spread to spread to have spread
%FTT dltHI —
to be tied to tie to have tied


to become to make to have made

m ^ rr q^dl —

to be sold to sell to have sold

WtfUdl R<d<-tl — Rtsumdl

to be scattered to scatter to have scattered

to get spoiled to spoil to have spoiled
— R iH 1, 1,

to sit tSTcHT to have s.o. seated

to cause to sit
■sfrpTT — fihtRT.fihTFTT
to get wet to cause to have s.o./
s.o. to get wet made wet
^=pn ^elMl ^eTFFT
forget to forget to cause s.o. to have s.o. caused ors.b. to forget to forget
TR7TT WTT — h w -n
to die to kill to have s.o. killed
Pld'l-iT — Pld'fMI
to be erased to erase to have erased
7ITTT <<fHI — u su m , w n
to be in to keep to have kept
a place
to stop to stop to cause to have s.o. caused
to stop/stay to stop/stay
<HI — WTT <3<H<1HI
to cry to cause s.o. to have s.o.
to cry caused to cry.
(lithMI — el i l l ' l l
to be hanging to hang to have hung

cTvTT dTvTT —
to be loaded to load to have loaded

to bring to have brought

fell'll IcKftMl feT^PTT
to write dictate to have written

cjcT'TT/cprRT —
to be looted to loot/to to have s.o. looted

leldHI [eldcJMi
to lie to cause to lie to have s.o.
caused to lie.
— RlMdcfHi
to be gathered to gather up to cause to be
gathered up

RiclTT #TT —
RldHI, Rld<tMI
to be sewn to sew to have sewn

to learn to teach to have s.o.
taught by s.b.

to dry to dry to cause to be dried

^Tm i —
^etPTT *jd<1MI
to sleep to cause to have s.o.
to sleep put to sleep

F^^TT F£HT —

to be removed to remove to have removed

FtHI —
to laugh to cause s.o. to have s.o.
to laugh caused to laugh.

Compound Verbs (tt^kt f^mj)
The Hindi language makes profuse use of compound verbs. In com­
pound verbal constructions, verb root of the main verb is followed by
another verb + auxiliary if required.
In such constructions, the meaning is only of the v.r. while the conjuga­
tion is of the 2nd verb which reinforces and gives a special nuance to
the meaning of the erb root.
Compound verbs are used in affirmative and interrogative sentences.
They cannot be used in negative sentences.

main verb + «fFTT + auxiliary verb if required(50, 68)

It denotes the completion of an action as well as the carrying out of an

action through a process. This use is more frequent with verbs of motion.
Examples :

1. Rrftt 3TT all'll I Come soon.

2. cJH ?PT3T TO; ? Have you understood ?
3. fasar tt ^TT3?r i Lie down on the bed.
4. ts i Please sit down.
5. ftT ftt afTm I Go to sleep for a while.
6 . aa aft-aft aiq ft ftt a4T I He drank very hot tea in one gulp.
7. au? a f ta r ftftar 3ti am i Do come to my house by 12
8. 3)h—f) aa u ih aftf at Take care of your health or else
TR afT^nff 1 you will die.
9. tdHI aa> WT ? Is the food ready ?
10 . 3TR c4)j| {ft at( ? Are you people ready ?
11 a a aaa at am 1 1
. All the work has been done.

Main verb + -doai/^iHI + (auxiliary)

Implies completion of som e sudden or foolish, thoughtless act.

Examples :
1 . fftdK aft safft T>aft ft TJpT Melodious sound of the sitar
a3 t l resounded in the room.

2. FF ^fF if sitef F<5T1 He cut in on the conversation.
3. 3tFM4> TTF F<5 1 Suddenly everybody got up.
4. FF FT M t % eTF ^6di t 1 He fights with everybody.
5. FTF ^f FF FFT F>T %5T 1 Oh ! What have 1done !

■ v.r. + FF-TT + (auxiliary if required)

Suddenness / unexpectedness of the action completed

Examples :

1 FF ^TFT Tf F^t 1 On hearing the news, she burst out

2 FF f I FI^ T£FF>T FTT FFT 1 On hearing what they said, 1 burst
out laughing.
3 FF if f Tf > FFT 1 He startled up in sleep.
4 FF if F^F
9% 1 We jumped into the river.
5 FF TTIsfoel % ftT FFTI He fell off the bicycle.
6. FTT 'FTT F#f 1 The bus moved.
7 FTTFT FTft g#ITT 3TT F^f 1 1 A great calamity has befallen him.
6 FTF f i r FT 3F FFrft Ft FF^F When misery comes, one endures.
SteTFT t 1
D FTFTTF^T ffTFtf l?t FE% FTT FT ZZ The children fell on the icecream as
F ^l soonas they saw it.
10 3TEFTFFi FiSTT if 3ni (?) f«Hl FFF As soon as the teacher came to
fasnfSfiff FT FTTT FFT 1 the class, he shouted at the
students for no reason.

■ v.r. + PiF>cHI + auxiliary verb if required

Like compound verbs with HFFI, this has the element of suddenness
and unexpectedness.
Examples :

1 3iFH<f> FT #; i t # T* FtT 3TT Suddenly a thief appeared from

PiF’Cll 1 behind the house.
o • FF FTF faFTTT 1 The horse freed himself from the
reins and galloped away.

Main verb + FFFHI + auxiliary verb if required
This is used to mean unwelcome arrival.

1 TTF 3TTF TJFF TJFF FFT 3fT Ram came to my house very early
HFFFI # 3nft F3T *ft FT I in the morning today. I hadn't
even got up yet.
2 FTt FF M FTJp) FtTt f , FF Whenever he has to ask for money,
FFT 3fT HFFFTT %I he just comes to myplace.

Main verb + ^*TT + auxiliary verb if required (51, 59, 67)

Compounds with ^FT are complementary to compounds with TtFT. It

implies the action benefits someone other than the subject.

1. fcfTF 3TeTRTft if TTF Ft I Keep the book into the cupboard.

2. FTFif, f e W f ^f f >t Ft i Shut the doors and windows.
3. TFT % 3FFft F eft dcllF> ^ f^FT I Ram divorced his wife.
FtF frtFF I The child broke the glass-vase.
5. TFT gTF#T gTFFFcTF if cftFT Have you returned the books to the
t ? library?
6. if% FFFF FF F^ft % FIFT I had thrown all her things out of
if>F> fttFT FT I the room.

Main verb + #FT + auxiliary if required (51, 59, 67)

Denotes completion of the action with some advantage to the subject.
There is quite often implied cleverness or sometimes difficulty is inferent
in the action.

1. 3TF ej^T F^ FFT eft! Now you buy a new car!

2. 3TR FF snTFT-SFTFT fftTFT ^ All of you take your respective
cftftujiri ! shares!
3. FFT FT FFFT IcTFT I I They have had the new house built.
4. F>FcTT % FgcT 3T=tff FTF Kamla has learnt Hindi very well.
tftTF eft 11
5. ift FflFTT if F^ FTcT FFet %^FTTF Several years ago my family had
if TF% FT ^FeTT FFT fcTFT FT I decided to live in India.
6. if FFT FFT FF f^TTTF FS ejift I I will read this book by tomorrow.

Main verb + ^fiT is also used sometimes to express the meaning
of achievement of some skill to do something.

Example :
1 . TFft fin? 3nM fitfi ^ctt 11 RanT can speak some English.
2. # fitfiT-filpT TfiTfiT fifiT M l ^ I I can cook a little.

Main verb + SicHI

Used in the case of actions involving force, violence, sometimes care
lessness, sometimes acquiring some new habits.

1. cl id i -sidl I Break the lock.

2 Kill the snake.
3 t fi>r nfctri i Do what you have decided to do.
4. % ^ fip r M Tt fiFct a w I sold all my things before coming
fifi filHM fileTT I to India.
5 Tpft % 3R% «|M if fij|fi 3TEt^| Ran! has inculcated very good
3TM FTcft t I habits in her children.
6 FTfi Tffi! fiF W fi>T -Sldl! Oh God! What have I done!

C o n ju n ct v e r b s

In Hindi a commonly used device for making transitive or intransitive

verbs is by adding or ‘FtfiT’ respectively to nouns or adjectives.
Examples :
nouns + W T / FtfiT

1 . (v.t.) to do the work.

2. 4>IH FtfiT (v.i.) for the work to be done,
3. stmt w t (v.t.) to hope.
4. 3fwn FtfiT (v.i.) hope to be
5. HIcJH 4><’1I (v.t.) to find out
6 fiTTJfi FtfiT (v.i.) to know

7. (v.t.) to decide
8. 'Jidcil #RT (v.i.) decision to be
9. (v.t.) to try
10. f’RT (v.i.) attempt to be

■ adj. + ^FTTT/Ft^TT

1. ^4 (v.t.) to close
2. ^ 4 FfaT (v.i.) to be closed
3. Wl ‘M 'l 1 (v.t.) to please
4. ^s|?T FHT (v.i.) to be pleased
5. jjtjfl 'tK’ll (v.t.) to cause unhappiness
6. (v.i.) to be unhappy
7. WT) 'M'll (v.t.) to wash
8. dlH) 5ldl (v.i.) to be washed

■ noun + 9 ^ ^

1. H-S-11 snow to be / snow to fall

2. M^HI heat to be/ to be hot
3. 3TftT 93^71 dew to be
4. 3{7et HSdl hailstorm to be
5. «)iRyi HSdi rain to be / to rain
6. 3t44cf famine to be
7. 7J74T drought to be
8. #TR9^TT to be sick
9. TTTT9^TT to be hit /beaten by some one

■ noun + 8 ^i m I/H^HI

1. # T H4IHI (v.t.) to make a noice

2. # 1 8-4dl (v.i.) noise to be
3. +e!<'ffl
O fT4PTT (v.t.) to weep and wail
4. wo n m r (v.i.) weeping and wailing to be
5. •ST44? TT4FTT (v.t.) to cause panic

6. TO1 (v.i.) panic to break out
7. <3d«lc)l H3Ml (v.t.) to cause confusion
8. WWcft TrEpTT (v.i.) to be in confusion
9. cJcT H3MI (v.t.) to plunder; to waste
10. PjZ RRT (v.i.) for there to be plundering

■ noun + d'Mi

1. ^ ePFTT for X to be hungry

2. X 4?T 1I1U d'l*li for X to be thirsty
3. X ^ t Rfc ePPTT for X to be injured
4. X' Tl c Ti d<!*1l for X to be hit by a bullet
5. X cPHT for X to be hurt
6. x ^ i n w m zT X to be accused

■ adj. + cPFTT

1. X ^t eTW to feel hot

2. X^P) 3<JST cTW to feel cold
3. X^PPgTZtT ePPTT to feel rough
4. X ^ 3 rfk rTTRT to look rich
5. X 5^ i # n enprr to look expensive
6. X^Pt ePFTT to taste bland
7. X ^TT d'Ml to feel offended
8. x^t m i to sound pleasant
9. X ^t dPHT to sound harsh

■ noun + WTT

1. <31*11 to be cheated
2. i)cf <31*11 to match
3. Hl< <31*11 to be beaten
4. 5TZ <31*11 to be scolded
5. ■^Tld. <3HI to be injured

6. to be deceived
7. F4 WTT to be afraid

S en se Verbs - U ses of ‘cT»ftt’

To lo o k :

1. cjT-glft 4|[cT Ftnft cFTrft 11 Your dress looks very expensive.

2. *T TO ^ 4 ^ $ Ft cTT% cFT T^ t This fruit looks fresh but tastes stale.
<41^ 4l*fl I
3. 4? <£TOT4TT-TTT cFTcTT 11 He looks like a shop keeper.
4. 4F cTTcTT I1 He looks as though he is in great

To seem :

1 . 4F TOTf
O % 5 M HTOT I I He seem s to be afraid of dogs.
t>TTT cFTTTT f 4F 4RTt % FT4T I I It seem s he is afraid of dogs.
2. cTOT I T3%4FT4pft ^ flrfa He doesn't seem to be very
Tf% I keen on gardening.
3. eTTOT t 4? 4FT 4^4 cil'Tl 4Pt It seem s she knows a lot of
^TFTrft 11 people here.
4F 4FT 4ffT cThTf ^FTrft cFTrft She seem s to know a lot of people
I here.
4. 4!? 4 |4 4 1 ^ cTTOT 11 He seem s to be very emotional.

To ta s te :

1. 4F T4FTT 4TTft TFT t I This food tastes stale.

2. 4F 4pft T3TOT I|3TT-WT ePT TFT 11 This water tastes boiled.

3 4F 3TTF T47RT cPT TFT t I This mango tastes sour.

4. 4F TThJr^ % cl'lcl t I These ’Rasogullas' taste tinned.

5. 4F ‘TTft’ FTTrfrl eFTrft 11 This curry tastes Indian.

Qj To sm e ll:

1. TTTVf ^T% 3pr5t *TF3> ePT Tilt The kitchen smells like rotten eggs.
2 W TT!^ ^TF^ % *#TT ePM 1 1 This soap smells expensive.
n To f e e l:

1 SFcTT 6U6 cPT f? 1 It feels cold in here.

2 ^ f ^ R T FPT TFT 1 1 The table feels sticky.
3 ?TF W TpTTT TPT TFT11 This fabric feels rough.
4 ^TFT Rieeini eFT TFT 1? 1 The floor feels slippery here.
5. ■^T ^<aK cPT TFT 1 1 1 am feeling feverish.
6. 3TFT HFcj % 3TE15T ThT TFT ^ 1 1am feeling better today.
7. F^f ^TFT 3TEs?T ^Tiff rt'ldl 1 We don't like it here.

□ To so u n d :
1. ^TF ^IpT £hM4K ^ ePTT 1 He didn't sound very honest.
2 ^TF 4l«M! ^|TT 3fE# ^firf ePT T^t 1 This plan does not sound very good.
3 TTCT ffTcHT ^ SSlPT ^TT TfTTTsT My new guitar sounds horrible.
cFTcft 1 1

Sound Verbs (ertk:*w

Hindi like any other language has a rich vocabulary of words based on
sound, feel, appearance of things. Given below is a short list of such
words. Usually 'an' is added to the base word before joining ‘TT’ to it.

Examples :

^FT ^FT(f.) humming, buzzing *R'>TTRT to buzz, to

sound of insects hum (insects)

T3TT TR:(f.) knocking TfcTT'T'dHI to knock

ZTT 2TT(f.) sound of drops rw n to fall
falling on the ground in drop

2TT(f.) ringing TTCTFTT to ring

lT?(f.) rumbling in J|$J|$FTT to rumble
the stomach (clouds)
w W(f.) chirping of to chirp
the birds
STS’ SS (f.)a thudding ddUdHI to do with a
sound thudding sound
*5*T(f.) a jingling sound whwhHI to jingle
7>3> 33>(f.) repeated tapping 6+6+1RT to tap
sound repeatedly
f^df^cTT(adj.) limp, not stiff ftdftdMI to limp
RlHRlH(f.) stickiness f^FTFTT to be sticky
viscosity viscous
^eT(adj.) unsteady gdfidMl to be unsteady
l^ (a d j.) loosely hanging $(dSjdHI to be, loosely
«i'H<l(adj.) glittering dWTFTT to glitter
frtetfaw qf.) state of fcldf^dldt to become
getting suddenly enraged
^WT(adj.) glittering W9HPTT to glitter;
to make shine
&dftd(f.) shimmer; twinkle BldftdHI to shimmer, to
?rm (f.) sound produced ?R5RPTT to produce
by the flow of water such a sound
*TRTC(f.) sound produced *K«THT to produce
by air, shake etc. such a sound
*TCTR(f.) rustling sound as W RRT to produce such
M *) of leaves, silk etc. rustling sound
*5Wf(f.) sound of WtmPTT to splash water
splashing water
«d«d(f.) overflowing tidtidK I to over flow
<dd<dd(f.) rattling sound tddtddMI to make this
(of doors, windows) rattling sound
fe+fe'Hf.) ticking of to produce the
a clock ticking sound

Nominal Verbs (^t*t stri, / niPto i^n^)

In Hindi sometimes verbs are formed by adding the suffixes f a ’ ‘3TFTT’

etc. to nouns, adjectives, pronouns. A list of commonly used
verbs of this group made from Sanskrit, Persian, Hindi words is given
Nouns/adjVpronoun Verb

3PJTRT (m.) attachment (v.i.) to show attachment

towards sb.
*41•fk (m.) acceptance *41<t'K'ii (v.t.) to accept
(m.) improvement rprnTTT (v.t.) to improve
filw t (m.) reproach ft)cW'K’ii (v.t.) to reproach
c3W (m.) abandoning vtTPHT (v.t.) to abandon
(f.) scolding Lbd+ k'ii (v.t.) to scold
(f.) buying fafafT (v.t.) to buy
iffa (m.) expenditure (v.t.) to spend
3PT (m.) spot 3FPTT (v.t.) to fire (a gun)
^PT (m.) passing ^TPTr (v.i.) to pass
33eT (m.) change a id 'll (v.t.) to change
(f.) shame, shyness in f'll (v.i.) to feel shy
cTM (f.) shyness ddMI (v.i.) to blush/ to be shy
5*3 (m.) pain 5*3FTT (v.t.) to cause pain
^TT (m.) anger jj^M i (v.i.) to be angry
3TW (adj.) one's own 3imHi (v.t.) to make so/sth one's own
WT (adj.) hot WTPTT (v.t.) to heat
(v.i.) to become warm
fatMi (adj.) oily, greasy rat'd mi (v.t.) to grease to oil
fa r (f.) anger faTHT/fa^PTPTT (v.i.) to grow angry
3Tcf (f.) talk, speak «tciMi/aR)tMi (v.t.) to tell / to talk
FT3 (m.) hand gfaTHT (v.t.) to seize
cTRT (f.) leg effatHT (v.t.) to hit s.b. with leg
RTfa (m.) water hPh-M imi (v.t.) to irrigate
(v.i.) to become watery
eTT^t (f.) stick dfotMi to hit s.b. with a stick

★ ★ ★
36 P assiv e Voice ( ^ f ^nr^r)

Language structure Q Where object is followed by

su b j.+% + (obj + ^t) + (v.r. + 3TT/ST) + «ih i + 6Mi

% SKI in the appropriate^tense

always'3rd person^

Examples :
1. 3TUIN4< % STTT «Pt H6WI The students are taught by the
t I teacher.
2. 'IMdletl % STTT "SR WST W 1 The thief was chased away by the
3. TOT % STTT F S ^Ff OT& OTFTT Indra had been made captive by
W UTI Ravana.
4. Hldl % SKI « t^ ^T 1 The child will be put to sleep by the

Language Structure Q Object without

(subj. + %) + obj. + (v.r. + 3TT, xt, ~i) + OTTT + £lHI

STTT in the appropriate tense

to agree with the N and G of the object.

Examples :

1. 3TUIN+ % STTT 1eT# «n^t 11 The book is written by the teacher.

2. % STTT ^ ^3^ f i The books are read by the students.
3. % grcr OT5T I The dress will be sewn by the tailor.
4. TTTI^t % STTT O Tt OTnt | The dresses will be worn by the

Uses of passive voice in Hindi

In Hindi, the passive language structure is used mostly in the situations

given below :
H When it is either not of any significance to know who actually did the
work or the identity of the actual doer is unknown.


1. A new road is being constructed in

«TT Tf?t 11 front of our house.
2. fawel TTTeT WT ^ Last year two new cinema halls were
ftpfaT m «RTtr ^ l built in our city.
3. 3PT^ ^TleT ^TFII <4UyN I Next year a bridge will be built here.

Q For official, impersonal, legal announcements.

1. ^TH T? ijtiHM T 1%*TT 5nrr | Smoking is not allowed here.
2. apmsft STErgtt if I The criminal may be produced in the

Q To propose something or express one's desire to do something.

■fflWT ^titt ! Let's sleep !
"EJcTT Let's go !
dPi<t> 3JTTFT f^vtrr I Let's rest a bit.

Q To know if the other person agrees with the speaker.

'^fcTT ^rro; ? Shall we go ?

3fH TTW ? Shallwegotothemoviesthisevening?
■rpff 3TT Shall we go to Kanyakumari during
«fFIT ? summer holidays this time ?

H In Hindi Passive voice is also used in the case of intransitive verbs. It

u ses (v.r. + 3JT/rn) + “TTTF+ st^TTin the appropriate tense always in the
3rd person It expresses inability.


1. TJ?# TRT FT # 4 l H# Fim I He cannot sleep all night.

2. % # % F ^ f#TF # t|F F# My daughter could not remain quite
TFT Fldl FT I even for a minute.
3. iJS# # T %3T F # FT TFT I I cannot sit any more.
4. :g3T % FFT F # FTFT FFT I I could not go there.
5. # t if did dJl'l # cf'Kul 3TTF Because of my injured foot I won't be
^S# #?F F FFT FTFFT I able to go on foot today.
6. FFT 3T^# F TFT dl'J.'ll I I will not be able to live here alone.
7. ^F f#TF FT F #FT FTFFT I I will not be able to speak on this

Present sim ple passive

Active: FT TFTFT FFF# 11 Mother cooks food.

Passive: FT % STTT TFTFT FFFFT FTFT 11 Food is cooked by mother.
Active: # F F FT FTFi FFcTT I I The servant cleans the house.
Passive: FT # F F # sTTTT FTFT The house is cleaned by the
FTFT 1?1 servant.
Active: FTFT FEFf # 3 ^ F T # 11 Mothertakescareofthe children.
Passive: FEFt # S<fA<a Hlcll % SKI The children are taken care of
# FT# 1 1 by the mother.
Active: FTFT # fr>TTFT, FFT # T ##TFT Grandfather buys groceries,
F T ##? 1 fruit and vegetables.
Passive: f#TTFT, FFT 3?|T ##TFT FTFT # Groceries, fruit and vegetables
% F1TT TF## FT# t 1 are bought by grandfather.
Present progresssive passive

Active: Him # <?tm I M+l T # 1? 1 Mother is cooking food.

Passive: TFTFT FTFT # F> FRT FFFFT Food is being cooked by
FT TFT f? 1 mother.

Active: Reft cfTR TFT t I The gardener is mowing the
Passive: RPT’ TTTeft % SRI tftcTT The lawn is being mowed by
TFT ft I the gardener.
Active: f^Rcft thrift ‘SjcTT’ SR The electrician is repairing the
TFT ft I cooler.
Passive: ^ c R ' fft^Tcft fftrftt % SRT The cooler is being repaired
f^RT RT TFT ft1 by the electrician.
Active: RT RTft Rift RT; RT RT Tft ft I The painters are painting the
Passive: RTTRTRTTFTftl The house is being painted.

Present perfect passive

Active: Him ft <smi rrtrt ft i Mother has cooked food.

Passive: TFTRT FIST % SRT RRTRT SST ft1 Food has been cooked by
Active: FFlft SIFT ft RR RRT JeT They have built a new bridge
RRIRT t I in our town.
Passive: FFlt SIFT ft TJR RRT RRIRT A new bridge has been built in
RRT ft1 our town.
Active: TRFtft TT#T RTtft Rt RR ftRT ft I They have killed Rajiv Gandhi.
Passive: Tlftk RTtft ttrt rrt 11 Rajiv Gandhi has been killed.
Active: S3? RTF % FRlft RTcft Rt R R A snake has bitten our gardener.
feRTT ft1
Passive: PHKI Hlftl HTh R SKI Rid Our gardener has been bitten
fftRT RRT ft I by a snake.
Active: RUSIRs T % SR RTSftt RR Terrorists have killed ten men.
fo jf I
Passive: RR RTRftt RRRlfftRl % SRI F it Ten men have been killed by
RT f | terrorists.

Present perfect progressive passive

Active: rt *j^ f %w Ht>i ? i Mother has been preparing

lunch since the morning.
Passive: % iRT % SRI FTTOT Lunch has been being prepared
TFT % 1 by mother since the morning.
Active: TF W f *TT % ^TF teM She has been writing this book
T^t 1 1 for a year.
Passive: tfF FTeT t SRI This book has been being
f a # RT T& 1 1 written by her for a year.
Active: % 'jH'tO % -rf Mi'll They have been laying new
-TlfePIT ( w r ) FTcT 1 1 underground water pipes
since January.
Passive: *ffi=T ’TT ^ ’jfo w Tpft New underground water pipes
^ TllcRT Flcft RT T^t 1 1 have been being laid for a year.
Active: TF ^ % *rft #F He has been repairing my watch
TR TFT 1 1 for two hours.
Passive: ^ ^ ^ % RT# 5TTT My watch has been being
<51tt’ RT <{?) ^ 1 repaired by him for two hours.

Past habitual passive

Active: RT TFFTT M+IMI 'tKcll 4t 1 Mother used to cook food.

Passive: TfFTT FTcTT % TTTTT Food used to be cooked by
RTcTT 2[T 1 mother.
Active: TF 4>4^ 41^1 She used to sew clothes for a
TRrft 411 living
Passive: "3F% ski 'Hl^cM 4>4^ 41c; Clothes used to be sewn by her
RI% 4 1 her for a living.
Active: vd<rl<?’ 3TSTTO> R% ylcl’HI^Tt) His teachers used to consider
c^Rti ttr% 4 1 him a genius.
Passive: TF 3FT% 3TtA|lM<+i1 % SKI He used to be considered a
TlfcT'FFpT cilfrb *HMl «iicti *TT1 genius by his teachers.

Active: Everybody used to regard him
as a mentor.
Passive: *Ig% gRT deilg+k tiht He used to be regarded as a
dldl KIT1 mentor by everybody.
Active: FTT feTXT R ig ( w i WTlft) We used to send provisions
3IWIT ggTW ^RT gRcf Kf 1 and medicines for them.
Passive: gRT R ig (iRJ w nff) Provisions and medicines
srwiTggTggT w f t «fti used to be sent by us for them.

Past simple passive

Active: TIT ^ 1HT W IT I Mother cooked food.

Passive: TfT % gRT WIT ggW W | Food was cooked by mother.
Active: T3TF)- ^feT 1 He scolded me.
Passive: T3T# SRI igRT W | 1was scolded by him.
Active: diti q->i<hi<. ^<5- i He started a new business.
Passive: gkl H^Tl cf>l<l«(k A new business was started by
f^TT WTT | him.
Active: tRj gcT3IT 1 Somebody stole my handbag.
Passive: £ki «ic <hi gki ^<iiii My handbag was stolen by
W | somebody.

Past perfect passive

Active: TTT % WTT WFTT W 1 Mother had cooked food.
Passive: TIT % gRT w r r WOT W w I Food had been cooked by
Active: tM ^ Kf 1 The cobbler had repaired the
Passive: ^ tM % g ra ^ f^ir Jr i The shoes had been repaired

by the cobbler.
Active: TRFt F^i FSM W 1 He had taught us chemistry.
Passive: F^T TR# gRT RTFTTSTTIR We had been taught chemistry
W 1 W 2TT| by him.
Active: TR#^ # g g k Tnfr ff^5t They had pulled the chain and
#1 stopped the train.
Passive: vjIvj})<. J||^l <lcfl 4) 1 The chain had been pulled and
the train stopped.
Active: 33ftft <ft37cft % fft3 337TT ft They had lit the bazaar on
ThFft 3ft 1 Diwali Day.
Passive: ftftflcft % fft3 3RTT ft Tftfpft 3ft The bazaar had been lit on
3^ # 1 Diwali day.
Past perfect progressive passive

Active: ft 37T 'HTef ft fftSTW 7ft They had been selling sweets
ftl for ten years.
Passive: s r a ^ n r a f t ft 61331 Sweets had been being sold
ftftt Tftt 2ft 1 by them for ten years.
Active: ftftFT 37 3? 3^31 3ft 373rft He had been smuggling trucks
3T7 75T 27TI all his life.
Passive: ftftd 37 137f% gTTT 3ft Trucks had been being smuggled
dT't’ft 3ft «fT 7fft 2 f t | by him all his life.
Active: 3F 77^ 1975 ft fftftfM 3ft She had been teaching Hindi
fft^ftt fftt37 7& 2ft | to foreigners since 1975.
Passive: 1J3t3> SKI 773, 1975 ft fftftfftftft Hindi had been being taught
fft^ftt f f t ^ 3fT 7 # 2ft I by her to foreigners since 1975.
Active: 3F 7j37? ft 7M 33 <dldl «HI She had been preparing dinner
Tift 2ft | since morning.
Passive: 1377% 5777 7J3F ft 7777 33 Dinner had been being prepared
<S=IMI dd I3l «fT <61 23 I by her since the morning.
Active: jjR-ie 3>^ ftcft ft fttl 33 ftft5T The police had been chasing
37T 2ft 1 the thief for several hours.
Passive: gfftrcr % 5777 3^ ftzft ft %7 The thief had been being chased
33 ftteT t%37 >37 TFT 23 | by the police for several hours.

Future simple passive

Active: ft? 7337 733ftjft I Mother will cock food.

Passive: hioI ftt % sHI <aMi 73331 Food will be cooked by mother.
^ t^ tt i

Active: % 4>eT TTKT K^TTI They will hold a meeting
Passive: sttt 4k=
t ttkt ^rrtnft A meeting will be held by them
Active: % TTT KT ^ MTT They will start a new TV serial
yKMi(B+ ^ q^rT i tomorrow.
Passive: TT TTT K<T; KKT TTF A new TV serial will be started
MTHTT I tomorrow.

Future progressive passive

Active: ■HIdI “ft K>eT f^-T % 11 <4MI Mother will be cooking food at
qqq FWt i 11a.m. tomorrow.
Passive: T>eT f^T % 11 KM % Food will be being cooked
Ski <dMI H't'iqi M TFT FTn I by mother at 11 a.m.
Active: °F>cT ^ TfcT WW From tomorrow onwards he
TFT Ft*TTI will be teaching Hindi at this
time every day.
Passive: TkT % tTM'5TT TPW TJTRt STTT From tomorrow onwards Hindi will
fiMt KSlf M T # Fhft I be being taught by him at this
time every day.
Active: ^ Keen 3)Pi el 4?F TjfcT el*HSl< Mr. Bhalla will be training Anil
^T 9TTKKTT EFjff?TT in archery at 4 p.m. on Mondays.
TT? Fl'I) 1
Passive: KeeTT % STTT 3TfaeT ^ Anil will be being trained by
TThMT 9IW 4K <sf«t Mr. Bhalla in archery at 4 p.m.
«TTTT?t Fhff 1 on Mondays.
Active: TTT % 4F TPif TJKF MT «T^ % Tomorrow onwords he will be
TJ: feRT TFT FTlT 1 writing this book every morning
from 4 a.m. to 6 a.m.
Passive: TTT TT KF yTM T3T# STTT TT4 Tomorrow onwords this book
MT % T5: SRf TM feT# will be being written by him every
M T^t FW 1 morning from 4 a.m. to 6 a.m.

Active: 3TM ^ cT Students will be practising
if TufFTcT (TK ^ ^ > ) F>T 3T*3i<h football in the field during the
T>T T^ FtrT I games-hour today.
Passive: 3TFF <sfci % MUJ ^ Football will be being practised
STTT ^FTF 3f TpOcT FF 3THTOf by students in the field during
R>±ll RT <.51 ghll I the games-hour today.
Future perfect passive

Active: TTIrTT X2°F cTTi <4MI M+l Mother will have prepared
3hft #frft I lunch by 1 p.m.
Passive: ■RTcTT 'ff % SKI T^> cTFT Lunch will have been prepared
<31*11 M4>i fewr fft s^FTT 1/ by 1 p.m. by mother.
431131 «fT *JF>T glFI I
Active: t cFT RFT FT *HT They will have constructed a new
UF>Ff*t I new house by December.
Passive: cTF TTT% SKT TFT By December a new house will
FT 3*11 fe!3l <13! FPTT I have been constructed by them.
Active: 3FRT 3i<-^d< He will have mastered computer
3dlTI <lFI FtFT I operation by next month.
Passive: amet ff ; i^RTPn By next month computer
FFFT STTT TfteT FT T^F £l<llI operation will have been
mastered by him.
Active: 3MFft TlHFR TFT %T3FFF By coming Monday, they
fr # n will have operated on him.
Passive: 3Tmrfft FtFFR TFT W 1 He will have been operated
‘3mt9FT’ fefT FT ^FF FFTT I upon by this coming Monday.

Future perfect progressive passive

1. F F T ft ^ FF TftF F*f % ^ SRI In January she will have been being

frMt FT T # Fbft I taught Hindi for three years by me.

2. FFT FF FT Ft W IF Tt TFT FT That house will have been being

TFT FtFT I painted for two weeks by tomorrow.

3. «H<f{l Sf ^TF TricT % fetrft This book will have been being
^TT Tift FPft I written for seven years in January.
4. FTT SPIRT xTicftTf $ ’HIRI- The Indo-Pak border dispute will
HlRiRIM % TftRT-f^TK TF TFTTtJFT have been being disputed for forty
t^JTT «TT TFT FPTT I years this August.
5. 3PT^ FF^ FTP % T*H '4>H ’ Next week I will have been being
% STTT cfttFFft f M&TT t^TT taught archery by this coach for
'TT TFT IjFT I five years.

Ability structure + passive

1. FT PlHctKI +FF8 % WTFT The dispute can be settled out of

f^IT ^TT TTFTTT 11 court.
2. FTFeT ^ TftFT^jyf TTFSflcTT f^TT An amicable agreement can be
«TT TTFTTT t I reached in this matter.
3. TFT TTTFPT ^ FTT FT FpTFT FT Can the goods be delivered to my
FTTTT t ? house?
4. TTT^TT PtiT ^ F%F FTFT FT Sanskrit can be made an active
FTnft 11 language again.
5. TcfalF 3TFTWTcTT3?r % 3FJTTTT The constitution can be amended
eRuM *-l R>4i dl ^ <t>di i? to suit the present needs.
6. H{ld <51* FI?f R>i|| TjfT RTF 1 The patient could not be cured.
7. f^TTT^f yRlferT R>ii, FT RT> 1 The students could be trained.
8. Rdl FT RTF 1 The match could be played.
9. *TTft TFf % FTT^ F i f e TRTTtF The annual function could be held
RvTT FT RTF 1 in spite of heavy rain.

Present compulsion structure + passive

1. if 3TFT STttT |1 These clothes have to be washed

2. tpt efF^t F^T TTW Rusml ^TPTT I1 Those boys have to be taught a lesson.

3. f e d iRqt Jj R r T tfTOT 3?tT The athletes have to be given proper
ufeswT ferr toto 11 nutrition and training.
4. d^feql FF StF 3f JTFFT 3I^RR The girls have to be given equal
fem dHI t I opportunities in every field.
5. % WSJ fesr ^ 11 The arrangements for the wedding
have to be made.
6. MlfeTOFT 3?|T FRcT % %cTT3ff 4^t A meeting of Pakistani and Indian
W ?6<ti cHT 4^t di'fl % I leaders has to be fixed.

Past compulsion structure + passive

1. 3TF4 4?T 4T dl4l dMl H3I I The children had to be brought home
2. FTOTT 4^TTT 3M FI4CT % W Our dog had to be taken to the vet
^ TO4T dHI TST I today.
3. W 31HI<5) TOTT%% A big reward had to be promised to
feTCT «npr 4FT 44 arrest this terrorist.
4"44 R4l dHI 4FT I
4. W T 44 4T4T 4>4% % fePj; ftWT A bribe had to be given to get the
dl4l 1 certificate.
5. 344 T4cJ 4T W WTO ^ Six fire-engines had to be rushed
dl'i 4^ 1 to the site of the fire.
6. % 4T 44^ 4Ff % fotj 3#q; Tear gas had to be used to control the
% s M 4pff 4^t 1 mob.

Future compulsion structure + passive

1. TSTT 44R: 4444 TO4T tt4T 1 The defence budget will have to be
2. 4F4T^ 4T f%4TO<4 feTO TO4T FhTT 1 Inflation will have to be controlled.
3. %TF44Kf 4>T 4FTTT Rqi dldl Ft4T 1 The unemployed people will have
to be supported.

4. f^TSTT % ttU '55Kr «n^ Ftrf | Educational standards will have to
be raised.
5. ^ fon$fFT F^ W°FT The number of students enrolled
F>F F?t «il'fl Fhft I in universities will have to be reduced.
6. snnsft F?T *¥ <<Fl «1HI H$■*!1 1 The criminal will have to be kept in
7. 3tk ^ R T f m ft 3 f * fcm Something will have to be done to
get more information.
8. TTFT FF tffFTPT f^tT Refreshments will have to be served
ufFTT FtFT 1 at the meeting.

Probability + compulsion structure + passive

1. Ft ttF’dl t % FTF f a % The price of gas may have to be

FTFFSfir^fa F# I raised after the budget.
2. #T *TFFTT 1 3ffa T3FFF She may have to be operated
a n rb H f ^ r r ^ p n F t i upon next month.
3. Ft FFF1T I itftcTt ^ t Fgd The earthquake victims may have
FFF FF> FFF ^t 'Fl'fl F t 1 to be helped for a long time.
4. Ft FFFTT t FFcTfef F^rfat ^ t The strikers may have to be
^ffFkt t kfFFcfT ^THT F t 1 dismissed.
5. Ft FFFTT 1 f a f a t t t ^ More information may have to be
t^FHI FTO F t «ll'fl F t 1 obtained before taking any decision.
6. Ft FFkTT f? FF FFft FF 3FFM ft>FT This medicine may have to be
'FPTT F t 1 imported.

Probability + passive
1. Ft FFFTT t Tffl FT srffor EHTfa More funds may be spent on defence.
F t «T1F 1
2. Ft FFFTT t %«TT WT 3FTT '331% The number of students might be
IfalRRl F t FWT F>F F t «TTF 1 curtailed to improve educational

3. TTRFT t # SETM 4?l 4 ^ 444^ Interest rates may be reduced
"IIH I soon.
4. #r T?4kTT t *rKW if 3TFn?T 44 Imports may be liberalized in India.
34l{l‘M'4 f%4T ^Ttr|
5. Ft tfrtt t w^rifeRren % Many workers may be laid off as
44^*4 «npr ssr^ft a result of increased automation.
4?t «im i
6. Ft t?444 f 3n1% % The balance of payments situation
5TCT ^44FT TfcjFFT f t * # 4^t ^ETTTT may be improved by new economic
'4IU, I policies.

Advice + passive
1. TS4 4T 4 R %T ^xrf 4fR7 ^ # 4; I Less money should be spent on
2. %$4 3?fT TT4W 4>riP( 4^ feTQ; More funds should be allocated for
3ffe; eft turner fotn ^ ftt ^4#^ | education and social welfare.
3. «MK« 4^t TT54> 4*!^ 4^ ^TFft The streets in Varanasi should be
4lfs?C( I widened.
4. <r4jd % 4^41 4?f ■g4TT f^cTT%, School children should be provided
44^41 4 4^f 4t vfFft TT1%tt | with free books, stationery and
5. 3tarc 3f 4fcr 4#f emrc; ( Nails should not be hammered into
6. gfeRT 4 “fft % 4Tt if ^ ert # The police ought to be informed
«llrfl I about the theft.

★ ★ ★
37 Noun (M r)

Gender (fer^r)
In Hindi there are only two genders.
Masculine (jjR'ci'i) and feminine Gender is obvious in the case
of nouns denoting living objects, human beings or animals.
Based on usage som e non-human living beings are always conceived
as belonging to the masculine gender and som e others to the feminine
Examples :
masculine : xfan ^3fT
bird a tiger an owl a wolf an earthworm
feminine: Rifled
an eagle the black a quail a butterfly a fish
However for clarity and accuracy the masculine prefix: ,;TT’ or the
feminine prefix ‘5RKT’ are added where necessary.
^cTT HKf 41dl
male tiger female tiger
W fctcTcfr
male butterfly female butterfly

However determining the gender of the non-living objects, real or imagi­

nary, is truly baffling. It is chiefly a matter of usage. The natives grow up
with the language and automatically learn it without much special effort.
There are no fool proof rules to determine the gender of the inanimate
objects. Nevertheless its accurate knowledge is of utmost importance as
in most language structures in Hindi, the noun as subject or object gov­
erns the verb conjugation. It is necessary for the students learning Hindi
as a foreign language to learn the gender along with every noun.
The tables given below contain some guidelines for beginners. How­
ever, there are always exceptions and when in doubt a dictionary should
be consulted or else one may safely treat a noun as masculine.

Table -1
The Names of non-living objects that are predominantly masculine

Days of the week ^ I W , micMK, fW R, |F*qfcfaR, f R R , 9lPl«iK,

f^ ff TPT Monday, Tuesday, Wschesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sinday

Months of Hindu 3?T (tx ), trrm (% w )

calendar March - April, April-May etc.
(see page 428)

Mountains IBnicm, f^WEfcf,

Himalaya Vindhyachal Alps etc.

Planets *rfc, '*TTR=r

Sun, Moon, Mars etc. (see page 364)

Exception (Earth)

Minerals: TTTTT, cTtFT, i)rT?T, rtW 4TOT

gold, iron, brass copper allloy of copper and

Exception (silver)

Gems &TT, T^TT, %PT

TeT diamond, pearl, ruby, emerald, blue saphire etc.

Liquids <£EI, fTW, rfcT, 3t, TFft, faTPT, ^

cTTcf TKT*f milk, yogurt, sharbat, oil, ghee, water, vinegar, perfume
Exception (tea), TT# (coffee), SKT? (alcohol), cTOft (lassi)

Geographical *T^cT TTFxT ^P T

places mountain country province plain
3fppm W ef cTT TrcTTT
sky the underworld coast pond
Exceptions: ERrft, (land), (trench)

Hindi alphabet All consonants and most vowels
<1“fa m i TOft afk cprpt tot

Exceptions \ f, W
Fresh fruits 'Tk’TT, Tfa, u’rKi, 3TTOS, 31-lHlM, 3FTR
TOT banana, apple, orange, guava, pineapple,pomegranate

E xceptions: (apricot), nK'ft (orange), cfr^t (lichi),

Dry fruits totft, ftror, T O ttr, TjdcM.1, diRiid,

almonds, pistachio, cashew, apricot, currants, coconut,

Exceptions: fo^T^RT (raisins), TOJT (dates)

Household slTOT ®^¥T 3TTO

gadgets refrigerator toaster blender oven
fan cooler airconditioner

Exceptions: Rlcii{ FifhT (sewing machine)

Musical fecTR ^RTTtRm StcTO f^r^TT

insruments sitar harmonium drum guitar
tanpura tabla violin sarod

Exceptions: ^TT (veena), TTOIT^ (shahnai), TO[ft (flute)

Name of the grains ^ TOTT, -qiqcl, frTeT, ^1, TORT

3TTR wheat, gram,rice, sesam e seed, barlery, etc.
Exceptions: TOT (lentil), ^ (oats)

Ailments: ^ttr , t o Rf i, zT$<w$d, I rt

fever, malaria typhoid cholera etc.
Exceptions: TORf) (cold), (injury), TOT (constipation)


Names of Inanimate objects predominantly feminine

Rivers w , TTJfrr, *k w 4), ’i4<»i,

Ganges, Yamuna, Saraswati, Narmada etc.

Exceptions: (Brahmaputra), (Sone)

Hindi dates
IclRmr—- first, second, third etc. See page 428.

Sound words zf zt, ZZZZ, Z^ZZi, V!ZtFT

8FW croaking, ringing sound, sound of knocking, a jingling sound

Spices $*11441, tt^, cr>cTfv^l, 41'+),

cardamom, mustard seed, onion seed fennel,

WHFt 41x4141, 3R4It r , w it

cinnamon, turmeric, dry ginger, carum seed, tamarind

Exceptions: aftxrr (corriander), 4txr (cumin seed), X+TX; (salt) etc.

F ood s:
Indian fried stuffed fried sour soup made
bread bread bread of yogurt and gramflour
4ld xfiT'fl
a snack lentil soup vegetable a pickle or sauce
#X fox4t
rice ground rice, rice and dal steamed rice
pudding cooked in milk cooked cakes
and sugar together

Exceptions: FcT4T TWrfT

semolina shallow fried yogurt
pudding fried bread rice mix

Table - 3
Nouns with masculine suffixes

w *
importance abundance slavery manhood chastity

«CqHr1 eiS't'H'i
childhood boyhood magnanimity childhood

eRTTq *131^
flow election attachment change ascent

3fHT MHI RHFH! fofl-fl

song excuse pillow groceries


self old age kinship

rET =JrlT ^>cET

dance an act

Ef M ¥
patience work sweetness; cleverness Sun

eye field container weapon picture

3PF HI6<t>
reader servant child teacher protector

realism materialism conservatism capitalism

<FT MH<tH W n
vase a container foot-rest mouse-trap
for betel leaves

Ctl't'flTI cTf^T-cm
a republic democracy the nevous system

Examples of nouns with feminine suffixes

Suffix Noun

-FT •Hifei^T HtfKlPiR

washerwoman woman gardener seamstress woman cook
wife of gardener

-it K resrit F T T ^ T it S F J T it
teacher (f.) inspector (f.) doctor (f.)

-3fTVT HI5dl^i FjTIFT «rfiW T

wife of a pandit; wife of Thakur - wife of a Bania wife of a Khatri
a brahmin woman a subcaste of (a member (one of the
the warrior of the trading sub-castes)
class class)

-it %rit ircit Wlliit t^ it

lioness a pea-hen mistress; lady a Hindu
of the house woman

-f t fTltef FlfeapT
woman singer female student teacher (f.) nurse (f.)
-w ^TT ejfcir Hfer
doll old woman a small a small
metal pot container

TW f fe K
fatigue decoration form adulteration

-3Tlf efFli iisif *UKI^

length width depth cleverness

-<ait ^ q iil ■qlntalnl tltsWlil FSTFlit

mouse trap sugar pot ashtray mosquito net

-TIT# rfPTTTTT# it«Kifll# 3PRR9T1#

autocracy bureaucracy bureaucracy

Cases (^R^)
Hindi grammarians differentiate between eight cases Each case
has a special case-ending f^Fft). A noun or a pronoun is
said to belong to one of these cases and is followed by the appropriate
case-ending depending upon whether it is the subject (4Flf), object
(^ f ), instrument (4R°T) etc. of the action.

Table - 5 : Various ca se s and their respective case endings

C ases Case endings

1. (nominative)
2. Frrf (accusative)
3. (instrumental)
4. (dative)
5. 3TTKR (ablative) %
6. (possessive)
7. 3ff£l4><.ui (locative)
8. ?N)SFT (vocative) 3T=ft, I, TT, 3^,

■s’ It may be noted here (reference Table 5 given above) that in Hindi, in
som e constructions, the subject of the sentence, noun or pronoun is
followed by ’ I
■s’ The native speakers often drop the case - endings following the nouns
in the accusative case.

1. ^ I The boy read the book.

2. efl^T % I The boys read the books.

•s’ In both the sentences given above, the subject dS't'T is fol­
lowed by the post position where as the naturally required
postposition^)’ with the objects has been dropped.(see
page 247.
•s’ When a noun or a pronoun is used without a postposition (tf>K4> f^F?)
it is said to be in the direct case
*»* When a noun or a pronoun is followed by a postposition (+K*t>
It Is said to be in the oblique case (Ryd ^T) 1
**■ Hindi has a special vocative form of noun or pronoun
which is used when addressing or invoking a person or thing. This is
similar to the oblique form except that the vocative plural form has a ft
or^Tt Instead of 3ff or*ff ending.

Number ( ^ ft)
On the basis of number in Hindi the nouns are classified into (1) singular
(ijcM tH (2) plural (stgq-ci'i)

Declension of the noun (*rar

In Hindi changing the noun from singular to plural varies with gender
and case; within the gender, it varies with the noun-endings. Given
below are the rules for declining the masculine and feminine nouns in
the direct, the oblique as well as the vocative cases.
■ Masculine Nouns
For the purpose of declension, the masculine nouns can be classified
as follows :
(1) Nouns with'arc’ - ending e.g. cT5¥T (boy)
(2) Nouns with any ending other than ‘an’.
e.g. ’fief, etc.
fruit poet brother child lemon
**■ In the direct case, masculine nouns ending in ‘3fT’ change to V when
pluralised. Example : 1,Table 7, pg. 202.
**■ In the oblique and vocative case masculine singular nouns with ‘arr’-
ending change to ending. Example: 1,Table 7, pg. 202.

**■ All other masculine nouns with any ending (other than 'an’), remain
unchanged in their direct singular, direct plural, oblique singular and
vocative singular cases. Examples : 2-10 Table 7, pg. 202.

Oblique plural of
1. the nouns ending in consonant (with inherent 'at') or ‘atT’ has vowel
symbol f o r a t the end.

Examples : 1,2 Table 7.
2. the nouns ending in L3 ’, “s ’, V , <3^ ’, ‘3ft’ has 'aSt' ending; “3T
is changed to L3' before adding ‘3lt’ I Example : 5-10 Table 7.
3. the nouns having or has ending.
However long “i ’ is changed to short “f ’ before adding I Example
: 3,4 Table 7.
**" Vocative plurals are the same as oblique plurals except that ‘3ft ’ or
‘Jft’ are used instead of ‘3ft ’ or ‘4T’ I

«*■ Rules for oblique and vocative plural are the sam e for masculine as
well as feminine nouns.

Masculine Nouns; Direct case; Singular and Plural

d. sg. obi. sg. obi. pi.

-a ending =£>-e =f>e =3>om

other vowels
and consonantes 0 0 om/yom*

*T, i ending masculine nouns =*> yorfi

Some masc. proper nouns that are the names of cities change to V
wnen followed by a post position.
e.g. Direct case Oblique case
+d<t>dl 4>d<r>rl + ppn
Y* T* + PP„
SfPTTT + ppn
TTS‘'TT ^ + PP„
wr smtatT

**■ When explanation or meaning of a masculine noun with '3rr' ending is

expected, it does not change to V e.g.

‘TtTRT’ W 3pf t ? ‘TWMI’ 3T 3T«f f .....|

When a noun is followed by a postposition, it is written separately.
e.g. 3333 3?% 33; Tt, 3*3^ 33? etc.

■*" In Hindi it is common to add «PT’, 3 P f, M ’ etc. to indicate

plural character of the noun.
e.g. ??I3T (sg.) iTlaFM (pi.)
arf&'t'lO (sg.) 3jf£i<wfl 3?f (pi.)
333143? (sg.) 333333; <3t3 (pi.)
^ (sg.) T?ft 3if (pi.)

**■ in Hindi it is common practice to use proper noun as common noun.

e.g. 31? TFT t He is R am !

(Here Ram stands for an ideal man)
3? TnfMf t She is SavitrT I
(Here Savitri stands for a chaste woman)
c|3 efeM-sf i t You are Harischandra !
(Here Harishchandra stands for a man of absolute truth)
3? 3t 3TT3 ! He is Narad I
(Here Narad stands for a man always causing disputes and problems)

Regarding the ‘33’ ending nouns given below :

(1) Their direct plural and oblique singular c a s e s ‘33’ does not change to
(2) In their oblique plural case, ‘33’ does not chang to ‘aff’; instead '3?fis
actually added after ‘33’ as shown in the Table - 6 below :

Examples :

■ Words from Sanskrit e.g. -tdi, ?4ldi, 333, ft?3, Hgic3i, TJT3T, 333T etc.

■ Words of Persian, Arabic origin e.g. 3TTF3, fiFTT etc.

■ Repetitive words e.g. TF3, 3T3T, 3T3T, 3 mi , 3T3TI
■ Words ending in 3T or 3T e.g. 'gl%3T, 33]3T, *P]3T I


Case Suffix Masculine Nouns

sing. pi. sing. pi.

Direct 30 30 ftcO ftcO

Oblique 3TT aof %3T + p p n ft<03ft + ppn
Vocative 3TT aoT ft ftrO ft ftcTT3ft
Direct 30 30 000 000
Oblique 3TT ofo + ppn 0003ft + ppn
Vocative 30 aft
Direct 30 30 OTTtOT ORtOT
Oblique 3TT OTTfOT + ppn ortrorait + ppn
Vocative 3TT aft ft0T%T i?
Direct 3TT 30 gfeOT gfeOT
Oblique 30 3Tt +ppn gfeow f + p p n
Vocative 30 aot 1 gfeOT 1 ^fftoo3ft

■ Feminine nouns
Feminine nouns can be classified a s :
(1) Nouns with V o r 1^' ending e.g. cT ^t (girl)
(2) All other feminine nouns with endings other than or ‘i ’
e.g. 3fRo woman; T O mother; thing; daughter-in-law
In the direct ca se :
*•' ‘or’ is added to the feminine nouns ending in V or when pluralised
in the direct case.
•*" Long ti ’ is shortened before adding l4T’ to it. Example 1 ,2,Table 8.
•• ‘qj’ is added to the feminine nouns ending in consonant (with inherent
3f ') ‘3U \ V , “3 v , ‘3ft’ when pluralised. Example 3 ,4 ,5 ,6 ,
7 Table 8.
“s ’ is shortened to ^3’ before adding to it.
*•* Plurals of feminine nouns with *01' ending are formed by putting
3TJOOR on “0T’ as shown in example 8,Table 8.
• • Oblique singular of all feminine nouns is the sam e as direct singular.
Oblique plural of all feminine nouns with V or ' has ‘oT' and of all
other nouns ‘3Tf ’ at the end. See table 8, pg. 203

C ase Suffix Masculine Nouns

Singular Plural Singular Plural

Direct 1. -3TT 1. rt^ t

oblique -aft trsft + p p n cTO^t + ppn
vocative -ait 1 c=T# ^ els'll
Direct 2. -c* -c 2. ■*1la't’ TtTF^
-c -c+ 1 7TTF^» + ppn 'lie+l + ppn
-c -c + t ^ <II64> ^ Tn?+t
Direct 3. 3.
-■? ^ + PP„ +foqt
t +f^it
Direct 4. - i 4. *Tt^ *rr^
-i ^ +PPn w i t +ppn
-i -W % 1 ^Ttl^t
Direct 5. -3 -3 5. mg mg
-3 -3fff + pp„ + pp„
-3 -3Tt 1 Trrgafr
Direct 6. - 3 3 6. ■31+
-3 33ft ^ + PP„ 3t4rot + pp
-3 3$t ft roTTOt
Direct 7. -V, 2fft 7. ^ tt
afft ^ +PPn ^%3Tf + ppn
3?r ft ^% ^t
Direct 8. -3ft 3ir 8. Trot Trot
3tf TTOt + p p n Trot + p p n
-aft 3ft ft trot TRTt
Direct 9. -aft air 9. ^Ftfr +tfr
- - ^tff + p p n ^tff + Ppn
- - ft +tfr 1 +tfr
Direct 10. -aft air 10. ^t
- aft ^ +pp„ #3it + ppn
- aft 1 ^t ft

*c = consonant with inherent 3T

Table 8

C ase Suffix Feminine Nouns

Singular Plural Singular Plural

Direct 1. 1 6. m f^ P tf
Oblique - fctfa + p p n RlRi4l + ppn
Vocative - TTt m it faM r
Direct 2. ^ W 7. ^ + ^41
Oblique - ^ +pp„ + pp „
Vocative - %
Direct 3. c* C+V 1. after 3ftect
Oblique - c +> after + ppn after? + pp^
Vocative - c+> ^ after ^ 3?| Idl
Direct 4. 3TT 2. Hldl id i<<
Oblique - air w +ppn HTrTTat + ppn
Vocative - air I? Hldl
Direct 5. 3.
Oblique - air ^ + pp„ ^5 3 it + ppn
Vocative - at
Direct 6. 3; 4.
Oblique - ^ + pp„ ag at + ppn
Vocative - 33ir *** it «npr
Direct 7. aft 5. i?r ifr^
Oblique - ait ^ + pp „ ^frat + ppn
Vocative - air t ifr 1 iM
Direct 8. ^TT iff 8. ijftirr
Oblique - +ppn +pp„
Vocative - ^t 1

‘c = consonant with inherent a

Use of Infinitives as Noun w t)

w In Hindi, the verb in its infinitive form is used as noun. It can take the
place of a subject, direct object or indirect object.

Infinitive used as a subject

1. ^ ftt fsft 3# t o I think it is extremely easy to learn

ti Hindi.
2. WFT 3TRTPT f, gf^Pcf I It is easy to say, difficult to do.
3. 3J<5 «ileMI FTF 11 It is a sin to tell a lie.
4. ^SjFF-WT 'Jf dgeHl To take a stroll in the open in the
WFTF 11 morning as well as in the evening is
the best exercise.
5. FTTcf l*Hi vj«(iel Hl'fl ‘fldl In India it is harmful for health to drink
TFTTSF % fepr glPl+K+ 11 water without boiling it.
6. 3fF% % feTtr FTFT F f 4^ FTW It is a matter of pride to die for one's
11 motherland.
7. T5TFf 4F tFFRTTT 4?t JjW'hl % ^ 5 It is very bad on the part of students
HilSFT ^ t1 to tear away pages from the library
8. 9TFT TTF % OTt ^T % FTFT In this city it is not proper to go out
'JlMI <£)* 4^1 I late at night.
9. TTF4i FT F>FT FiF^FT, #4TT FT It does not become a good citizen to
FWTFTT cPlMI, *h4uiP if >TFH FT throw garbage on the road, to paste
g W F FfTFT 3TE^ HNIlR+ 4?l posters on the walls, and to smoke
_9Tt'*TTTfi?t I in public places.

Infinitive used as object

10. ^Tft FFF «RTFT FFTcft 11 My sister knows drawing and

11. 3TFTt F ^ f 3f tTFT # f> ft I I will learn swimming next month.
12. M FFcTT FFTFT FTFrft 11 My daughter knows how to play the
13. 3TFF% pel'll 3TE?5T <IMI FFT Where did you learn to sing so well?

**■ When infinitive is used as object and is followed by a postposition, its
‘FT’ ending changes to ‘ft ’ as shown below.

1. 3fR-^K=f «fTft ft ftr fft I get late in going to my office today.

miftt f?1 (pres, hab.)
2. 3(IM+1 FFT ft loci'll mm How long did you used to take to
m en FT? (past hab.) reach there?
3. sm i ^ fft mfmft ft Excuse me, I got a bit late in getting
FT? ftr ift mf I (past simple) there.
4. ft mftft w fttrft) mft m|m ^tftm I could not learn German language
mrft n r ^ fttmr mrft m l i (past even after trying very hard.
5. mT snmft m ft rntl fftftgft W I Have you ever tried to learn some
ftltdft Fft mtf^M 4ft ft ? (pres, perf.) foreign language ?
6. m m ft <fhi<. TFft % <t>Kui He has become very peevish
4F Iftsfftsi Ft W ft I (pres, perf.) because of being ill for a long time.
7. Iftwel F?ft fttm fftm ft fftmeft m Ftft We had been put to much inconve
% m m f f «npr ftftmm go; ft i nience because of there being no
(past perf.) electricity every day last week.
8. ft mm ftft TFft mft mrF ft ff He had become very fat because of
mgm mtFT Ft mT ft i (past perf.) sitting all the time.
9. mT ftft 4FT TFft ft Will you be put to any inconvenience
mftwftt Fftft ? (fut. simple) by my staying here ?
10. ftft ftr ft mr mfmft mr mrmr ftt My mother will be worried by my
fftfftrm Ftftt I (fut. simple) reaching home late.
11. Fft m ft TFft leim t>lcl We need a small house for
H+M | (need) ourselves to live in.
12. mmt mt m f t $ term gmrmi rnfftm I Children need books to read.

★ ★ ★
38 P ro n o u n s («<Ti h )

In Hindi, pronouns viz. the words used instead of nouns are classified as
1. Personal pronouns
2. Definite pronouns P|!(T|i|c|N+ thf-TIH
3. Indefinite pronouns
4. Interrogative pronouns
5l Reflexive pronouns
6. Relative pronouns

Personal Pronouns
Person direct case oblique case
sg. Pi- sg. Pi.
t FT W + PPn M +PPn
¥ F + PPn W + PPn
^ + PPn ^ + PPn
W 31FT 3fTT^T 3tTq + PPn STPT cTWf + ppn
Third W ft/ff efPT W +PPn FT +ppnProx.
3R 4? +ppn FT + ppnNon prox.

■** ’ppn' stands for any of the postpositions Ft, FT, %, if, F etc.

**■ In the objective ca se only where the case ending Ft is used with the
direct or indirect object, Hindi language u ses a special contracted
form of pronouns given on page 13.
» Third person pronouns are not differentiated on the basis of gender
but on the basis of proximity and non-proximity (see table given above).
*** Personal pronouns in the third person are also used as — (1) definite
pronouns signalling at animate or inanimate object (page 208), as well
as (2) demonstrative adjectives (page 227).
■3” In serveral regions in India, specially U.P., Bihar where Bhojpuri (the
local dialect) is the spoken language, people use FF for I This Is
a regional use and not standardized Hindi.
■ ^ is grammatically second person singular is used for youngsters, inti­
mate close friends, menial workers; gods, goddesses and one's mother
are often addressed with I
■ is grammatically second person plural. However cpr is used as
singular as well as plural while talking to informal friends. To specify
plural meaning, is followed by in the direct c^se and cThT) in the
oblique case.

Examples :
3F3T 3TT3Tt | You (sg./pl.) come in I
c?PT 3F?r ana?) | You (people) come in !
cTPl! R) TTlPcT % TFRT RlsR I You (people) ought to live peacefully.
■ 3rra can be used both as singular as well as plural in formal/honorific
conversation. To specify plural meaning 3JR is followed by c^PT in the
direct case and cTtrff in the oblique case.
Examples :
3TFT tfcR | You (sg./pl. formal/honorific) sit.
3IR c%tt tfttT | You (people) sit. (pi.)
*r Hindi speakers often use 3fR, %, % as honorific expressions while
addressing older people, parents, teachers, bosses or formal
acquaintances and in that case even singular takes plural verb endings.
«r ‘am’ has no special oblique form e.g. -HH<^l, 3fR^, afR^', an4<t>i,
-<£) etc.
*•' But when '3TR cfPT is used to indicate plural meaning, it changes to
3TR in the oblique case.
**r 3TR is sometimes used for third person singular both when he or she
Is present or absent at the time of reference.
Examples :
1 R? Rtl't' vfUTNiT WTC This book is written by Jaisahkar
3TR W cPfIR f I Prasad; he is a great writer.
7 3TR% PrfeRj 3TR f RtJT I Meet her; she is Mrs. Kapoor.
3 Pi <ldl RFFT <t>!^ 2); 3TR^ Nirala was a great poet; he wrote
many poems.

D efin ite p r o n o u n s ( f ^ r ^ w ^

case sg. Pi-

Direct sr, prDx.
TF, 3^1'I non-prox.
Oblique + ppn ^ +pp„
TT + p p n
^ + ppn

■S' Definite pronouns are used as :

■ third person personal pronouns (see example 1-4)
■ demonstrative adjectives (examples 7, 8 given below; also see page
■»* For emphasis ‘fft/^’is added to them. e.g. +^=
TF + ^ = (examples 5,6,8).
Examples :
1. ^F T fa I ? Who is he ?
2. ^ t ? What are they doing ?
3. W rft I This is not difficult.
4. W FT FrT I Don't put anything on it.
5. 3 ^ ftcT-TT 11 I have to meet him only.
6. eft *1F cFFT £fT | You only said this.
7. IfT 3TT8t 4?T TTcT +ldl; S) ct>^ ? I Don't cut these mangoes; they are
8. 3^ jtfV'F) ^TT I Give the book to him only.

■»■ In example 7,8, before 3TTRY, and before is used as

demonstrative adjective whereas St in sentence 7 and in sen­
tence 8 are definite pronouns.

In d efin ite P r o n o u n s tf<fdin)

■s* ^R5
o is indeclinable;' **" is declined as shown below:

c a se sg.
Direct 4^4, f^rft % ^t4, %
Oblique 144ft + ppn

Use of 4?t4 — Somebody

1. 444 t ? Is somebody there ?

2 ^TT 41 4>t4 41?t 11 Nobody is at home.
3. %4ct 3pftT Ft4 % *t>)4 tt•‘-'*=11 One doesn't became cultured by
FI?f £lcll I being rich.
4. FT 4*t4 3pftT l^FT "41FFt ^ I Everybody wants to be rich.
5. FT 4^4 FT 444 4t?f 4R 4444 I Everybody cannot do everything.
6. TFT 3TI4 4?t 4fff 4)«l 41?f I I don't have anything belonging to

+ Postposition

1 . ft'tfl't'l ^TT FcT 44tt I Don't speak badly to anyone.

2 . R>414 ^TT 4F I Don't hear evil from anyone.
3. R>tfl4>l '4ett^ 4RtI Help someone.
4. 44T f4>414 ifft ^nfWt 4 # f ? Has anyone seen my keys ?
5. ^ % # £ t 444 F#f ^ # 4 I I don’t need anybody's help.
6. 44T 344 ^ f't'tfl 3R& Ft444 44 Could you tell me the address
401 444 tft44t t>? of some good hotel.
7. 4F 4T5T 4TF 4t I Distribute these clothes among
8 . f4^4t ^TTT 4TF? % FRT 4 1 ^ 1 Answer any four questions.

4?tf tnF/444-444 — Some people

1. 44"4 ^ hmc) ? I Some people believe so.

2. 4 ^ - 4 ^ F t f 4 r ^ c i 4 # f F tctcf I Some people don't speak at all.
3. 4^tf-4?r4 Ft 44^ 44 4t %44T F t tt Some(people) are absolutely
11 useless.

— Someone or the other

1. srarsm rft *tt i Someone (or the other) was certainly

2. *t*l^-:T-chl ^ ^RT ^ ' l l I Someone (or the other) will listen
to me.

+ number + — Approximately

A: RFT % 31+4* fe p ft %? How far is the post office from here?

B: Rijt •t>1^ ?TT ct><<4 3TRt I Approximately 10 steps further.
A: 3TTO% W fccFft w fM I ? How many sarees do you have?
B: *fi?t 44m tpf> | Approximately fifty.

*ft, F^-*TT/-%/-Tft — Anyone, anyone of them

1. WT ^cT ^T^cTT 11 Anybody can accompany me.

2. ^ TTT/Tft ^ ^nr | Give me any of these !

3fh[; 3fir — Anyone else/anything else

Someone else / something else

1. ^ 3ftr 3TT TFT % ? Is someone else coming too ?

2. TIFT 3 fk t ? Is anybody else there ?
3. 3f(T ^RT ^TT3T) I Tell me something else.
4. 3 fk ^ R^T'RT I Show me something else.

— Whosoever

1. '4TF', RFT ^TfRTT 11 Whosoever wants, can sit here.

2. «ft 4 ^ 4T TTRT | Whosoever want, may come with me.

— Some persons / som e things

*** o is not variable.

*** It is used both as indefinite pronoun as well as adjective.

Q | As pronoun It refers t o :

**■ Some unknown material or abstract object

Examples :

1. ^ ^FT 4^0 1 1 You have something on your mind.

2. ehTrTT t 3JR ^*0 11 It seem s there is something in the
milk today.
Q | As adjective it refers to :

*** Unspecified quantity of uncountable object

**■ Undifferentiated group of countable objects, animate as well as

(see page 227)

<T0 — Used as adverb of degree/measure

1. ftFTT *£0 t I His/Her fever is a little less at the

2. » o ^n^fr 11 He/She is somewhat dark
3. ^ £ 0 -W ^TFft % She looks somewhat like her
ftdcD ^ I grandmother.
4. 3F 't>0-'t>0
o o t | She/He is somewhat crazy.

^ 0 — Quite a bit

1 'd'14> W t I They have a lot.

2. *TTOT TF «TIpT ^ 0 We learnt a lot, having livechtrrtndia.
#?TT I
3 3F ^ 3Pf5TT^ «fipf ^ 0 W He said quite a bit inadvertently.

5 g 0 -if-ig 0 — Something (emphatic)

1. c p t 4p5-=T-3p5 3Taw He must have said something jd you

F^FT t?hTT I
2 3F ^ 0 - ^ r - ^ 0 cTl ^TT | He will give you something.

Fu5 *ft — Anything; ’ft Ft — Whatever may happen

A: ft F*TT Fftf ? What shall I say ?

B: Fp5 *ft I Anything.
ftt tft, 5>T Flft ‘tx.'ii I Whatever may happen, you do just

Fft5-FF-Fn5 — Used to express change in state

1. FF fttft ift W F ft F>s5-FF-Fn5

o o FF In a short time he made great
W I progress.
2. 3fTF ^Fft FT FF FFT Ft FF5- You go and see yourself; things have
O Ft FFT ft1 completely changed there.

Interrogative Pronouns (t o w
FftF (who), FFT (what)

**■ “FFT’ is indeclinable.

**■ Declension of “FftF ’ is as shown below.

Case sg- pi.

FFtf (subject) FtH, # r , f%Fft, fW rft

Frft (object) fftft R>r1ch),

F^FF (instrumental)

F’FFTF (dative) tftFTFt, fftft I'fc'IFl,

3IHKH (ablative)
f%FFF fftRFF
ftftsr (possessive) R*'1F’
ftfctFft Ift'F't’l

3ffil+<ul (locative) ftFTFT RHH<

Use of t f a — Who

1 tfa t ? Who is there ?

2 XRT SR % ¥ N TgRT t ? Who lives in that house ?
3 Rg t f a ^ f t o RTF t ! This is not at all a difficult task !
4. t t o t o rtr t o r r % t o n ? Who will come with me for a walk ?
5. 3 * t o t XRRT RF to i^ d l t f a t ? Who is your favorite actor ?
6. % t o r - t N 3?m % ? Who all had come to the party ?
7. t t o t o t o t RT RcR % nRTTT 1? Who can answer my questions ?

t o t , togt'% — Who

1. %fFT’ t o g t t t o T ? Who (hon.) wrote 'Godan'?

2. 3M t o t 'SR WT I^TT? Who cleaned the house today?
3. w r c=pn, f t o t to t Did you come to know, who stole
w i7 your book ?
4. t o ^eRFT t o t t o ? Who broke my flower vase ?
5. t o t o t t o t 3?R leKdt) t o t Who taught you to read and write
to to ? Hindi ?
6. R 'ti-R 'tt'l y^d) 41 <514> drcK. Who all answered the questions
f^t? right ?

t o t , t o t , t o / t o + 1 — W ho/W hom etc.

1. t RR <TRR t t o ^ t ttc f ? Whom shall 1meet in that office ?

2. t o t t o t snn to ? Who did he (or she) talk to ?
3. srrct t o t t t t i t ? Who did you ask the money from ?
4. RF t o n t TTRT 8R ? Who was he with ?
5. % t o t nm tit | ? With whom have they gone for a
walk ?
6. TRR t o t t o t 3*? TFT SR ? Who was Syam asking about ?
7. a t o t o - t o to t o x to tr Who all have you invited on your
XR ft ? birthday ?

^■T + is used both for living as well as nonliving objects to
point towards som eone or something in particular.

1 . Which book shall I read ?

2 . 'd'l^ 'd^‘t'1 mIcI %? Who among them is her husband ?
3. t TOf ? Which shirts should I buy ?
4. 4FT fyc+l ePft ^ ? Which film is running here ?

Fsfa "TT%— Who knows

1 . "TT^ 3TFt 4d4H W FtFT ? Who knows what will happen later ?
2 . ^ 4F cfl^TTT ^ 4T ? Who knows whether he will return
or not ?
U ses o f — W

W com es at the beginning of an interrogative sentence the answer

to which is 'yes’ or 'no'.

1. W cJF Ft ? Do you learn Hindi ?

2 . 441 3fFT T O % TF^ t ? Are you Indian ?

W com es after the subject for all other questions the answer to
which is som e object.
1. tJF W ^ITct Ft ? What do you eat ?
2 . W <a(ki ? What did he buy ?

Reduplicative use of W - W is like'what all1in American English. It is

used in expectation of a detailed account of something.

1 . 3fFT^ TOST W - W fe rr ? What all did you do in India ?

2 . 3JFT FFT % F4T-F4T cTFt ? What all did you bring from there ?

W at the beginning of a sentence is used sometimes to express


1 . W FrPTT ^ ! You don't understand even this!

W + adj. + noun ’ is used to express astonishment.

1 . W ! What a beautiful dress !

2 . W «tl^4i P)6i£ ! What a fine sw eet!

3 +FT gHstHH FTcTF; ! What an intelligent child I
4 FFT Ff^FT 3il4*Tl Pl't'di FF ! What a mean person he turned out
to b e !

+FT-+F-FFT, FFT-*t-FFT — to express complete change in sta te :

1 FFFft gcg % FFFTcT, FF F^FTT After his death, the family's

FFT-FF-FFT Ft *I4I I state changed absolutely.
2 3TPT T%F FFt FT?f HF?T% 3TFM- Why don't you people under stand
Pi■ m TcI 'd 4 l ( 1 tt> < u l % ^ 9 T 4 le 1 F t that by liberalisation of exports and
FM if FFT-%-FFT Ft W I I imports the country can improve
tremendously in a couple of years.
3 FFT c+lMK F>TTt T?t FF FFT-^t- As soon as he started a new
FFT Ft FFT I business, he became a very
rich man.
4. f^FFTF % 4>KUI eTFFt FtF FFT-%- Millions of peole were reduced to
fft Ft Fg 2r i misery due to partition.

Use of “FFT - FFT’ — Whether .......or

1. +41 SflftT 441 <1(l°t, 44+' FF Whether rich or poor, the color of
TF eTTcT t I everybody's blood is red.
2. FFT F J F FFT FTFFT, TT*tt ^t WT Whether human beings or animals,
%TFT t I Brahma created all.

Use of — FFT?

FFT? ? / FFT? F?t ? / +>ij? feTCr ? - why ?

FFI? FFel^ FteT 7% Ft ? Why are you talking in vain ?

FFI? if — in what; wherein

FF F ^ FFT? Ttf, Wherein shall I keep the clothes,
FPg+J $ FT 3iciHi'D if ? in the box or in the cupboard?

■ FFI? FT — on what; where upon

if FFI? FT «t<^ F>rf? FT FT 4KHi| Where shall I sit, on the chair or on
FT ? the cot?

■ 3*11? % — with what; how

F®^t FFi? ^ ? What shall 1cut the vegetables


■ — of what

W Hic-k H FHI? FT FFT t , eR?# What is this vase made of, wood or
FF ifT f -iiR cf' FF ? plastic?

Relative Pronouns
«ft, F t

F>KF> F>KF> fVtf Ft Ft

c a se PP„ sg. pi. sg. pi.

F^rf <J), % Ft, Ft, Rm ^I Ft, Ft, fitF%,

subject Rif % Ri'f R fa*Ft

f^ (j), F^t Riff ^I Ru+1, IdFF>l,

object Riit Rif? M fitF?
FTFT it Rif *) Rm *I Rut) RlFtl
FPSfFH ipt M'lcpl IcH^l
dative Rfit Rrit M a*
3fFTFH $ Rrait Rh 3 Rmit RF<t
FFST Riff-i Rh f >i R ff >i lcld+1
genitive FF, F?t RtFF> Rfp£ fitF% R ff>
RiFF^t Rif *) RtFF^t RtFF^t
3ffltct"!.ul ^r, ft Rh S fcftrir, W
locative Rtfft Rr ft fcPFT FT RtFFT

**■ Ft is synonym of FF, % I It Is usually used as a correlalive of ‘F t’,

but sometimes it is used indendently.

Examples :

1. «ff % Ft F*f ^ eTFTFT SIT Ft The tree that 1had planted two years
(=f f ) m f * t ^ tt i ago will give fruit now.

2 F t #fTTtt FTt t F t (FF) R>#£l May nobody suffer from the illness
F Ft 1 that he is suffering from.

3. f^cTiq 1 F t (1) ftrft F t No one should have the worries that

F Ft 1 1have.

4 FF F t F 4% Ft F F ! He can say almost anything !

5. ff F F cTF% ^TPTcft f Wt FFT 1know the boy who is standing there.

TFFT 1 1

6. F t FFF «tMI Fleet !? % FT tfFcl The students who want to go may

tl go.

7. F t STTF^t FF% ^ftcIT t cftF The man who sews my clothes

% felTj; fttt?T FFT f? 1 has gone abroad for three months.

8. F # Fl^t t ftrct f f t FFT TTftFT 1 This is the saree that 1bought


9. Fs?t FF ^ F T 3?kd ^ fu[F% FFtt This is the beautiful woman whom

■gFF^ FF yr^F> ^FF> FRett FF7TT every young man in our colony
FTFFTt 1 wants to befriend.

10. F#t FF 3rf$Rtrft t f^TF^ FT^ This is the actress about whom 1
f f t TJFF TJF% FTF F^t sft 1 talked to you in the morning.

11. F#t FF FT t? 1«TF>t FF FFef 7F% This is the house in which we

i lived previously.

12. am ff ^ t f^pFt^ ff; You are the first person who has
FFFtft TjFTTF ftFT 11 come up with a practical proposal.

13. FFT FF t%Fctt fiRTft t fa F ^ Is this the electrician who did

3TTCFF FFF f^FT FT ? your work ?

14. T3P 3?fTO 4?T RTPrft ^ RtW+l I know that woman whose husband
pfrT f^TSTT TOft 11 is education minister.

15. TJP ^JTO> TO TOT HIH 1? pKi^ Fid I What is the name of the young
4?t ^cg ftPTP 3«fepT ^T I man whose father died in the air
plane crash.

16. Pi3t ^f ^ sflro % ftcft ftrc# t I met a woman on the train whose
t o ^r€t w w rof^r ^ i mother was my mother's classmate.

Reflexive pronouns (Pm 3 1 ^ «<P i i h )

‘top ’

■s’ As reflexive pronoun ‘TOP’, ‘TOP ‘TOP TOP’, 'TOR* 'totP top'
etc are used to mean by oneself, without anybody's help etc.
■s* Their exact meaning depends upon the subject they reflect.

ar They remain the same for all three persons, singular as well as plural.
Use of TOT^-TOP, TOP i>) - corresponds to the English expressions
myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, themselves

MS TO? (Sanskrit), (Urdu) can be used instead.

1. TOP-I?t TO TOP l| I 1do all the work myself.

2 TO TORT TOFTT PT I; TOT% ^ This is our own house; we had
TOP PPPTPTI it built ourselves.
3. “TOT TJP^ PTOTPT?" "Did you get this dress made by
the tailor ?"
“pff, ^ TOFf-TOP PPTPT 1 1" "No, 1have made it myself."
4. TO TOT^-TOP FM t #TOT 11 He learns Hindi by himself.
5. ffePT PRT f^T TOP-#t-TOP Ptepft The old woman keeps on talking
TOcftf 1 all day by herself.
6. TOP 3TR5T Pt TOT 3R0T1 When one is good oneself,
(then) the whole world is good.

3PT^-% — Corresponds to the English expressions 'by oneself' etc
when they are used idiomatically to mean 'alone','by o n eself etc.

w 3i%eTT( d^cfl can be used instead.

Examples :

1 t 3PT^-% f ^ f ^ I I went to see the film by myself.

2 3 ft 3 p ft-ft 1 R 1 W W T W I T I I cooked and ate by myself.
3 <J*T 3pft-ft ? How will you go so far all by
yourself ?
4 'T? 3f 440< '*rf, 3PT%-% When I went to the office, the boss
^ WT TFT STTI was doing all the work by himself.

3TTWW, = mutual; TT, agrees with the noun following,

amtft = mutual invariable; 3TFTTT ft = among

Examples :

arrR T f t ftfe f t i/ftfftr ; i Share it among you.

'd'-gft 3TRTT ft rPT T>T leiMl I They decided among themselves.
W 3 IM f t / W l f t WITT (f.) 11 This is our private matter.
T3W 3TNTT W 3T F fft ?m?T This is their mutual dispute.
(m .sg.)t I
ft TT^fft dlHtd TTFTef ( 11 These are their mutual matters.
^ f t M i ft a m f t TT^TT-TT (f.)ftft There should be good feeling
^ett! ^ i among neighbours.

apft % + adj.

I 3pft $ % Tpr eTTRT oiIe?^ I One should not argue with one's
2 3roft % fteY f t WT 4>ft I Love the ones who are younger
than yourself.
3 <H4'i % ct>*t'4l <1 f t H44 I Help the ones weaker than

★ ★ ★
39 ‘ A d jectiv es (M & iui)

Adjectives: Declinable (fa'wA); Indeclinable (3|[<I<n O)

In Hindi the adjectives can be categorised as (1) Indeclinable adjectives

(aR 't'id and (2) Declinable adjectives

1. Declinable adjectives :

■ All the adjectives w hose base form has long '3TT' ending, change
according to the number, gender and case of the nouns they qualify.
However, they have no 3ft or 3ft forms to qualify the plural nouns in
the oblique or vocative cases.
Exam ple:
Case adj. m .sg. adj. m. pi.

Direct 3T50T eTPFT 3T ^ e t#

Oblique 3TE^ c f # + pp„ 3T^
Vocative 3pE^ 3T ^

«■ Feminine forms etc. don't change with number and case.

■s* If an ‘3fT’ ending adjective qualifies more than one noun of different
gender, number etc, it agrees with the noun that immediately follows
Exam ple:
1. ddrTT djdf, d lit, I We bought a black kurta, (black)
saris and (black) shirts.

dhcTT qualifies dprf (m. sg.), (f. sg.) +ftl^ (f. pi.) but it agrees
with the first object dntf

2. fFTft deleft <rii-^l, <t>4l«l 3ftr d>df We bought a black Sari, (black)
<a(l<tl I shirts and 'Kurta'

« here also <PTcft agrees with saree, i.e. the object Immediately following
it, though it qualifies the nouns and ^ctf as well.


Some ‘a r ending adjectives don't change to agree with the number,

gender or case of the noun. Given below are a few examples :

«HI old «iIc?mi - of a very good quality

«KI an old man « t^ i ETitAnf^IT - good
quality saree/sarees
WTT 3?! old woman
«RT cT’hT old people - good scene

^TTTT (pi. use) of various kinds - of poorers quality

TFTT various sweets ^rf^TT #3T - a poor quality
HMI ’tpt various fruits f^ETTT - a poor thought
^trt m z /w m , various students - of a very good quality

«|-=f<t>Hl - childish vJW I|c41x)|/llc41^ - good

quality carpet(s)
«T>tcW'll 3H<?cl - childish habit
«M+MI FPIFf - childish nature - twins

H^iR>*tl - with a sense of humour '*TT^/3fir% - twin brothers

/ sisters.
H^lfa^l 3TT^ - a man with a good «iciMl - annual
sense of humour flieiiii «ki*ii - annual festival
UMMI 3TFI - annual income

■ Indeclinable adjectives
All the adjectives not ending in ‘3U’ are indeclinable. They don't change
with the number, gender and the case of the noun they qualify.

Examples :

w ** 2. m ft 3. <sic^ 4.
handsome heavy sloping kind

5. ftftrarr 6. 7. 8. Tfang
clever enthusiastic quarrelsome suspicious
■ Given below are som e Sanskrit adjectives that end in consonants
and have a special feminine form.
m. f.
talented yrfT#
MPrcWH lucky vfFMfft
f^TFT learned
♦fpi'L great ■RFcft
O ugly W
O fT

■ Sometimes adjectives are used as nouns. In that case their oblique

and vocative forms will have ‘3ft ’, '3ft' respectively.

Examples :

1. ^ ^ t ^cTT3ft I Call the older one.

2. T>T ■
’TPTt I Listen to the elders.
3. tJtfcqf ^ t ^fl?^ fpfHT I Give food first to the younger ones.
4. tt ! t£T % t5 t I Hey, younger ones ! Sit quietly.
5. W 3ff3ft | Hey big ones ! Come here.

Adjectives - base form

Adjectives are used both as predicates as well as attributes:

Predicative use Attributive use.

1. W 3TE?5T | | 3TEt?r *ff<|=T

This soap is good. Bring good soap.
2. ^ W 5I 11 TfF Tfi?7Tt I
That piece of clothing is white. Wear this white dress.
3. 3TPT 11 4)2> 3fTrf (gi-sfl |
These mangoes are sweet. Eat sweet mangoes.

4. HF gRFF HdU«l+ 11 3m gRT$ I
This book is interesting. Read interesting books.
5. *IF FfrH 'ftferv 11 i ’rfeFi %5pt ^i3?r i
This food is nutritious. Always eat nutritious food.

Comparative (3rR R W ); Superlative (FrPTTTRTT)

In Hindi, in the case of a few adjectives borrowed from Sanskrit or from

Persian, there are morphological comparative and superlative formations.
The suffixes ‘rTC’ and ‘THT’ are added to the base form of the adjective to
form comparatives and superlatives respectively.
Base form Comparative Superlative
gdl4WI xrmcTTW ■3TPTRWT

(dear) (dearer) fihlcPT (dearest)

^ET (high) (higher) (highest)
yi-'fh (old) M ilie u (older) FT^TcPT (oldest)
efg (small) cigcK (smaller) eigciH (smallest)
gs (heavy) gw r (heavier) gRPT (heaviest)
g^FT (young) g4cR (younger) (youngest)
f^sjg (learned) R stk (more learned) R edd (most learned)
FFg (great) hstk (greater) FFrPT (greatest)
(larger) fF?R (larger) gFrPT (largest)
(much) 3 fted T (more) 3ff$FFcPT (most)
(bad) (worse) (worst)
3FE?5T (good) %dT (better) ^ d O d (best)

**■ In most ca ses Hindi u ses syntactic devices for comparative and
superlative constructions.

■ To change the base adjective to comparative state, %

3fftRf / % 3Fj?TT, 4^ g w if, if % etc. are

**■ However use of 3(R<<t>/^4Ki etc. is optional. + base form of the

adjective' are enough to signal relative superiority of the object of

» When the object in comparison is comparatively less adjective, +
FR + base form of the adjective' are used. Here to signal the meaning
of 'less', use of RR’ is obligatory

Language structure :
object of comparison + object with which + %, + base form
= the comparison % afsTf? of the adj.
subject is made etc.


1. TTR 3ff%cf ^ RFT f? I Ram is older than Anil.

2. 3?fteT 7TR % ^TKT R ^R R % I Anil is more intelligent than Ram.
3. TR FtRf % arflpfJ Rfepft 11 Of the two, Ram is more hard
4. ^ tt 'g?r % FF?f 3p jk 11 My son is much richer than me.
5. RF Rflt) FR 4lil ^ I This is less sweet than that.
6. TTR 3tf% ^ FR FfftrRR 11 Ram is far less clever than Anil.
7. Fpfrrr # T F F?t cJeRT Village life is more peaceful than
^ RTRT 11 city life.
8. FRRT RTF FR F*f ^ F?t TJTRT Our village is more crowded
3tflfFf «HTIF>d
O 11 than it was ten years ago.
9. £R F?t TjTcTFT ^ TFIRR SfllRf Health is more valuable than wealth.
10. FF 3FT% RTf % srftr^ ff e F R t I He is more intelligent than his brother.
11. FRF RTRT F^t TJeTRT FT Houses in Europe are more
arftfF' FF^t 11 expensive than they are in India.
12. F ^ W it TF^ F?t «tPltFd RTF Living in the country side is
TFFT yRKT TFRFFF t I healthier than living in big cities.

■ For superlative adjectival formations RF^, RF*¥, RF Tt FFF*T

precedes the base form of the adjective.

Examples :

1. FF 3TTJT RF $ 11 This mango is the sweatest of all.

2 TFT 3PFff TOT ^ TR $ «TSTO Ram is the cleverest (boy) in his
FfftWK t l class.

3(^-0, 3rfcT?ixr, WT, «tTjjf # , etc are also sometimes used for
superlative constructions.

Examples :

1 FF ^TT TOf Rhl ftF t I He is my dearest friend.

2 TJTFFT f<FT Sic^I-d TOtT I I He is the most hard hearted
3 TOTIRTt 3 cmH|'M'D 3rt^gw ^ 11 'Kamayani1is the best of all poetry
4 Jasmine is the most beautiful of all
the flowers.

»»■ Superlative quality of the adjective is sometimes expressed through

its repetitive use.

Sometimes ^ is infixed between the reduplicated adjectives.

Examples :

1 FTT TIFT I1 There are very high buildings in this

2 ^TTcT $ Tj^T-% -Tj^T cTFfWf | There were most beautiful girls at
the party.
3 % f^ r *St RT( On 'Id' day, even the poorest wear
TTF FFT% 11 new clothes.
4 Ff^T 3 •s)4l<.-%-3pftr ^nt ^T Even the richest go into the temple
«n?t f I barefoot.

•r is used to express collective excellence.

Examples :

1. TTFT^ % TJTFT The bravest men stood in the

T it I battlefield
2. TOT if 13^-%-T^ Ftf^RTT c=TF#i ^ I The cleverest of boys were in the

■ t^RPTT yFTFT..........FcFfT ?FTFT - The m ore........the m ore..........

1. 3fN farHI ^FTFT FFF F^Ft, -3cpn The more you work, the more
^FTFT +HIF?l I you earn.
2. f a r m ^TRT armft xaifar FtcTT I, The lazier you are, the less your
•g?rft f t f ^t ftthctt Fft chances of success are.
fftfft Flrft 11
3. farFft yFTFT ^fafFF F F W M I, The more difficult the problem is the
3r ^ r F?m fftft more I enjoy solving it.
3 fm F 3 n F T tl
4. facpft ^FTFT cJH fa+UW FJTct Ft, The more you complain, the more
del'll •nf£|<t> 3 ^ JJtFI 3l|cll ^ I you make me angry.
5. reel'll dlRl'T* c^lRel FKd if TFrF The longer you stay in India, the
t , -gcRT 3fftnp FF FRrftFt F^T better you understand the Indians.
flHSlcll 11

Examples : Superlatives

3f - 3nft-3pft FF? FF FFtF 1%^TT I have just used surf. It is a very

^ I FF FIpT 3T^t5T dl^F 11 good soap.
f - ar»ft ffj faefa ft^ f ff ?f faq Of all the soaps I have used so
I FF^T FF FTJF FF*t 3TEt?T 11 far, this is the best.
3T - 3nft ^FfF? F^t 11 FF I have read a book. It is very
Ff|F 11 interesting.
F - 3tF FF? F^t 3 ^ ^r FF Of all the books I have ready so far,
F«fa 3tftPF FHl<«l+ 11 this is the most interesting.
3f - f^twt fftTff 7 ‘f o m ’ it i I saw a film last week. It was very
FF F§F dcrfaF> i t I exciting.
F - M t apft cFF i # F i fa rF !’ ^ Of all the films I have seen so far,
FF FF% arfat* dut«l4> 11 this is the most exciting.
3T - f f a FF FFT 7RFF 3fit f^FT 11 I just drank this new 'Sharbat'. It
FFFF W ? 3P*5T % I tastes good.
f - arit ff>faefa ? iw fa* t Of all the 'Sharbats' I have drunk so
FF^T FF FF*? aiH|+ w iR ° t 11 far, this is the tastiest.

V FTeT if ^ I purchased a new dress recently.
^ I PF HP'fl ^ | It is very expensive.
« ift 5TTT cPF ^ *pft Of all the dresses bought by me so
M)yn+) if pf w f f w ift 11 far, this is the most expensive.

Pronominal Adjectives (*ii<f'iiP)<t> R yH ui)

Except if, ^ ^T, F*T, 3rpT all other pronouns, in their direct as well
as oblique form, when they precede a noun, are used as adjectives.
Given below are som e examples.
■ Pronouns as demonstrative adjective

I 3 3 cis<£l ^cTTaft | Call that girl.

i TF 3?hCcT ifft W'fld 3rs#fa>T 1 1 That woman is my music teacher.
I c=f5% ^ TTPCf ? Which boy hit you ?

■ <f35 refers to unspecified quantity of a non-countable object.

some sugar; 3TTef some rice; some milk

■ refers to undifferentiated group of countable objects, animate as

well as inanimate

1 3^5 3?It ^ W f 3T3 T # I1 Some women are cutting the grass.

i 335 3FT T # I Keep some chairs here.
:i 335 cfhT 333^ FT 33T I1 Some people have assembled in
the street.

■ Pronoun 335 expressing indefiniteness

1 aTPT chil<t><. I Study with some concentration.

i tfciie l He gave some advice.
;t 33% 335 33 3 # I I am not at all afraid of him.

■ Pronoun 33T expressing surprise

I 33T <p3 3T ! What a (wonderful) scene it was !

'i 3F 33T cispi) t ! What a girl she is !

Pronominal adjectives of quality (yT qi'f-ilPH fa9)Biul)

W =*> ^TT, this type of

g g =t> 5<fi, that type of
fcR =*> k .M .M the type of
fo g =*> # rt , 'M what type of
fyRT =5> 3<tl, «t%, 3*Tl the type of

Examples :

1. ^TT «IM+ Trsft g<?f ^<ai I i have never seen such a child.
2. 3tN4> Hitt 't’HSI 3?)g ^ ? Do you have more of that type of
3. 3TFf ^TTT g“RR ? ? What kind of food do you like ?
4. cjg «l^l Pt<t>*-HI <*lRt1 if?) 3Tf3f 1haven't so far met a person as
cT3> ftcTT 1 useless as you are.
5. ^ get gtcrt i Don't talk like this I

6. This teacher encourages such

itcg rW 4 trt 11 students.

■ T $ -t% (idiomatic use) unimportant; of a questionable character.

1. $ ^ % - t t c M % gR ft gggT 1 1don't make friends with unimportant

people, (or people of questionable

2. ^ ^HT-tTiT WT g 4gRT 1 Don't do anything bad! (i.e. something

that might bring shame).

■ U seof (# )... ^ - th esam eas; Ifi?f ... - notthesam o


1. ^ ttf f t?) t 3F This machine is exactly the same as

I that one.

V >1} FT TF ^3T f t t ^TT 3TFT The colour of my shirt is the same as
•ft ra ft FTI that of your saree.
1 ftft ftft FT TFFTF trar F ft «lnT My daughter's nature is not the
MPlft) ftft FT l same as that of your daughter.
A 'll) srmFft t f t F ft f t f t 3TTF My income is not the same as
HFsft ? | you think (it to be).

■ ftra FT cfafT, ft ftft, ft) clft -exactly like before.


fclft F^f FTT 'ft FF «hft ftt ft f t After so many years, she is exactly
SI like before.

■ Use of ft) - an idiomatic or proverbial use

i ft) cfaEfT fftft F^rft FW Birdsofthesamefeatherflocktogether

V ft) f^IT tit for tat

■ ^ f t .... t t f t - as soon as.

f t % 3fra, ft ^ jcimi l Call me as soon as they come.

see page 71.

Pronominal adjectives of quantity mR hiui/ r a w FMF> l<fn lRl<+» fftsNR

F r a =s> p c i ' l l , F e f f t , F e f f t so much, so many

rara =*> • d e l'll, d e l* ) , d e l ' l l that much, that many
fftr a =S> ( r ie l 'll, I c lc if t , f e t e f f t that much, that many
f f t d = » f f t e H l , f f t c f f t , [ f t el f t how much, how many
fftn=S“ [ftcHI, fftclft, [ftcl'll as much, as many
They can be used both for countable as well as uncountable nouns.

I FcT T r^ so much milk,

'i d e l'll f t f t that much sugar,
l [ f t el f t e T F ft how many boys ?

4. f^RFft dd% 3fT<tft as many men as women
5. facRT <£d^ddTdpft as much water as milk

■ SdHI/vicHI + adj + dtff rod'll - not as + adj. + as

1. # 3TE# fem ff d#f f e p f t 1am not as good a student as Rama

w tl
2. <.IH| viddl dlei4^uf ltd 'll Ramo is not as friendly as Kamal
■^HCI 1
3. ‘t'Hcll ^ p f t 3T£# dl?f !^td"fl Kamla is not as good a dancer
4? 3PT^ W l f 11 as she thinks herself to be.
4. % drP* tt#?T d#f fa d ^ dF Those shoes are not as expensive
dT^ 1 as these ones.
5. dF dddi w d#f fo r m This camera is not as cheap as
3HM4>I 4MI 1 yours.

**■ Comparing two different qualities

1. dF ddFTT % fo r m fldTd 1 He is as stubborn as mischievous

2. TTd vJddl i?t TJdTT (|dd t ltd 'll Ram is as generous as rich.

0* Comparing two different objects

1. dR d ^ ^ftdd T3ddT # dTcf t Life in India is as simple as it is

I^iddi nRd*Tl ^t#T( *) «ifin i complex in the western countries.
2. FdKT f l R 3ddT $\ fttJFT |3 d % Our city is as backward as
fo d d l f M R+Rld 1 1 yours is developed.

■ fod^ ^ t / forfo ^ - many; several

1. focfo # dtd Tfo R w did d f tr Several people go to the

«n% f i Vishwanath temple every day.
2. dTTd R>d*}-tJ4> dT R M di?t In India many people don’t even
<sllrl 1 eat onion!

■ 'f^T, ftcH i — as pronominal adjectives are used to express surprise.

1, *TT5TT T!? <?tfl ^9T How happy she was at the

l thought of a foreign journey !
? *TRTT % aucif lea'll m r l How much the mother hit the child !

■ #f, ltd 'll e?t — expresses indefiniteness.

I. $ ^c=rn? ^ T? TI?f *U-}i|l I Whatever advice I may give, he

won’t agree to it.
I, Tt? PtaHI I?) SPT T**FTtr '33% 3T- However much wealth he may
I earn, his family is never happy.

3PFTT, 3PT^, 3mft corresponds to English ’one’s own’. It is used

adjectivally and agrees with the N and G of the noun it modifies. The
object in the sentence or a clause belongs to the subject.

Examples :

I TF 3F1% W I He went to his own house.

if UF 3TRfr t I This is my own story.
:t meTT arm FFT-'gF % T^t t I Kamla is washing (herself) up.
4 3TcTT 3FT% 11 Mother is sewing her own clothes.
ft + H e ll % ^ 3 T m F3T Kamla gave me her address; I gave
vje'R arm w r R^ii i her my address.
It arm till 3FT%-% <M*1I 3TRJT I like to do my work myself.
d ' l d i 1? I
r h)P i+ i %t arc% m r arr% 3T I will take Monica with me to my
d i house.
n arm ^ z r arr^-am i I made my sweater myself.
u <hf amt % m r 3mf w She went to her village with her
i colleague.

a p m -a p m - one’s respective

i m n - a p m TT3 °tdi^r | Please tell your (respective) names.

H H’pft-3ppf) 33Tdf I Take care of your things.

3. 4W 4^4t % fit 3TT^-' All the children gave their respective
44t t o I addresses to each other.
4. 3im 1-3(441 <t>IH 4>tl I Do you respective work.

Compare and Comprehend - of 3T44T, srto, 3prft vs tor, iwm,

1. t o 3ppft R>dl4 4 ft I I read my book.
2. t o t t o t t o w 4ft I He read my book.
3. F4 3fto 4T wfT4^ ? I We are going to our own house.
4. f 44: WT 43? ? I They are going to our house.

Adjectives of quality (<j>«iql4ch tfto w )

They cover a wide range of adjectives of colour, shape, state, place, time
of nouns they qualify.
colour: did; -fid l; Midi;
(47T) red; blue; yellow; brown;
44cTF; 4T^4 to 4TT4eTT
black; white; fair, dark complexion

shape to f to w eTWT 4Tfto

34444: round square long spiral
to 3?4I to r 3PS2-^W
wide high low octagon
34W144T to to ito tw 4W #4
oval triangle sexagon pentagon

state J4dl Hddl to r to w

494, weak slim fat / thick sick
M et 4Wft4 4d4FT 9TF4T 34PTT
weak strong peaceful old
441 Iqpcid q to r
new worried harassed hungry

time 4d*TH TOcTT
htot past present future next
last coming; next previous
place FTFfr
WFT foreign native inner outer
3||qiisT|it ckk
acquatic aerial coastal mountaineous

Use of suffix fll, %, with the adjective of quality (1) moderates

the degree of quality. S ee page 293.


a rather small kitchen,

'Ticii-^n <3Mid a yellowish handkerchief

Sometimes it signals 'likeness'

3TKk a monkey-like man (could be in looks

or habits)
a moon-like (i.e. pretty) daughter,
TO rose like colour

Use Of ?rtkTT, TOTFT, F<[t?T, di*t+ as adjectives:

1 1 His body is like that of an elephant.

cpFk TOTFT kSFT TO TOTT 4 Learned (people) like you are rare in
f i this world.

t TOrft to arsnft+T 11 She is our mother-like teacher.

TOT 3Tn 4 «l4-fl % rk4+ ‘+141+1’ Have you read the novel named
TO 4T O TOTOTF TOT 1 1 'Prozess' by the German writer Kafka.

Adjectives of Number t^i^prr)

Cardinal numbers (iFFT W ll)

0 zero 30 rfte thirty
1 one 31 thirtyone
2 41 two 32 thirtytwo
3 three 33 Scfto thirtythree
4 ^rrc four 34 thirtyfour
5 #4 five 35 thirtyfive
6 six 36 thirtysix
7 <HIId seven 37 thirtyseven
8 3TO eight 38 3TSrfrF thirtyeight
9 H'r nine 39 ^RTTcfat thirtynine
10 ten 40 ^flcfor forty
11 TURF eleven 41 S+dlcfta fortyone
12 ^KF twelve 42 W cffF fortytwo
13 %TF thirteen 43 tcTTcffa fortythree
14 "U“l4F fourteen 44 ^Wlcfly fortyfour
15 F^SF fifteen 45 fortyfive
16 ^IRF sixteen 46 ft?3TlcfRT fortysix
17 ^TFF seventeen 47 3dlc% fortyseven
18 3I46KF eighteen 48 SiSdicfld fortyeight
19 nineteen 49 fortynine
20 twenty 50 fifty
21 twentyone 51 fiftyone
22 «ll^d twentytwo 52 3T4F fiftytwo
23 twentythree 53 fiftythree
24 twentyfour 54 fiftyfour
25 twentyfive 55 W T fiftyfive
26 twentysix 56 ^ R T fiftysix
27 dcdl& twentyseven 57 dcdldd fiftyseven
28 3T2n5T^T twentyeight 58 314614^ fiftyeight
29 twentynine 59 fiftynine

oo m sixty 80 eighty
01 ^4473 sixtyone 81 eightyone
02 4743 sixtytwo 82 4477ft eightytwo
03 R7T43 sixtythree 83 fftmft eightythree
04 4*43 sixtyfour 84 #07ft eightyfour
05 % 3 sixtyfive 85 eightyfive
06 ftFTRTS sixtysix 86 ft5477ft eightysix
07 4 4 4 3 sixtyseven 87 4cd7*ft eightyseven
118 ^ 5 ^6 sixtyeight 88 ^ eightyeight
tilt 3H(?ccR sixtynine 89 447*ft eightynine
70 4c4T seventy 90 4 ^ ninety
71 W 4 T seventyone 91 WTTdft ninetyone
72 4F74T seventytwo 92 474% ninetytwo
73 IcteccK seventythree 93 RUH^ ninetythree
74 'JlgctK seventyfour 94 ^lTR% ninetyfour
75 HdgcrK seventyfive 95 W i t ninetyfive
76 R?erd< seventysix 96 %474% ninetysix
77 6di?c4T seventyseven 97 4474% ninetyseven
70 3734T seventyeight 98 3id6H^ ninetyeight
7W seventynine 99 Pl-474ft ninetynine

100 hundred
1000 F47T, 100000 nm , 10000000

Ordinal numbers WIT)

'IFefT (first), ^TTI (second), cfaTTT (third), (fourth)

rtiN^f (fifth), *554T (sixth), TCTddT (seventh), 3TTOTT (eighth)

•• After five, add 47 to make ordinals.

•* When the number is more than 100, than put 47 with the number
above hundred
Examples :

101 7(441 one hundred and first

102 44? 7?) 4)47 one hundred and second
103 ttef T?l cThm one hundred and third
111 T?t JdHFdl one hundred and eleventh
and so on.

■ Multiplicatives number + ^JTt

^T T R t^ l dl|]dl
two times three times four times
Hdjjdl W^dl/Wejjdl tide'll
five times six times seven times
srsjdT ^fhj/TT % TT
eight times nine times a hundred times
fraTRiJdT cTMipTT
a thousand times a million times
and so on.

number + FTT
Sometimes adjectives are formed by adding the suffix FTT to some
basic numbers as shown below. However their use is very limited.

F^FTT single-fold ^IFTT two-fold cfFTT three-fold

^FTT four-fold FEfFTT five-fold F91FTT ten-fold etc.

Fractions P^*>lul)
FTF, 4 one fourth
Hid, did ^ T ff three fourth

4 one-one fourth

4 two and a quarter)

and so on.
4 one and a half

4 two and a half

^ <?T
4 one and three
rfcr (3 and V
t) three and a half.
3 f
fll<P ^TR four and a half
and so on.
^ F«nT; cTM <ol^ <oT^ tfytk; rim
125 1250 1,25,000 250 2500 2,50,000
Odd fractions

3 and 5/8 ^ 3tT5

4 and 7/9 •qK tiici ^
5 and 2/11 ifa ^ <?T Timcf

■ Use of whole number + 3ft‘

It is used as (1) definite aggregative meaning all of that number (2)

indefinite aggregative
Examples (definite aggregative) :

# ft; W7T; W t, ■0FT, ttiol

both; all three, all four; all five all six all seven
Examples (indefinite aggregative):

scores of; hundreds of; thousands of.

•• For emphasis sometimes reduplicative use of aggregatives is done.


1 ^ l All four were thieves.

^ I All ten came to our house!

Distributive adjective R^H ui)

t Rhtua' ii l Iwill teach a lesson to each one of the

t>T ^ I Give five rupees to each of the boys.

3. «le? FT fc r ^JFT ancTT 11 He comes to our house every fourth

■ Whole number + ^ = (indefinite) almost

^ ^ 3TPT about ten mangoes
about ten men
am ^ xtcf w j ; ^ sjr ^ Will you be able to lend me about a
hundred rupees?

■ whole number + St = almost

«*■ it is not a very respectful expression.

St about two men.

^ about ten bananas

Combining any two whole numbers is a common practice in Hindi to

denote som e infinite quantity.

trfa w ;; a few rupees,

a couple of 'roties'
fw r ^ i ^ n r Ht7! quite a few people,
d'-'flu «Tld Hj'ti a negligible difference.

Indefinite quantity adjectives

■ Use of ^ - (several)

»*■ It is used only for countables.

is 1 It has no oblique form.

■s’ It is always plural.

•3* When used independently, it functions as pronoun.

^ several people several books

cfr^ several places; ^ several things.

1 FFft ft ftf fft *tcf anct Several travelers come here for the
11 fair every year.
2 Rrcft ^ TfaF> 1 ^ r M f i I saw several interesting films in
3 TTF ^ *ft F ^ 5 * t# F |t t I Ram has read several Hindi books.
4 FT# # ^ ^T F ^ FF#TFT G randm other n arrated sev eral
^TT^ I stories to the children.
5 3r f f f if cTtiTt % ftrft i I met several people in France.
fl FF t FFTFI ^f *ft, FFT F ^ When I was in Canada, I saw
TfFFTFTF several interesting places.

■ 3lflRF; yFTCT more. FtFT/ FFf less

O some FtFT a little.

■ 3fTft, $<FlR, F^TT - etc.

1. ^ TF, %FFF, ^tfotF 3nft FTFTF I bought things such as colour,

<s(ki I canvas, pencil etc.
2, FF^ FT^f, 7TTTT $cFlR w fR I We bought a saree, shawl etc.

■ 3T5^J / F ^ FF* such and such

3PJFf SfTF'ft srrjEF W I FT Such and such man will meet me

3T^F* TF1F FT M FT I at such and such place at such and
such time.

■ # / R ft% (syn.) how many

1. FTFF ^ # (R kT^) FtF FTF ? How many people came to the party?
m. FF FTF F> (R nl^) FFFt FF t ? How much is this material for ?

■ M easure or weight nouns + 3ft" = indefinite adjectives

^Tt piles of ; FFi maunds of

measure\weight nouns + FT = definite

R ftT FT FT^t a kilo silver ; FF FT ^ a maund of wheat

Participle constructions used a s adjectives
■ Imperfective participle used a s adjective

47# the moving train flcTT ^3fT the crying chil

(see page 107)

■ P ast participle used a s adjective


#£TT f3TT WTcT^ - the child who is asleep

r # ^ si)h# - the broken hut (see page 107)

ff Use of agentive participle as adjective

noun +4TcTT/4T^/41cf)
*t<t>M<4MI house owner shopkeeper

(v.r. + ^ ) + 4TcTT/4T^/47cf)
- singer - seller
see page 113

See R 21, 22, 23.

★ ★ ★
40 A dverbs

**■ Adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives, adverbs, clau ses or sentences.

A bird's eye view of commonly used adverbial expressions is given

Q Adverb of manner

«lc^t (quickly); sfft (slowly); FTTOFft % (carefully); STRTFft %

(easily) % (anxiously); 3tioii^ (inadvertantly);
"tPr^TI^T (deliberately) ;0TPT^^> (attentively); (sadly);
3H Witt (suddenly); FF?T (as if); (as far as possible);
3raT9T: (literally); (truly, really)

Q Adverb of Place ( t W R ? fo m farh w )

^ (here); 3FT (there); (this sid e ); 3FTT (above) (below);

3TP) (ah ead ); (behind); (in front); ' W (near); (far);
FT (at hom e); (in the park)

Q Adverb of time (tiH4<1M+ R>qiR«>lul)

3?F (now); FF (then); 3fM (today); FTT (tomorrow / yesterday)

FTTTf ( the day before yesterday; the day after tomorrow); Ft (at 2
o'clock); tfFF (in the morning); W ^ (in the evening); «lH<tK
(on Monday); # T «IH<fO ^ (on 3rd Jan.); 1996 $ (in 1996);
3nft (just now); ^ t f \ (soon); apft (yet); 3F>tt ^ (still); FipT
^T % (since long) ftwr) FFtt/Flff^AnTf (last week / month / y ea r);
3PTef FFrf/FsTt^/TTTcT (next week/month/year); FFrf % # ( already )

Adverb of frequency i
WT: (usually); 3FJTTT (often); F^fWTt^F (always); Fs?f
(never); (som etim es); (any tim e); tiiHHd:
(generally); F^fTT/ifFT FFT/f^T^ ^t (hardly ev e r); JF:
JT :/« ik H k (frequently) WTF FTT (once a w eek); f^T tftF

(thrice a d ay ); ^ ^TT (several tim es); yRR-i/FT ft«f
(daily); R r (every other day) R r w'IS'tR (every alternate
d ay ); FT (occasionally)

Q Adverb of degree (^ ufl<tN+ R ^ iR R ^ i)

FI|cT (very); (less); srftjqi (m ost); eTWT (about); '^fcPTr

(completely); Rc^n-i (absolutely); 4^5 (rather/some);
FIRTF (really); j^TT/RiJFT +adv. (twice/thrice + adv.); IcRT,
■?cfR, + adv. (so + adv.); h^iIki (enough); (too);
%5T (a little); fo e ) f t (hardly)

Q Interrogative Adverbs

^ (how); (when); f R /f R FR/R'dleii’, (why); WT; RfSJT


Q Adverb of reason (FFTF cjrpf R>4lR9>l«l)

% chKui; % f R, Rt FFF ^(because of); 3Tcf:, 3T?ftT^, $dRiu, (for the


Q Conjunctive adverbs

(accordingly) ; R (also); dc^did (there after); ^FRfF

(therefore) ;?TFTR/RrT R (however, none the le ss); W H ; F#f FT
(otherwise); 3pft TRF (still); FF FTF/tR (thus)

Q Adverb of sentence

F M % (fortunately); PtRdd R (definitely); FRTSRT: (apparently);

FFTSTF: (presumably); RtfR f (undoubtedly); FFFF: (possibly);
4IW4 R (actually); t-H^ed: (obviously); 3fcTcT: (finally)
Examples :
■ Adverb of manner

1. FF FFF «1<r<Tl FTlR t I She eats very quickly.

2. ttf a rM f f f if tterarr 1 1 Ram speaks English fluently.
3. FFF? FRETFft % FR FRFT I Cross the road carefully.

4 FF 3RTT^ 3 +FT I I said it inadvertantly.
5 ^IcKrl dlel % 3tcFTT 3pftFFTftF> The policeman started
<JF % ^Wdl f'f'ill I interrogating me officiously
fi ft *: 3 Firf 3«tT ^ She looked anxiously around the
^Tl room.
I ^ T 3TT^ft ^Trf% % H^stdZ FT The old man lay peacefully on the
?fTT FTI beach.
B % T£F^ % +F*. i* ^ I They entered the room silently.
ii f<
tft «rtr %ff ttsYi Don't read so loudly.
10 TF ^g ft-^w ft T^cT TMT t I He goes to school happily.
II Trft ftf£ ffft i Hold the rope tightly.
1? FF <£5-1*1 +61 <dl %FteTTI He spoke sharply to me.

■ Adverb of place

I FFT t<5TI Sit here.

) ?ar ter ft ^Ft i Don’t wander here and there.
l PTcTTF$t 3TFT WI Father is upstairs.
•I 5f fllHFK F>f FT FT Ti|FT I I shall stay at home on Monday.

■ Adverb of time

1 $ <J*%hTf TFFft Ft TF I shall meet you at Connaught

^ FFTZ'TtF 3f fafFT I Place on 5th January at 10
o'clock in the morning.
,' PtsJTf FF% 3 «HRfl FT I 3PT^ Last week I was in Banaras.
FF%3 WjT TT3FTT I Next week I will go to Jaipur.
I WT TF 3pft *ft FT T # t ? Is she still studying ?
4 'WT 3fTF «1gd ^T R* ^d^1K FT TT? Have you been waiting long ?

■ Adverb of frequency

I <CTT-FK TT? FT FTnf ‘THl I Take the medicine every four

2. f f a WT8T8 888T I Exercise everyday.
3. F8 qcf> fef SjIS't’t 3itl41 4)<flrl ? I We learn English every alternate
4. 8 T8T 841+41 f e f e ^ 3 c ft I I Mother seldom sees a film.
5. Hi8 8>*ft d fl <ai4i I I have never eaten meat.

Adverb of degree

1. fe w frw # i The book was quite interesting.

2 . t W W *fe ]|f 8F7J8 I feel a bit tired by the evening.
f| I
3. 8ldl 3^T chlH + <l; ^ 8 88x7 Work a bit more; you will be
I successful.
4. 8^+ 8fpT 8T& t I The box is very heavy.
5. 8T8 W fe <5ft 11 The tea is cold enough.
6. 8?i ^ rr r 88T 8 + ft 8#f 8 ife i I don't need such a big house.
7. 8F Tfcft 87ft 8 8 8Tcft $ This saree is three times more
8 # iftt I expensive than that one.
8. F8TTT 7887 87|8 %I Our school is a long way.

Use of 888 X .......+FT 'Y1

ear This expression is used when there is a big difference between

two things or persons and no comparison is possible

888 TT8 888 W I

7T8 one of the Indian gods
TI88 a notorious demon

This saying is used when one is extremely good, noble and the other
very bad.

888 <MI f e f 8+1 8 ^ clc-fl

TT8T f e f a very wealthy king
8 ^ feft a poor man
This saying is used when there is no comparison between the financial
status of two persons.
•s” Usually the superior one com es first, the inferior one later

Use of — perhaps
FF?t HF If^r w Ft I Perhaps he went to the bank.
«TT3ft, tt# , F it FF H5 7 # Ft l Go and see, perhaps she is

Use of ‘fFpT’— at the beginning of two sentences denotes contradiction

F it FjTF, F it I Somewhere joy somewhere pain.

F it FTS t , F it TJTFT | Somewhere flood, somewhere
F it «tiRs#i t Ft F it *JH11 Somewhere rain somewhere
Use of “F i t ’ — denoting surprise

1. h ^ hh fw t t! Does rice ever grow in the d e s e rt!

if HPT Ff?l 3 Jldl I Rice does not grow in the desert.
2 FFS i t FTit if F it TFFTT HFFTT f ! Does food ever get cooked in a
wooden pot!
FTO i t FT^t ^ TFTHT F it HFFTT I Food doesn't get cooked in a
wooden pot.
3. HcHT % F it FFft PlF>ddl l! Does water ever come out of a stone !
HcHT % HFft F it PpfTctdi I Water doesn't come out of a stone.

F^ft-F^ft — once in a while

F it - F it F*f ’ft FTF R>FI F>Tt I Once in a while think of us too.

Frit-Fit F^F tf Rfi +<1 I Do visit me once in a while.
F^F-FFF — seldom

1. FT F>F-F>F Rr ^ HI <t<fi "Cfkft t I Mother seldom goes to the movies

2. ^ F^F-F^T FcPTT FFTfiFT FF5R I seldom get such delicious
RtcTcfT t ? food.

Use of FFf F it — of course / yes

1. "3fH ift TTTO FFti ?” Will you come with me for a walk ?
"Fir n i t ” i Yes, certainly.

2. “3TFT0ft WfTC ?” Shall we go to Samath next Sunday?
“rot o f f l ” Of course.

Use of Wf ^T — How
1. TO) ( ^ ) WTT How will I carry such a heavy
36I30M ? box ?
2. TOt ^T (^%) w f t ^T ^3cT How will he walk so far ?
«iiiyn ?

Participial constructions used as adverbs

Use of (v.r. + %) + ift) as adv.

3 ^ TJSTt I?t ffiTT I The child fell as soon as he got up.
(see page 72)
Use of (v.r. + + ft? ) as adv.
1. «nd«t> <fldrl ^ 3fM I The child came running.
2. Tof) lor 3fT^ I Rani came jumping, (see page 108)
■ Use of (v.r. + 30, , ^ ) + tjOT as adv.
1 . TOf) ^ Ti?t I Rani was talking while in sleep.
2. TOT ^2T I>30 l i e 'l l T5T OTI Ram was humming while he lay
down, (see page 108)
Reduplicative use of (v.r. + + (v.r. + %) used as adv.
1. TOO •M rl-'f <.rl 03* 0^ i | I I am tired working continuously.
2. Rdl «St °F0ff OT TTt 00 tM Father fell asleep seated in a chair,
(see page 111)
Use of (v.r. + 3>T) as adv.
1. # f t r # % F fo r i I will go to Chandigarh via Delhi.
2. # •mi o to r omtt oi i I went to the market with my brother.
3. TTrff w-sl i Hold the rope tightly.
4. W w % o ^ it w r 11 I particularly like onion pakoras.
see pages 121-122.

★ ★ ★
P o stp o sitio n s («r»K«h
41 ‘3 ’, ‘* t \ ‘*T \ **’, ‘i f ’, V

Use of See pg. 44

In Hindi language, the postposition follows the subject in the past

simple, the present perfect and the past perfect tenses with transitive

■** The verb agrees with the N and G of the object them.

1. TFT ^ ^ 1 Ram read the book.

2 (Shi T3T (el^1 ^ 1 1 have already eaten food.
3. eFf ^ cT fefFTT *TT1 They had invited us to the party.

■S’ Use of ’ is mostly found !n western Hindi.

**■ When ' follows a noun, it is written separately. Example: TFT

When ’ follows a pronoun, it is written as one word.

Example : etc.

Use of
Grammatically is required in the accusative as well as dative case
i.e. after the object, direct as well as indirect. In practice use of is
as follows:
■ Use of is usually omitted with non-living objects except when
definitely pointing to a certain object.

1. FW i«i 11 I have read a book.

2. 3TN 1ft ^TT frefFT I You also read this book.

■ Use of is obligatory with living direct objects.

1. ^TTOTt I Call the child.

2. W- sn^ft ^ t T^t % l She is looking at the man.
3. TITT ^ ^ 5 ^ t qiw i I Ravan made Indra captive.
4. TT 'leciiv.'Tl I Mother will bathe the baby.

■ When a sentence has both the direct as well as indirect object, and
both of these happen to be living objects, ' follows them both.

1. g q efroi cpj (d.o.) gSTtRl (i.o.) eft I You give the child to me.

2. 3rqRTtft (d.o.) 4?t He/She handed over the criminal

(i.o.) Tfa fitTT l to the police-chief.

■ If one object is non-living and the other living, <£Ft ’ follows the living
object, but is usually dropped in the case of non-living object.

1. TT1 ^ t (i.o.) ’BFTT (d.o.) faciicil %I Mother feeds the baby.

2. ^ ftctT ^ t (i.o.)TF m(d.o.) I wrote a letter to father.
I?l<stl I
3. ar&mfth'l % RldlftJjJi (i.o.) teacher taught lesson to the
tfT5msg' (d.o.) FcpTTT I students.

■ Nouns or pronouns used as object are followed by ’ with the below

given verbs.

sjeiMi (to call); *jdMI (put to sleep) (to wake up); ■Stt'ii
(used for snake bite); (to look for.); ■tile'll (to curse); TR7TT (to
beat); FTFTT (to scold)^STT (to look for).
1. ^cTT3TT | Put the child to sleep.
2. TFft 4?t ^PTT3?T | Wake Rani up!
3. TTCTI The washerman beat the donkey.
4. ^RTrff 11 The old woman curses him all the
5. 3THTTW F^' | The teacher will scold us.
6. (JR%% Ft? Who are you looking for?

■ When the (v.r. + ^) is used as object, it is followed by ^ ’Examples :

1. FT FMTFcT ^IWt I We will go to see the Tajmahal.

2 3TF# FTF Ffl*t Fit ^FTT i | I lam ready to go with you.
3. FF f^TT F 3 ^ F?t TF^t 1 1 She has agreed to study abroad.
4. esdici FR ^ Fit FF7T «t | The workers were ready to go on

■ is used in the language structures asking someone to do something.

Examples :
X Y Fit FS^t Fit WcTT 11 X asks Y to study.
X^f Y^Ft TTtf Fit FiFT I X asked Y to eat.
X Y ^t Ttept Fit F%FT I X will ask Y to play.

■ When adjective is used as noun-object, it is followed by

1. 'i W Fit H^dlM F FRt I Don't trouble the poor.

2. 3R-mt‘ Ft I Support the orphans.
3. FTf F^t FF FTTt I Don’t kill the already dead.
4. u P ifT Fit FF 'R R FTcf 1 1 Everybody likes the rich.

■ ‘Fit’ is used with definite time nouns such a s:

f*tF *Ft during the day; TJFF ^ t in the morning

TTF FFt at right; RTF ^ t in the evening

■ Fit follows names of the days.

FtFFTT ^ t on Monday, h' icifk ^Ft on Tuesday etc.

■ Fit follows definite dates

rftF di(kd ^ t on the 3rd, RPR did o FFt on the 5th etc.

■ Fit follows the place nouns with som e verbs of movement such as
RHFT, RIFT, etc.

■s’ In spoken language, ‘Fit’ is usuallydropped with verbs of motion.

Examples :

1. f^Feft (Fit) RT TFT i | I I am going to Delhi.

2. FT (EFt) FFt I Go home.
3. %4 # f ( ^ t ) 3 4 T 5T f I 1am coming there.

■ *4% ' follows purpose clauses

w Alternatively feH 3[’ can be used here.
Examples :
1. srg % 4 4 4 4 ? r % 4% (% %?) God has given me two hands and a
m 3 frr s r f t r f^ r r 1 1 healthy body to do work.
2. < J 4 4 4 % 4 % ( f ^ n j ) ^ F T T 4tcT% 1%? Why do you talk so much ?
3. w % 4% (% fe r n ;) 11 Father has sat down to eat.

■ *4%’ follows the subject in the case of verbs given below.

1. MW•-4 % R T , MW'-M 3TFTT, ci'l-1 1 to like.

2. 3TFTT to know how to do something
3. fopTT^ % 4T to be visible.
4. 1JT ^% 4T to be audible.
5. I% 4T, M 3 4 I , used in language structures implying
compulsion.(see chapter 28)
6. 41^4 #n, 4cT T #R T to know something
7. 3TT5TT F t 4 T to have hope
8. 4 1 4 %PTT to remember

Examples :

1. ^ 5 T 4 % f l M t 4 te T 4 T W 4 1 1 1 like to speak Hindi.

2. 344% ^ T 4 # T % W 4T 3 4 5 * 4 4T 44T 1 1 They like to watch television.
3. 44T ^ 4 4 % 1% 5e4 W 34^ ? Did you like the film ?
4. T[3T4% t T 4 T 3 4 4 T 1 1 1know how to swim.
5. *[3T4% f%f%4T f % t4 if %Tf% 1 1 1can see a bird.
5. 3044% 3T 14M ' g 4 T f %T ^ t I? Can you hear something ?
6. TJ5T4% 4 R 3 4 1 1 1know.
7. 44T 3044% 4 4 T t ? Do you know?
8. F * t 3TT9TT ^ <51 Ft^TT 1 We hope all will be well.
9. * [5 {4 % 4 1 4 %1 1remember.
10. ^5T 4% 354T 434T 1 1 1have to get up early.
11. 34T T t # T T 4 T f% m You ought to sleep early.

U s e o f %'
*■ In Hindi the postposition % is used both for the instrumental case as
well as the ablative case.

Use of in the Instrumental case

■ Instrument

1 i Cut the vegetable with knife.

2 T*TTf?t % RhSt I Write in black ink.
3. TF FI*T % ^TFT 11 He eats with the left hand.
4. F*T Mi'll % •TFI^ t> I We have a bath with cold water.

■ Reason

1. KTcTT %W §3fT | All this happened by mother's wish.

2. -'Tim % R cm TH5 % ^ viiPti RlcTl l He got peace by reading the Gita daily.
3. 3 i^ % T fc?T F T fl I am troubled by hunger
4. «i-sl 4^ tlm % ftrRTT ^ I One gets satisfaction by serving the
■ Adverb of manner

1. <51+ % 5il I Sit properly.

2. ECfTT % 4ST I Study with concentration
3. 3fiq m % 3nqi Come turn by turn
■ Change of state
1. 4*0
O S?t fcff 4F 4 4 T -^ -W In a few days he made unbelievable
Ft jimi I progress.
2. «?lt £t faff T JW WTR In no time his business expanded
^ fT -^-^ ft trg?r w i like anything.

■ P assive

1. 4F 4>l*i 'I RimI «TK?IT I This work will not be done by me.
2. tJT^f Carrol % "^rnr i The students were given prizes by
the teacher.

% is used in the dative case when used with som e verbs such as
3^ tt, t j w , «rtcFTT, t f I tt 3R3T i

Alternatively use of “3^’ Is also possible.

Examples :

-dUti ‘*>51........ 1said to him / h e r.......

^33^ *J5f^ ...... He asked me .....
wfaT ....... We requested him ....
31? 33T «Tldi ? What did he say to you ?

Use of % ' In the ablative case


^ % 3*3 f?Pn 1 The leaf fell from the tree.

W R?HM3 % Pl+drft I 1 The Ganges originates in the

Tim e:

3F W TF % «SfaTT t 1 He has been ill for one week.

3TTWf iRTRR 3R 1 have been waiting for you since
TFTfl 2 o'clock.
33 *ff 3l tUft % He has been in India since 1984.
■3Rcr 11
^T33 %Z1 3 3 3 ^ % c W 1 1 His son has been missing since

P la c e :

3? 3l=f % 3TI3T ^ 1 He has come from Nonway.


3? 3RW 3331cft t TT33> 11 This book is more interesting than

that one.
3F ^ y3T3T ^feHPT 1 1 He is more intelligent than you.

1 ^ T T -ft-^ T <TT4F ft The most beautiful girls had come

3TT^ ftf I to the party.
2 4F ^R ^ct-ft-^R + rt +IH ’ft He does the most difficult work
ft) c^dl ft I easily.

Ablative use of %’ with verbs such as

(1) Hi'Mi (to ask for), (2) TFTT (to be afraid of),(3) ftftPIcHT (to take out)
(4) fondi (to hide), (5) tTSTTT (to depart) (6) I ll'll (to forbid)

Examples :

1. ftft TFT ft T3F4ft «i$R>ci ftfflt I I asked Ram for his bicycle.
2 4F 4>TTf ft FTrlT ft I He is afraid of dogs.
3. <HdHlO ft ^d4> Pt'Md) I Take the book out of the cupboard.
4. T*F ft fttft W l One student got left behind the
5. FT ft 4ft FTFT d lft ft *)4>l I Mother stopped the children from
going out.

ft........ F4f

1 «MLM ft ^ Slft F4> FF4T WHI4 Her nature did not change from
F FFcTT I childhood to old age.
2. FFT ft FFT F4I FF tftF FFlft ft I All the fields from here to there are
3. T£FF ft TTF F4> FF fttT FfftSTF He works very hard from morning
4FFT ft I to evening.
4. tr > ft «flF f f * fftftt 1 Count from one to twenty.
5. ^ 5 MN ft ^°6 fttF F4> tTST I Read from page five to page twenty.

U se of ^T', ‘ftft’

44, ft, 4 ft are the case-endings used in the p ossessive case, (for
rules regarding their use se e p g15)

Uses of W ,

■ Relationship

1. *IF 4»T %<TT 1 1 This is Kamla's son.

2. if ^TFTT $ ^TFTrTT f I 1know Kamla's son.

■ Ownership

1. ^TT 4>T Hltel'F t> ? Who is the owner of this house ?

2. ITF ^ 1? Whose watch is this ?
3. if W *FFH % *Tlfrl+ % focHT 1want to meet the owner of this
fl house.

■ Ingredients:

1. ifi? 4T<51 4>t <Hlcfl 1 1 This plate is made of silver.

2. ciM'HPci 'FT ^*11 ^ 1 Tajmahal is made of marble stone.
3. If Ttf % art jft T t # W 4 4?TcTT 1like roti made of whole wheat flour.
■ Purpose

1. ifF ^TT 4>T ^1 This is a milkpot.

2. HF TTT% 4>T *r>*i <.i % 1 This is a bedroom.
3. ^ ^ HF*TM % 4 ^ if Keep the new watch in the
T#l guestroom.

■ Events following a regular pattern:

1. F*T «tWt:-%-#»T4TT faif<HI*T We go to the Vishwanath temple

hT^< vUlcf ff 1 every Monday.
2. W T - ^ - W %cThT ^^ftcTTcT ^Tlcf ^ They used to go to Nainital every

■ Since long

1. cf 4 4>t *tft 5*1 ^ 1 He has been sitting here for a long

2. FIT ^ M ^ 1 1 We ate long ago.

3. 'T'HCII ^ ^ T{ft ft I Kamla has been looking for you for
a long time.
■ The whole of something/totality

1. ^cT 3ft 3fFT ft «Ktfl-3ft-«KtTI The entire colony got burnt to ashes
'STH^r <i<fi tft Trf i in yesterday's fire.
2. ^51^ 1I?3-3>T-|I?<1 cj? 3>T ft | The robbers plundered the whole
■ Measure

1. tf: O
3>T SfKftt a six-foot (tall) man.
2. cRT J*T*T 3>T 5TRT a ten-hand (long) bamboo stick,
3. 3t fttft 33 tftcf a two-bigha field.

■ Price

3TT 3> 3THT mangoes for ten rupees,

ftt W ( 3ft lft'dl«l a book for hundred rupees.

■ Writers of books

1. ‘fftftctT’ 33 ft1 'Nirmala' is a novel by Premchand.

2. ‘3>IHI3-fl’ TOT3 33 33*1 'Kamayani' is a work of poetry by
TF^ftl Jaishankar Prasad.

■ Unchanged situation

1. 3TPT <33 ftt STlftft, 3TT33ft 3tmchi Whenever you come, you will get
3T y3l-33-r3t fnci'll I your house as it is.
2. ^cfft 3ftf 3T3 ’ft ftftt-3ft-ftftt Even after so many years you look
ift fosfcft fttl just the same.

U se o f %''

■ Natural quality

1. <3l*t ft fft^TTT ft l There is sweetness in mangoes.

2. W<ftt ft ftcT ft I There is oil in mustard seed.
3. ^ et ft sftr ft i There are proteins and calcium in milk.

4. 3n?JTT M<Hlc*TT11 God is in the soul.
5. ^cft' *f ^F£T 11 There is fragrance in the flowers.

■ Place

1. (FT *f Ft%f I We sleep in the room.

2. 3 FFI%f I The pilgrims bathe in the river.
3. *R$fM Fpft *f TFrft t I The fish live in water
4. FF FTOT *¥ »rC f^vft *f He lives in India in New Delhi at
+Hld^F ^ W 11 Connaught place
5. W TF%ff I The lions live in the jungle.

■ Price

1. ^ FF- RM ? How much did you buy this book for?

2. 3fR% 3IW FT ftcf^ %FT ? How much did you sell your house
3. 3TM^cT fteicTTt ? What does one get for hundred
rupees these days ?

■ Between / among

1. tntf %faRRf *f FFFTFT11 There is similarity between the ideas

of both.
2. FF^ 4^ FcHfc Ft?f I There is no difference of opinion
among us.
3. FFFf FFFf *f W W ( Fp? There is now some unpleasantness
3FRFT FeT. 7T?t % I between the sisters.

■ Miscellaneous

1. <=4mr 3 w i |3 tt i He suffered loss in business.

2. 4? F>TF fofTcft 11 She looks ugly when angry.
3. FF FT «Wt W | TFFTF She looks like her mother but her
3R^ ftcTT 11 nature is like her fathers.
4. 3TM *f «lc-<fl %’ i | I I am in a hurry today.
5. FF F fa %’ 11 We are having fun.
6. FTf^FFT 11 Mother is worried.
7. FF W ft FStF if fo# I Write this story in short.

8. VII ■^Tl*1 'W e t ^ e l l'l l 41<1*1 In ancient times people lived a
i simple life.
9. Rlwcl 3 fF i^ + m - + m What did you do during the last two
f^ETT ? weeks?
10. «H<tA t R tM 1 1will go to Germany in January.
11. 1was in Japan in 1981.
R TCFT ^ *ft 1
12. 3CTR R*fl if <51+% 1 Today, I slept well after several days.
13. IN? *¥ ^ W T ftMt #l?rr In this bank, all the work is done in
li(a F % f+ tn # ) Hindi.

Use of V ’

■ Location:

1. *R 7F^ ? 1 Monkeys live in trees.

2 * R F f ftcfT 4t £+1*1 * R 1 1 Father is at the shop at this time.
3. The book is on the table.
4 irt f a r *r s f^ T T fto t # i Put your hand on my head.
5. sT fta n s m r 11 The postman is at the door.
6. FJ1R I * R * T ? + %^ T f 11 Our house is on the corner of the
7. EPTT % cftT * R ^+ «[|pT ^ 5 T g l d c l A very big hotel is being built on
®M TFT ^ 1 the banks of the Ganges.
8. + R « d + * R R T T f?t 1 1 The car is moving on the road.

■ Tim e:

1. ^TftSTT ^ P P T * R ¥[¥ R if f 1 ^ 1 The exam did not begin on time.

2 4 K --4 K ^ R 4 4 l£ W l 1 Take this medicine every four hours.
3. «16M R t «!«!+<. 1h *1^ *R The ship departs at 2.10.
t^ R T t l
4. 3)H*1I + W tIH M R T RRt 1 Do your work punctually.

■ One thing follows the other:

1. Rdl 4 t % (R T ) *r r t *t Joy prevailed in the house on father's

SRRRcTT T5T 1 return.
2. tpt #; *r ?r r f I *r rt Ram's mother became very unhappy
FIpT cqfacT | on his leaving the house.
3. wR FT FTF I Everybody ate 'pan' (betel leaf) after
drinking coffee.
4. FRT FT FTF Pl4>drft I One thing followed the other (and the
conversation continued).

With place adverbs:

FFT FT here; FFT FT there; WT FT where (interrog.) FFT FT where (rel.)

Talking about distance:
1 . FRF3TF! FFR FT % X33; f o c M r r The post office is one kilometer from
- f t FT 11 our house.
2. iRT FT FFT % FTF FTT FiFF FT 11 My house is just about ten steps from
3. +o 1$ 3fpt FT^ FT T3% tT^t 0 As he went a bit farther, he met a
foetT I beggar.

Miscellaneous :

1. ftF -F T -frF 3TT3tT^t FS T#t 11 Day-by-day the population is

2. 3PT^ «rfr % FF Rr f ) FT Fcfl I Follow the foot-steps of your elders.
3. F W TFFTF 3r R ftFT FT t I His character is like his fathers.
4. FF 3ppft FTF FT 3RR 7FFT 1 1 He sticks to his words.
5. Ftl-I et,E?-j FT FF 9RJT At whose suggestion did he start
foFT? this job ?
6. ^Tft FTF FT TRRf R f TC TT3TT| They had an argument on this very
7. iR FRT F tetf FTFTFFFFTRF At my speaking the truth, mother
g fl became very happy.
8. F>% FT tRf FFkTFT ftdcft %I Hard work leads to success.

(v.r. + ^ ) + FT + *ft = In spite of, despite

1 . FTTrfaT F t^ FT FF 3PFft Despite being an Indian, he could

% fR F FFT FIFTI not tell anything about his culture.
2 iR FR-FR TTF3TTR FT ’ft FF F In spite of my explaining to him again

TTPTTI and again, he did not listen to me.
3. ft fftf “ft H«fl ft-) TT ’ft Despite long discussions for two
ft(5T> faRT Pnftr ieTR 4iT f t days, the meeting was postponed
^1 without reaching any decision.


1. 3 ft RT - to sprinkle salt on the burnt

2. RT foft rHIFTT - to put chillies on the cut skin.

Both these actually imply adding misery to the already agonised by touch­
ing some sensitive matter.

3. fa ft'K w n l to be ready to die for someone (out

of love).
4. 3fT3 WT “FcT FT TRT tftft I Don't postpone today's work until
5. FF 3 3 c^T JJ3PTT tfts f t I Leave all this to me.
6. ?jft J T R RTftTT I don't trust you.
7. ft 313 ft) 3fT7TT3ft 3T TTT=fl" The son totally disappointed the
f t l ffttT I father.

Sometimes f t ’, ftr ’ are used Interchangeably.

fftcTTft3T RT (ft), ft I Father is at home,

ft srroft ^ R R 3T (ft) ftcyu I I will meet you in the office.

f t ’, ftT’ are sometimes used with the ablative case or the genitive
ca se ft, 33, ft, ftt

1. ^3T3> ft=T 3T ft ftft PlT 3^ I The book fell down from the table.
2. 3 3 f t 3T 3T f t ftftT lft ftJTTT ft1 Her maid servant that helps her in
the house is sick.
3. F3 7TFT ft f t 3ftj3'T3T fthT Most people in this city know me.
ufFfft ft I
4. <J3ft f t f t 3 ftft 3T3 F c)'ll ? Who will come along with me ?
5. f t f t 1 f t r f tf t’ ft ft ■gft 33 I had to choose one out of Greek and
44*1 ‘t't.'ll 3T I French.
6 . ■3 3 f t 3RTT-1fttT f t f t f t ftR d 3 f t INeither of her parents is alive.

★ ★ ★
42 Conjunctions
Conjunctions are invariable words that are used to join any two
main clauses or a main clause with a dependent clause. Some of
them can also be used as adverbs.



Coordinating Conjunctions Subordinating Conjunctions
Connect two main clauses Connect main clauses and
subsidiary clause

> ©
> Zc 2 B 5 ff
O [5
c3 5 1 ^ cO/> 7*V 1 ** r
8 cl' vr ■5 C
<2 3 £
CO 3 \0
Q. £ §o •£

3ik an, 31 3? 33tft, eiift, 3ft eft. ft.

c| 3f®rai, ftcii 3R^, 3PR eft, 3FI eT35..

3T...3T ctftH 5^T 33^3, ft. 5*tfcnj... 'ift eft, ft.

et*n # fuRT^ ft, traft... SfarfcT,

33T 331 3^ 3IeT: eft f l / 3ift,
3 ft, 3fc3> SfeTTjcj era#/ hh)


ft 3

Copulative Conjunction — FFM>t» : aflr, T, M

1 tf arfk t 3rk fr Ft fttc mi He is rich and at the same time

2 f t ft t ^ ft t f f j mm trrt i Iwill stay at home and do some work.
3 fttf t^ tf! F^t %tt T>Ft ? The children in India serve the elders
V^4*t, d'l't'l ct'E?'1l HMet ft I and obey them.
4 *f% f f % feTR Trfft fft tf
o I bought toys for him/her and also
TITeld *ff ^ frR I took some chocolates.

Disjunctive Conjunction— ftFRTT : FT...FT..., ^TT, FTT?..

FTl, F...F..., F fo, T$f #/TTFT, (pg. 294) TFT... TFT (pg. 215)

1 FT 3ik I8 4><X FT TIF T>Tt I Either work or rest.

2. FT chelct>fl FT <Fl'j<.l5l FTF?) I We will go to Calcutta or to Khajuraho.
3. F% FFT Fs?t FT % TF FftSTT He did not know w ether he had
F e M §3iT t FT F e M F#f §3TTI passed the exam or not.
4. F TJF FIF, T ?jF% ^ ^FFT Neither you came nor you sent any
^ I information.
5. f ^)ft fsttt Ft, f m t Ft i Neither borrow nor lend money.
6. 3 ^ fttt f a r f, f jjf f i I am your friend, not your enemy.
7. e|F TRTT T^t F^t ^t% F TTRT, Don't eat dirty things in the market,
F^f Ft/TTFT #TTT Ft FTFtrt I or else you will fall sick.
8 TFT dF'fl TFT clSTI, FMTR FT Wether a girl or a boy, these days all
TTTTT t I are equal.

Adversative Conjunction — I'tOutjFT F^FFTtOFT: FTFJ/FT, ciftH,

TPTT:, FteTT (pg. 314)

1. Tpft cF^t 4t, ctPtR/FFT FFTT RanT was tall but her friend was short.
f t r F5tST FT I

2 TFFT 3TTFTF t , FTFJ TRFT del'll It is easy to say but not so easy to do.
3TTFTF 'l^l I
3. SR dMi'jfi ^ F F#t, FT FFF 3F % It is not bad to earn money but it is
SR dHivjf-i TFT 11 bad to earn money by wrong means.

4. ?ft xnjj sfw m i ft) 4 # , Mr. Sharma is not only a teacher but
are# Fiftssfo ^ ft1 also a good guide (mentor).
5. 4F 4T tJteT ^T#f ft, 4^4J W ^JT4T This house is not small, on the
ftt*r?Tftl contrary it is rather big.

Consecutive Conjunction— HRuil*itj4+ : Strict^, 3RT:,

3RT tr^( ft),

1. 3TR ^ «TT, leterq ft Today I have fever therefore I could

WT F4ft I not go to school.
2. 4ft f tr f tw He/she gave satisfactory answer to
Rq, 3RT: ^ft ffteT Tlf I the interviewer therefore he/she got
a job.
3. ftFHT^ ^ Tftt ft, Inflation is going up therefore the
y4T4T ft?FT FT4 7ft ft1 employees are asking for more
4. 4F ft, 7it ITRT-Wcft 3Tlfft He is a Brahman, therefore he does
^Tftf IFTcTT I not eat fish, meat etc.
5. P|fc6l<^4> 44ft fftftcm He did his work conscientiously,
Fraft sttot 4ift i therefore he got praise from
6. 4F 4 1 ^ ft «T¥lrnF4 ®TT, ^ftt 4T? He was really needy, that is why
^T4ft h<;<; 4ft I everybody helped him.

Causative Conjunction — 4>k ui*}44> : 4ftffft>, fft\


1. 4ftffc ^ f t ftft ftt fttarc ft, Because his mother is sick so he

■3F4T 43lft ft *FT 4lft ci4dl I does not concentrate on his studies.
2. 4ftt% ’fRrf t^» 4FT ft?T ft, ^F4ft Since India is a large country, it has
ftt ft I many problems.
3. 4F ^rFft -aftftcf TFftf ft, ft She remains so unhappy because
3PFft 3TmOTSt FT44T 4ftf 4R she could not realise her ambitions.
7T4ft I

Purposive Conjunction — : cTTf^, ^rieTtr

1 + <41, dlPfc 41=1'I ff You must work hard so that you may
<rl'-bci Ft I be able to succeed in life.
2 . ff t i t l ’d *TM tfh F Tift cTlf^ ff I am learning Sanskrit language so
3)h4 Elf$N>TT®
TF3 I C\
as to be able to read our scriptures.
3. 3F eftft’tftt^riMr I, f^na% He wants to earn a lot of money so
3FT% «r=-«fl 4 t| 3RT$t d< F *131 t fT^ I that he may be able to give good
education to his children.
4 ff FT’Tlft^' ^5 WT ^f «W T^R I am saving som e money every
TFT ^ ff 3PTTT 4 ie d t a d s month in the Bank by which I may be
able to buy my vehicle.
5. ^Rt *£t TETFTOTTWTT, Tfllelti Always help others so that everybody
fa TT^^FTTT3T[cR4^ I respects you.
6. =iJI4><u| WFTRTWcTC;3TT3WFt It is necessary to learn grammer so
f a ^ tfa t RFFF W frITsFt ^Tr that one is good at writing and
qlcid ft Pl^ul Ft I speaking standardized language.

Conditional Conjunction — ^4>d^4> PioMeqtft u^44«flu4> :

^/3WTM ... rft, 4>4lf=ld ... rft
1 . =|R 3TPTsjciiCif), eft *f 3(i<£i|l I If you invite me, I will come.
2. 4 t cjR m ’Tcft, rft ^EfcfiTT I If you come along, then I would go.
3. Rt TTUHMl4arji# ^t, eft If the principal allows, then the
3T8TTT4>’ft HM'TT^ff I teachers will also agree.
4. 3PR r^Tc§faTPFTTTSTHffa eft If you had paid heed in time, then
3TRT'ftiTPT 'TFt^ I you would not be troubled today.
5. ^ 3F ’TReTanr^T!, eft F^T3T3W If he comes to India, he will
Mmi certainly meet us.
6 3PR 4l^H 3TR5Tj?|J|l, eft FK*^l4 If the weather is good, we will go
«tiO?l i wandering.
7. *lfa %3PT?t WT3TTTnt, eft FR If they come here next week, then
3tft <4ld4>< 4>t[fl I we will talk about everything in

8. Fft FF #FT F # , ^Tt #FT TJ% If he spoke loudly, the listeners
TRFT FTF I would understand him better.
9. f R ^T FFF F # , # 3 FfteTT If you help me, I will be able to pass
Sf w # ttfIfti the exam.
10. fR F^f f^FlF ftcF Ftr F #, # F*# If we had gotten the tickets, we
Rk-H cfT fW I would have seen the film.
11. Fx^iIfo TJF RfT FF? FFF FF If you helped me a little, I could
# t 3FRT WTR FF TTFFTI start my business.

Consecutive Conjunction

Although— FFjft

2. FFfft 3TT% 3 F^ FT, FF FFF Although he had stomach ache, he

FT 3T1FTI came to work.
3. FFlft TT>3%3JFFF9T FFcT ^ #TT*T Although the weather was very bad
FjTTT m u FT, FF# Fs|F f “|F during the entire vacation period,
FT# F#l we enjoyed a lot.
4. FTeffi# TFT F#F f, FF FTT F # f I Although Ram is poor, he is not a
5. FTTTlI# '3TT# FTTcT mR?TF R>FI, FF Although he worked very hard, he
T#9T FftetT # TJTM F # |3fT I did not pass the entrance examina­

Whether, Whatever, Wherever — Fll?

1. cJF F # R id# FTT# FFF F#T, How so ever much you help him,
W § FF ^FTTT FFTTH F#f FT#FT I he will not feel obliged to you.
2. % (hon.)FR? 3 # # FFT^ FT# FF? Whether he eats modern or
M , F T ^ FdF>l FF F# #F> Flff ayurvedic medicine, this pain of his
F # FF I will not be cured.
3. ## FIT? RFFF ef, FTTTj; # cTTcT # The sons may except bribe, but Mr.
# TFF F#T tfF T # F#f Ft I Lai himself never practised
4. FF F it Rrar# FFT^ FTF, F T ^ How so ever much medicine he
^3FFt #FltT (51Fi dtl M I may eat, his ailment will never be

5. "4TI? «ft TFt, FT^FH I 7TW Whatever you may say, I cannot
d£l ^ d't'dl I support you.
6 41s? <457 Ft 3F£, FT ^liPci ^J5t Wherever I may go but I find peace
3R^ ^t 0T 3r f^TeT^t 11 only in my own house.
7 <^Rd 41st f%cf^ FT0 *tr Fft, How so ever much a person may try,
PpFcfT TTt TcHT t pRHT FTO he gets only what is in his destiny.
if pldl ^ I
8. 3FF 4 It? f^cFTT ^ftT cPTFt, ^ H<fd How so ever much effort you make,
ttt F hif)D i you will not able to climb up this
9. F?cT 41st 'tTTT dldd Ft, F^f ^ F Whatever be the weather tomorrow
4N FF> FT % Pixel'll el'll I like, we will have to get out of the
house by 5 o'clock in the morning.
10 . 4ltt 4lR9l Ft FT 41s? ?JF PlF?^, Whether there is rain or sunshine
FT <M ^F't 4lct 11 we go for a walk every day.

Specifying or explanatory expressions — dH^fl+tFI % apf if : far,

4FI F4> aft, 3T*rfd, 41'fl, 414)

2. FT % 4>FT 3TttTT Ft% % FF^ Mother said that I should be back

FT FtFT FiRd, | home before it got dark.
3. Tfft Ftcft I 3 I wish that I travel within and
m i outside the country.
4. ^ FFT cPt FF FFT Flgdl 11 How to find out what he wants.
5. FF 3T#k=TTIrTTT FFF FT^T t f a FF He alone does so much work that
FTFt Plel4><. iff FI?f F>T d^cl I all five of us cannot do together.
6. FF FFT cfF? 4>^4 t 1% 3TF% felF He is so miserly that he does not
■»ft Fx=T F^tTF F # TrttFFTI even buy fruit etc. for himself.
7. TTft ^ FTIF^ft F^lRtFT TfTTcft t, Rani narrates such horror stories
uft TRT F?t :ffF F 3TFt | that one may not sleep at night.
8. ■577 ^gc-ct if FF% 3F=tft FTF t , «ft The best things in this colony is that
<7tF F5TF PtcTR TFTt 11 people live together affectionately.
9 FF 4FI FF> 3fF^ RFlRRil F?T Fdldl He troubles his students so much
t , f a FFT: % 3TFFT # 0 FF4 artjf that they leave their research work
s?t 3?IT FFF F>T^ FF% 11 in the middle and take up jobs.
10. 35 3 3 3% 333 3R3T t , 35T 33* He helps everybody so much so that
f%* 33? c%3 3t "3% 333M 33 people consider him incarnation of
333TT 3T3% 11 God.

When the subordinate sentence is at the beginning, use of Is not


11. 3I?f 'Imcii 1%31? 33t art'll I don't know why he is so miserly.
3*^3 11
35 33f WTI 3*J3 t , 35 % 3#f Why he is so miserly, I don't know
3T33TI this.
12. 3 3 313 t 1%> ?13f 3||3 All know that Mr. Sharma teaches
3R0T33T%tl very good.
Wtf 3f?3 3TR5T 331% ?, 35 Mr. Sharma teaches very good, this
3 3 ^ t 313 11 is known to everybody.
13. 3*f3 313 35 t ft* 53TTT 33 W TT The main thing is this that our party
3^TT33T 3153T 11 wants mutual understanding.
53TTT 3cT 3T3R 333T33T 3153T I, Our party wants mutual under­
35 '5^3 313 11 standing, this is the main thing.
14. ^ 3 |3 *335TC3*91cT I 3pft 35 He is very practical that is he
3T33T 333 f%3333T 3T33T % I knows how to get his work done.
15. 3333 3T3 3Ppft3I3 313f3 33f%3f His name became Angulimal, that
3% 3T3T 353% 313T 35T I is the one who wears a garland of
16. 35 ^3T 3T3f 35331; She was such a beautiful woman
33*% 5t I as if she was Goddess Laxmi
17. 3 ^ 3 %3T %3 *?l3T 3 p ft 53T 33 The child ran so fast as if he was
3R T5T 5t I following the wind.

★ ★ ★
43 Interjection — spare

(see page 276)

— Splendid!, Wonderful!
=TT? =TT?! — expression of applaud and praise
3n?T! — wow! (to express pleasant surprise)
Praise, acknowledgement, Inspirational
W !?l! — Bravo!
— Thats all!
— Correct!
3p£t5T! — Okay
w ! — what!
t$! — expression of astonishment
t! — expression of astonishment
Anger, Regret, Worry
3fH?! — Oh! (expression of grief); FW! Oh!; t! — (expression of
3TOt-Tftf! —Sad! (to express sorrow)
W T R l - O h God!
— Help; — Cry for help
TW TW! — God forbid!
Irritation, comtempt, scorn, disgust
# # ! — ugh! shame!
"Jf! — quite
eT^! — out of the away .
V' 3 ^ — be °W c,ear ou*
^ — shame
f^4rf>K! — fie! Be cursed!

^ eT5%, WT 3TT| Boy, come here!
t efTT "5^ | Rickshaman, will you go to Lanka.
^ # T *T RTTaft I Girls, don't make noise in the class.

Common Greetings among Hindus

TT*T TThl , RT reciting the names of various gods

is a very common practice to greet
each other especially in the
tW , =TRFTTT respectful salutaions; all time
^TTcTRft reverential greeting; bowing down
to another's feet
5FIW respectful greetings
Among muslims
eeim, neeftnid, respectful salutaions; all time
Some other polite expressions

^FT^Fft please
ERtTTC Thanks,
v^lsf^i Thanks.

Address commonly used at meetings

Brothers and sisters

★ ★ ★
Punctuation (farm f ^ r )

Given below are the punctuation marks used in Hindi. The underlying
principles regarding their use are the sam e as in English.

■*■ Unlike English where a d o t' . 1is used as fullstop mark, Hindi u ses a
vertical stroke' I '.

■*■ In Hindi more than one exclamation marks are sometimes used to
indicate the degree of surprise or intensity of emotion.

Full Stop/ Period [ i ]

Use of punctuation marks is relatively new in Hindi. Except the full
stop, all other punctuation marks have been taken from English.
In ancient Hindi literature one vertical stroke was used for comma
and two vertical stroke were used for full stop.
Uses of vertical stroke :
C l All sentences small or big, simple, complex or compound that convey
a com plete meaning except the interrogative and exclamatory
sentences, take a single vertical stroke at the end.


1 ! I He is intelligent.
2 He is intelligent and talented.
3. Everybody knows this that he is
13?k ^ i intelligent as well as talented.
4 Will you come with me?
• 1 Certainly.
5 Will you have milk?
• ^ 1 No.

Q At the end of indirect questions.

1% % 3iH^ci Kamla asked me what I am doing

^TT i? | these days.

Q in long complex and compound sentences, Hindi writers often use a

vertical stroke before the conjunctions '3ftr' and 'h^ ’,

3 At the end of subheadings e.g.

?:— Nouns are classified as given


1. i Proper noun
2. i Common noun
3. Collective noun
4. *t|44M4> I Abstract noun

Co l o n— [ :]
• It looks like visarga in Hindi. To avoid confusion, visarga is written
clo se to the letter while colon is written a little distanced from the
• Colon is used in the below given situation:
Q At the end of a subtitle, before giving detailed account of units falling
under the subheading e.g.

1. cA||q><.ul % rfl’1 T^TTf, t<K ^

Grammar has three components : Semantic, Syntax, Phonology

2. % 5 W : «IUKUI 3FFT 3?lT «1l<+MI

Types of sentences : Simple sentence, complex sentence, conjunct

Q Before the statement in the inverted commas, e.g.

■fftcTT % 4*s?T : "*f 4k=T 3fF# WT STta said : “I will come to your house
3n3Pft” I tomorrow”.

»r Alternatively comma Is used by som e writers.

Sem i Colon dltTPHlH [ ; ]lise s of Semi colon

E l Between two main clauses

FtcT t; The earth is round; the earth
11 revolves round the sun.

n To separate adverse meaning sentences

3(F Fe?f t ; f a r •sft Laksmlkant jTis no more; even then
3TT^ TnflcT % F T 8 T F % % he is always among us through his
FFT^ 11 music.

B B efore1^ ’, ‘W In the same of such as, like etc.

1 sprft FlcT % fcrc; FF FIpT He said much to support his
f TcTT; statement; e.g.
2 F t f^tT, F i p T T f F M 9 llc f l The examples which he gave were
*t; FFT very effective; such as

C o m m a 3f?qf^TFr [ , ]

Uses of Comma:
O To separate two or more than two words such as noun clause,
adjective clauses, as soon as clauses etc.

1. FF flMt, srM t 3?k FffF-FM She teac h es Hindi, English and

FcpTcft 11 German languages.
2. FT TJFF d64><, FTFT ^JFT Mother gets up in the morning, takes
% FTrtt 11 bath and sits down to do Puja.

« Normally comma is not use before but in long complex sentences

modern Hindi writers use comma before aflr.

Q Before and after a relative clause when it follows the main clause that
it qualifies.

1. *rft FFF, F t elRfl+l ft, 3TTFT>cT My sister, who is a writer, has gone
fl^TT 11 abroad these days.

Q After affirmative and negative words :

1. FT, 3TR TfflF Eft FF FFT ^ FT Yes, we are going this evening from
I here.
2. FT, Ft Ft I I Ja, that is so.
3. F#f, Ft FT £l F#f FFFT I No, it cannot be like this.
4. Flff, 3TTF 3TTF % FtF Ft?f Fct No, I cannot come with you to go.

Q After the below given words, when they com e at the beginning of the
sentencesi'FF gF’, «ti«iq '3IF:', ‘FF’, ‘3TEtJl' <wR vi«?l
$ 4K, F F % FtFF F> F IO F 3TT^ :

1. FETgF, FF FgF yfct-HivncTl 11 Really he/she is very talented.

2. FT^F:, FF 3)M<t>d W FtfeF 3?TT Actually, he/she is a bit frustrated
P kiui ! I and disappointed.
3. FIF1F if, FFF^t g?FFT srfcf F FF 11 Actually, his/her book is extremely
4. ar^sF, Ft f t r ciPl'f 3fTTTF FF feWT Alright, then let us rest a bit.
'dlIU, I
5. FF, FF% ^ s?t W T Tfrr | is that all, you became nervous in
just this much.
6. 3RT:, T§tFT %Ft I?t g3TT ^tFT sigHiPta So, it happened exactly as
Ft l anticipated.

» Use comma on both sides of the above given words, when they come
in the middle of the sentence.

FFKF fatrFfasrrdF, FFgF, B.H.U. truly, used to be a well

f^TCTT FF yRffed H'«H gan FFFT recognized institute of education.
Ft I

Q Before the inverted commas :

FT % g*>KI, “rf Ff^T FT F^t ^ I FT Mother called out, “I am going to the

FF HTTF TtFFT I’ ’ temple. Take care of the house.”

Alternatively colon Is used by som e writers.

Q After the vocative :

1. m to , 3fTq atom ) m tot l Sisters, don't consider yourself weak.

2. ^ efto, W m to l Hey boy, come here.

Use comma on both sides of the vocative, when it is in the middle of

the sentence.

1. t o tor, jjto tjm ■tigi'fl Sit here Kamla, I will narrate to you a
g m to t I story.

Erl Before the below given conjunctions : t o ’, ‘W ^ ’, ‘t o r j ’, e l l t o ’,

to T to , (3RT:’, t o t o ’, t o t o ’, t o t o ' I (see Chapter42)

1. ^ t o 2ft, ' R / W I ^ JT cf She was not beantiful, but was not

•ift t o *ftl ugly either.
2. % 3Tnt ^ to r ^ IFT t o They went on, but we stayed there.
3. TPft t o t o sift, W I to Rani was hard working, but her friend
^ tT 2TT I was lazy.
4. m? TIFT 3ITgto to f t, «tto> This city is not modern, on the
to ? T f3 I T t | contrary it is a bit backward.
5. torsff fto ^ ¥PT 2TT, S tudent did not have com plete
41? (5141 % to f ^ 4141 I knowledge of the subject, therefore
he could not answer properly.
6. m to 4F WT 4gcf I, rm ift Although this work is very difficult,
t o mn cT4> t o n «1MI t o t I even then it will have to be done by
7. t sn to ^ rto to % w t o 3f • m I could not participate in your birthday
to f ef t o , t o t o t o 3,<ftK ^ celebration, because I got fever.
w mi
Q Comma is used in place of relative pronouns or relative adverbs
joining two sentences.

1. to t o WT t , m r tor I (to 4F) Do, what I have told you.

2. «ufti*l faft t , Whenever it rains, he stays at home,
n r nr W I1 1
3. # *nft t , (t% # ) f a f a f As soon as the bell rings, the students
3PT^ W=f n r t s ^ 11 sit in there places.
4. ^ tjcr PWdrfl %, (rt^) 'W ?I?T % When the sunshines, the people of
fa r rT^ n r gtr fam f this city are seen lying on the beech,
^ cft I
Q Use of comma in place of f a ’
1. WRT, % WT *5tF He said, they would leave the city
3 ft I (f a ) early morning.
2. 3fN t r f ff, ft 3TF# faff You think, I will not able to live without
WTTI (fa) you.
ID For emphatic effect of a word :
1. ^c%, F<ft, «+•<!, 't'^l 'ii^l n Come, come, be quick, lest the train
WZ I leaves.
2. ftfan, ^fai t 3rft 3fft # ft | Sit, sit, the doctor must be a coming.
ED After interjection and exlamatory expression :
1. srt, ^ ! Hey, when did you come!
2. f&'H'K t , appft 'RTcfT Fie on you, you troubled your mother.
EE Between name and title :
sffaRT ^toiTo, T^oTTefcfao i Srikant Kapoor, B.A., L.L.B.
EQ After date, month and year :
30(ftfa) 1 9 4 8 (^ ftn 30th January, 1948.

After the opening address in the letter

ID After the concluding address in a letter:

*nfan, ■r^fan, anfat, r j w i , ... anft

m In writing address on an envelope: However this use is not obligatory.
?ff FFRT RR,

iffsSt ^PR, f^cft

Comma is not used before‘3TSRT’, “m ’

Question Markwr [ ?]
U ses of question mark:

f l At the end of the interrogative sen ten ce:

What is this?
Ft? Where are you from?

**“ If there are several small questions use this question mark after all of

W ? 3R? §3fT ifF What? When? How did it all


■** However if there are many questions contained in one sentence use
question mark only once at the end of the sentence.

3TN 3R FR sft 3fR FFT FR Where were you until now and when
F |^t? did you arrive here?

Question mark is not used in the situations given below :

□ While scolding, reproaching:

1. W 71? Ft! What nonsense are you talking.

2. ?|R ^ Ft Ft ^t! I hope you are in your senses!

Q When the interrogative word is used as a relative pronoun :

1. RT% ! Who knows what is in his mind!

Exclamation Mark fawr [! ]

Exclamation mark is used after interjection, words expressing natural

upsurge of feeling such as surprise, grief, disbelief, joy etc. uttered

w f “Rtr t 3j r ! (y«H'di) How nice is the weather!

What a pleasant evening!
ftf! t tjf fft! (<£tf) Alas ! 1 have lost all!
afa; fft fttft
c\ %W! I Ft! Oh! How cruely they have killed the
poor one!
$cMI FFTT cTTcM! (snFRrf) So deep a pond!
3ft; %Ft! FF FIT FT FlcTT TJ%! (falM Oh Son! What have you done!
FFF 3JTFT t! What! He stood first in class!

%: %:! rJFTt Tjwftf F sft I Pooh ! I didn't expect this from you!
aft-aft f^Et?! (f t ) Hey! Scorpion!
W R F Ft! (^FRT) God forbid!
FtFFFFrft FT! ( s ^ l) May you be blessed with happy
f t r t M Ft! May you live long!
F#f Ft! (rftsT HHlftFH) You stupid!
FTf ! (rffa FFIR+ k ) Aaaha!

In Hindi to express growing intensity of feeling more than one

exclamation mark is used.

ft! HTtF!! h s i f If !!! Alas! Sad! Very sad!

3fftf ! sfftf!! ftrc 3fftf !!! Injustice! Injustice! Downright
s fte R ft F i t F $ T , F F | F F l!! Why don't you speak, have you
Fdcl FFf FTF ZZ F f f? FFf!! Why don't you move, have you broken your


TW! 3TFT? Ram! Tell me when did you come?

%tff! T>F7i?t Ft? Daughter! Are you telling the truth!
TFft! 3 T^t f I Rani! Wait, I am also coming.

Descriptive mark fa<Hui f^ T [:—]

It is used before giving description: e.g.

«<f-1 1H Main classification of pronouns is

I: — like this :—

1. ^# T R I Personal pronoun
2. i Definitive pronoun
3. i Indefinitive pronoun
4. yyH4N+ i Interrogative pronoun
5. f^RTTETT' I Reflexive pronoun
6. W JpT T I Relative pronoun

Hyphen mark f^ T [-]

K i Between reduplicative expression

Tf-TWT, tfFTefM^Tcft, clld-dlcl, Teft-TTcft, sHT-sTR, «l

3fW -3m T I
csrf-c^r, w -w i

Q Between adverse meaning word pairs :

TRT-fcr, ^r^-^fcTeT, Tffrt-Tret, 3 ^ - t w ; , rP T -^ , TTffr-3hftT, ^T-^frET I

Q Between similar meaning word pairs

^picf-Ri|l4M ' # e f-TC\^ ' TtT-’TTT,

C\ ’
gTT-FRT,’ WT-SPTF, TTH-TPlfcT, ^t-^fH I

Q Between echo words pairs where one part is usually meaningless

Tpft-TFft, Rc*T-Rc«T, ’ftF-RTC, ’Efm-TRT,
smT-THTT, WEff-Tcrf

In the below given adjectival expression as s h o w n ‘ST'1 '7T',
$ tim :

• Ft-'T-Ft

• 3TR-%-3nF, 3rf^-% -3Tte, TURT-^-^TRT,

• ¥-«r-¥
• 3i h 3R%-3TFr

Q Before the word ‘fprdt’ (related to, concerning) when used as suffix
to make adjectival expression.

t^5#T 3TR% f ^ f ^ n c F T - ^ d t 3n5 I have to talk to you concerning

dld4ld •M'f) f?1 university.

Q in compound words as shown below :

• When two words are joined by omitting the p ossessive case Vr’,

TFcT-FrT, TFT-cfteTT, gggW-*cF*T, W - W t

• Some popular syntactically similar verb pairs :

^fafRT-RlifiHI, ^TT-ftcTFfT, ^Tr-^gFTT, fr^FTT-PHNI, PtTTT-fitTFTT

g^TT-feFFTT, RddHI-ftrlFn, WTr-^TgT, W F H -^ F n , TJSHT-tsdT

• Determinate compounds (dcJ^T TFTRT) normally do not take hyphen

but use of hyphen is advisable sometimes to avoid confusion regarding
there meaning e.g.

= elements connected with earth

^cFFf = ghostiness
F F-31^% = It is co-feeling (FTO #FR?T s tric t),
WF£*jfcf = sympathy (?h^41)

» Words made from prefix and suffix should be written together unless
it is essential to use hyphen to avoid confusion regarding meaning.
g^-WFT bad administration =g9TFFT seat made from 'kusa', a kind of grass

3T -w = without nail, 3FTtF = anger
ar-^Ttrf = lack of politeness, 3prfrf = little
3T-TOT = which has not been touched by any body
= a kind of skin disease

In numeral compounds as well as those made by joining adjective +

noun or noun + noun, hyphen is not used. e.g.

seven oceans, %TF3T yellow peace of clothing, face

like moon,

A postrophes^ farm [']

Apostrophe is used to indicate som e omitted letter or number.

^ '50 % W \ '65 cFT = 1950 % 1965 cTF

14 ’TTTfr ‘70 = 14 ’FTTfi, 1970

T[% 120 ‘W I = sfrf W 1

eft1? f ^ ' T [...]

Three dots (...) are used to indicate obstruction in speech, stammering

by the speaker and also when something is left out at the beginning in
the middle or at the end of the sentence .To indicate longer obstruction,
group of three dots (...... ) can be repeated.

Abbreviation [. / o]
In Hindi both dots as well as o are used in short forms of names,
academic degrees or words giving direction.

Fo^o 4TJTR (FT W R) H.D. Kumar (Har Darshan Kumar)

^toTTo (txfcfT afro 3TTTrf) B.A. (Bachelor of Arts)
%o ( f ^ t ) H. (Hindi)
P.T.O. (Please Turn Over)
%o ^fexr) See

» Dot is not used in the below given ca ses :

Q In decimal system

% n t (f^ tn w )

•s’ A dot may be used in this case as shown below.

(Iff^ te r), fr.m. (R’dliim)

H Dates and Constellations of stars

^ (fcfcTT), It (TttM)

Q When the abbreviation is treated one word :


n In short form of chemicals :


Inverted comas tj^iT '...']

Uses of Inverted Commas :

if In direct speech : e.g. T3TT^ F^FT, «Tf TFT 'I

B The name of a person or book is kept in single quotes.

1. I like to read 'Dainik Jagran'.

F R cftf I
2. I recently read 'Manu Bhandari1and
W T ’ FF TJCRTO ‘F'F FF 'Rajendra Yadav's novel 'Ek inch
*j*FF-T FST t I muskan1.
3. ^FFTmT’ FftcTTFt F^t TJFF Ff^FF 11 'Gfhsobha' is a good magazine for
Q To separate a letter or a word from rest of the sentence.
1. V , ‘I ’, et’, 3RT:FT I1 'ya1, 'ra', 'la', 'va', are liquids.

A foreign language word should be kept in single quotes.

^ ^ i

Hindi writers also use som e symbol, usually a star or a cross to draw
attention to some footnote or explanation given elsewhere in the book.

Insert ^ [A]
If something is left out by mistake while writing, it is inserted under or
above by putting an insert symbol as shown above in the brackets.

Brackets (), []
U ses of brackets :

Alphabet or numbers used in arranging matter in chronological order

are put in brackets, e.g.

D (*). W. (4), (5), (6)

Q The names of the book or the writer in a citation e.g. W I?t y*f<rR

Q Information given with reference to context.

Q In dialogues of a story or play describing gestures and moods,

environment, situation etc.

1. ^ReTT : (cTT^T RW eft §q) “3TFT # WF^,

★ ★ ★
Particles (ajcifir)
■ Positive particles

FT, FT yes
«T^T, 3TFW certainly

■ Negative particles 3Tcr}T See 292)

• T# no, not
•Tit, TF c£farT # 11 No, this is not correct.

• *T (na)

t — no one
Frpft TTcT Tf ^Tf 3?%eT W T T No one should go out alone so late
at night.
«nrr i
T, T ^ T TtcTT I No, no, don't speak like this.

• TcT(mat)negativeparticlesusedwith(tu)or(tum)formintheimperative.

^ Fcr «TTI Don't go!

cfF FTT TFT3Tt I Don't eat!

• TTf T # — why not meaning 'of course1

This use of T1?f with <wt has a positive connotation.

• Use of *T for confirmation of the statement.

3TTOF TFT sft TTFf I T? Your name is Mr. Sharma, isn't it?

■ w — Interrogative pronoun W meaning 'what' is used as
interrogative particle at the beginning of the sentence to change a
statement to Interrogative.

1 T5T t ? Is he reading?
2 RT T1? W? Are you going?

■ Emphatic particles eft, rTC»,

1. 3f RFTclT f I This only I know.
2. f t +£l 2TTI He said so.
3. f t FHlt WT I He will also come with us.
4. 3ft ftcTTT #?TT, ft* *TW f t I learned to speak Hindi and at the
fftfTTT ftr^lSRT ftfttftT I same time also learnt to write and

1. 3 e? -c|i4 'i^l «mi u<r>ct1 I She cannot even make tea.

2. 'ETT % rRf ^ TR Even the children of the house know
11 the secret.

• -*fT -ft - f t

-*TT -ft - f t are suffixed to various parts of speech, such as nouns,

pronouns, verbs, adjectives etc. For use, se e page 293.

• *TT (see page 295, 296 for more examples)

1. ft f t r f t ^ *ft i I slept all day.

2. f i t ftfa *r ft fs r i I looked for you all over the village.
3. TTcT *TT T ft I Wait (just) a moment.

f t , f t honorific particles

ct>*Heii f t, Ms. Kamla; f t R -ik Mr. Vinod

f t comes before famous scriptures,
f t nsmUd Sri Mahabharat

★ ★ ★

knik t ? What time is it ?

1. ?I What time is it ?

2. t^> 3RT f | It is one o'clock.

3. TT^ f*FTC t1 It is one fifteen.

= trT4T«Ml t 1 It is a quarter past one.

4. B3T ^ t1 It is a quarter past two.

5. ¥Rf t1 It is a quarter past seven.

6. %
<? «Ml t 1 It is 1.30.

7 <5Tf ^ t 1 It is half past two.

8. cfk f1 It is three-thirty.

9. ^ttt 11 It is four-thirty.

10. ■#T ^4T t 1 It is a quarter to one.

11. 1ft <ft f | It is a quarter to two.

12. T2^T<qvjI<=f<. ft-fcT ^ !? 1 It is ten past one o'clock.

13. W5RR [hHcTi|q 1 1 It is twenty past two.

14. tt^; ^ to ? t 1 It is ten to one.

15. qu ^ -qk fkr^ 11 It is five to ten.

■s- In Hindi, time is the subject of the sentence; there is no translation for

the English indefinite subject ‘It is...’

,5> Also while telling time in Hindi, the use of postposition correspoding
to the preposition 'at' used in English is not obligatory.
For any whole number, a quarter past or half past constructions,
corresponding to English preposition ‘at’ in Hindi no postposition is
used. e.g.

at 2 o'clock ^ at 2.30
at 3.30 *ti<? rfH at 11.45 J*iKe?

But for all other time expressions the postposition FT is used as shown

at 2.10 Ft 10 f^PTcT 'IT at 2.50 #T ^ 10 f e ? FT

fe rn trn w t ....
How long does it take (x) to do y
Language structure Q Questions

(subj. + ^T) + ( v.r. +% ) + $ + facRT + eFFTT + FtFT

FFF in the appropriate tense;

invariable always form
Language structure Q Answers

(subj. + ^t) + (v.r. + + time + dilHI + el'll

expression in the appropriate tense;

agrees with the
time expression

1. 3Tmt ffaTT #Ft fccFTT W I How long does it take you to get
cFRIT t ? (Pres, simple) ready ?
cfe Tf FF f e ? f e t It takes me ten minutes to get ready.

How long did the children use to take
t e p T T R R T c P I d l PT ? (Past hab.) to reach school on foot ?

dd+1 ^ e f H g -q 'l They used to take ten minutes to

f a d c T cPTcf ^ 1 reach school on foot ?

tN ^ IlMt # eR ( ^ f^ T T T How long did Robert take to leam

W c=PTT ? (Past simple) Hindi ?

T fa c f ^ PTR Robert took one year to learn Hindi.

ci J| 1 1

r p F t ET? fe R T How long have you taken to knit this

R * W ePTT t ? (Pres, perf.) sweater ?

^ ¥ f Efl? ^ C < e>P% R T f 1have taken two weeks to knit this

11 sweater.

^1% *R ^f ftcTRT W t ePTT How long had you taken to paint the
R ? (Past perf.) house?

t$ T er TR^ 1[FSF f^R cPt *f 1 It had taken us fifteen days to paint

the house.

3fTO?t TRTcTT ^ RtRR c fc fR T R % How long will your mother take to

3 I'ki'ii W I ePtJTT ? (Fut. simple) prepare food ?

Trft PT cT T ^ T?|RR RRFf t RR My mother will take at least two

% TR ^nt' c=P)t) I hours to prepare food.

R% #F #Ft ^ fePTT W T How long could it take for the

RR P^rTT 1 ? (Probability) patient to get cured ?

TT#3f ^ F t% ^ P < T -T t R # f The patient can take a couple of

ePT R R > ^ t 1 months to get cured.

Some Hindi time expressions corresponding to 'by1,
'until', 'by the time', 'for','since', while, etc.

■ by - <IN

1. H|X| ^ TTN ^ 1 1have to reach the station by 5 o'clock.

2. 3FR 3TN ^ NFT* If you wish to get admission at the

t , nr sift 10 wrfter cfN ntcct ^ University, please reach India by
«n$NII I the 10th.

3. ^ 3TFT NNT NH ^ ^ NT If you start just now, you will reach

^ TTN NffaNK Nf^T NT^t | Faridabad by 10 o'clock.

■ Until - <IN

1. SIN NifrRTT rR> NNTTT 1 Please wait until Tuesday.

2. TFft T’NT TTTT Nf ^ TR> H<sd) Ram studies every day until 2 o'clock
tl at night.

3. «llR?l (R> *1^1 1 Stay here until the rain stops.

■ By the time - cRT

1. cR> ^fcRT NtT ’NT By the time the police arrived, the
Sri thieves had run away.

2. NN (R> NFcTT Nf HfRfl, By the time Kamla reached the

^ i station, the train had left.

3. cR> FN «TRTT *l|3ft, <£NFt By the time we get to the bazaar.

W-4 Ft FhfT 1 the shops would have closed.

4. cRT FN N*TT ^ n |%, By the time we arrived at the

3#f§T NT W T NTNT #1 "jJNT N 1 meeting, the speech of the chief
guest was already over.

5. ?RT ^TeT % srf^TNrtt Nt NTT ePTT, By the time the jailor came to know,
NgcT Rl+d Sf 1 the prisoners had already gone very
■ For, Since

1. TW R«H<. % R r # If t I Ram has been in Delhi since


2. 4*fc=TT <?t % WT 11 Kamla has been here for two months.

3. If ft*5et # 4 % R^Rf I have been learning Hindi for the

T^Tfl last three months.

4. ^Tf ■# fttjR FhT4TT % 3RqcTM Mr. Sharma has been in hospital

If I I since last Monday.

5. f ? Since when have the children been


■ While -

1. If *ft, If aj?ff % Ifell off the chair while Iwas watching

Hr ji^ i the news.
2. ^«r If sm^ ■r#% If fjft, If While I am in England next month, I
3im+i IhcjjTI i shall visit you.
3. ^ If tfr a ^ t f, If afcT as^t I read a lot while I am travelling.
4. TFft w t w ait *ft, a? Rani fainted while she was cooking.
R^nrr a^ i
5. ar $?h jjkii % We met Mr. Gupta while we were on
M i vacation.

■ From - $ ..... To fffff

1. FtaaR %aif^raR ?fa? If afM^a I work eight hours a day from

3Ti5 a^t aaa ar^t f i Monday to Saturday.

2. f *t c frr $ tf if f a a ; a ^ jt f We will stay in Mussoorie from 3rd

IfaP i May to 7th July.

3. aa, ^f aaaaff ^ a^ffa We were abroad (in a foreign country)

■JUkTI ift if 7% i from 1981 to 1984.

4. ^5p % cTl'l d4> What do you do from 1 p.m.to3.p.m.?

W Ft ?

■ during : if, % 4U m

1. TT wf|qt' $ F*T 3 ^ T We will go to Pushkar during this

«n^?r i vacation.

2. if TRT 3> <fl<H 3TT ^3<§t I Igot up several times during the night.

3. 3TR 3TP3T ^frfFT Ip ft ? ? Are you free this afternoon ?

4. 3 *TKcT if ^ET % Spft Sweets made from milk are not

f t s i w ^ foeitfh available in India in May-June.

5. f 5? R « h < $ *r^t3 ^ gRFitfl if We will not live in Varanasi in the

month of December.

See R-8

★ ★ ★
Som e U sa g es
dfl i T 3flT 'TFl ? 3flT ? 3?lT ¥ N ? 3tk ^FT ?
when else? what else? how else? who else? where else?

1. 3 3ltT 3ITS ? When else shall 1come ?

2. 3 fk 3TT TFT t ? Who else is coming?
3. 3ftr ff ? How else shall 1do it ?
4. 3fhr w r (qwt^:) t # f ^ tt? Why else would 1say so ?
5. W ^ ? What else shall 1give you ?
6. aftr f t * # Who else should 1go for help to ?
7. ^ iRTF 3fk f t # FF ( f t # Waste someone else's time instead
<41 i FF) qqft ct><l 1 of mine.
8. ftraw 3fft fff Who else will help you except me?
# ttt?

9. R'l 1 cJF 'FW <4(1i FlRlel '1f?l You cannot achieve anything else
F>T F 4 # 1 without me.
10. $ 3 fk ftrtf cRF FF W FT How else shall 1solve this problem?
11. % 3ttr FFT F>T F+cl ^ ? What else could they do ?

•r «rr% Who knows

FFFFT '4T^) ^|FT '■#, God knows
#*1 «TT% No one knows etc.

1. F «TT^ <FFcTT No one knows what has happened to

^ f^ r % f t # l Kamla. She has not been seen for
several days.

2. 3ff%c=T f^ff % FHlt TJFT Anil has not come to our house for
3TOT I T O H F*TT several days. God knows what has
|3fT t | happened to him.

3. *t"ft :Tff ’SRT T^t I 4"bT "ll-i My watch is not working. Who knows
W W T l« ft 3TT T j f t ? what is wrong with it ?

4. «ll-) ^ W g3TT I 3)T|Mcf) God knows what happened to him.

H ^l i'l't'O SSl'S'M 'ET^ "Sf ^FfT Suddenly he gave up the permanent
11 job and is sitting at home.

Echo Words

The useof echo words is very frequent in Hindi. Usually, but not always,
the first or the second component of these compound words is
meaningless. Mostly they rhyme well with each other. However, there
is no hard and fast rule. There are endless number of non-rhyming
compounds. These are used in casual informal talk conveying the
sen se of English 'etc., so on-'

**■ The meaningless component usually begins with WT, TIT, or 3TT


1. tFT I Eat bread, etc.

TTrft Indian flat bread; ittft rhyming, meaningless component.

2. ^ I W Let's go to coffee house and drink

it ^ i some coffee.

3. ^ cT^F-'*T5^, itF-*TTF, FFeTT- I don't like much ostentation, crowd

^rcTT 3TEt5I eFRfT I and noise.

meaningless component; ostentation
ite-*TTF crowd
i t ? crowd; 'FTF meaningless component

£cr1l-{je'cii noise
FevfT noise; ^J?eTT meaningless component

4. 4 ^ 3lFr^-WT% 11 Our rooms are facing each other.

3TW% meaningless component; W in front of; facing

Some u ses of *T’

■*" is used
Q To make a negative command.

1. FFT "T I Don't sit here.

2. FF yd4> F<5T I Don't read this book.

Q '^T’ at the end of the sentence is used as a question tag usually

expecting an affirmative answer- e.g.

1. 3TR 4>T TFT 3fPTcT F ? Your name is Anil, isn't it ?

2. tJF 4r Ft 'T ? You study at B.H.U., don't you ?
3. F^FTT FFTt FTO WRTC ^Tcnff F ? Kamla will come with us to the
market, won't she ?
P I V is also put at the end of a sentence to plead to som eone to agree
to your request, e.g.

1. 3TR FFT^ ^TTF FTOTT "ErfetF F ? Please do come with us to the market
2. fa r % fcTC; 3FPTT ^ Please do give me you camera for
3tfarr fA F ! a day!

Q FFf F is used at the beginning of a sentence (1) to make a mild request

or command, (2) to make a polite alternative suggestion, e.g.

1. FFt F 3TH FtcTef M I tFTF ? Why not eat in a restaurant today ?

2. FFf F ^ FTT f 4? wf|Ff Why not go to Kashmir during the
+19% 'Fef ? summer vacation this year ?
3. FFf F 3TR FTTF 3fM 1%F’ Let's see some English movie this
^rc; ? evening?
4. RT W R What will we do sitting at home !
£FcT 3TPTT RTF; ? Why not go somewhere for a walk ?

The use of adjectival suffix TIT, Tt,

•ar, are suffixed to various parts of speech, such as nouns,

pronouns, verbs, adjectives etc.
With nouns and pronouns it expresses likeness/similarity.

1. FF FSJT-TIT c=PmT 11 He looks like a donkey.

2. rf wC\ fr h - ttt ^ ctt 11 This flower looks like lotus.
3. 3TFT RFR-tft 11 You are like my sister.
4. FFTT-% t I Little boys are like monkeys.
5. ^TTT sppft Him F’t-Tft f? I He resembles his mother.
6 . %^Rt RF% cFIrft 11 To me both the sisters look alike.
7. My daughter (who is good-looking)
like the moon.
My daughter (who is delicate) like
a flower.
«i4l'i FT FR5 ^iai-RT R<rtl£ I saw some object on the ground

ferT I that seemed like crawling.

With adjectives of quality, it sometimes reduces the degree of the


When used with adjectives TTT, Tft agrees with the N and G of the
object that they qualify.

1. FH R^f RT Ref (m.) FTT-RT 11 The water of this river is greenish.

2. RF ’M -tft RT^t (f.) I Please show me that yellowish
3. RF cTFFt) (f.) rM I I That fair-looking girl is my friend.

4. FgcT-% ^TPTwtf-FT (m.) Very many people live like animals,
^ tc tt I

g j With adjectives of quantity e.g. ^cT, «TTsr etc. it enhances and

emphasizes them; at the same time there is an element of vagueness
about the size or quantity.

1. 4>cT w t FFT ( Yesterday many guests came to our

arm l house.
2. ^ ( 11 There are many trees in my garden.

Compare and com prehend:

1. 4i|cf ( I He gave me many things.

2. ^Fjpr-rft it i He gave me very many things.
3. if «ft# #^ft (f.) i Put a little sugar in my tea.
4. %ft WT ^ # # FlfcTCr | Put very little sugar in my tea.
5. 4F t?t£ 4 ^ ( TFFT I1 He lives in a small room.
6. 4F 4>*A TFcfT ^ I He lives in a rather small room.

■ Any out of a number of possibilities

% *Ftf-FT 4>TFT ( cflfau, I Take any one out of these ‘kurtas1.

■ 4?N-TTT— Which out of a number of possibilities

% Fifa-W Fv?FT ( c| ? Which'kurta1shall Itake out of these?

3T: eft FTF % foeRT 11 A: I would like to meet Mr. Nath.
*T: 4 ^ - * ) sit 4T*T % ? B: Which Mr. Nath?

Use of eft, 4T47 corresponds to 'or else' in English


1. 4FF eft, flt 3F <OT Put on a pullover, or else you will

«fTCttt I get cold.
2. ^Tc^t 4?t^F!;, 4TTT F lit t5ZT ^TC?ft I Hurry up, or else the train will leave.
3. W J - ^ t ?PTfef 4>T TfetJ, 4T4T ^Fti Keep the money safely otherwise
■^,<.1 ct*ll I someone will steal it.

4 %?f Tt Tpft Tiff eft %^JRTT Water the plants or else they will
«ll^1 I wither.

5. T rft % <R4MI *FT ^ ft TRTT Shut the door quickly or else

H^oe 3TT «Hv?) I mosquitos will will come in.

Use of 'ft Tl?fATT 'ft Tiff, 'ft ‘not even1, ’even1

1. 3T^ eft TFT rR> 'ft Tiff «HI ^<t>efl I Anu can't even make tea.

2. % cfl'i "fts
O *11<M ePt I eft Those people seemed somewhat
F^f <kcitt><. "ineet <R> 'ft =ft I annoyed. They didn't even greet
us with 'namaste'*.

3. T§t eft ~3Wft TTTcT ^ft % *TTC I don't even remember his / her
T$r I face well.

4. 3TM ^t ftT ^ FT^ 14l4 'ft Tiff We haven't even had tea for two

5. TTFTf cTt^T H5lRl4f TT In big cities people don't know even

dIH 'ft "1^1 TR% I the names of their neighbours.

6. f^T 'R W 4R^ % 'ft ^F Even after working the whole day she
cTTff cuicfl 11 looks fresh.
* An all time Indian greeting.

U s e o f'R — only/w hole/full

1. ^5f 3IpT RIT ehft t; ft Tt I am very thirsty. I shall drink a

«HercT| *R HI'fl t o l l I bucketful of water.

2. 'W T O Tt ^ t Teft 'R 'ft 'JR Just now I have absolutely no

Tiff; TK RT e^TT I appetite. I shall eat later.

3. tt ! w ffiemr 'R ^ et fpgrft Is that all! Only a glass of milk is your

f t r 'R ^ t ^TTT t ! whole day's d iet!

4. 3fT& % yHTCT c^HTt ft?T ft More than half the people in this
ft^ tpTHT ftt ^fftt fftetdT I country don't get enough food to fill
their stomachs.

5. 4tft 3TFf 4n5 W J If you lend me some money at this

^OTt ft, ftt ft ftftR HI 3TFm time, I would be ever grateful to you
3TTHI{1 T^Tfl I for the whole of my life.

6. ^TT ftlft ftft ftt I Let me rest for a moment.

7. W ^TT ftt ft^T ^fftf ft I I don't have a moment's peace.

8. ^dft tfTcft WT4 3TTC; Ft I 3Tlft ftt You have come after so many years.
■Grrft 4ft tz m r <fti 3tNt ’rcfttsf You started talking about leaving the
ftt ftft ftT; fft>T "4ft «tNi I moment you arrived. Let me look at
you to my heart's content; after that
you may go.

( subj. + $ ) + ( v.r. + f t ) + *TT 4 f t f t r fttZ T

one just has to do 'X' where 'X' stands for 'v.r. + 'ft'

Examples :

1. fffft 4 ^ SR 4ft ftT ft, ft ^ You just have to say it; I shall do
4R |4T | everything.

2. ftnrft *rc 4ft ftr ftt; zrrft He just had to ask for it; his brother
■mft ft rjRd sppfr 4 R ^ft ft ftti immediately gave him his car.

Use of ’ft — Also

Q When the subject of the two sentences is different, but activity is same,
■ftt1follows immediately after the subject of the second sentence.

Examples :

1. Tfftt Wcf
ufTcft ft I ftldl ^4>d
Zkft ft I
Tfftt WcT
ufTrft ft I tftdl ftt <r+d
Zlrft ft I

2. ^JcF tfhFfft i | I Ttft F # ^JcF 11
# =|cF #0cft f I F # *ft ^JcF tftecft t I

Q | When the subject of the sentences is same, but activity is different,

then "fft' follows the part of speech which is emphasized in the

Examples :

1. FT I ^ «pft% %cRft f I
# FT if- f I ^ FTft% deleft f I

4. $ FTF ifaT i|l # FT# f I

FIF 4)c1l i?I t FF^t I

5FTT, <5Ft, 3Fft — After all it is so

1. FT^ - F^FT Ft <5FTTI Let it be; after all he is a child.

2. F*ff Ft 6s?{I I After all it is h e a t!
3. ffft ^ Ft 3Fft i After all things are very expensive.
4. FT E?t FTtFT Ft 3FTT I depend absolutely on loan.

F t-F -F t — certainly; undoubtedly; ^ -F -^ — absolutely;

1. Ff-F-Ft,' F F ^ FF5
O FeRT FFF f^FT Certainly he has done something
tl wrong.

2. Ft-F-Ff, FF ’iff f^TF FT %TT 11 Undoubtedly he is Mr. Singh's son.

TIFF i?-«H? TFF f I He resembles him absolutely.

3. F W ft ^ FtFT, F t-F-Ft, ^F ^ The Brahman-woman thought,

% tf t F t FIT R fi 11 undoubtedly this mongoose has
killed my child.

!?t (f ) — Not at all; of course n ot.... so

Use of F is not obligatory.

This expression is used to negate a proposition. In English most of
the time inflection of voice does this job. e.g.
1. i WTcT q t f i t (^) |, l ^ lam not at all crazy. I understand
TTRffitfl everything.

2. 3fM i n IrT t ; f^T *TT tarif i t # Of course I won’t keep eating all day;
i t (^) Tifit I I am observing a fast today.

3. W i t 3 # i t # i t (-t ) ^ cTT 7#t Mother is not calling me; she is calling

11 # #1 c£># Tit 11 you.

4. it# it «n?T# i t it I I did not start the topic.

5. # it# it ^ it, ^ it I did not go to his house; he came

# # m 3TWT «7TI to my house.

3#T T it <Tt JRT Of course, it is like this (if not..., what else)

This expression is used to support what the other person says.

“^rEf ! ## T ro ^lcM !’ ’ Really! You will come with me ?

“3?tT =T#t i t W ! # it ef? Of course ! Am I saying just like

Tit f w ?” that.

*t# i t — Even if; Even though

1. <J*T *t# i t % «i-*iRd T Even if you don't go to Anil's birthday,

« n it, # i t srra ffi i I will go.

2. 3rf#ef i t FT FW fi#7T ^FTT % , Even though Anil goes abroad every

FT FF t ^ t M 4# t ^ eo f F#f year, (but) he does not understand
TTF5RTT I foreigners at all.

3. (JF FF F # i t I'W h ' «IT3ft, Even if all of you go to see a film

# FT FT TF F?T F fft I (you may go to see a film if you
like), I will stay at home and study.

4. 3TTF F # i t # # 'I<{h 'Mt #, # Even if you cut my throat (kill me), I

si^t: 0 F it Hfi'ii i will not study medicine.

S. FF & FTTR Even if she is very angry with
Ft, % FcTT Fl?t <TF4 ^c?t I somebody, she does not let her
face show it.

Use of HcH

t « n fo r ^ w f ?If w r Who goes out in such heavy rain

^PficTcTT t ? (certainly one does not go out in
such heavy rain.)

2 " F c fT %FFf % m T F % c= nft,” “Why would I stay at my daughter's

«jfejT 4 F5FT ? house" said the old woman.
(Certainly I won't stay at my
daughter's house".).

.'( *fc1T *f TFT FF FFT F>F% erfl ? Why would I say all this ?

Use of FSflT +adj. - much (more) than

t ^ d c -ll T F f t % + 4 1 y F l< tl F ^ F 1 1 Kamla is much more miserly than

2 ^RT W 1 FF% FFTF t F>4T My house is much better than theirs.
3TE®T 11
3 srf^ R T 'g5T % F> i?t f o r < ?lF d l 1 1 Anil runs much faster than I.
4 ifft w g><-ei{l Hd'i % +^T A41 My kite flew much higher than yours.
F ^ti

Use of eft in the main clause of conditional sentences

1 3TFT TJF ‘l^'lcl FRfTf, eft rJF? You will succeed if you work hard.
*14x4dI foMf I
2 3PTT ^ FTCcf 3TRT, eft ciMFFd If I came to India I would certainly
3TF9F 4<|4l I see the Taj Mahal.

3 SHTT 3TFT f o FPT ftft, eft t W TR If you join me, I shall do business.
+<sMII I

4. 3PR s n R o i 3T5jft I |C eft FiTTeT If the rains are plentiful, there will be
TrofccT Fbft i a good harvest.

Use of ‘rft’ to begin speech like well, So, etc. in English.

1. Tft, 3TN ^T FrTT TFT ^TT Well, as I was telling you.....

2. Tft, 3TN FFT FF Tt ? Well, what were you saying ?
3. TTt, 3TFT FeT f e # «p tI t ? So, you are going to Delhi tomor-
row ?
4. Ft, m F^r W FTFT f # tt ? Well, what should we do now ?
5. FT, Ft FFFh;, 3TFT FT EFFTTT ^TTT So, tell me, how is your business
FeT TFT t ? running these days ?

FTFi / ...... somehow

» Managed to do it; it implies that the execution of the action caused

inconvenience; it was not easy to do.

1a. w^l-cFt FT4> FftSTT FTTT 4^ I Somehow I managed to pass

1 b # T f-ttt F T $ F^tSTT FTTT I the examination.

2a. Fqt'-cFf FTF* FT T3TT#T FT FTpT I Somehow we managed toreach

2b. ^Tt~t% FT% FF FF% FT Ff% I his house.

3a. ^ ' - cFT F>T4> TFft % 3FPTT FFTF Some how Rani managed to have
FFFTFT I her house built.
3b. # T t-ttt FT% TFft % 3FFTT FFTF
«M4I4I I

4a. -TFf FTF ^Nt FF% 3TFFT 'llwi Somehow I managed to get rid of
O• I him/her.
4b. ^ t)-^ ft F T ^ FF% 3FFTT

Use of — Fft-FTf

f?*T 3i4<. 4<icl TCT The cold increased as we went on

c4f-c*Tt ZS ^ c ft I climbing.
2 vrql->rq| f^EfTT •t'Cl'l, As you ponder over what I said,
irtt ^rJT *TR3TlP I you will understand its value.
3 vriil-M-ql ^?T P 3|I«U<5) «1<s4) v5TTTlP Unemployment is increasing as
I, ufT 7#f population is increasing in the
tl country.
W £PT ^cfT W , He kept on becoming more cruel
c*ff—c*ff T? 3?TT 3(PRt Pi <{41 pRTT as his his wealth grew.

Use of wflf / ^ / ?4t

TT, <4t will depend on the gender and number of the object that
is the same as before.

1. F^rm TTT 3TR ^4T-^T-?4t't I Even today our village is exactly

the same as before.

2. P ThT ^f|rT 3TT PleTT I met Ram after a long time. Even
3tR <4t «4t-^>r-c4t 11 today he is exactly the same.

3. FRTft f t r I ^ 4 g rrft 11 Our culture is thousands of years

3TF5T 4t PTlP 'lJcT *jc-4 «4t-^-c4t old. Even today our basic values
11 are the same as before.

4. gst sprttor P tf ^ go; ^ wt Pr I have been living in America for

^ {?, P ft '?4t-4p- ten years but my knowledge of
r4t I1 English is just the same as before.

'X' rft ’X', 'X' 4*T W W*TT, 'X' eft TFT - 'not to speak of X'

1. eft 4 ^4 /4 ^4 1 Not to speak of children, even the

eft i t , etfjjrel 4 ^ 4t grown ups’ mouths start watering
% tp? P ^ TTpfl *TT 3TM 11 at the sight of rasagullas.
2. *Fftr 44 w 4^4T/^a F^ftr Not to speak of milk and cheese,
eft ^T TFT, \J^ eft <tld f)<Tl ’ft they don’t even get lentils and
'1tTl«l 4{?f Ftcft I bread.

3 4 ^ 4 1fl eft 4>*f4lfl/4>*f4T(1 eft Not to speak of employees, even

x ^ / ^ N r f t v f 44 44T W I , the officers in this office are corrupt.
FTT <?we. ff eft 3ilu4>iO ’ft
w : 11

4. ^ eft # / # eft ^T TFT/^TT 44T Not to speak of me, even my

't'd ii, ^ 4 ^ t ’ft 4I?f I children will not agree to it.

Use of 4*4 44 / ^ / 4^ — 'for a long time* / 'a long time ago'

In the sentences where the subject is in the nominative case, 4*4 44,
4*4 4*4 *£t agree with the subject. See 1 ,2a, 3a given below. In the
sen tences where subject is in the oblique case, this expression
agrees with the object. See the sentences 2 (b), 3 (b), given below.

1. ft 4>4 44 4FT ^6l i? I I have been sitting here for a long

(4*4 44 agrees with tf (m. sg.)) time.
2. a. FF 4^r % FTTeTT 4*T 11 We had our breakfast a long time
(4*4 % agrees with FF ( ago.
b. F*Ft 4*4 44 4T9eTT 4*T fcTUT 11
(4*4 44 agrees with FTCeTT (m. sg))
3. a. TFT 4*4 44 Ram
TFTTO 4*T ^44 t Ifinished his studies a long
(4*4 44 agrees with TFT (m. sg.)) time ago.
b. TFT % 4*4 4>t FSlf FFTTT 4*T eft 11
(4>4 4?) agrees with FST^ (f. sg.))
4. 4F 4*4 44 '?Tft 44TTT if 444 4*T He has been working in this office
TFT ^ I for a long time.
5. TFft 4*4 4>t 4FT 5<fl ^ I Rani has been sitting here for a
long time.

Use of Ft’ !»t — 'for no reason or purpose'

1 TFT ^ 3FT^ ^TT% FtFF; F t F t I?t Ram dismissed his old servant.
P ifih i
2 FF F t I?t ^ F ^ F ^ FF l We went for a stroll just like that
(without purpose).
3 FT? Ft I?t qlcidi TFcTT % I He keeps on talking for no reason.

Use of 'X' &'X' — nothing but 'X'

1. FTF FT TFFift-^t-FFnft s-ft | There was nothing but filth in the
whole village.
2 FTTf 3?rT 3f^TT-#-3f^TT FTI There was nothing but darkness all
3. tNf FFft-#-FFft FTI There was nothing but water
4 FFT FF> <jf5d FTcft Tld-<?t-<^d There was nothing but fields as far
Sri as one could see.
5. FF% F # t ^ TJefTF-^t-TJefTF 11 There is nothing but roses in his
(hon.) garden.

Use of FFT ‘X’ FFT 'Y' — whether 'X' or 'Y'

1. FFT F"CtF FFT , FF ftF FFFt Whether poor or rich, all have to go
FTFit I one day.
2. FFT FFTF FFT F’ft TTT^t FT%I Young or old, all danced at the
3. FFT F?FT FFT fIM *f, F^F Whether on the roads or in the
% Sft I lanes, there was crowd every­
cTT, 3TPFFFT FF Whether the people or the leaders,
I I all are corrupt these days.

*}IKK ift - Hardly

w Used when chances of an event happening or having happened are

very remote, almost nil.

He has hardly ever seen a film.

^ sftF tl
2. %W # f^cft 3TTq I It is highly improbable that they
would come to Delhi.
3. Tpft Rent'd
O I ^F VTKK Rani does not study at all. It is very
ft 3 a M Ft I unlikely that she would pass the
4. ^F ^gcT 11 '3?Tft VTKK lit He is very crafty. He has hardly
l^ftt 4iT ^TcTT ('Ml Ft I ever done any good to anybody.
5. 17^ ’TRcT if 3IpT ft&lFfl I Robert had to face a lot of trouble
in India
3F lit $Nki ’TRff armi It is hardly likely that he would
come to India again.

^fft <p5 ftt Ft - Come what may

1. wo ftt Ft, ft sprft Ru m Come what may, I cannot abandon

fft¥ d't'dl I my principles.
2. 4li? ftt Ft, ^ ft Come what may, you will never
I change.
3. ftt Ft, Fft 3Ftft Come what may, we have to
■#TT3lf TSTT ^FTftt I I defend the borders of our country.
4. Xfl? +O ftt Ft.' 3Fpft Come what may, you will have to
a n f e fttfM «Kc=pfr # f t i change your economic policies.

subj. + ^T /3tFT /^ ^ A n F t/^ lt + v.r. + WTT + #RT

nom. case
fut. subjunctive of d ieii to agree with the
to agree with the subject subject

English equivalent of this structure Is ‘one may do what one likes':

Examples :

1. TJF (m.) FTFt FFF Ft I You may wear whatever you like.
2 . FF (f.) ^fFT FT!? FT 11 We can go wherever we like.
3. silHcihi ( F F FTI? F’Tft FFT You people may come to our
house 3JT 11 whenever you like.
4. FF (f.) FTI? FF F4?d) 11 She may marry whomsoever she
5. TJF (f.) F t FTFt FS FFFft #11 You may read whatever you like.
6. IFF ( 3d4K ^ t F t rn^' FF On Sundays the students can do
FF5^ 11 what they like.

Use of (v.r.+lt) + (v.r.+^T) + FFT/Fit/F^t/«N t — 'Something'

almost happened

1. T O ^ft (f.hon.) FT^-FFf I Mother almost died.

2. TFT (m.) %=T’ Ftcf-Ftrt FFT I Ram almost failed.
3. FF ( Fk-Kirt-fti^cirl I We almost slipped.
4. 4jcl4H ( ^ft% fiFct-ftFcT FFTI The flower vase almost fell down.

Use of ^Ft-!?t-^NFt — In no time

1. ^Tct-^t-^TFt W # FTTT #3FT In no time, Ganpati ate up all the

FcT TF Tpr | food.
2. ^ a i t - f t - ^ F t TF F |F FFT 'oCINrO In no time he became a very big
FF JWI I businessman.

(Vr. + %) + T?t + FFFT — to express surprise

1. d d'tl FFltt Mt! What a beautiful dress she wore!

2 . FFrttF FTTiftF F?ftF ^ F lt ^t FFFT Indian classical music is really worth
t! listening to!
3. FFFT FF ^ S lt I?t FFFT t ! How beautiful she is!

(Vr. + %) + ^PTT • to express ability or inability to do something

1. aflr 3RcTT l I can not study any more.

2. 4*TT +<*) «Mdi t ? What can you do?
3. FTFT Tftc=I% 3TT ^IT l He could not untie the shoelaces.

Use of Some Reduplicative Expressions

1. dl<.-dl< W ? RT *JF cfrf^ItT | Take this medicine every four

2. ^ £ 3 F F t^ t l?t, % As soon as it is morning tomorrow,
Pi«(d c^ll I I shall deal with each one.
3. eTS^t <RT-<RT W * 3?R d ^ M Give Rs. 10/ each to the boys and
4?T Hld-HM TRTf % R*TT I Rs. 51 each to the girls.
4. Rtr-^XT 3nf^TTf ^ TjWrat TT The latest inventions have taken
•ftor + ih 'mhtI rt?t 4r R^i ^ i away the drudgery of the house­
work for house-wifes.
5. W ^ c T ^ K T ^ t l fa F ft- Radha is very clever. She knows
f q f t, M - M 4R#t FT very well to get her work done
3 M TFT Pwd-TT T3% by talking sw eet with everyone.
T^ 3TTcTTt
6. 3TPT T>FT-T>FT dl-t T?t tTm Tf? t ? To what different places are
you planningto go ?
7. TJF IdU, 3i*rflT>l %wt- ttt What all will you bring for me from
TTT^t ? America?
8. TR TFT Ft W ? Is all the work done ?
• •
Ft W ;' O O
It is almost done; very little remains
FT^f 11"
9. E fft-tJ ft F T F t TTTnn I Gradually everything will be all right.

Use of relative adverbs «FT, TFT

1. TT cjF FTTTT 3TF3Tt, 'JJft d ^< Do meet me when you come to

fteHT I India.
2. TT TTF T F Ft dl'jR, When the prices fall, I will do the
F F ft I shopping.
3. F!?t FF Fldd t -IfT FF Pwc-i F^ This is the hotel where we stayed
3Ft I last year.
4. F^t FF FT#FT t ^fFT FF FFFF This is the garden where we used
Tf tffc# KTI to play in our childhood.
5. «TF FF> cJF Ftsf 3faF % tFTF So long as you water the plants and
H!*"fl "^nt, Fkf 3nf^ ar^d % use the fertilizers properly, flowers
FirFt I and vegetables will grow well.

Use of som e pairs of abstract nouns and their adjectival forms

Language structure j Use of adj.

subj. + adj. f Ttt

nom. case
in the required tense
to agree with the subj.

Language structure r l Use of noun.

subj. + abstract + f?FTT
+^t noun
in the required tense
to agree with the obj.

1. H>yin j? i / ysi't'l Ftripff ^ i 1am upset.

2. FF '3FTCT 11 / •3 ^ r 11 She/He is sad.
3. TFft W~T % I / .TFft F^T 'SRFFcTT 11 RanT is happy.
4. PlFT^ # n r f I / PlFT 11 Father is ill.
5. t pRIFT f I / *pFr Pi <te?ii 1 1 1am disappointed.
adjective noun adjective noun

tT H surprised trp ft surprise pleased pleasure

FFF exhausted FFFF exhaustion PPFci amazed ftTFF amazement
ft Pan worried PFFT worry jpft unhappy unhappiness
«fhTTC ill illness afflicted pain
’TO^tcf afraid FF fear content contentment
3F£*r4t experienced 3FJFF experience happy happiness
Use of the compound verbs

1. R<si£ ^TT, R<=lli MS-TI, '1'^k . 3TFTT to be visible

2. TJTT^ ^TT TpTT^ TT^TT to be audible

Language structure

subj. + obj. + <. 3TFTT, <)HI / Ms'll, + £Hl

with TfTT^ ^TT / TFdT

in the required tense

to agree with the obj.

Examples :

1. 3TmT w f^ rr^ ^ tft I ?/ What is visible to you ?/ What

W T 3TT TFT t ? can you see?
2. ^ ^ fafe^T ( ftTTT^ ^ / A bird is visible to me./1 can see a
*TF tit t l / W 3TTT#t t I bird.
3. T3% ^Tf’f ^ TFT *TT I He / She could not hear anything.
4. 3tr thtt % f ^ r f t T^ht, ttT srnr If you live on the banks of the
i t tjqa 't« l'l-ch)rf'T (m .sg .)^'ll^ Ganges, you will be able to hear
%itt i "Kirtan".
5. TdT 31m<+T| 4t|{ d)NM ( ^ d l^ Can you hear some sound?
% T#t t ?
6. TTT*T^ dp? g,3if ( TTSdT I can see some smoke coming
|3TT ftTTT^ % TFT t/d ^T T 3TT up in front.
7. 'g5t SHdi) dldt % TIeT dp? d>ldl I suspected something fishy
(m.)d»TT 3TT3IT/f^rT^ ftdT I in what they said.

★ ★ ★
48 C om pare and C om p reh en d

In this section some language structures have been grouped together

and their similarities as well as differences have been highlighted with a
view to enabling the students to use the language accurately.

Use of stative verbs', 'change of state verbs':

FtRT, «fPTT, WRRf, TFTT (to be, to become)

1. # T R sft I Ft I
Kamla was sick. Kamla became sick.
2. 3lfdcl ^cTT % I 3iPiel ^Idl W-T TRTT ft1
Anil is a leader. Anil has become a leader.
3. TR I1 M Ft 11
They are friends. They are becoming friends,

Use of !?, FtcIT I?, TFFT t - 'to be', 'to become', 'to remain'

fR %FF W ^F FldT 11 3FT>®

O d<tld <Fdl 11
He is sad. When he gets a letter from These days he is
home he becomes sad. somewhat sad.

Ft I jJF Ftfft Ft ? fjd F*)W Tdt TFfft Ft ?

You are Why do you become Why are you always
unhappy. unhappy ? unhappy ?

StRTF'fft'l ^tFT tt Thff Ftcft ft I WTtfW: TFcft % I

It is hot It is hot here in June, It is usually hot here.

dim ^ t % ddd dial # dial FT dda <=dda <Fctl t>1

^JR rtl H tR f M tl
Mother is In the morning mother Mother is always
busy. is busy. busy.

Use of the verbs 3JFTT, ^fFTTT
to denote X knows (how to do) Y

Language structure Q Verb '3TRT'

subj. + obj. + 3fFTT + #FTT
with ^ n. or inf. in required tense
agree with the object

Language model Q Verb ‘yfFPTT'

subj. + obj. «TFFTT + pi'll

nom. case n. or inf. in the required

Compare and comprehend :

la . 13HT «MMI 3TRTT t I

lb . 3 te'JWI'f) tSFTT w n ^FTcTT f I I know how to cook Indian food.

2a. TFTcf fr N t 3 R # rR? 3fRft t I

2b. TRcf 3R?St cR? "TPRTT t I Robert knows Hindi very well.

3a. ^ 3 <.-11 f^c^fT 'i^K 31Id I I

3b. f tRTT fosflFf ^M dl I I don't know swimming at all.

4a. iT R *r *pfaf 3TRR t I

4b. itft ^TRrft t I My sister knows classical music.

5a. WT 3TN^1 3fTrft t ? Do you know knitting and embroi

5b. WT 3(14 4'61^-j'il^ «iMrl I? ? dery ?

6a. ^ diqfrH
d ill'll 3TRTT *TT I When I was ten years old, I knew
6b. W ^ grofrR how to play the violin.
del'll «IMcfl I

iRlfft .... cP^lfft / r f t ’f t / l f t R ’f t / ’ft 414^4 / Ft t §<( ftt
Although.... even then / 'In spite of X'

1a. 4F ffttfc ft, eft *ft ^ R4R Although he is poor (even then) he
ftl is generous.
b. ffttfa Ftft # 414^4 ^F R4R 11 In spite of being poor he is
c. fftsfr F t t fir *ft 4F R4R ft1 generous.
2a. ira fr *IF =FT5T RRtT ft, rft *ft Although this cloth is cheap, (even
f i'f l* ft I then) it is of very good quality.
b. RRTT Ftft f t 414^4 4F W In spite of being cheap this cloth is
fi+ l* 11 of very good quality.
c. trrt Ftft §t( *ft w w t
3a. ^rafft % ftw r % toft ft, ftt ftt Although he is the chief of the
RR? <ccfl ’R fcl*ru5 Rftf I institute, he is not at all arrogant.
b. TR?TT % TOFT Ftft f t vT'ft In spite of being the chief of the
Tcrft ’R ’ft SFRR Rift I institute he is not at all arrogant.
C. TRRT % F5FT Ffft IjTJ *ft RR> TRft
*R W ? Rftf I
4a. ^rafft 4F Fft^JT <fl*HK TFRT ft, ftfR Although he is ill all the time (even
’ft fftrft 4>FT ft eTFRRTfft Rift RRRT I then) he is not careless with any
b. Fftw ftftTR TFft 'ft 414^4 RF In spite of being ill all the time he
fftftt RRR ft eTPRRlftt Rftf RRRT I does not show negligence in any
C. Fft?TT ftftTR TFcT inj ftt RF fftftf work.
RTO ft d m 4 l$ Rftf RRRT I
5a. q4tft RF ftlRR RljR *4lRB£. Rift, Although this food is not very tasty
tftR ’ft RI|R ft1 (even then) it is very nutritious.
b. RfR TRtR<*: R fttft f t 414^4 RF In spite of not being very tasty this
R^TR RI|R HlfSdR> ft | food is very nutritious.
C. RIpT WlR^i R fttft IRr ’ft RF
RMR RI|R HlRc.'t' ft I

More on Present Continuous Perfect Tense

» The three language models given below can be used interchangeably;

Model 1 and 2 are maturer speech styles used In situations where
there has been a long time lapse since the activity has continuously
and habitually been undertaken.

Model [T]

subj. + time + obj. + v.r. + FT + 3TTFT + if Ft

nom. case clause % 3TFt I, t
followed rft + 3TT^
by % to agree with the subject
Model (7]

subj. + time + obj. + v.r. + FT + 3TT TFT + f, Ft

nom. case clause % + 3TTTeT f,1
followed eft + 3TT T*?t
byTt to agree with the subject
Model Q[]

subj. + time + obj. + v.r. + TFT + if Ft

nom. case clause ^ t, t
followed ~^t
by% to agree with the subject

In all the above models for past continuous perfect use FT, *t, rft,
Instead of if, t , Ft, f I

Examples :

1a. FF % viiHi't % snfcff <^ldci

sttc; 11
b. FF 3FtFt % FFT% % We have been speaking English
3iT "d? 11 since the British period.
c. FT 3TTTFT F> % 3(1141 "TT? f? I

2a. % tfo F 5PRT % WT tmf FT TFFFT
F>T^ 3JTtr ff |
b. % tf^ F FFcT % WT tuff FF WWFT They have been respecting all
FTTTt 3fT T^ t I religions since the Vedic period.
C. % 3R+ F>ld ft TTF Wlf FF tt*-HH
F ^T T ^f I

3a. *f siFHd % FOT gSfT TFFTT TFTcft

3Tt| f I
b. *f FFFF % ddl g3TT TFFTT Wirfl I have been eating fried food since
3TTT^tf I childhood.
C. if FW T % ?Tc=TT p T TFFTT TFT T$\ f I

4a. FF TT^ d"fld Ft #cTRftF % Hsltfl

Frrft antr f i
b. FF F ^ ■gF^fl^T ^ft *Tdlcft<i % HSl*flEver since 1947 we have been
^91) ft ^^1 F?t F>lRl9l F><ft 3fT T^ trying to be friends with the
11 neighbouring countries.
C. FF F ^ F ^ftF Ft ffdlcftF % FFFft
M % M F?t FfRm ftt t^ 11

5a. Hldl Eft yicil % <^qg-tjqg fft if

FFTeft m i 11
b. FTFT ^ FMt % T|FF-TJ®rF FFT it For years mother has been bathing
dglefl 3fT Tiff t I in the Ganges in the early morning.
C. FTFT ^ t Weft % ^FF-^FF FFT if
•TFT Tift If I


3TTFT t ?
b. 3TTqFF FffFTT F^F ft tM FFFT 3TT Since when has your family been
TFT % ? farming ?
C. WFFF fR f k F>F % ftrft FT! TFT
f ?

Use of F / .... ’ft ..... ’ft
not only.... but / .... as well as

1a. FF *1 F*FF ^figFTF t F ^ F ftFFftt He is not only intelligent but also

’ft 11 hardworking.
b. FF ’ft I ftFF# ’ft I He is intelligent as well as
C. FF Ft I ft, FTF-FTF He is intelligent indeed; at the same
ftFFftt ftt11 time he is hardworking too.
2a. F^ftft F # F F gft 3FTft FRT 13FT He not only let me stay with him but
FfftF fstft ftftFm ’ft i also educated me.
b. FFftft 3nft W TW ’ft He let me stay with him and also
FOTTfcFFTFT ’ftl educated me.
C. F’-flft 'jft 3FTft FIF Ft <<FI ft, He let me stay with him (indeed); at
FTF-FTF FSTFT-fchFTFT ’ft I the same time he educated me too.
3a. ft F #FeT 3ffttT f Ff^F FFTT fFF He (Hon.) is not only rich but also
Ffft ’ftl one with a generous heart.
b. ft spftx ’ft f 3ftT FFTT fFF Flft He (Hon.) is both rich and has a
’ftl generous heart.
C. ft 3nftT Ft I ft, FTF-FTF FFTT He (Hon.) is rich indeed; at the
(|FF Flft ’ft I same time he is one with a generous
4a. ft F %Fcf ^TTT fttFT f Ff^F I am not only your father, but also
tj*FKI FftF ftt ^1 your friend.
b. ft ^FRT fftFT ftt f 3?lT FftF ftt I I am both your father and your friend.
C. ft ^FTTT fttFT Ft f ft, FTF-FTF I am your father (indeed); at the same
F^FTTlftRF f t t f l time I am your friend too.
5a. FFftft F %FF ftft ft ftft FFIFFT He not only helped me with money
Fft FfrF ftn HftlFF ’ftFFIFTI but also encouraged me.
b. FFftft ftft ft ftt ftft FFF Fft #C He helped me with money and also
ftXTFFtFF ’ftFFTFTI encouraged me.
C. F^ftft ftft ft Ft ftft FFF Fft ft, He helped me with money; at the
FTF-FTF ftTT FFtFF ftt FFTFT I same time he encouraged me.

3PTTt / 3RT / ^ ............i t 'if... (then)....’

The following table Is a broad presentation of conditional sentences.

As you see, there Is much ambiguity as well as overlapping in their
use : e.g. both (2) and (3) can be used to express the improbable,
unrealistic conditions in the future; both (4) and (5) can be used to
express the impossible condition In the past.

1. 3ptc if Rcrfl srrann, strot Highly probable

facfjTT I Both the subsidiary as well as the
If come to Delhi I shall meet you. main clause have future tense.

2. 3PR if f e # 3TTOT, eft A little less probable

ftcfrTTI The subsidiary clau se has past
If I came to Delhi I would meet tense, main clause has future
you. tense.

3. 3PTT if Rcxfl 3IT£, cTt 3JN% Improbable, unrealistic, imaginary

M ' conditions

If I came to Delhi I would meet Use of future without tit, i , i t in

you. both the clauses.

4. 3TJTT if Rcrfl 3ncTT, i t 3TFRt Improbable, unrealistic conditions,

foeRTT I Wishful thinking, impossible
If I came to Delhi I would meet you This structure can be used in all the
three tenses.

Both the clauses have verb-root +

cfl, i , i t

5. 3JTR if Rwft 3WT FftTT, i t 3TR^ Impossible condition

ficll FtcTT I Both the clauses have past form of
If I had come to Delhi I would the main verb + Ft3T, i f i , i t i t
have met you.


1. 3PR e£*T *TTCT % TftlMHifl Ft*t, What will you do if you are the
eft W ? Prime Minister of India ?
2.- 3PTT *IKd % '9'tJHd^l |>t2„
eft W ?
3. 3PR <J*T *TRxf 4>
eft 4^TT <t>0 ?
^ta^T, I What would you do if you were the
Prime Minister of India ?
4. <jhk rj^r ^ kci % srapnMt gift,
eft 4*fT ct*<.c) ? )
5. 3PTT 'MKd USn-TT^t What would you have done if you
Ftft, eft W R>*tl FtefT ? had been the Prime Minster
of India.

6 . 3ptt ^ sraPT^Nt F t^ n , ?ft If I am the Prime Minister of India I

tu + ifl O N w rn i will cut down the public holidays.
7. 3h r ^ sryMH^i ^3n, eft
wfcR.ilI 4^ <t>«pJll I
8. 3PR Ft3>, eft tK'T'lCI ^ If I were the Prime Minister of India
O *s I / I would cut down the public
I holidays.
9. 3RR ^ 'STSndHjfl FtcfT, eft e u t'ld
i M \ 4^ <fK.dl I
10. 3PR ^ sreiMHsfl g3TT FtcfT, eft If I had been the Prime Minister of
CK't’iO 4?t Ffcff I India, I would have cut down the
public holidays.
For more examples se e pg. 299

Making W ishes!
3HR ... cit ; if ... then ; I wish

i 3mr cjj? 3rret, ^t f e w arwr 3n^ !

tlcTT I
3PTT anaft, eft fe i'ii 3fWT Ft I I wish you came !
How nice it would be if you came.

2. 3FTT ft Weft iMt, eft Wft ^T?I ft Weft Ftcft !

ffaft I I wish I were a fish !
3PT C f t ' W e f t g l * , <Tt H i'fl f t f t ¥ I

If I were a fish, I would swim in the water.

3. 3PR Fteft, eft W w r f t 4W ^Ttt' feff I

4*7% I I wish wishes were horses !
3PTT ^wro; ^tt #t, eft W WTft
^ I
If wishes were horses everyone
would ride.

4. 3PTT ff ETWPT gieii, ctf fe q f W <=h|SJ! ff IH4H I?RTT !

‘WTTI I wish I were rich !
3RTT ff tH4M Ft5, eft
If I were rich, I would travel around
the world.

5. 3f7R ff ^?T FteTT, fit ft 4F Wc^Rt FtcTt !

4tTcTTI I wish I were the president of the
3PTT ff ^ 7T3FT U^MicI FtS, rft
= R W 1 W efr# |
If I were the president of the country,
first of all I would reduce population.

Use of emphatlcs *ft, at, #t, with reference to things that did not
happen in the past and also are not going to happen In future.______

Just as the two-speech patterns In English language given below

mean the same thing and can be used interchangeably, so also their
corresponding Hindi speech patterns mean the same and can be
used interchangeably.

The sentences using 'either' at the end to rule out a possibility u ses
*ft, while the'neither ....not* sentences require the use of rft’, ‘f t ’

la. 3F SiTUT *ft 3TP37TT *ft -Tiff I He didn't come and he won't come
lb. rft 3F 3JFTC 3?tT ^ stfott I Neither did he come nor is he
2a. 3ft ^PTT ^ t I have never cooked food and won't
3?fT W ^ f t *ft I cook either.
2b. =T rft 3ft ifnft ^FTT TOW t 3?fT Neither have I ever cooked food
=T ft M+ljM) ift I nor will I ever do so.
3a. ^3*ft ftfft 4ft ’ft aftr 4F She has not stolen and she cannot
*ft ^ I steal either.
3b. 4T gt ^ f t ftfft # t 3?lT ^ Neither has she stolen nor could
3F 4iT # *PFrft ft1 she ever steal.
4a. ^F ®ik MClffIT ft me ■if?l She did not pass the examination
3?Tt Fftft ftt 4 # l this time and will never pass it either.
4b. =T eft 4F FH ^TT FftSTT if W Neither did she pass the examina­
3?tT ftt Fftt Fbft I tion this time nor will she ever pass.

5a. 3ft Fftt fttTTFF FFft I have never worn a foreign dress
3?tT MS^Fl ’ft 'Tiff I and I will never wear it either.
5b. ^ rft ftft fftM ftTCTFF FFft I have neither worn a foreign dress
ft 3?fT FF^fftt ftt i nor will I ever wear it.

6a. ftft 4>ftt ?J5 'left 4lcil 3?fT 4>ftf I have never told a lie and will
qlejfti ’ft l never tell one either.
6b. I have neither told a lie nor will I
Fftt 41^11 ift I ever do so.
Use of PPC and IPC with reference to activities involving lapse of time

Perfective Participial Construction (PPC) (a, b)

Imperfective Participial Construction (IPC) (c, d)
**" In the sentences given below, a and b, though of a grammatically
different construction, have the sam e meaning and can be used
interchangeably. Similarly, c and d, though grammatically different,
can be used interchangeably.

1a. Rcrfl Ft Fief Ft 7|TT It has been two years since they
tl left Delhi.
b. 'd-fM f t c # Ft FW FF^ 1 They left Delhi two years ago.
c. m% PrcTl TF^t Ft FlcT Ft
7m f i They have been living in Delhi for
d. % Ft mcr % f e # xf Ft ? i two years.
2a. 't'Hdl =Ft f ^ t ^ Ft It has been several years since
7m f i Kamla learnt Hindi.
b. 4>Hdl ^ F*f FF^ 1 Kamla leamt Hindi several years ago.
c. 4>Hdi mt ffMt Fmr Kamla has been learning Hindi for
Ft 7m ^ i several years.
d. ‘t'Hcll 47^ FTcFt % ffly X^t f* 1
3a. f >t fft^ Fm rfrr T^t^ It has been three months since the
Ft 7m ff i child took the medicine.
b. % cftF 7^t% FF^ FFT^ 1 The child took the medicine three
months ago.
c. 4^ ^ t fft^ ^ cfm m?t% The child has been taking medicine
Ft tut f | for three months.
d. f ^ ft cfFr % fft^ xft 11
4a. 3|pTcT Ft FiRT FT? FTpT It has been a long time since Anil
m m Ft tm f | studied in France.
b. FlPlcl % «lgrt m m Hgrt mm Anil studied in France a long time
H<SI^ F^t 1 ago.
c. 3iPi ci F t ftf fs% inj f § ct
m m Ft TmT f? i Anil has been studying in France
d. 3?Pmr 4^d mm ^ frt if ff for a long time.
TFT t 1
Use of emphatic ‘eft’

eft follows the verb rft follows the subj. or object

1. ft eft tn??TT i? I
I do study. What else shall I do ? I (indeed) study (meaning - 1don't
know about others).

2. gft «jcTRT ftt 8TTI OTft eft sjfTTOT 4T I

He did invite me. He had certainly invited me
(meaning - 1don't know if he invited
others or not).

3. ft (Hon.) 3TFT 4ft ft) f I f t eft arnr ftft 4 ir ft § i

He does like you. He (indeed) likes you (meaning - 1
don't know If anybody else does so
or not)

4. gft Tncft ftt ft) 4t, ft) 'll left) ftt ftt I
Hill 41ft *TTI He (certainly) abused me.
He did abuse me, but did (meaning - 1don't know whether he
not hit me. abused any body else or not)

5. ft 3j3 ftftfcTT ftt f, fftft f t eft S J S fttrteTT f I

I do tell a lie, but only sometimes. I do sometimes tell a lie (I have no

idea whether anybody else does
so or not).

■s* English language speakers will not actually use these bracketed
words. The emphasis would be conveyed by mere Inflexion of the
voice, where as Hindi speakers must u se ftft’ for the required

★ ★ ★
Antonyms ftd lH
3TTF9RF> necessary 3RTTRWRR' unnecessary
=hleli dark (complexion) FlTT fair ( complexion)
?TRT tranquil, peaceful STSTFcT agitated, disturbed
3TRT income cIRT expenditure
useful SRjqgRcT unbecoming,
3TRtT9T sky MIdlei the nether world
^iHd soft RTStT hard
chief fW subsidiary;
w secondary
SJjf religion irreligion
rare; unavailable easily available
yiHI-if ordinary; common M®f special
STRUCT import PrafcT export
TT^TRFTT good behaviour <j<4qgK bad behaviour
FcRF light Rift heavy
kind cruel
cR^T tall •ncl short (height)
complete ST^TT incomplete
near w far off
Wf heaven ■1<.R> hell
?ttR> grief rtf joy
yi4H ancient srqMH modern
P rtt slander; backbiting praise
3TF ignorant fair one who knows;
<?#Tr right RRTT left
stable 3#TT unstable
ip^T dirty WF clean
TT&R abridged (form) fecfTT extension, detail

'jkH birth ^3
clear unclear
generous 3FJ5K not generous
cfg short long
intelligent ¥
merit 3fapjoT demerit
3TRT respect 3HKT disrespect
flcT benefit / interest 3ff^rT harm / damage
ara^t devilish godly
TOT mortal / perishable 3TTOT immortal /
^f%?T proper 3FJ^RT improper
3M+R service 31TOT disservice
3nfepF theist '1lRocr> atheist
desire SlRl^l disinclination

dlf^'T' worldly other worldly/

good luck ^vrfnr bad luck

<5131 reverence 3TSn5T lack

of reverence
HRRld limited/finite arqRRtcf limitless/infinite
3T»^tT rich *1(l«l poor
3t«fl false TRT true, good
TfcW right path w r wrong path
<u<«M boon aiR tro curse
TOTT having a form R rrm r formless
^cfaTT present 3T?flTT past
^TTef watery RpsfeT waterless
apiRtsr ignorant Rra knowledgeable

WcT known SRTlcf unknown

m decay arm imperishable
Plfitiil inactive Trf^TT active
good smell bad smell

★ ★
S ynonym s

3tf?=T 3TRT, 3Hd, Mld't' fire

3ra w , 3 m fr ignorant
3I^W srfl^fUr, srjrt matchless; incomparable
3pjm r fM$rr, 3f^n darkness
3m 'f h , P i^ ^ mean, low
3i^d gstT, *?R nectar
3TTO ^T, 4'lcl, RPH forest
3tW 4lc4>, 5?, cjttt, 41ft horse
ERR, TTSR, demon
3IFW et4, 3lPRR, W R pride/arrogance/vanity
3TM WT, ^“TEFT, ^lg, ^ eye
311^1^1 'MM, ^T^T, 3RRR, 3|«K sky
3nw ^ <tuPl, EfcTRf, ^>2TT, ‘t'gl'fl myth, legend, fable
3)H>-t; IR, 3TIFeTK, yt)"idi happiness
3tR TRcT, 3H¥, fop mango
^?5T 3fm?TT, WFTT, 3fftc=fM desire
R tR , ^TM, T^rqfcr Lord Indra/god of rains
^ITcTT WST, 3T1#^, fftH l light
R3R, -tlfc+l, ^Tf^TT small wood/grove
SR, t^T, UHpd glory/affluence
mc=r HcjH, <l41d, Ht>«i, 4 h R lotus
4’H'SI 3F5T, 3TRT, 4U, qed cloth/a piece of clothing
^cT¥, WTf^CT, a tree in heaven that grants all
desires of one who sits
beneath it.
‘t'1'1 ’gf^, ‘t'4, ?Rui ear
+w4<l T f^ #, ipfR, TfrFm god of love / Cupid of Hindu
f4v<.ul ^TtfrT, 30g, OTT, Tf^T, 4tPcT ray of light

R'dKI : cT3T, <ftr, <^TT, W coast, bank of river etc.
|RT FFT, 3^+J-m, 3TJW kindness
^ eott R f f , wpt , TftqTcT, R R a r Lord Krishna
WT FSft, R m , FFFT bird
W H<jiR>'fl, «tkg4l, ^rpftrsSt, the river Ganges
MF frt, ff elephant
TFtF : IIUIMRI, RdW*, FFTFF Lord Ganesh, Hindu god of
4<, ■illdldt PlFdd house / dwelling
<^yid, Ri^ui, y41ui, ft clever
^FZ ftc, s# r, ^ 5, tt#* t moon
•clPfi'M ^?FF7, moonlight
del ctiR, ^fl<, dl4, wff, FF water
d Jld RR-1, <t>M*1, <4KUF, dd forest / jungle
ftft wiciydiH, diRyyid waterfall
RrFT, 3TFTF, 3FJF a lie, untrue
FdFTT ^TFT, tF^F, dKdld, dS^lF sword
dKI fstf , Rcnrr star
dldN ftift , fftsw , fftf pond
rPtr FFT, FT, FT arrow
ff F’PFT, %FF>, 3RRT, HR-4K+ servant
Rf f^ST, ^6 {, f^T day
5 :^ *ter, ocrt, f * f , %fft pain / unhappiness
F ^ th, # r , f f , f r f milk
W F cT wicked person
<iddl, FFT, ^T god
% FFFT, FftT, FF, FTF body
FTcft ^cft, ■gRr, frjfjtt, R# earth
W™ FTF, SKIFF, bow
F^t f R ft, ft IM , FRRt river
hff + k MW, 3lRlFTFF, ffh * greetings
FFT ••jdd, dl^Mld, dd new
HI4 FRiT, Fttt, FTWft boat

*7%eTT, ^PfcTT woman
*TR, TTTT^cT, Pi <t K always / eternally
w f t , TJMTEfTT, srMw husband
3T«fMt, *rmf, TITT wife
R tTT, ctl*^d, ''TtT leaf
^R, cTTcT, «PRf> father
«1i\, SfTfJRT, *jcT son
3RR3n, cFj^TT, gaT daughter
TW , flower

^PFITT, f^TT, ^ 7 # , light


w r, *% , m love / affection

r =tt, ^Pr, TrwpfT monkey


^ r , 'jRR, Rfrar cloud


^>7T, <t>Tld hair


W , ■?teT, *hft, *TT#, RT friend


^Prm, f^T^, yRH, 3)Icl-H world

^tT, 3>IeT time

★ ★ ★
S om e S ound W ords
51 in Everyday U sage

sound produced bycuckoo

f^c=Tf%cTFTT „ camel cfid
gsft |3 tt cj^rr „ jackal
3ft 3ft „ cricket (insect) 3fhR
+1=i „ crow ^|3TT
<5515'll, „ lion trr
1'MI „ donkey w
zf zi ^TTT .. frog
W H „ snake #T
iftlftrjm .. goat «i^0
xfFWFTT, 'CI6^'1I „ bird Mi-s-MI
l« tR l „ cow TTFT
|J«lkHI „ blackbee ’ftn
ftHPHMI „ housefly
’ft ftt ^TTT „ dog 4>cdl
„ horse
•Hn3; -Rra; „ cat Rrcft
pig w*
fo n w n „ elephant FT«ft
o „ peacock ftrr
WT ^RT / „ cock gnr
Rft rrrt , r # n „ duck 'sfccKd
dHdHMI sound produced by bringing out #>T
tongue again and again
sound of the humming of music MM1
Z-T Z~’T 3RRT sound produced by tinkling of bell
zv zv ^rn sound of dripping water
burning like wild fire 3TPT

sound produced by a bow ti^ r
+ 4 + d H l sound produced by grinding of teeth
sound of train \ef»1P£t
e![^> ' f x . ' l l

if5 ^ T T sound produced by lightning

W 7H T hoisting of flag
f^ > =R7TT sound produced by a clock
h4< 'tK'll sound produced by dry leaves Mrdl
*TTC ^ tt lonely forest uPM
Tf)3> IT ^ i • M ' l l sound produced by rail engine
tPT tTR, <M <oH sound produced by drum-beating <Jld
dMdMHI sound produced by sword ctmrt:
SW TFTT sound produced by bullets / arrows ilc ft

if if it it sound produced by motor-horn ■iirt:

FTFTFTT sound produced of turbulent water flowTflit

★ ★ ★
1. *R PRR RS^TT to loss one's sense of discretion and
^ tjR 3RcT *R FRR PF t , 3FPTT ^ EFT if FPTT TFT 11
2. 3i w tftEIT FRRT to grind one's own axe, to make a
wrongful gain by duping someone
3PPTT ‘f t 'l l 3IN <?j«t 3TTcTT ^ |
3. 3Tq% ^ t^rcff ^TTT to beat one's own drum, to praise
3rq^ ijF fimf % W cTPT, ^Irf Ft M t RF ^ cTYR 3TFT W I
4. 3PT% qfR t|x ^ t f cjn-FI^ HKnl to act in a manner detrimental to
one'sown interest
3TPt TOFTRTTOf % 5PTFT W , FRSTt 3FPt TO if 3TFT <£<rFlit RRRT ! i
5. 3PJ3T to F T i thumb one's nose at; to turn down a
FFT* pfrcft 3IRR FF% R3F RP1% 11 ft*5?t T O ? F*Rf Ft tft (200)
w ( fc r % fotr retr R F t-R '3'-#} f ^t 3 h p f^rr fo u l
6. 3fT^r % W T #TT to be very very angry
ift t o t M - s M FRT FT Stl^r % RTFT Ft Rpt 11
7. 3JT# if sjcT #4>RI to deceive / to throw dust in one's
fo r for % F ^ cfR 3tT# if STfo FR TRT if ^TFT I
8. 3IT# <ft FRT FtRT to be the apple of one's eyes
3FJ 3?tT RT if U5tctTl 3TPFt FF OKI ^ I
9. 3TR#^r FFT enemy in the garb of a friend
ip f « iW if R fo ft fo n ^ I irft £t ftpFT 3rftR>lft % 4R% R*pt i f o
c ra ^ R !^ l RF Ft W p r if STRtftF RiT # T ffoRF I
10. 'fcT RF RRTF r f r % forr tit for tat; nose for a nose, eye for an
Rfff R?[^ HRltfl ^9T RTTF ^ftFT RT 3»lst>-Hul 'tfoll Ft RKd % «ldH 'fcT RF RRIF
RRR % ^ I

11. FF ^ FtFT to be rarely seen
rJF Ft FF RTF Ft tier Ft; FF?f t?t Ff?f ^ I
12. i z % f z «MMI to destroy completely
3TFftFF %TT1F> ~tz %^ Z «MI 4t I
13 fHT FpOT, TIER R if to be between the devil & the deep
sea; a difficult situation under any
't'W FF?T FT?f 3TRTT FFT FRF, WE ^31T % iFER EFlf I
14. 3 " f l y /^ F FF 3trr FtFT a negligible difference
^ ^ tw ktkf FT^ T^F l?t FFTF FFTt t I FTTFF R^ffa-ktF FF 3RTT $\ I
15. RFcft d*HI to point the finger at
^FTt FT RFcft ^ 61*11 F*F clt'Tl F*t FTt^TT FT?f E}FT I
16. 'd'idt FT 'i^ i’ii to make someone dance to one's
FTFRT 3FRt Ffct F?t FT FFF RFcft FT FFTcft 11
17. RFcft fkfi?FT FFFTFFT to be quick on the uptake
FFTt FFT T5FT Tit t , FF Ft FFrft fkf^FT FF'FHrt 11
18. e*Fe #t F F^t Tt FTFTFT to treat all alike
c J F F F F ? T E ^ r ft F F ^ t % # T F t F t I E 5 t t - F t F F ST T F T E F F T F # et jftr f ^ r
% FFF etFT F#ET|
19. F^t F t^t FF F#TT etft FRFI to work very hard
T p f t % f F tJ tc f t T?t • f t F 'f t F > t F l k fcTF; E ^ t F l t f l F F F ? ffF T ErF> F R k F T |
20. FiFT FTFT of back to be broken; to be very
WFTT F it t ^ ft Ft F>FT ZZ I I
21. FFFJFett FFFT to be a puppet
22. RF^t FFT FFtFT for things to go against the accepted
FFlk FUMHsfi 3TF^ f If F F> FFTt F^t FESJFcft F% t I FF Ft dc-cfl FFT FF
T^t 11
23. F^PFT 'gF Fk 3JTFT to be excessively unhappy and
RTTFkt FRFWt F^t FS FR ^TTT Ft FRtRT e| f F?t FTFt 11

24. FFF R ^ F ^TRT to turn a deaf ear; to absolutely not
to pay any attention
i f t F% t£tmn 3?R RTF T5t?^ FgF FFFTFT t , Rcj; FFFt FFF R Feft
25. fa r FT FR5F FTF FR ^ c in to risk one's life; to have no fear for
F m t RFTF TftFTFf RTT % fotr fa r FT FR5F FTET FR FHct t I
26. FTtT^ FF «tcT FFFT to work day and night
FTTF if FR^Tt F>t icT F^t FT? FFF FR% FT ’ft Ft FFF WFT FT?f RtcH
Midi I
27. FTT^ if RFT to be kept in abeyance
TTFT if FFfFT FFFT if c M % F 3Tt% % FTFRT FR5 FR t3 if F? FFT 11
28. TTft-^ft tjFMI to call a spade a spade; to be out­
spoken without caring to be pleas­
F? Ff|F FFF % ?if FFT T?T FT I 3tlRu I'twct d'FI? if% R f 3T1%FTFt
Rifi aftr 0-<fi (I TjFrf i
29. Frft-TFt^t *jFMI to speak out bitter truths
TTF % F R FTFF if frrft ).lddFi?<ft % F R F ^ f FgF TTft-TTt^t TJFTt FTRJ
30. TJF FF TFTFT ?tFT to thirst for blood; to be bent upon
killing someone
RTRFR FRJSft % fell!, TFRT FF'-'jtA ^ TJF % ?t FTt ff I
31. FTR if FPR FTFT to put things in a nutshell
F? ^ 5 FF Ft FTR if FTR i 1
32. F% ^ FTT1FFT to rake up the dead past; to flog a
dead horse
Rt gFT Ft g3TT, 3IF F% ^ RTITRt % ^ RTF F^f I 3TRt R?t F t f ^ I
33. FTS if FTSTFT to make a note of
RF if F?cft FR FT % FH^ RFT, Ft Rid I ^ Ft^, %cTT, *1(1 FF’ FRT FT5 if
FTF ^ I f^TTRft FR«ft FTR Ft, FF^ ^t i r FFRFT I F^¥f FF R F TIFT I
34. PHfid ^ t FT? TF FFcTFT to change like a chameleon
35. gF^t FF cTTR a jewel in rags
RTcTFFTgT WT^t gF^t cFlef I

36. FT F t gift FTH «ki«K #TT an easily accessible thing, howso­
ever good, is not appreciated
3TFt FT t Ft t FT F t FTR «KI«K ^ I F it Rid-ii H'f'dM «tdic£,
cR l| lisfidl F it FRFT I
37. FT ^ ciHivii ttsHI to ruin oneself for cheap pleasure
c p ^t RF RtFt 3 % Ft Rt FT *fjff FR FFTCTT t n t t1
38 F1F FT FFF* to add insult to injury
FtF*t F fo R t t FFTR FF RTF t t FfF <£st 11 RFFt M RFTFR FFF* FTF
FT FFF> fws^'ll t I
39. FTeT-FTcT F*T FFft itFT to be widely travelled and experi­
RT^ F RFRTt, t t FTF-FTF FF F ltt RlFT t flT RFet ftftFT FFFTFFT f I
40. F it %F FR HtFT to sleep like a log
F F t FFFt t r F"2t FRT^ I M l % eRFTRI F #R T I TJTTFftFR F i t t F FR
41. Rkif eft 3T&TT nearer the church, farther from God
ft(sO FFt F it t F*F R lti'k jT3TTI FF c?T Rr TF elt 3T*tTT i t FFTI
42. ^T^FT F ltt t ^F FTFT to die of shame
t/FT FRF FFF F R t ej*t Fhf F 3Tlt; ^Pe^ FT F ltt t ^R F t I
43. t i t FT FFTW RFFT to be terror struck
e£F?lt t i t FT FFTFFT FFt RF Tit t ?
44. t F F t F it RRTFT to live comfortably
RR % RFRt F t t f e t t RrF*et t , t t F F t R?t RRlt t I
45. (RFT FFF FR tFT to bestow plentifully as a godsend/
windfall gain
46. (Ret FT tjf FRFT to be a source of constant vexation
RtFFt 3PRft FRTTF RFFt (Ret FT ^JF F t, R F t RFFR F tF <£*ltwrtt FlFT?
47. (Ret FT FTF RtFFT to turn green with envy; to be very
FTFFt t t t FFFT t FFF F R t RlRt F t (Ret FT FTF e t i TFT t1
48. (Ret *£RFT to swell with pride
JR t mOsTTt FFF TRTF FFF F R t FT Rid I F t (Ret JjeF F^ I
49. R t FT FFF> fesF>dl to add insult to injury
FF Fl F F t £t FtfflF t ; R^t 3?R J # FR% R t FT FFF* F I
50. TOT % TOT FFFT to be in the jaws of death
7TT#r % g^FTO/TF Ft% FT FgF TTFlfMt % F#f FF FtF f^TT 3?R FgFf F?t TOT
% dlel FF FT( |
51. PlTOt) % f^T ^ FRFT to count one's days / to live a
difficult and hard life
%TOT TOTHfe M t FTF f«M t % ftF ^ FR TFT11
52. FFF FT TOW ^tFT to refuse point-blank
3ft ^flcTT ^ TOT FT FFF FR^t FT) F^T, FF% ^?t FFF-FT TOW 3 f^FT I
53. ifF FRFT to brag / to boast
54. Fcjir TOFT to lick (someone's) boots/ to indulge
in abject flattery
Tjft frftt % cigtr tUFFT FTFF F#f I
55. frtcT FF FTF «MIFl to make a mountain of a mole hill
s f t f t - T O $ IcIcT FF TO FF"ft F?t ^ l ( 1 3TTFcT «H|cr FRW t I
56. cjcft FTcTFT to hold unquestioned sway
3TTTOTT FFft TOR 3f FRTT FTTO F?t c^ft Ftrftt 11
57. ^ TOT-TOT 3f TO-TO for one to go deeper in the matter
than the other
3TTF TOT-TOT |r Ft ft Hld-FTF ^ I TOT Fft FF FF> HgFFI ftft Irik. TOt TOT FF
fteT 11
58. ?JF5 FR TOFT to eat one's own words; go back in a
TIHlftg aroft TOT FF SFft t , ft) FFFT t FF FRFT f , 2JFI FR TOFT RFFF
tFFIF Flft I
59. TOtt FF tF F one whose opinions follow self-in
ftcTT etcll Ft FTeft FF ftFF Ft% ft1
60. FF ft FF 3TTFT to feel relieved (of some tension,
agony, etc.)
61. FF ’gFFT for one to find it difficult to breathe
% 3 ftlT FF ^FFT11

62. toT t o tocfT q«Hn to be wonderstruck/aghast
FTT TT FT t o % «t ld<=r> % TPTT F>F F>T FT I|F FTcto Tl TFFTT,
FT F^tol % t o t t o TjtoT FFT eft I
63. FTeT FFFT #TT (for there to be) something fishy
3TTF TF TTFT-TTFi ‘t'B'J,, 'g^T Ft Fj?J FTeT If FHeTT eFT TFT t I
64. FFT ewiMi to sully one's reputation
3fto «lto FFFTF
O ff TF F>T 3lto FTT
O F^T FFT Tiff milcl I
65. gF FF gsj FFff FF FFff just decision
FTtfT to FFT: +FgO ^ FTFT iff c^PTt % Ffto PiMCIrl *f I toeTT FTeT TTF
% gET FF ^ET to r Hl'fl FF Hl'fl FT t o I
66. toTT % to W f Ttt even walls have ears
tottofeTTri totTf % to FFT t o t
67. ?£T ^ FTeT T to T Fk-t! to be old and truly experienced
f t o w r g§T fft ftttt toto;, ff t f t a r to f t f ttfft f i
fto SJF Tf Flel t o n •to RiV, ? I
68. TTF^-fito ci'iiii to exaggerate
TTTWT-Fto FFT: TTFf T T T -M eFTIFT fel# t o t 11
69. T to r T %TF 3f of no consequence
TTF?T TFT <toT T toTT TF? W i t ; % Tt T ftoft to # F f T ftTF I
70. 'iitt> FFTTT to lose face
f^IrTT to % t o ftto % T ito g?T T to t o % F4FT FT! f t o I totTTTTFTTr
t o to r Hl'fl Hl'fl to FFT I
71. Tito t o FFFTTT to harrass someone too much
t o t o % a t o ttw Tktoto to Tito t o f f f f Ti
72. Tito FTF FT TRT to be in a sad plight
wtot ! t o gT eTTF 9kkd <t><'1l t o wlil*!, FT f(to TFT gFT to g^-Slfl TTto
73. FIT to TtoeT sin'll to bring someone under control
tft 3ito t o to t o w tff to to to wcftt T t o 11
74. TFT TTTTT to earn name and fame
totocTT t o r ^ T t o apEST ttt fwftt 11
75. Tt ^T 'Hks #TTT to make good one's escape; to turn
g fto % TTTT-TTcT FT F f t o % F to t o to Ft WRF FT W I

76. zz w n to be hit by calamity
eft Tfcg %«tR tf^TR ^R 3#raf 4^T*TFR f?t Z Z TRTI
77. trer ciqfU gHl gospel truth
t f t ^TcT 4?t 3RT RRT 4?t cT^tT ^nf^TR I
78 RRT 4v^TT FRT a heart of stone
tj=T% ^R ’ft 33^; 3 tf f^T^Rt; RrTT Ft4R ’ft RR3T ^RR 43 sRtRT
79. 4 R t 3HjfeRR # t #TT to have one's bread buttered on both
STRRieT «J|4K 3PR5T *IcT TFT t l RT4t iM Jilfalff sft t t I
80. td ' t 4Ttt tRT to be precocious
% *R t 4Ttt F t# 11
81. *R <?R4T to suffer the pangs of hunger
r ! o ^ i *R t ^ <?R 7 t I1
82. t t 4RF FfTT to have things one's own way
3TH4R F R t RFTT-RFff F*rft R 3TR t, F*r « fc 4 ) 3 ? t TTT 4 t 3 K .F t F HTt
R F t t 4lft R t FtrTT t 1
83. ReTT
4 TPTRT to be in the seventh heaven
■5R T3T 3l4d{l W 4R% cR4 % cfRl, RT% RctT-f%T ^ 4 TRT T t *t I
84. R4>-tRF
3R 4R3 <.<fHI to tread on eggs
u w

^ 3iRT H3HI RT43 TRTR t I
85. 4 R FR 43 %cT too easy a job; child's play
4 ? 433 TTt 4 R 134 43 TtcT t I
8 6 . 4TcT ’ft 4T43 4 FtRT to escape unscathed
4 R TRR R F3TTT ft4?TT 3c=R 34T, W | TFTRT 4RT ’ft 4T43 4 f31T I
87. ’M t f^ c # RT4T to be meek and quiet
4 | 4 4R T T T t 4 R T t S f l t% T ^ t 4 ? t ^ t ’f h ft f a e # R R 3?tT
3 F p f t - 3 P R f t g ? 4 4 > H d 'l e h t I
88 . 3R4T to idle time away
Tpff 4$t TjftdTTt
O *N
t 3R% % 3TR5T f ^ Fl4t TftR 4t I
89. ip. c1l<+*HI to look to someone for support
4 t RRTT-f'fcTT 3T34T TR SR 3T ^3^ 3R ^ 4? ^5T^f R’RiT ^ TTRkT

90. Tp? FT FFTW 3FHI to be terror-struck
fuftM m FiRmt % tjf ft fftfft enfti
91. tp? FtF FFTF ^TT to give a shattering reply
FiFcTT FT WIcT FF ^ TJF FtF M t % 3fFt W F ^ t F#f ^FTcTT I
92. i j r f t F*f FRFT to grease somebody's palm
FTTF 3lMF'd Sifll'tilRql F^t "Thf Riy, f®Hl F ^ FFF "l^f «l*ictl I
93. TF FF FFFT for a happy occasion to be marred
TFft F^t FIT# % Ft f#T 9 # T3FT# fa n Fft FFT F*t I FF TF # FF FF FFT I
94. TfF^ TT%FtFT to give one the creeps
3rq^ f ^ # F t - # # r # t # f f f if t f t F t Trt st ff ; i
95. cTF?tT FF FF#T FtFT to be a traditionalist
FT FRT # el4iH FF Hi‘£)<. Ft% F?t 3FF9FFFTT FT?t, Fp? jRg, % FFF cftf^TF I
96. c=TT? FF #F?T TF RPTT to swallow an insult
3TR F>SF # 3THTTFFi % f^TT FFTF #TT 3TFFTF f#FT | ff eT^ FF #FR TF
97. ct# % f f MI to face a tough, nerve-recking task
FTFT # ! sRT FTRTF # T # % ^Ff FFTFT t I FT 1 # # # FF # t F # I
98. R<4HI to raise false hopes
FTF: <h«M

FHI R<fH<t><. Fit?
FFR «t^Fl F^T 3FT% ^FT ef Flrl t I
99. F%F SJ5 a barefaced lie
3tRfef % F£F f#FT I FF FTF F #F ^ 11 # ^TTRTTT ^ I FF ^ FT f \
100. Riciki f f f >h of stars to be in the ascendent
3TTFFFF t^FTT f^TTTT FFFT §3TT 11 3 *f R t?% FT % RlT^t # #FT Ft FT#

101 %T FT# FT tsPTT to welcome profusely

T F F F F T F f# % F T T T T tt, % # %T FT# FT f%#t f I
102TT# FT TJF1FT added excellence; fragrance added
to beauty
TTF # fRcTT % Ff|cT STF-TT## f t # # I FF T T # f R=5TF % FFFF FFTT
103.FFT % Ft% FT TTFTT FtFT to be in a hurry
5tFR 3fT?t t I

104.FPT ^cT something worthless
%TT FFT ^>T ^cT % I dl<l fciy, ?t
«Tlcf t I

105.#T9T TJ? «fFTT to lose one's wits; to be thoroughly

WTcT ^rci 4>f 3Fpff 3?ft pi^i ~^S ^Itr |

★ ★ ★
P roverbs
1. 3tR = t R # f PT wisdom is more powerful than body
2. 3 ) H ' f l - 3 H ' f l S H ic d 3 i m i - 3 H H I <IJI absolute lack of concord
3 3T #^f R R T R ? R ^ f R f c R R R one can't achieve much alone
4 3TSRTef 'M id W c-W d R R half filled pot splashes and overflows
5. 3r r jr t t t r t t F ta , r r It is no use crying over split milk
^IT %cf
6. 3F?Jt i f W 1 <.m i a slightly intelligent person among
the fools
7. 3fT f c T 'g^ r R R to invite troubles for oneself
8 3 M % 3 f& , R R a man with a name absolutely
opposite to his character
9. 3 J R % 3 T R ^ J sfc R t % R R to doubly benefit from something
10. drci r Tt qdddlci RT 3TT^ the one at fault blaming the
innocent person
11. R ^ f J < w d I£ fR T T O F I more show, less work
12. PR 2 fc ft % absolutely alike
13. P R fo R T R i f R f R R R T ^ R # f R F you can't run with the hare and
R R c ff hunt with the hounds
14. P R R T RT W Kill two birds with one stone
15. P R trap R t R P R many hands make work light
16. PR FR Tt died Rl?t q«ied it takes two to make a quarrel
17. RTS R#t RTR-RTR Rl?f RScft one cannot deceive again and
18. q i 'i ic d i f 3TTST iflcTT to face misery after misery
19. RRTR % pTRcTT #C RTRT R # 3TTRT a word spoken is past recalling
20. RtRT RFR Pi'Fed ^lf?qi the gain is much less than effort
and expectation
21. R T T R P; R I T T R , R R R T R f R R R T R R one without any firm mind of his
22. R T R T ^ T eTRT <S1% mutual discord and hostility brings
23. R T R T ^ R T d $ , f i f R->d) R T F T when the cat is away, the mice will
R #f play

25. 'W FF> Wf cTF cfF> 3TRT while there is life, there is hope
26. «nft fttX Fft eftM X# half a loaf is better than none
27. 'SfFTXTCFF!F XTF where there is a will, there is a way
28. eflft TTOFft % might is right
29. ftt FX^fft t %FXflft barking dogs don't bite
30. 3J<5 %ftift wr ? lies have no feet
31. ?®lft ftft let'll FF «gKl a frail support
32. ftft ftfa W ftft ftft eTfftt ftk cut the coat according to cloth
33. ftft fftxt tM4c ftWT t let's see what the result is
34. ^Xf F>T^XTSift FF HIft) to do justice
35. ^ Stk ^p^ft Ftft t distant fields seem green
36. ftx 31IX.^XXfT 3fT^ better late than never
37. 'ft H4>4 F cl <5 nJEITX cash dealings are better than
38. HN X ufft 3TPFT 2<il a bad workman blames his tools
39. XFT ftl fc f JXRT ft) f^T old is gold
40. *[F ft XTFFFeTft '0ft outwardly polite but actually a cheat
41. FF ft FFFTF <fXT give a dog a bad name and hang
42. ftftfTft? F^fXTFF ft) 3JFTF^FTft F) evil results in evil
43. FTF •T FTF ft ftxi ftFFFT an uninvited guest
44. FTFTFftFraTfftftF^XF^XcFftFTF rich people get richer
45. W ( fftftf % ffttj FI?) i>$Xdl time doesn't wait for anybody
46. ffft ff>ft) ftter f)f he lays best who lays last
47. w Fft f always the same; neither overjoyed
nor sad
48. ftift ft) FX ^nft cTTft ft) F z t do something in such a way that the
subject benefits without harming
49. FX F>ft F> fftF FFcft) ?
every dog has his day
50. FTF H>JM ftft 3nxftt FFT no proof is required for the obvious
51. Ffftt %FTFXITft %fttx fftXTTft ftk fraud and deception

★ ★ ★
Key structure
| Present simple!

TFT F>FTT c[TF?fF % *fFK<ldl 3Rft RtTTFT ‘FTTcftF *#TTT Fft fftFFFf ’ % feTRFfftFTRT
Fft tlftl % TTFHlcF'K F><. Tft ft I
TFT F^FTT : W T , TFft TT#FT, fT O Fft 3FFft TTFTFF R h ^-mT % Flft ft
TFft TTTfftFT : ft ffR TJFF FTT F% R3cft f |
TFT FiFTT : TFT ! 3TFT W f t TjFF FIT FRcft ft ?
TFft TTTfftFT : TTFft FFft ft TFFT F><ft) IT I
TFft TTlfftFT : ftt Fftf, ft FTF FT TFFT Fftf FRcft I ft 3FFf FT FT
TjTTcFFTft ^ TFTF FRcft f ; RTpft FTF ft ^JRT FRcft f I
TFT F>FTT : 3TR5T, 3TFT tJRT ftt FRcft t! FFf 3TPT TfR ftfftr if ^RT FRcft

TFft TTTfftFT : Fftf, ft ftfftr if TJFT Fftf FRcft I ft FT FT fttTJFT FRcft

O : 3ftr T3TT#r ftf ?
TFft TTTfftFT T3TT%FTF ft FfFTTFT FRcft f ; 3?tT RTT% FTF ft FFJFT FRcft
FTTcTT FRft-FRft ft 3TTFFIT ftt FFcff ^ I
O : 3TTF FT9cTT TTTtft-FT ft FRcft ft ?
TFft TTTfftFT ftt Fftf, ft FTFcTT fttRF-FRT ft FRcft f I
O : 3TTF fftF FF TTTFT fccFt Fft TFcft ft ?
TFft TTTfftFT ft fftF FF TFFTT FtFFT Fft TFcft f I

OK : 3?lT % FIT 3TTF FFT FTcff t ?
T p ft F # F T : TFF* % FK 3WIFF FTT F% cFF %3TITFT FTcft f I FTT F^T
% FFF F% FF> ^ FFT %?) f| 31)t cTFTT % TTx?t ^ I F f F
F% %~ 0:F«f FF> FF H<Scfl ^ H3l FcFT i? 3TtT rtW<)
F^T 3TTF9FF> 3TT^FTM ) ^ I WF ^T t?: F«T ctFTT I?Rft ^ 3?lT
3TF^ F% 3?tT F^Ft FT FTF *pft% *f TFelcft f I
TFT +OFK : 3TTF TTF FF FtFF I'f'd'f F% FTT?) ff ?
Tpft F#FT : t TTF FT) 3TT5 F% FtFF FTcft f I
O : 3TIF mFFFl'O t FT FTFTFrft ?
Tpft F#FT : ^t, 3f 911+IFlfl f I FlFF % FTF-FFT FF ^ T #F ^ f,
3tTt TFF^ tj'l cT j?1 TTF F>T FF F% FF FF FT FTcT f I
TtFF> f?1

^TFFfF (m.) television
FTSTTcFFT (m.) interview
O (PN) masculine name
FFKFTFT (m.) reporter
FlFTF (Eng.) programme
FTFftF (adj.) Indian
F%eTT (f.) woman
R- m 4 (f.) daily routine
f ^ ttmt (PN) a city in Punjab state, India
Tpft (f.) queen
FFTF (m.) respectful greeting; salutation
FiftFT an expression of respect used for women
FTFFF (adj.) ordinary
f Tft ; FFFT get up (after sleep)
FF ! (adv.) really!
FF% FF^ (adv./adj. superlative) first of all

Mid (m.) landing place
TFTFT (m.) bath
FTH W IT (v.t.) to take a bath
gnerapn (m.) bathroom
(f.) worship
(m.) temple
Ml'J'I'WM (m.) yoga practice
(m.) kitchen
^ P T -W (m.) dining room
Rm <MM1 (m.) lunch
R>a^| ? (adv.) what time ?
SPTO^ (m.) afternoon
3fKW (m.) rest
3TTTW 4><Ml (v.t.) to take a rest
Sfc (f.) meeting
■X1 % ^ w n (v.t.) to meet X
^frwc (m.) servant
3)N^4> (adj.) necessary
’3TTCt5T (m.) order; command
'df?c-Hi (v.i.) to take a stroll
TTcT ’Hl'Jl'1 (m.) dinner
wnwrff (adj.) vegetarian
(adj.) non-vegetarian
tfl«A (f. pi.) news
ERJMT? (m.) thanks
RT:TRf (adv.) no doubt
=M<rd (adj.) busy
(adj.) interesting

★ ★ ★

Key structure


3T : # T qq; Z J ^ ' 3tfoq I

^ : qF cflfaq qqr H c-h^ stt a k qq? rTW^r’ i
3T : focT% ^ gq ?
«r : H c' hQ.s r ’ % ardSRF w q (R s. 18.00) 3frr w
^T WIT (Rs. 1.50) I F>cT foWFT F tI F ^ faf W q (Rs.19.50)
I^ l
3T : qF % 2 ^ ’ focT^ qq t ?
^ : F^TTF (50) ^ SFT q*F ‘t e l f ’ I
3T : t , g?) *T W
. ^ iftfaq | |^ IT f5k # f a q |
qq* ^ 3)faq i mfa r % qqnq, ?l% g q ?
W : FT# T3^frq W ^ (Rs.19.50) f t w $ 3 R ’ 3?R “f^ R T H r T ^ I ’ %,
# T (3) T. %, <?F W ( (Rs. 10.00) fip ftr $; WT
ftrW w q -TEIW ^ (Rs. 32.50) gq I
3r : qF cftfaq, qxnq qqq i w t qqfaq, w T g rn % t q#f 1 1
q’ qicT -T^f i qF rftfupr ftff w q qqqr (Rs. 17.50) qfq, 3fTr
3T : spqqrq ! q q k t i

G lo ssa ry :

FTk-hhiSTT art Indian film magazine; H^xTFT a$*^i an Indian newspaper

qF ckl^rq i Here you are!
qcfRT (v.t.) to tell
fik m (v.t.) to count
Tlk (m.) remainder, balance
WTFT (m.) stuff
O ftcW T all together
■ ^er (m.) small money
qTF q#f i no problem!
★ ★
Key structure

Pres, prog, tense


FTT# TJtcft FFF t I T3TTFt 3#t # #C FT F^ t I FF cTFFT fa^FT FT % 3FFT
FT TFT 11 # - # F 3TTF# M m FT % FTFT pTFTT T l 11 T(F 3flTF fa#FT %
f^FF <fi•Of T # ^ I FF? # T # 3TtT 3iK# TJTT# 4)d FcTTT TF% t I Fgd-%
cTTF#FF#Ft 3TTT^t I c T S # # % # 1 T f 3ITT#f I 3TF TTF # T TT«# fe#>TT
FT # 3FFT fTCr 11 TIF # t FT# 3TTT^ F ^fFT 3TTF# t$T 11 T3TT#t FT# 3TtT
cTS# t # 11 F $ # # TTF# TFFT-#FT 3TTF# tjT 11 FTT# fifT FT F # - #
F T # 11 FF SJFFFT FT TFT 11 TTS# f#TF F # # F TTF# I FF FI|F <£# 11


# # (f.) stairs
TFFT/TtI/T F # #FT to stand
FFTFTT (m.) the act of waiting
X FT FFTFTT FTFT (v.t.)x to wait for X
'X' FT 3T# it #T FT FTFT for 'X' to be late to arrive
FTFT pTFcTFT (v.i.) to go out
FFTT (f.) queue/ line
#F# (IPC; adv.) running
XF% FT# 3TtT on the right side of X
X # t FT# 3TtT on the left side of X
TFFT-#FT (adj.) tall and broad; big-bodied
FF#(f.) a head-dress made from a
long piece of cloth usually 5
meters; turban
F # - # (adj.) rather big
SJFFTF (m.) smoking
SJFFTF FFFT (v.t.) to smoke

★ ★ ★
R-4 ^ e ll+ ld

Key structure
Pres. prog, tense

(^ftw ft 4>Hdl RT % f^FeT Tift f I TTTFi % 3fW ef 3fT 7 # t )

# R d t3 n R M : RWRt, wtttt ^ t ! am ^ w 7# t ?
sfNcft 4>*1dl : ' f t FT, W 7T « t M K W T if t i | I

!$ft*Rft 3T!RTeT: TtTT 7TWT ! W F T ^ g e l J |4T ^ I 3TFT F^T 7TWT « I M K 4 4 l W <.{?)

’sftw ft *r>Hdl : ^JSt ^ F - W P « lg n *=hl-H F l o i % I i % fcTT* R > d l ^ (

3 P 7 i leTtr w i t , R T % fc F J W ? t i W « W l1 3?lT 4 p ? tTk =T,

7 T ® ft, f i s r i 3 n t i w T if t i | i

3) y q ici : R F 7FT W F 3TFT i t W T cft f ? 3 T T # F f i W W T #T W F i 3T W #

FW W?f W7i ?
^fhTcft 4>Hdl: i t S T R R W 3 i w f £ w W TcT 1 1

?frprdt 3 iW c f : 3 i i h ^> 3 % 3TM<+>cd 4 W 4 > T 7 i f f ?

^fTRcfr 4W7TT : STTWTW i t*f> « r i t ^ t p f t i f W S W f I

anr^TcT : W 7 F W % R>FT t ?

eftw ft rw ctt : F H 7TWT t 3 F li W ? t i t I t 4W T W W F RT 7 i t I

WTT ^ ( X T | i f g fju f c j i y if i | I 3TRT F F l t RFT WTcT

W t I 3T W F W t W C 4O
^ 5 i g H I I 3TT 7% f I

s f M t 3nRTc[ : 3T R % RFT 3 T R 3TT 7 t t ?

5tffTfcft cf»-HdI : 3TRT F F l t RFT i t t ^ T - i ^ l i l 3TT T i t I

^hFRft 31-UCj| Cl : WT i 3t% cT 3TT 7 i t ?

?ftjTcft 4WeTT : T ft I W # 7TPT W W T « ^ i i t 3TT 7 i t I t 7 P 4 TRT

w it i 3TT 7 i f I

’sffait 3RRm : 3R 75T ! i cfpT W it i 3TT 7% I ?

’SftwftRWeTT : 1 0 cTrftTT ^ i f t i d < l i t % w i 4?t w i t t I 737ft i 3TT 7 t t I

3H M IC 1: ^ F>F 3TT T^ f ?
sJtarftFfFcTT: % 3TR #FFT # FT# % 3fT TT? I I
(FTF% % # ^#cT 3T# t )
# f# anraTcT afk
sfhTcft <=r>'MdI : 'IF**! ^flrt # ! 3TFT FFTT % 3TTT^ ? ?
?ffr ^"fld : 3fT F # , FT TFT ^ I FTFT # 41JHK ? I FT# # FfjTT F^TTH
FT T # 11 5Wi < TjFTT FF icTM FcT TFT 11 Tp|r Jdl^ FT
TFT f I 3TE55T FFF # , 3T# #? # T # 11 # F Pr3# I F F^t I
FFFJ (f.) street
■geTTFFF (f.) meeting
Pixel'll (v.i.) to come out
FTF% % from the other side, in front
F#% FF FTFTF (m.) monthly provisions
STrFftiF' (adv.) extremely
<t'*-M'fl (; Eng.) company
W^UF>(m.) manager
'X' FF FF5 FF# # #FT for 'X' to be in a hurry
%F7F (m.) guest
^FT (m.) younger borther of husband
#TTT# (f.) wife of younger brother of husband
3T## (adv.) alone
cTT% (f.) date
# fft (f.) noon
#FFT # t F I# (f.) noon train
F#FTF (adj.) troubled
$dM (m.) treatment
‘X’ FF W FFFT to be under the treatment of 'X'
3T# just now
^T Ft T # t It is getting late

★ ★ ★
R-5 ^ <1 •T W T f ^ 1?

Key structure

■ R a RTF Tf% 11 t ^ TTOTTR f I ^ rRF % F ^ ^FRT

RcTOT f l w m 3f £ fR f R d TFT f j RF R d TO^kT %T t I

■ RF 3fK^t [W e RF RTfijT fed 1^1 I I ^HRF TFT RTT# t I RF RTcT RF

«l^«tM 11 ^T RRR RF k d d#f TFT I RF <£tR fedlfeflt ^ RTR-^fa RR
TFT s> I
■ ^ ^ftcTT 3?R ^ % T t I ?T «RRf % TR>d ^ TRFTR 3?R R tM t kfTFT RRTcf
t I I d W J t R r TTT’ ^T t , 3?R 3JR^ fenfSkf % d R % RTR-ktd RR
T^ 11 % d U -d K % FTT TT? 11

^ T R RRRdT^d (Eng.) Indian Airlines

FRT^ dFM (m.) aeroplane
RIRdR (m.;Eng.) Pilot
RR RTF % of all kinds
w k k T (adj.) chosen;liked
%eT (m.) sport
RTT^T (adj.) famous
r RtrS (adj.) the best
RRrTRTd (m.) batsman / batter
^ (adj.) others
fedi^l (m.) player
^TTT-^tTr (f.) conversation
TRTRR kdTR (m.) chemistry
’Ilfct'fl kWT (m.) physics
k^rraf (m.) student
R R - r R % (adv.) loudly
FWHi (v.i.) to laugh

★ ★ ★

Key structure
Past prog.

t fkt w t wc ft «ft i 3?r^ 3?r 3n<?*ft rft ti? 2r i

Fo ^ f*TRrft ^ FTF T% 2ri Fn5 o F^SF* TO FT FF Tl? Sr I ^ o5 O T
FTF FT?) |F FTF FT ^TcT TI? «T| Ft TFT FT 3Ttr F<?t FF Fcf cTTcf Ft
% tcTCr Wt-FSJT F?F^ eft I f t M FT?FFT 3TF^-3Fft s?ft 3ltT 3TFft-3TtFft FT-
F lIM f^FFer TT? *h W T «TT, F FTFTcft I


W (f.) bathing place on the banks of a

F ft (f.) river
fftFTft (m.) beggar
fttF (f.) alms
F^FFE (m.) tourist
RTF (f.) boat
FTF ft FTF FTeT gF (PPC; adv.) hand in hand
^JF?TcT (m.) sunset
FRTT3FFJ (adj.) amusing
<[9F (m.) scene
STETR^ (adv.) suddenly
T5TFT ( umbrella
FFRT(v.i.) escape
41-S') eft began to run
FTTnft ( rain coat

★ ★ ★
R-7 ^ T T M R c lK

Key structure
P ossessive case

t 11 *TTT FTF srf^rcT f , itft F ¥ M f F^ 11 3f FFetF $ FSTFT f I ff

T^t ^ f t Fc^ft ft1 $*IF>I FTF ^F=FT 11 %ft Fc^ft FT FT TFrft 11 FF ^[BuTl 11
FF F^Fl ^FTFM F>Tcft ft, F^Fl Fit HfilJl !?, FT FF FF <t>IF «+><cTl t" I *f Fid)
F F T tF ^ E ftl FFFFTTT%FTt| FFFF FTF I? I FF FFfft t ^ t f I FFFF
FTFFTFTfl FFll <& FF FF F^ t # C FFrft %^t F?t F F TT7TTF^t 11 FFTTT
FTFft F>STT if W l t 3ftT FFTft trft cttFft FFT ^ FScft 11
FiT^ 11 2) FtFt FTF-FTF TFjcT FicT t , FTF-FTF TFI%, ^Flct ft 3?tT FTF-FTF F5^
t l FFlt F^% F$ FfF WT F^Tct f I FF ift FFF^t FfF WT FT^ I I FTFT FPft%
ift FTFT-f^FT «t& ft I %F^Ft % FT4)-FTFT t I FFTft «l<fl 3ftT «lil FF% F>FFft
^F% t I


^FF (m.) man

FF(f.) age
^fcftF (adj.) thirty-five
F1^ (m.) year
T^t(f.) woman
^fMt(f.) housewife
FT FF FFF (m.) household chores
Fc^t (f.) wife
X F?t ^FFTcT FTFT (v.t.) to look after X
FTF-FTF (adv.) (adv.) together
'X1Fit F R FTFT (v.t.) to love 'X'
FFFft TfTFT (v.t.) to listen to a story

• ••
Vocabulary - Indian names for blood-relations

4Kl; father’s father; father's mother

HN l, Tpft mother's father, mother's mother
"ffRT father's younger brother
^rr3t father's younger brother's wife
cTTS father's older brother
mi father's older brother's wife
c\ husband of father's sister
father's sister
husband of mother's sister
mother's sister
*TRT mother's brother
mother's brother's wife
*rrf; w ft brother; brother's wife
3IFT; sister; sister's husband
*#3fT; «IcM brother's son; brother's daughter
sister's son; sister's daughter
Midi; Mlcfl son's son, son's daughter
T^TOT; daughter's son; daughter's daughter
'Tm/’T-m husband's sister
husband's sister's husband
father in law; mother-in-law
younger brother of husband
^ rp fr husband's younger brother's wife
^TS older brother of husband
husband's older brother's wife
Weft sister of wife
wife's sister's husband
WfT wife's brother
wife of wife's brother

★ ★ ★
R-8 ^H FT

Key structure
Time; Inner compulsion

3r : swt m fe p f snrft I ?
«T Weft «W’ ? 3TTWFT W? ^THT t ?
3f : WcT ^TWT “TO' I W #W T ^TRT 11
«T : WrT TWT ^ WTT ^ (1:15) 3TTC?ft I
3f : focpf «T% ? % WT5TT ^T#f I
^ TT^f «W4>< WS1? ft-lTT ^TT I
3f : ^ W t W «MI t ?
«T : TW T O w t WTF ^ f (12:30) f I
3T : # ?
«T w £ WT? - *Tpf) «TKF ^?PFT rffa I
3T : cW 3pft # T W T 11
3p5 ulc'^l ^ I 2'ttfl % ^dl WRTT ^ I
EpiRK ! ^TW^ I
*T : WWfl


SWT <£|Riij, (imperative.) Please excuse me

W TWT number seven
H#T ^THT t (complusion structure) I have to go
TTTsJt’TnT (PN /m.) name of place
WTT =#vW (imperative) Excuse m e !
WT?TT •=n?T I haven't understood.
^ ? pardon me ! / 1beg your pardon.
*Fft (conj.) that is
# T (adj.) three-fourth
W I(m .) hour
rW eft in that case
■qcll «tMl (v.i.) to go
• ••
W f * ff ?

Key structure
Past tense
fF f£ £F

Pl4d, F>fl tIKI Rd cfF tt'6 l *St ?

‘Wl ? •Kl Ft 4 FT FT I?t <5t I
^ fR «tr 't # # n r ' Ran i F ^t f f # tR i R rfft F#f
I FI £I ff £I

FT, FK 3TTRT I F>eT FT FT F # 4t I

FR *]FF 3TT3 f R <JF FnlF *5t ?
<r^c1 R I
3?R FRF (12) f R ?
FRF (12) f R t Rtf’ R Rtl RFT3tTT&«ftl
f £I

cJ*T «?R f R F>Fr *ft ?

fft f R % f R R tr f R f f > R «i m k R Rt i RR f R fsf Rt 3tR
«St i R r f% fw <d{Ri(l frR fR Rt i

RR WT W . fR R r M ^ F r R ft FT I F F TOf Rt *pR FT

15: fR %Ft fR FF? FF fRRFT FT R RR RI FgF F^FT 3fM

ft^FenfiRtl FF F#f RtfR Ft* R I
fF £i t F

RR ^ fR?5R FRtR Rt 2cf)>RF R5FT KTTI <JF FT FT F#f Rt I

STFT FRf, Tpft R Rt5c) F>55 fRRt % F{|F =FRT i | I
3Rt5T ! FFTR ! %T Refit I


FTTT R f (adj.+m.) all / whole day

*3? (m.) a lie

^ (adj.+f.) several times

^ (f.) the bell

q«t'ii (v.i.) to ring

^Icft 7 # (cont. comp.) kept on ringing

X^T *TT? 3TPTF X to remember

“W $ in / on the bus

^ITj? twelve o'clock

WT a quarter past one

<ST^ half past two

c?H ^ half past three

(f.) shopping

<g{l<5i{l ct><rii (v.t.) to shop

ft* again

^ (indefinite, pron.) someone

^3PTT (v.t.) to pick up

(adj.) good

I>WH erf) pi'll film to be running

^3% ^THT (comp, v.i.) to go to see

te rn , (adj.) last
O f^T some days

otRtf (adj.) busy

(we) shall meet again

★ ★ ★
R-10 W 3TFT 2 # c t T # ^ ?

3T 3TTF FTR F^T if / «St ?

F : if ftlJet FToT f ^ f f if FT / if I
3T 3FF F!F F>F % F>F FF> if / if ?
F t FFf y|FF{f % 3TF^FT FF? FT / eft I
3T 3TFT ^f WT XFcT / XFcft «?t ?
f : if -sfori JR i w ft / TFcft it i
3T : FFT 3TR 3tFf^ TFTf if / 3T%cff Tlfit if ?
F ^ Fif, if 3T%^ F # TMt Ft / 3p£# F#f T?if i t I
3T : 3TTF%FfF FifF T5FT FT ?
F FTF iTT fiF 3ilT Hidi TFcft i f I
3T : FFT 3TTF%FFF if ^f^ TFFT FT ?
F : i f FT, ift TOI if <?f FffFTT TFff if I iff FT i f FTif 3TfT ^F? ^HTTeft
3T : %F?fF Tff FTFT FteTTf if ? TFT %flMf FtFTf i ?
F : i f Fit, F'lllFFW! FffFR FFTcff ^tcFcTT FT IFsfITHMI FffFTT FfteT
cs c\
ffN t FTF% i I
% FfFR % TTTF fIMf Ftc# if I
% FF? ^ % TTTF a f M if FTF FRTf if / f^TT FRct if I I
if i f T3F% TTTF anfif if FTF FRFT FT / R>t|| FRFT FT I I
FFRff FffFTT % Ft F ^ f if I
cTFFff i§: F f F?f i f I
FfFf FE% FI|F W f if I
i FfFf Fi|F 3Rtff ^ i f Fldct if / FfcTT FR% if I
F if-F if if RFFT TTTF FRTT ^ i f ftft FT l/FTFT FRFT FT I
FFTFFTrf FffFTT if FFF FfcT-Frif if I

% €r i
%t o r t o f t t o 2ri
MC'fl ^»T "1IH *THl$ft *TTt
%FF (twenty-three) 'St I
^F weM if FSTrft *St I
3F ««4k (twenty-six) I
^f ^ ra r if w r mi
if t o w ^ t o n : fti


ftF ( m .) friend
X %*PTc=T^ next door to 'X'
t o n (m.) family
■X' ^ t t o t o to the right of 'X'
« l t o / ot'iiciqidi (adj.) of Bengal
■X14ft t o t o to the left of 'X'
*rtot / Hsieqidl (adj.) of Madras
to -ftt ? which one ?
*TM(f.) language
3 ^ - ^ t (adj.) broken; not fluent
-itat. (m.) servant
% ^TFT with each other
w t: (adj.) lovable / lovely
W T (adj.) young
Mfcl-Mr-fl husband and wife
'fl't'ft <m HI to have a job
™ (f.) age
4 ^ (m.) year(s)
41^14 if (adv.) in fact
(adj) happy

★ ★ ★
R-11 # 3T T q^t W ^ f ?

Key structure

3T: 3F?T3fT?TT| 3RR 5ft 3i<t>29l t ? f W T O W^T Eftfatr I

^ : fFTOTC I
3 f: 't'B'J,, ^ 3TN^t TOT TO d't'dl l | ?
TO ^ ERTlf^I EJOTt ^TT ^ITFcTT i | I
3f: f^>'flfeUJ, ?
to 3r tfrftror ^ ifctt f i t %t o to f i
TO 3TRR) f^cpfr SRRI% %?
^ t5: TOTT W ( 3 ^ ?FfE ^PTT gcr f I
3T: 3fTT3fTWr focf^ ^ oTTO ?
^ MM F^TR TOt( I


WFT(m.) seat, place

WFT TITO ‘flfau, (imperative) please take a seat
TfaT (f.) service
tm i% (f.) amount of money
UTO ^TT (v.t.) to borrow
fotffcHi ? what for ?
^t-d)d T) for two-three years
3T^ cIR> until now
«TERT(f.) saving
TORT T O (v.t.) to save
'X' (TORT) % TORT TO TFT f have been saving since / for 'X' (time)
%TOT (v.t.) here: to save (money)
RE^W (adv.) about, approximately
■TOT #RTT (v.i.) here: to be accumulated
TJSJTT (m.) loan

★ ★ ★
R-12 W Ft W t

Key structure
Pres, prefect
Pres, perfect cont.

TlfTf: F F ^ , 'ft'TT I FFT cjF 3pft *tt F3 T^t Ft ? 3P? %cRt FF O T #1 FFT
(I'll : FHcft ^ 3T»tt FF ct>M d£f Rvtll I <
Qi5d<tlcl F>T% «1I<f I
t; ftrTT FTR F?l ^#Pt I
TTtpT: ^F F*f % F? T^t Ft ?
-(H T : «nTF F ^ t % F S T ^ t if I
TTipT: c)F%R>d'l tiqld F>Tfrit* f ?
(I'll : ct'(lisl-ct'(15l Ft FF ff I %FcT Ft TF FF t? I
TlfcT: % FTC FT ?tFT I
■ft-TT : F1?f, *t FF FFF FRF> I?t <f)fJfl I
Tlt^cT: ^tF> f cJF I?t 3PTF7 FIF F>T cTt, «U'jlR 3TT oil'll I FI?f Plel'l I


3T*tt ’tt (adv.) even now

^ c in (v.i.) to play
R d'l FF FFF time to play
FTFFT (v.t.) to know
FFFF (m.) sums / problems of maths, etc.
FTF^t t remain (to be done)
FF % ? since when ?
FRF F% % since 12 o'clock
IRfH (adj.) how many
F^OF-F^ftF (adv.) almost
#FTT (adv.) only
TF FF ^ here: remain (to be done)
FFF FRF? (FT - conj.) do the work and....

★ ★ ★
R-13 m # 3*r f

Key structure

T^fldl : W Fd 71?t Ft ?
TFft : FF vHF^Ifl ‘rft^FT' | £pF<F flHHtUflt
FF FF«fF FFpf f o m fodT 1 1
$=ftdT : FF dt FIpT ePFT ^RTRT 1 1 ^T FS% F?t FcFTF f%*Ff *})?
Tpft : FT, f dt cTRT 1 *f t d % FS T^t f 1 3T»tt 3TTOT Ttt d tf FST
W l WT dF? FTC t , FFTeTT ^ F*t F5% ^FT ZIT 1
: §F% 3PT dF* fcrPt ^ 5 F l t ?
TT-ft : oPTFF Ft^ Ft dt (175) I FFT dt 3PT t 3*T f I ^5T cP^t
f't'dl^’ Frt5 F*F I?t ^TTcft 11
^ ftm : ^ i


3tFFT (v.i.) to be bored

^F F (P N ) A renowned novelist in Hindi literature
TJcRTPT(m.) novel
FtFFT (PN) name of novel
f f a F*f (m.) agricultural class
F*FFT (f.) problem
F«FFF (adv.) absolutely
FFPf (adj.) real
fold'd (m.) portrayal, graphic description
FST«TRT (passive) to be read
^ 5 (m.) page
FdTTF (f.) advice
«TFT dF* (adv.) as far as
?TF ^s5t dt to tell you the truth
FTdT(v.i.) to appeal; to please
X ^ W FFT FTdT t ’X' doesn't appeal to me much

★ ★ ★
Key structure

^TT SIFT 3li)'4) «HS1 ^ ?

^ : x ft ? t i If « M - « M 3 (M 3? r ^ r?f f i ^ 3 ;, t 3nq^t
w ^ ^r w i f? |^wr tfft-tift ^tfcTo; i
cf> : tp iR K ! W 3fFT 3RTT * F R t t % f ^ ? f t H ^ + < ul ^ R R ^ % fa c p ft
^ : SFTT ^ r t r , f W « fR f t R (flF W * I cT»ft t T O ^T^n,
^TT 3TFT ^ ^ 3R *F§>TTI
^ : (3 F p ft^ T f^ ^ F T l^ # l)

^ : *h?t % «rrm i (qkii?) tR qi4I ^tr ^ ^ 1 ^Oq ans-

(8- 10 ) ^ f i r r w f *r arm ) ^ ’m fo p rrf i g#f
f^TRT 11 3fR TjT? ^ n it 11 35R W * t1
3T^ clt 3TFT RRTT, •MI'T) ^Ff^R “Ft 3tfl|+lCl % I*)ci I
^ : 3ffF, RF ^ «ITcT 11 #T - 9T O ? ! HRR) I


* M « M (adj.) very little

sjft-s5ft (adv.) slowly
H^+fui (m) registration (used here as adj.)
f ^ M TR f tw r ^ R R Foreigner's Registration office
RRft (conj.) that is
^WTT (v.t.) to repeat
RRF; (imperative) go straight ahead
(v i ) to turn
^Fff 3jR ■gfetr (imperative) turn (towards) right
fa*fFT (m.) department, section
f^T l^T T to be visible
srffcRJTft (m.) officer; boss
R? 3) ^ *fTcf t It is regrettable . / l a m sorry to hear this,
# T (interj.) well then; anyway
★ ★ ★
R-15 3TT

Key structure


-fid I : IcFt I

s f t d : ^ftcTT ? T£F FtcT TT?t Ft ?

%TT : FT, 3 %TT FteT T& f I SIFT F?tF FtcT T& t ?
3fteT : t ? *f sftcT FtcT TFT f I
•fldl : 3 ft d ? q ft 3 ftd ?
sftcT : Sifter ! sft *f f , cJ^FTTr sftcF, Sifter FTftft I
ft=TT : 3?IF sfte f ! STFT FFFT |
3ftcT : TJF Ft FFT FFT 3ftqicf| sff ?
•fldl : FT, sftFTcft sff, FT SIT TR^tI
sftTTT :F#f SIT TR?f I FFt Fief SIT TR?f ? FFT §F # T ift F # F^T TRFf!
•fidI : $ <£J% 4jI-i Flg<fl ?5t, FTFJ cj/-ekl i « k ’JeT F f I
sfteT : FF!^ F FFT3Tt I <3F RTF# Ft ^TT F*FT ‘F kA f ^I’ 3 ^ F TRFft «Sf I
%TT : FcTF F FF?Tt SlfteM 3 FF*JF FF^t FFF ^ FFT F^ «5t I
3fftcT : FFT ^T5 TRFTT ^ ^FT ^ tF FT FFF 3F FFT FT ?
%TT : If FTFTft f f% ^ FF T£FFk SR^T F#f cRtFT I FTF£ TTF t
FFT ^ ft FFT^ sft I
SlfteT : T£FTF I F?tF TJFTF?
3(fteT : % ! ^FIF FeFtFT - F^t <J*Fft sftFTft FF FFFF ?
%TT : FF?ft F?t F>Tt I sftcT, I n Ff^F "3F% FTF If 11 TJF Ft

FTcTO 3pE# cTTF Ft I W F faft ^"TT Fl?f, «rf^< %ft W TF
%I F F*FcT * f, s ffc t> itT T ^TT F f^ F T T I F F T 3 n f e f 1 1 «HFT F F F T , 3rf%cT,

3!F *f <JFTt F ^ t F ^ t ftc T TH^ft I


FFT (f.) forgiveness

FFTFT (m .) excuse
FFF(adj.) wrong
WFT (v.i.) to be stuck
Trm?r(f.) engagement
FFTC TF ( m . ) gentleman
arf&FFft (m.) officer
F?rftp?r (f.) try, attempt
FTcTTF ( m . ) circumstances
F T fa ( m . ) hobby
anfer (adj.) dependent
Ff^T (m.) future
FFT% F «Miaft | Don't make excuses!
^J3t 'I e ld F TTFSTt I Don't mmisunderstand me!
$ TTFgF ftFft w f t FFF tFTT I truly got stuck in some important
F^ «ft I work.
*J5t WT% # F?iftr?r f ^tTi Try to understand me!
^TT Ff^ST ^F#> FIF 3 % I My future is in his hands.

★ ★ ★
R-16 to lW ^ F t 7! ! ?

Key structure

Future tense

3f : F«FcTT FF ftFTF FR #FT ?

F : ftFTF uR F # F?t FF (10) cn% #FTI
3T : ftFIF if F?R-F?R 3[TFFT?
F : Rrcf! % FTFT ^t, FT# ^ft, F% RIFT d F '# F c!f 3ltT UFFi ^ R t F^if
3TTRt I # # lf t ^ FF TIF FftFTT 3FFFT I

3f : «[3F ^ft F # 3nF7ff ?

«T : ^ # 3fT^tt I
^4)1 ^ft 3TF#FF % 3fT5 (8 ) cil{1<ft F^t cllSft I % vdH<+> FTF •# (9)
ft# r # t f # Fipnft i t r !f fft^ ^rFR if anqit i FFuifFFT^
3TS%FT it%^ t I
3T : f#FF FTTFTTFF % FtFT FT 3fTgPT^ %?
F : FFl! FFT RqiP F[?5 3Fgf^TFi # FtFT I
*}FF FRFft if FF# Ft# I
FF FTFcT if FF ¥3f# # T fifF 3TTFf^cT F # I
ft>T Hus4 if f ^ m %FIT# Ft# I Tift if F^ F# FF *pj?f t I
ftt# %ftc # # # ff hRfk 'Ttfftf jft rtfft i
^3tt # 3?R *|FF # <£!# f#T FFTT# F lfM w ft^ t I

FTTF (12) cTt#TF # t FF cttF FFT#£ #T # f#?FFTF’ FI# if ftr #

FTFF FTT# I FF d!? T#9H cIF* wlS't F it# I


t o w (m .) marriage
M (f.) mother's sister

n to K (m.) family

W (f.) father’s sister

^ (m .) father's sister's husband
toe'TF (v.i.) to return
3T3WT (m.) airport
«iHl ( v.i.) to fetch
wqTPTcT (adj.) traditional
3fTg!to (adj.) modern
to r (f.) method; manner
^vEWtt (f.) court
(f.) marriage

tonft (m.) relative

ap fto r t o n (v.i.) to be invited
?wnr^ (f.) a musical instrument
W m i «t«HI (v.i.passive) 'Salmai1to be played
husm (m.) pavilion
(f.) Hindu - custom
^ (m .)
astrologically ascertained auspi­
cious moment
-sjtot «rpn (v.i.) go for sightseeing
(adv.) all together
«fpn (vi.) to see somebody off at the station

★ ★ ★
# TFT f

Key structure

Planned future

F $F FtF^T FFT FT^ F?t FtF T^ Ft ?

F *t Ft FFtfcP^t FF% F^t FtF TFT i | I
F : !< H k F f? f I F T F ^ f ^ F t F F F ^ t F F T f ^ t f?t F F t ?
4 F F ^ 5 t F t, ^ « ^ t 1 M t F F % ^ t TTTFT ^ w l ' l * t f t c f t 1 1 3TM F>cT c T F F F
ft ‘t % ’ ft ^Ptf^rat ^ t f o r m Fft^Fiuft fttft^ «nrfr 11 f f Ft t
FI?t «iiicti f^> 7) cTtF <;s?W FFTFTF ^T FTT^ f FT FT?f; WTT 3TFW
F>F FFFTT | f% it FF 3TTFT # F F FFT M 11 %T t% FF ^Fct t , ^tFF
FTFFT t «tT 3FTFT FfasT uTTFFT FTFcTT 11 # F F ^ t ^ M % 3t# FTFct
t ; ^ ^cF tF F H F M I^fF T F F F ttl 3?F ^ FF5t 3 FFt FqtfMt FFFT
FTFFT f I1F tptt FTF^t F?t FT>tt F#f I F^F FtF FTF 3TFt Tift 3?tT
*tt FTF F^tt FF F^t F^tt F Ftift I
3f : FTTFF ^F $lF> FTF T!> Ft I f F FF *T l^fFIF F#f F>TFT, SFfcUT. 3 F ^
^FTTT FTFFT F # #t^FT I FTT^ ^t<t ^ F FFFF1F ^ F lt F1F 11

F% FtF^T when (you) grow up
F?T% F?t FtFFT (planned future) planning to do
FF% F?t FtFFT (planned future) planning to become
^ F tM (m.) astrologer
f^FTT (m.) thought, idea
f^FtF FF % (adv.) specially, particulary
TtTFTT (f.) inspiration
Ff^FFFtt (f.) forecast

4>MHI (v.t.) to get predictions made
3R^TT «mi c-Ml to make one's own life
TkPTTf (adj.) daily
f P T ( problem
BTTWtT ( problems
(m.) solution
a fts r (m.) future
tPUT (m.) profession
(m.) customer
Tnft (f.) shortage
(adv.) always
£PT (m.) wealth
3fft T^rf (continuative comp; fut.) will keep coming
(m.) belief
TH*FTT(f.) desire
+I»HIU ( good wishes

Vocabulary : Planets, signs of the Zodiac

Planets (w )
(Sun); kfc (Moon); (Mars);
f£l (Mercury); fF^rfcl (Jupiter); (Venus)
Tift (Saturn); Tig (ascending node of moon)
(descending node of moon)

Zodiac (rreft-^RF)
Signs of the zodiac (nttrar)
1. Aries 2. Taurus 3. Gemini
4. Cancer 5. f t? Leo 6. ^TTT Virgo
7. cjcfT Libra 8. Scorpio 9. Sagittarius
10. a^T Capricon 11. Aquarius 12.#T Pisces

★ ★ ★
R-18 d'Mklctl

Key structure



3m^ FTFFTcft F>T %FT cf><.cll FT I T3ft vjjild % el FT 'jTRT-3TFTT FFFT FT I
TftT FTT F ft FF ftF F *F, ftFFT FF W T FT I tJF Ff?cT ft«T f t I FFft-FeTft
Tft FFFF FTFft Ffft I T3Ttft ftlftft FF FT^ST F<F ftF ft FTF TTT fftn, 3?TT TFF
TTftap 3TITTF F^ft ft feTF ft? ft ftft Ffocfft ftt T5TFT ft ftr: FFT I T3ft ftrft f t ftfc
3TT F^ I
ftF FT ftft I|F F^FT ftft igF 3(|q4) ftt ftFrl f t 4)4 FFT 3TP3; | ftFTT F'FTT
4 FETT-T3TTT W ^F lf I T3ftf ft? FT FTF F it F5ft fftFTf f t I T3Tlft ftff ftfftft
f t I FTF^ft,'3TTFFJsFfttfftTFTftftFFftgFftFFiT, 3TFft-3TFft fftTFTF'F-ftF
Fl41 FFF eft I ft, ftfftFT FFFft ft, ^F> ftt <kFFT FTfft eft f t r FTFft-F>Fft
e ftl # T fF F T dl^FIcf ftt 4 k T|eT F^ I Tjft *FFTf ftt f tf t FFft |F ftFFT: FT|cT
f t ftfa 3TTFT I FF 3TFft Ftfftft FTFF ftft FF FFTF fttFft FFTI FFft fFeT 3Rft
ftT T f t f t f t F F T T F iT ^ T F tF> 'f t I
FFTTft F ^ f t ft f t FFftt f t f t ^F ft fO; f t 3TFft-3TFft f t t M 3TFft-3TFft
fftT ft T3FTTF?T T ftF FT ftF> f t I TlftFFF ftftFTcT ft F^Fft ftt FcFT FTTFT: ^T
FFTFT; d c W I^ F F ft 3fFft FtfttFT FF>Fft f t I fftr FF ^Tcft ft FFft fttlFTT 3TFft

FFFfft (adj.) the one who mimics
F^FT (m.) monkey
f tf t (f.) cap
ftftFTcTT;ft|ft ftFftFTcTT (m.) the one with the cap; the cap seller
3TFFT (adv.) often
FTFT (m.) city
eiiFT (FT! -conj.) bring and
ftFT FTeTT FT (past hab.) used to sell

wi'lci % f?R*T -conj.) via jungle
«iHl-3imi (m.) commuting;
(v.i.) to commute
TT3rTT zfT (compul. str. past hab. tense) used to have to
(adv.) once
Tpff (f.) summer
(m.) season
(f.) noon
tET*PT(m.) time
^ (f ) sunshine
cl«r (adj.) sharp/strong
■c!dc)-tieic) (adv.) while walking
(f.) fatigue
«T¥PT cPPTT (verb; used with sub + ^1) to feel tired
srerFT cPT% c=pft(inc. comp.; past tense) began to feel tired
(obi. pi. off. ^Pft) of caps
(m.) bundle
W tT (v.t.) to keep
~U3 f^TT (comp, v.t.; past tense) kept
(reflexive) himself
(adj.) a little
3flTFT (m.) rest
<rfccPTT i t (obi. pi. o f ^ t f.) of leaves
WTT(f.) shade
^•TT (v.i.) to lie down
cte W (comp. v.i. past tense) lay down
I?t (v. root + % + I?t) as soon as (he) lay down
'X' 3TT «TFfT for 'X' to fall asleep
#3; (PPC. adj.) sleeping
{(verb root + cf) + ift} as soon as (he) saw
^ (PPC; adj.) seated; sitting
tfruH! (vi.) to climb down
OTT 3tttr (compound v.i. past tense) climbed down

hither and thither
w ( f .) vision
^ T T (v.t.) here : to turn round
F ft (PPC; adj.) lying ________________
F5ft(f.) bundlr
fftplft f tn (used with subject with ftt) to be visible
^Tt (aggregative) a lot of; heaps of
^ (m .) a human being
fftr (m.) head
FFft ^ (PPC; adv) wearing
ftF^FT (ftsFTT + conj.) see and
FT tTEj> (adj) every one; each one
3FT% 3Fft (reflexive) their respective
FFF’ ft^TT (comp, v.t.) to wear
FFF eft (comp.v.t. past tense) wore
FFF% f t {(v.r.+ft+ft) as soon as (they) wore
ft) to each other
ftfft eft (inc. comp; past tense) began to laugh
f i f HI (v.i.) to dance
FjFTT (v.i.) to jump
eft (inc. comp; past tense) began to dance and jump
■ftr (v.i.) noise
(FP! conj.) hear and
'X' ft) ftft T|cHT for 'X' to wake up
'X' ftr fttST 3TPTT for 'X' to get angry
FIFTT (adj.) returned
FTFTT ftFT (comp.v.t.) to take back
TJFFT (m.) plan, scheme
FTcT (adv.) immediately
FFTTFT (v.t.) to remove
^3FTT F>T (F>T -conj.) remove and
(IPC. adv) throwing
FFFTft (adj.) one who imitates

3PRf)-3PRft dllM their respective caps
3PT%-3PT^ fa r % from their respective heads
(f.) ground
R%*Rr (adj.) first of all
^TRR (m.) stone
HK'I I (V.t.) throw stones at
^ (adv.) far
’WPTT (V.t.) to chase away
rtcW9T?[ (adj.) thereafter (then after)
^fR3T, ^fRR, (adj.) collected/together
^fRST WTT (v.t.) to collect
3TSHT (v.t.) to tie/pack
WTSRR (sITORT + 3R conj) tie/pack and
R?T¥R ( I W + ^fR conj) keep and
RR R?T (comp, v.i.) set out
R-21 ^ 3 fT

Key Structure
continuative compound
RR? RTTRrT RRf R Ft^ %+KUI TJTRTRF RRTI cl't'fk'l R’R', dlc-IIR,
rRri, -1lei $rHlR <j<fl RT( I 3TRTfR HI'fl R^t R>*fl R?t RRF %RT^f TPt I
R^ RfTRW cPft I RF RIRTRt RRi RRF-RRF R£R>cll 'TFT3?lT Rpft
O ? R t % RT% T TFT 3ftT R^ FRTRRfRRTTFTI RcRt f \ RF%T TTRpfTrR
FTT%R^t B'-Rct 3?|T TJST-R[?T^ RRRfeIRTI
RR> TTR’-RR’ RT^I 3Fpff rIr ^ RRTR>T RRJF dIdI TFT3flT Rpft %RT>
if Rleldl TFTI RRf-RRt R^ if RcRTTR?t RRRTRFcft sff, ?Rt-?Rt HI'fl RRTRT
^rrf 3?It rrr- rrr rtrt t?3it f f rrt i


R^T (adj.) clever

R^RT (m.) crow
R[?R\ ^RT (m.) country
RRf (f.) rain
W (m ) drought
% RRTRT (postposition) because
RR>ftRR (adv.) almost
RRT (pi. ofR>3ff nm) wells
RTcTTR (m.) pond
R^RT (pi. of Rtft n.) rivers
RTrT (pi. of RTRT m.) drains
$chiR (ind) etc.
(v.i.) to dry
TJTF RFTT (compound verb) to dry
3FFTT (adj) innumerable

(m.; pi.) creatures

.Ftff (f.) shortage
^ % (postposition) because of
'X '^t 1«TFT f M for 'X' to feel thirsty
«PTF(f.) place
RFF-RFF from place to place
*F7FTT (v.i.) to wander about
■He^cil TFT (cont.comp.;past tense) kept on wandering about
TTfaFTT (v.t.) to look for
<s)«ioi TFT (cont. comp.; past tense) kept on looking for
% FTt (post-position) because of
*rrt 'X'% because of 'X'
Trff (f.) heat
as if
'X' FF FF PFfFFTT for 'X' to breathe his last
t s r TFT (continuative compound) kept on sitting
T3FFT (m.) plan
FFFTT (v.t.) to think
«Hdl TFT (continuative compound) kept on thinking
(adv.) very soon
TTeTWT (f.) search
'X' TTcTITT ^ in search of 'X'
FFcT-FFTf' (IPC; adv.) while flying
FIFT (m.) place
FFT (m.) pitcher
R<ftl{ fffFT was visible
TTSFF t ^ s n + FR conj) fly and
iTT^TT (v.t.) to peep
FTT (m.) level
^ft^rr (adj.) low

(pi. of nm) pitchers
M^rrr (adj.) narrow
'J1W (v.t.) to quench thirst
(»•) wisdom
MWWOI (f.) need
Mlf^PIT (m.) invention
(f.) mother
'TtTFPF (adv.) suddenly
q^p-TT^ F>T (adv.) one by one
#ET (f.) beak
'.'3HT (v.t.) to hold
•,'«(!+< (<;«(MI + 3>T- conj.) holding
rfTTT(v.t.) to bring
eTTcTT TFT (cont. comp.) kept on bringing
sicm (v.t.) to put / to pour
5icioi TFT (cont. comp.past tense) kept on putting
Tfljf-'Jtjf (ind.) as
'Tc^TTt (oblique pi. of Fc^TT m.) stones
T M (f.) number
33TT (v.i.) to grow
WT# (prog, comp.) went on increasing
37TT 3TRTT 'TIFT FT (prog, comp.) went on coming up
3TFTT: (adv.) finally
rft 'FT % to one's heart's content
TFF-FFF (m.) act of crowing
FTTTT ^3TT (IRC; adv.) doing

★ ★ ★
R-22 ^ % <eJ9h?lcf)

Key Structure
progressive compound
ftfiRR tK'+'fi srfaopsf 3R^ f^¥T TFrft 11 if?TT xfR^ ^
3te# rr) 11 >^kf<5] M if str: ^rfor c^m- R fe w
T5^ I , *R Epft c?HT RRT R5Rf TF^ t I MRutm'tWT R f o RtR xmTCT il^ k
Ft% «n% f i c M if arro w ^ cftt rtrt I , RRxft w r t ^ Rfift t , Rir r Ft ift
^ - R F F cR
R ^ R f if l I c % T T 3 fF W ^ c T ^ ^ I I U IH K ifi+R iFtrfTfFfI I RRFR
R R R R R T R t R>f ^ T 3R % % siHli) « N rfl <Fcfl 1 1 y M K I-i-y R R l ciV?l R>t < W lK
M TFcft 11 WcT ^7T ^ 3HRT<ft ftR-Rfctf^R RSrft RT l£ t %, 3?R RTTtRR RT
q ft *pft ^TEiTtfr TFR ^ r OTFT if R3RR W EfRTf T^, RT ^ # 4 1 RRRTTRt
3jk ^ T RTf% % RR RT RRRT §3ff ^TFTR FtcTT RTC7TT I


TgRFTcff (f.) prosperity

ftfSpR (adj.) various
RRFTif ( government
3TR*ft (adj.) mutual
R W R iR R I (m.) relation (s)
^ q l 4 ) (adj.) capitalist
R few (m.) hardwork
^ (adj.) a handful of
trft (adj.) rich
cTT^T (m.) profit
Rm-R3FTT (v.t.) to profit
xrftRm (m.) result
xrftRm RRR (adv.) consequently; as a result
( problems
*fR-3T^ ( thieves/robbers
xRRR (adj.) mutual
jRFTRcTT (f.) inequality
arcmta (m.) dissatisfaction
'Tiddi (v.i.) to spread
(TEFTT (m.) to quarrel
T O I (f.) problem
tuHKifito (adj.) communal
W (m.) riot
3RtHHdl (f.) inequality
W (adj.) less
W W IT (v.t.) to reduce
TfcPTTT (m.) employment
3TR (m.) plan
3TMT^t (f.) population
f^T-'Srf^T (adv.) day by day
sir'll (v.i.) to grow
TTT£R (m.) resource(s)
(v.i.) to be reduced
<^i<li4) (m.) nationals
T l^(m .) nation
HTFT TW T keeping in view
TTRTUFT (m.) solution
(m.) problems
#FfT (v.i.) to be removed
T ^ rm T (f.) good feeling
MfcT(f.) progress
^ (m .) path
W fT3TT (I PC) moving
frig id (adj.) prosperous

★ ★ ★

R-23 W Wlr> 3p5^T

Key structure

1 Adjectives

arf^fcT rr T % r>r w I R rtr; 1 1 3rPrcT rf i t I'.............i

R?f TB^Tcfr # i R ^ %fofelR I RF RRRR RRt S?tf RR RRRT I; %
rt ffcT R^TRf ^ Rt I t c=pf 11 ^ftRcft rhjt ^r ^|R rrt hRrk I 1 rr
RRPT RTTR-%R^t RTt Fief I I RRRT SJTt % RfRt ^ f^RRRT trap RTF Rff RT
R^jf Ut% Rff faReft R?t R # t c=pft I1 %T 3TTRRTR% f 3TMRRT
^^PTT^-apqt ?}t^ % TTT^R W ^ RcT Tt I I -dH'Hf'WI % feTR RRR RTRT
R ip r r # r F T R R T t i t R R ^ i k R t R R R R f ^ HTR>ft, rrt < jR tR tf ^ r f t r f t
3TR RRjR % RtRlft I t faRcft % RTRTR RTf Rf) TnRETFff % RRfR RTcfl t I
w r f R^ ftRIRdf R^t OTTR Tl RStt t cTRT RRRR RTRR tt RT# f I
^ f^ 3IN I n Tt t , RFeT RR?ft RTRTRT TRleTTt RRT R^RRf R?TR#R ^TRTeTT
RR? FTeT flRT I I TRR?t R #T ^ # T RRR % RTR R^f ^f%OT I -, R§R R*f,
RTSJTRR R t 3Tfr SR?T I 3TR TFFf% a ft RTfcTR; T^RT RTR RTf *[RT f 3?T RTR;
RT flRT t I
#Rcft R*[T 7TTft if RR5 WeTT RTR RRpf % feTR R # R^ I ^'dlcflR (45) foRR
i) R>4^ gRRR ^RTT Ft RR t> I RtRf RTlfrt STRt 3TTRRR Ff Rf ff I ^tRcft R>^T
% R#Rf % RTRlf Rl^ t RRT TR^I % fR RR?f Rl RTFT Pl'RRTT t I
RRrcT % RRT - ‘sftR cft R ^ T , 3IR 3RRRI RRT RRRT t ’ ?
RHJT %RfR flRT - “Rfl RRT RRRT t ? ^ RRt RR^ % dlR t RRT
J r^ R T R R ^ i 3nR RRR # R^ RR^ f I Tit) RTR ^ Rt R^ % ^t
RRt 3rf&R5 RTRTf | Zf ^RTt R^t 3tt$TT 3(ftRT R^R RRT ^gRTRR t l t I RiU rR
t), RRi 3FR RIfRf % R^f 3Tf&R> R^T I 1 RRt Rltt t t ^R% R%R RRT
RTRT Rtf ^ I”
3fpTcT- "3TE?R Rt 3IR 3TRcft RTT RTR #R-RT RTfR <RO'^RTeft t ? ”
?ftRTff R^T - ‘%9TR, RRT R^ tf I 3ltf RR; Rf RTfR ^ft RRfR f^R %TJRTf
B ^ 3 T E |5 T ^ tl 3W %fit 3f 3R% fi«JT filfetff 3Ft *tt ^ f\
st^pt <t><.^ % fcTC; <tigi tt>^n i '

3iPlcl - ^ to ft 1 "1*1^ 1
’ifpTcft - dH<R 1
^ 5 (p n ) name of a popular detergent sold in India
+K<?IMI (m.) factory
RfiT3> (m.) distributor
RcrTl ^ TF%^Teft (f.) resident of Delhi
'X'% fJrfeTTr meet 'x'
^T O (m.) washing room
itdT, i)ef, (adj.) dirty
(m.) pile
R r+ d (adv.) absolutely
ckp of the same type
f^ f t 3Fq some another
3TE^ r?t y'FK % of good quality
£l SFFTT ^ of several types
sTMTT if f 1 are in vogue/ are being marketed
"EfipT (m.) selection
R> arrr 7^!? as you can see
fiTW=ft (f.) carefulness, caution
fiwsjpft ^ (adv.) carefully
(PPC; adj.) told/mentioned
ftSFRT (f.) instruction
'X' PTePT EFTfiT (v.t.) to follow Y
W WTT (m.) soap compartment
'X' ^ T if STePTT to put Y in y
>3Rid (adj) right; appropriate
fiTP (m.) temperature
T ™ (v.t.) to select
fi|fi r4 (adj.) hot

^rrenr^T irtf (adj.) warm
(adj.) cold
W^TT (m.) slot
(adj.) by itself
^TTT (v.t.) to do work
^T=TT (v.t.) to begin
'tx.'ll ^?T f^TT I began to work automatically
g?RiT f)lfR UTRT washed and ready
STT^-SITT Ft «imi to shut automatically
3TN W ^TT t? (exp.) what would you say / what is
your opinion?
(m .) difference
‘X1 TR in 'X's' opinion
'X' 3t^r«TT in comparison with 'X'
f i m (adj) soft
going to buy
f^f^tcT (adv.) certainly
3RT/ (adj.) other

★ ★ ★

R-24 i> \ ^ e P T T 3 fk ^ ff 4 4

Key structues


FI»f1ldct'K<t> : 3FF I 4tF lt FPJT I 3 W T O F?t TF^Tc^t f I 3TTF FF%

arq4 fI f U cTO?! % # tf % 4 fof ? ^cm4 $
fc!F FFT Jet mi %I
FT, Ft 4 lF lt FS^jT, 3TTF FFl4 F?fFt Ft FFTF 3TTFF>
If F?t pci'll If 3?Ud) FF 4ldd ^FT I ?
Fl’jT : FF% FF4 eft If aflFFl FF FFT ^FT FlFTft i | f% FTTF T[F>
fafM 4*1 11 FFT 3TR It 3jf?lFF?T fM If 7F4 ? I

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G lossary

W ™T (f.) comparison
tfTSiici ■*>!<. (m.) interview
?nSiio+K4> (m.) interviewer
(m.) viewers
f^TTcT (adj.) vast
ft?T (m.) country
ftfa (m.) village
fftTSIT HFTPT (m.) educational institutions
HTc=T (adj.)