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Original article

Original article
Original article

FE simulation of linear and elliptical ultrasonic vibrations in turning of Inconel 718

Mohammad Lotfi and Saeid Amini

Proc IMechE Part E:

J Process Mechanical Engineering 0(0) 1–11 ! IMechE 2017 Reprints and permissions:

10.1177/0954408917715533 journals.sagepub.com/home/jpme Abstract Utilization of ultrasonic vibrations in turning

Abstract Utilization of ultrasonic vibrations in turning operation is an advanced method to improve processing of materials. The aim of the present study was to develop a finite element model in order to investigate the effect of ultrasonic vibrations on machinability factors in turning of Inconel 718. Conventional turning in addition to linear and elliptical ultrasonic- assisted turning were simulated and the effect of these processes on cutting forces, shear angle, chip thickness, sticky zone, and temperature distributed on tool rake face was analyzed. Besides, the experimental tests were conducted and the cutting forces have been measured to validate the simulation outputs. As a result, analysis of chip formation shows that the values higher than 45 for shear angle is achieved when elliptical vibration is added to the cutting process. Furthermore, increase of shear angle coupled with decrease of temperature on tool rake face causes the sticky zone in tool–chip contact length to be reduced compared to the conventional turning. Moreover, the influence of cutting speed on tool–chip engagement time in ultrasonic-assisted turning is simulated.

Keywords Turning simulation, linear, elliptical, ultrasonic vibrations, shear angle, Inconel 718

Date received: 13 August 2016; accepted: 5 May 2017

Introduction

Ultrasonic vibration-assisted turning (UVAT) is an advanced technology in which high-frequency vibra- tions in small amplitude is added on the motion of the cutting tool. This intermittent vibration is applied on the cutting tool in the one or two directions which are denoted by 1D UVAT (one-directional vibration) and 2D UVAT (elliptical vibration), respectively, 1 1D UVAT was E rst proposed in 1958 for conventional macro-scale turning operation. 2 This process demon- strated a range of improvements in surface roughness and reduction of power consumption compared to the conventional turning (CT). 3,4 2D UVAT was first introduced in 1993 by Shamoto and Moriwaki 5 and this process indicated further achievement in the reduction of cutting force and better machining accur- acy. 6,7 On the other hand, turning of hard materials such as nickel-based super alloys commonly have some difficulties due to their rapid strain hardening, high strength and poor thermal conductivity. 8,9 In this case, conventional turning may not provide all bene- fits in the desired factors of machinability such as low cutting force, long tool life and mirror surface E nish. 10 Therefore, ultrasonic vibration-assisted turning could be a promising method for machining of difficult-to-

cut materials due to its high cutting stability. 1113 Accordingly, in recent years various types of theoret- ical and experimental works have been carried out to develop the models optimized the cutting operations for specific materials when ultrasonic vibration is superimposed to the cutting tool. Nath et al. 14 used one-directional ultrasonic vibra- tions in turning of hardened steel. The results showed that tool wear propagation in UVAT was lower than CT in which better surface finish was also produced by UVAT. Zou et al. 15 represented an experimental study focused on the influence of 1D UVAT on the surface roughness by implementation of 3D surface topography. At the end, they presented the best cut- ting conditions including ultrasonic amplitude, feed rate, cutting speed, and depth of cut to enhance sur- face finish prominently compared to CT. Amini and Kazemiyoun 16 studied the effect of 1D UVAT on the

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Manufacturing, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

Corresponding author:

Saeid Amini, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Manufacturing, University of Kashan, Kashan 8731751167, Iran. Email: amini.s@kashanu.ac.ir

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Proc IMechE Part E: J Process Mechanical Engineering 0(0)

primary and secondary deformation zones. By using a quick-stop device and a vision measuring microscope, they found that ultrasonic vibrations increased shear angle which finally resulted in the reduction of tool– chip contact length compared to the CT. In their fur- ther studies, Bai et al. 17 developed an analytical model to predict orthogonal cutting force produced in 2D UVAT. The proposed model showed good agreement with experimental results. To clarify the reason of improvement in machining accuracy by applying 2D UVAT, Ma et al. 18 developed a theoretical model based on the thrust force. An empirical model of thrust and cutting force for 2D UVAT was presented by Ammouri et al. 19 and then it was compared with the experimental results. However, several experimental and theoretical researches have been performed on the use of ultra- sonic vibrations in metal cutting, and considerable works remain so that this process can be industria- lized efficiently. This is due to the general complexity of metal cutting process that may not be covered in theoretical and experimental works adequately. Therefore, applying a finite element method (FEM) could be helpful to comprehend different aspects of this process. It can be helpful to clarify the mechanics of tool–chip engagement in UVAT, and to analyze the parameters in the primary and secondary deformation zone. Accordingly, there have been rare studies on the simulation of ultrasonic vibrations and it is still in the primary steps. The FE analysis of UVAT was first reported by Babitsky et al. 20 They developed a simulation model to predict cutting forces generated during 1D UVAT and CT. As a result, it was stated that the average cutting force was smaller in UVAT compared to CT. In another study, Ahmed et al. 21 simulated this process to analyze the effect of one-directional ultra- sonic vibration on heat generation in the cutting zone. It was noted that the use of friction criterion was sig- nificantly effective on the temperature distribution in

the cutting zone. Amini et al. 22 tried to represent a finite element model for prediction of cutting forces in 1D UVAT process. At the end, it was concluded that the effect of clearance angle on the magnitude of the cutting force was insigni E cant, while smaller tool rake angle produced higher cutting force. Patil et al. 23 also developed the same model of 1D UVAT process. Finally, they reported that there was 40–45% reduc- tion in cutting force in UVAT compared to the CT. In this study, FE simulation of conventional turn- ing, and one-directional and elliptical ultrasonic- assisted turning processes were conducted to analyze the effect of ultrasonic vibrations in turning of Inconel 718 super alloy. The simulation results were validated by running the experimental ultrasonic-assisted turn- ing in which the cutting forces were measured by using a dynamometer. Furthermore, the effect of the pro- cesses on the shear angle, chip thickness, the tempera- ture and its effects on frictional behavior on the tool rake face were studied. Moreover, the influence of cutting parameters on tool–chip engagement time in UVAT was simulated.

Principle of UVAT

Generally in turning operation, X-axis is the direction of cutting speed (Vc), Y-axis is the direction of feed rate (f) and is the shear angle (seen in Figure 1). t 1 and t 2 are uncut and deformed chip thickness, respect- ively. While the cutting tool is fixed in CT, it is in a harmonic motion during the cutting process where ultrasonic vibration is added to the CT. This har- monic motion can be divided into linear and elliptical motion.

1D UVAT

In one-directional ultrasonic vibration, a harmonic movement is superimposed on the cutting tool in the direction of cutting speed. With respect to Figure 1(a),

the direction of cutting speed. With respect to Figure 1(a), Figure 1. Relative movements of the

Figure 1. Relative movements of the cutting tool and workpiece: (a) 1D UVAT and (b) 2D UVAT.

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3

the cutting tool moves linearly in the defined ampli-

tude, in which its position ð UÞ and velocity follows

U _ are as

U x ¼ a sinðÞ!t

_

U x ¼

a ! cos ðÞ! t

ð

1 Þ

ð 2 Þ

where t and a are time and vibration amplitude, respectively; ! is the angular frequency which is related to the vibration frequency ( ! ¼ 2 F ).

2D UVAT

In elliptical ultrasonic vibration, a vertical harmonic movement is added to the horizontal movement of 1D UVAT (shown in Figure 1(b)). This motion is parallel to the feed direction. The cutting tool position is cal- culated as follows

U x ¼ a sinð !t Þ U y ¼ b cos ð! tÞ

And its velocity is

_

U x ¼ a ! cos ð! tÞ

_

U y ¼ b ! sinð ! tÞ

ð

3 Þ

ð 4 Þ

where a and b are vibration amplitude in the direction of X and Y axis, respectively.

Finite element modeling

As a well-known boundary condition for simulation of conventional turning, the cutting tool is selected as a fixed object and the workpiece moves in the direc- tion of cutting speed with the constant velocity (Vc). While a harmonic motion is superimposed on the cutting tool for 1D and 2D UVAT, as explained in section 2. In this study, DEFORM 2D software with plane strain solution was applied to simulate turning oper- ation. The simulation process was carried out in 5000 steps where each step included 2 e-6 second. Totally, 0.01 s was simulated for each particular cutting condition. An updated Lagrangian formulation has been used to simulate chip formation and to remesh the work- piece when the elements of the mesh are too distorted. The workpiece was meshed with the number of 1500 rectangular elements, in which the size ratio of 3 was used. Moreover, higher mesh density with the size of 5e-6 compared to other areas was applied in the cut- ting zone due to large gradients of strain, strain rate, and temperature in this area. The workpiece material and the cutting tool were Inconel 718 super alloy and tungsten carbide insert, respectively. While the cutting tool was defined as a rigid body, the heat transfer mode was activated to analyze the temperature on

Table 1. Material constants for J–C constitutive model. 25

Material

A (MPa)

B (MPa)

C

Nm

IN 718

450

1700

0.017

0.65

1.3

the tool faces. The workpiece was defined as a plastic object where the Johnson-Cook flow stress model (equation (5)) was used to represent the constitutive behavior of workpiece material.

¼ A þ Bð " Þ

½

n

"

1 þ Cln

_

"

_

"

0

!#

1

T

T

r

T

m

T

r

m

ð 5Þ

where A, B, C, n, and m are the yield strength, the hardening modulus, the strain rate sensitivity, the strain-hardening and the thermal softening exponent,

respectively (given in Table 1). Also, is the equiva-

 

_

lent flow stress, " is the equivalent strain,

" is the

_

plastic strain rate, " 0 is the reference of plastic strain

rate, T is the temperature, T m is the melting tempera- ture, and T r is the reference temperature. 24 To model the friction in the tool-workpiece con- tact, constant shear model was utilized (equation (6)). In this equation, k is the shear F ow stress of the working material at the tool–chip interface and m is the constant shear friction factor. To define this constant, an iterative procedure should be carried out so that the predicted cutting forces are in good agree- ment with experiments. 26 Figure 2 shows this iteration process.

¼ mk

ð 6Þ

Cockcroft and Latham’s damage criterion 27 was used to predict chip separation from the workpiece. Based on equation (7), D is the critical damage value achieved by a uniaxial tensile test. Accordingly, a crack is initiated by deletion of an element since the damage value in the element reaches the critical one. 28 In this study, the default value (D ¼ 500) given in DEFORM’s library was used. In this model, " f , " , and are the fracture strain, the effective strain, and the maximum stress, respectively.

D

¼ Z " f d "

0

ð 7Þ

Modal Analysis

To find the optimum geometry for fabrication of vibratory tool, modal analysis was implemented by using ABAQUS software. Since more than one mode needs to be excited with the same amplifier and signal generator, the frequency of vibration

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Proc IMechE Part E: J Process Mechanical Engineering 0(0)

modes should be as close as possible in designed tool. 11 As it is seen in Figure 3, the designed tool consists of three sets of piezoelectric (PZT) stacks. From left to right, half-ring PZT stacks are used for the first and second sets in which two bending modes (B-mode) are generated with these sets. Accordingly, when half-ring PZT stacks in one side expand, the

when half-ring PZT stacks in one side expand, the Figure 2. Flow chart for determination of

Figure 2. Flow chart for determination of friction coefficient.

other ones in another side shrink where each of the stack series are shifted 180 from each other. As a result, two B-modes are generated in Z and X direc- tions by excitement of these two sets of PZT stacks. The third set includes two complete rings of PZT which generate longitudinal mode (L-mode) in Y- direction, as seen in Figure 3. Therefore, three differ- ent vibratory motions can be generated as follows:

1. Linear vibration can be produced by excitement of each of three sets of PZT stacks in their related direction (X, Y, and Z).

2. Elliptical vibration can be produced by simultan- eous excitement of one set of half-ring PZT stacks with complete-ring PZT stacks.

3. 3D elliptical vibration can be produced by excite- ment of all three sets of PZT stacks, simultaneously.

In this study, the first set of half-ring PZT stacks has been excited to produce linear vibratory motion in Z direction (cutting speed direction). Furthermore, the first and third sets of PZT stacks were simultan- eously excited for generation of elliptical motion in Y–Z direction (feed and cutting speed direction). Due to orthogonal cutting conditions, these two motions were only used in this work and 3D elliptical vibration was not used. Note that, there was obvi- ously no mode between these three modes and the difference of their resonance frequency was minimized

and the difference of their resonance frequency was minimized Figure 3. Modal analysis and fabricated vibratory

Figure 3. Modal analysis and fabricated vibratory tool.

Lotfi and Amini

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as much as possible by trial-and-error in the dimen- sion of vibratory tool geometry in the software. In Figure 3, fabricated tool is also shown.

Experimental setup

In order to verify the simulation model developed here, a series of orthogonal cutting tests were conducted on a lathe machine (TN52). The cutting parameters are listed in Table 2. That being the case, 18 cutting tests with one replication were totally carried out for all three turning methods. In general, a critical cutting speed is commonly taken into account. Regarding equation (8), the cutting speed should be lower than this value (V c 5 V crit: ). Above this value leads the operation to be conventional where the tool rake face never separates from the workpiece material.

V crit : ¼ 2 aF

Table 2. Cutting conditions.

ð 8 Þ

Parameters

Value

Cutting speed Vc (mm/s) Feed rate f (mm/rev) Depth of cut ap (mm) Tool rake angle00 A 0 ( ) Tool clearance angle ( ) Tool edge radius (mm) Frequency (kHz) Amplitude a ( mm) Amplitude b ( m m)

50, 100,150

0.02, 0.03

0.5

0

7

0.03

20

4

4

The workpiece material was Inconel 718 with 50 mm diameter and 0.5 mm thickness. A commercial TCGW-110204 tungsten carbide insert was used in this study. Furthermore, a Kistler 9257B type dyna- mometer and the equipment of ultrasonic vibrations were exerted to run the experiments. The experimental set-up and applied instruments are illustrated in Figure 4.

Results and discussions

The method of FE analysis utilized in this study is shown in Figure 5. Simulation of turning operation has been carried out in the method of conventional, linear and elliptical ultrasonic-assisted turning. While a constant relative movement existed between tool and workpiece in CT operation, a harmonic move- ment should be added to the cutting tool in the simu- lation of turning with ultrasonic vibrations. Figure 5 shows one cycle of cutting process when a vibrating tool was applied. Accordingly, a linear movement based on equation (1) was superimposed to the cut- ting tool in 1D UVAT. One cycle of the 1D UVAT can be divided into six stages. During the first and the second stages, the cutting tool starts approaching the chip, and in the third and fourth stages, it penetrates into the workpiece which results in chip formation. The stress becomes the maximum at these stages due to higher plastic work requirement and increase of friction between tool and chip when deformed chip Fows out on the tool rake face. At the end, the tool moves backward and it fully separates from the chip in the last stage. Besides, this figure represents the simulation of 2D UVAT which is divided into eight stages. In this method, an elliptical movement regard- ing equation (3) was applied to the cutting tool. In the first stage, the tool starts its circular motion toward the workpiece and then it contacts the surface that

tool starts its circular motion toward the workpiece and then it contacts the surface that Figure

Figure 4. Applied instruments.

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Proc IMechE Part E: J Process Mechanical Engineering 0(0)

6 Proc IMechE Part E: J Process Mechanical Engineering 0(0) Figure 5. Simulation of CT, 1D

Figure 5. Simulation of CT, 1D and 2D ultrasonic vibration assisted turning ( Vc ¼ 100 mm/s, f ¼ 0.02 mm/rev).

previously machined. At stages 3 and 4, the tool generates a machined surface, where the actual feed rate is extremely small. It should be noted that this small part is not formed into a chip but pushed into the workpiece under the chip. Next, the cut- ting tool moves upward roughly in the direction of

shear plane (stages 5 and 6). In this condition, tool– chip contact length becomes lower which never occurs in the CT and 1D UVAT due to lack of upward motion of cutting tool. Finally, the cutting tool with- draws the chip and moves to the start point at stages 7 and 8.

Lotfi and Amini

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Model verification

To validate the results of simulation model developed in this study, cutting forces were measured in experi- ments (using a dynamometer) and compared with those obtained by DEFORM 2D software after running the simulations. As shown in Figure 2, an iterative process was used to define shear friction coef- ficient. Note that, this process was carried out in one specific cutting condition (Vc ¼ 50 mm/s and f ¼ 0.02 mm/rev) during CT, 1D and 2D UVAT. Then all cutting conditions were simulated by using the selected friction value. During this process, the value of 0.68 showed best results. Figure 6 indicates the comparison results where the predicted values of FE analysis are in good agreement with the experi- ments. The mean value of cutting forces measured in experiment and simulation are compared in Figure 6. The measured cutting forces at different cutting speeds and feed rates indicate that the average value of cutting forces is greatly smaller in UVAT compared to the CT, in which the lowest cutting forces are pro- duced by elliptical ultrasonic-assisted turning process. In general, the cutting forces slightly increased with increase of cutting parameters.

Shear angle and chip thickness

As an ideal approach, many works have been done to know how the shear angle can be increased in the primary cutting zone so that it reaches 45 . 29 This

f = 0.02 (mm/rev)

(a) 80 60 40 20 0 Fc (N)
(a)
80
60
40
20
0
Fc (N)

CT

1D UVAT

2D UVAT

Exp 50 FEA 50 Exp 100 FEA 100 Exp 150
Exp 50
FEA 50
Exp 100
FEA 100
Exp 150

FEA 150

f = 0.03 (mm/rev) (b) 100 80 60 40 20 0 Fc (N)
f
= 0.03 (mm/rev)
(b)
100
80
60
40
20
0
Fc (N)

CT

1D UVAT

2D UVAT

Exp 50 FEA 50 Exp 100 FEA 100 Exp 150
Exp 50
FEA 50
Exp 100
FEA 100
Exp 150

FEA 150

Figure 6. Comparison of experimental and simulation results of cutting force at different feed rates ((a) 0.02, (b) 0.03 (mm/rev)) and cutting speeds (50, 100, and 150 mm/s).

increment causes some improvements in cutting pro- cess such as reduction of deformed chip thickness which finally results in the decrease of tool–chip con- tact length and power consumption. 30 As it is seen in Figure 7, the effect of ultrasonic vibration on the shear angle and deformed chip thickness was studied. This matter was implemented by comparison of con- ventional turning with two methods of ultrasonic- assisted turning in the same step after running the simulations. The shear-angle graphs extracted from DEFORM 2D software plus the generated shear bands are shown in Figure 7(a) and (b), respectively. Due to excessive fluctuation in the shear-angle values (particularly in UVAT methods), the mean value of the graphs is graphically illustrated in Figure 7(c) in order to have better comparison. Accordingly, the shear angle increased by using linear vibration and there was more significant increment by utilizing ellip- tical vibration. In 2D UVAT, this angle was taken a step forward in which it is higher than the ideal value. This event caused deformed chip thickness to be lower than its primary thickness. In this condition, the chip compression ratio is more than one which is followed by increase in the deformed chip length. Regarding Figure 7(d), generated strain in the chip in 2D UVAT is approximately two times larger than the values obtained in 1D UVAT and CT. These condi- tions can be effective on cutting forces and tempera- ture distribution, as discussed in the following of this paper. Furthermore, the experimental chips obtained during CT, 1D and 2D UVAT are shown in Figure 8. The repedability in measurement of shear angle is very low. However, the increment of

this angle is clearly seen in UVAT methods compared to CT.

Cutting force

A general profile of cutting force attained in all cut- ting conditions for CT, linear and elliptical UVAT, is shown in Figure 9. Accordingly, the cutting force sta- bilized quickly after running the machining operation during the conventional turning, while an oscillation motion is seen for UVAT, due to the harmonic move-

ment of cutting tool. During the tool–chip engage- ment time, the cutting force increased to its peak and then decreased to the zero when the cutting tool disengaged the chip completely. Considering that the peak of cutting force in linear vibration is nearly equal to CT, it dramatically decreased when an elliptical motion was added to the cutting tool. Figure 9(b) specifies that the period of tool–chip engagement in 2D UVAT is more gradual than that happens in 1D UVAT. This is also seen in Figure 10. Based on this figure, investigation of cutting forces shows that increase of cutting speed results in the increase of tool–chip engagement time in ultrasonic-assisted turn- ing. This increment continues so that the cutting speed

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Proc IMechE Part E: J Process Mechanical Engineering 0(0)

8 Proc IMechE Part E: J Process Mechanical Engineering 0(0) Figure 7. (a) Shear-angle graph, (b)

Figure 7. (a) Shear-angle graph, (b) strain rate and shear band, (c) chip thickness and the mean value of shear angle, and (d) strain in the deformed chip during CT, 1D and 2D UVAT processes.

in the deformed chip during CT, 1D and 2D UVAT processes. Figure 8. Experimental deformed chips

Figure 8. Experimental deformed chips during CT, 1D and 2D UVAT processes.

reaches the critical value, discussed in the Experimental setup section. More than this value, the outputs of ultrasonic vibrations show no differ- ence with conventional turning method.

Heat generation

The simulation results revealed that the temperature in the primary cutting zone slightly increased when ultrasonic vibrations have been superimposed to the

Lotfi and Amini

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CT 1D UVAT 2D UVAT (a) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0.001
CT
1D UVAT
2D UVAT
(a)
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
0.001
0.002
0.003
Fc (N)

t (s)

(b) 120 100 80 60 Tool-chip 40 engagement time 20 0 0.00101 0.00102 0.00103 0.00104
(b)
120
100
80
60
Tool-chip
40
engagement time
20
0
0.00101
0.00102
0.00103
0.00104
0.00105
0.00106
Fc (N)

t (s)

Figure 9. Cutting force profile in CT, 1D and 2D UVAT:

(a) complete process, (b) a period of process ( Vc ¼ 100 mm/s, f ¼ 0.03 mm/rev).

CT 50 CT 100 CT 150 1D UVAT 50 1D UVAT 100 1D UVAT 150
CT 50
CT 100
CT 150
1D UVAT 50
1D UVAT 100
1D UVAT 150
2D UVAT 50
2D UVAT 100
2D UVAT 150
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0.001012
0.001017
0.001022
0.001027
0.001032
Fc (N)

t (S)

Figure 10. The effect of cutting speed on tool–chip engage- ment time.

cutting tool. It can be explained by additional energy coming into the cutting system with ultrasonic vibra- tions. 31 On the other hand, FE analysis of the heat generation showed that lower temperature generated on the tool rake face in the ultrasonic assisted turning which is much more important area due to frictional properties between tool and chip (Figure 11). Among these three methods, 2D UVAT had the lowest tem- perature which is due to generation of lower deformed chip thickness. It should be noted the temperature was analyzed after 4000 steps of simulation (0.01 s) as

shown in Figure 11. Lower temperature on the tool rake face causes decrease of the sticky friction in the secondary deformation zone which results in improv- ing the desired factors of machinability. 16 Experimental observation of sticky length in Figure 11 shows that it is reduced when ultrasonic vibration is added to the cutting tool. This decrement in the temperature and then in sticky friction can be explained by reduction of con- tact time and passing the air when the vibrated cut- ting tool disengages the chip. Therefore, increase of

amplitude (a) and frequency (F) decreases engage- ment time resulting lower friction and temperature on tool rake face. Furthermore, it can be proved theoretically, in which Chou 32 represented a dimen- sionless variable ( ) based on the ratio of tool elas- tic energy to the surface energy within per unit volume at tool–chip interface. This variable was named the cutting seizure number and its relation with ultrasonic vibrations has also been identified. It was shown that larger tool elastic energy reduces tool–chip sticky length. Then, the following relation

was expressed

/ ð Fa Þ 2

ð 9Þ

With consideration of maximum linear vibration of cutting tool (V critical ¼ 2 aF), equation (9) can be rewritten as follows

/

V

critical

2

2

ð

10Þ

With respect to the equation (10), higher ampli- tude (a) and higher frequency (F) in UVAT increase maximum linear vibration which is proportional to . This increment reduces the temperature and con- sequently the sticky length, which cannot be hap- pened in CT when maximum linear vibration of cutting tool is equal to zero. Moreover, increase of shear angle by applying the ultrasonic vibrations can also be effective on this region. Based on equa-

tion (11) represented by O zel and Zeren, 33 the sticky

region decreases with increase of shear angle and decrease of deformed chip thickness.l st is the length of sticky region and t 2 is the maximum thickness of the secondary zone.

¨

l st ¼

t 2

sin ð Þ

ð 11Þ

However, tool wear investigation was not carried out in this paper, and temperature results can give information about possible tool wear. 34 By these observations, the acceleration of tool wear rate can be suppressed by using ultrasonic vibrations.

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Proc IMechE Part E: J Process Mechanical Engineering 0(0)

Proc IMechE Part E: J Process Mechanical Engineering 0(0) Figure 11. Temperature distribution on tool rake

Figure 11. Temperature distribution on tool rake face and experimental sticky length on chip surface.

Conclusions

2D simulation of conventional, linear and elliptical- assisted turning has been carried out in order to analyze the cutting process of Inconel 718 super alloy. Ultrasonic equipment and dynamometer were used in experimental tests to verify the model devel- oped in this work. The effect of ultrasonic vibrations on cutting force, shear angle, chip thickness in pri- mary cutting zone, and temperature in the secondary cutting zone were studied. The main conclusions of this work are given as follow:

.

Comparison of cutting forces show that predicted and experimental values are adequately in good agreement.

.

Increase of cutting speed results in the increase of tool–chip engagement time when ultrasonic vibra- tion is used.

.

While the peak of cutting force in linear vibration is nearly equal to conventional turning, it is lower in elliptical vibration in which the average value of this factor was significantly lower in turning with linear and elliptical ultrasonic vibrations compared to the conventional turning.

.

Shear angle increases when ultrasonic vibration is added to the cutting tool.

.

The value more than 45 for shear angle can be achieved by using elliptical vibrations.

.

Deformed chip thickness by the value of lower than the uncut chip thickness can be produced by implementation of elliptical ultrasonic vibrations.

. The harmonic movements of cutting tool causes decrease of temperature in the tool–chip contact zone which finally results in the reduction of fric- tion in the secondary deformation zone.

Acknowledgement

The authors wish to thank the Production Lab of University of Kashan for their technical support.

Declaration of conflicting interests

The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Funding

The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

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