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Binary 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1
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1024 + 512 + 256 + 128 + 64 +0 + 16 +0 +0 +0 +1

Octal 3 7 2 1
3 × 83 + 7 × 82 + 2 × 81 + 1 × 80
1536 + 448 + 16 + 1

Decimal 2 0 0 1
2 × 103 + 0 × 102 + 0 × 101 + 1 × 100
2000 + 0 +0 +1

Hexadecimal 7 D 1 .
7 × 162 + 13 × 161 + 1 × 160
1792 + 208 +1
           
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Example 1
Hexadecimal 1 9 4 8 . B 6

Binary 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0. 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0

Octal 1 4 5 1 0 . 5 5 4

Example 2
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Binary 0111101110100011 101111000100 .
Octal 7 5 6 4 3 . 5 7 0 4
         

Quotients Remainders

1492
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93 0
46 1
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5 1
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1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 = 149210
         

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1 + 2 × 46 = 93
0 + 2 × 23 = 46
1 + 2 × 11 = 23
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1+2×2=5
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1 2 4 6 7
Negative Expressible Zero Expressible Positive
overflow negative numbers positive numbers overflow

—10100 —10—100 0 10—100 10100


       
    
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Example 1: Exponentiation to the base 2


2–2 2–4 2–6 2–8 2–10 2–12 2–14 2–16
2–1 2–3 2–5 2–7 2–9 2–11 2–13 2–15

20 –12 –13 –15


Unnormalized: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 = 2 (1 × 2 + 1 × 2 + 1 × 2
0 1010100
.0
Sign Excess 64 Fraction is 1 × 2–12+ 1 × 2–13 + 1 × 2–16) = 432
+ exponent is +1 × 2–15+ 1 × 2–16
84 – 64 = 20
To normalize, shift the fraction left 11 bits and subtract 11 from the exponent.

Normalized: 0 1001001 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 29 (1 × 2–1+ 1 × 2–2+ 1 × 2–4


.1
Sign Excess 64 Fraction is 1 × 2–1 + 1 × 2–2 + 1 × 2–5) = 432
+ exponent is +1 × 2–4 + 1 × 2–5
73 – 64 = 9
Example 2: Exponentiation to the base 16

16–1 16–2 16–3 16–4

Unnormalized: 0 1000101 0 0 00 0 0 00 0 0 01 1 0 1 1 = 165 (1 × 16–3+ B × 16–4) = 432


.
Sign Excess 64 Fraction is 1 × 16–3 + B × 16–4
+ exponent is
69 – 64 = 5
To normalize, shift the fraction left 2 hexadecimal digits, and subtract 2 from the exponent.

Normalized: 0 1000011 0001 1011 0000 0 0 0 0 = 163 (1 × 16–1+ B × 16–2) = 432


.
Sign Excess 64 Fraction is 1 × 16–1 + B × 16–2
+ exponent is
67 – 64 = 3
       

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