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MACHINE DESIGN

MODULE-5

COUPLINGS

COUPLING

A coupling is defined as a mechanical device that permanently joins two rotating shafts to each other.

Example: Driver & driven shaft of pump.

device that permanently joins two rotating shafts to each other.  Example: Driver & driven shaft

Difference between coupling & clutch

Coupling is a permanent connection where as clutch can diconnect and connect as and when required.

& clutch  Coupling is a permanent connection where as clutch can diconnect and connect as
& clutch  Coupling is a permanent connection where as clutch can diconnect and connect as

Types of coulpings

1. Oldham coupling:

Used for two parallel shafts with smaller distance between their axes

Types of coulpings 1. Oldham coupling:  Used for two parallel shafts with smaller distance between
Types of coulpings 1. Oldham coupling:  Used for two parallel shafts with smaller distance between

2. Hookes Coupling= Universal coupling:

Used when two shafts having intersecting axes

2. Hookes Coupling= Universal coupling:  Used when two shafts having intersecting axes
2. Hookes Coupling= Universal coupling:  Used when two shafts having intersecting axes

Types of misalignment

Lateral (Parallel)

Angular

Axial

Types of misalignment Lateral (Parallel) Angular Axial

Misalignment exists because:

1. Delflection of shaft due to lateral forces

2. error in shaft mounting due to manufacturing tolerances

3. Use of two separately manufactured units-

example- elctric motor or worm gear box

4. Thermal expansion of parts.

A good coupling should satisfy following requirements:

1. Should be capable of transmitting torque from driving shaft to driven shaft

2. Should keep two shafts in proper alignment

3. should be easy to assemble and disassemble for repairs & alterartions.

4. Should be protected by guard or by providing suitable shape to projecting parts

As, the failure of revolving bolt head, nuts,keyheads and other projecting part may cause accidents.

Rigid Couplings & Flexible Coplings

Rigid couling

Can not tolerate misalignment

Do not absorbs shocks

Simple & inexpensive

Flexible coupling

misalignment displacement. Can tolerate 1.5 & 0.5 º of mm angular of axial

Absorbs shocks & vibrations

Costlier due to additional parts. More popular

Bushed -Pin Flexible coupling

Similar to rigid coupling. Instaed of bolts, Pins & rubber bush are used

Bushed -Pin Flexible coupling  Similar to rigid coupling. Instaed of bolts, Pins & rubber bush
Bushed -Pin Flexible coupling  Similar to rigid coupling. Instaed of bolts, Pins & rubber bush

Advantages of Bushed-Pin type flexible coupling

1. It can tolerate Lateral (Axial) misalignment upto 0.5 mm & Angular misalignment of 1.5 º.

2. It prevents transmission of shocks from one shaft to another and absorbs vibrations.

3. It can be used for transmitting high toques.

Disadvantages of Bushed-Pin type flexible coupling

1. Cost is more due to additional parts

2. It requires more radial space compared with other types of couplings.

Empirical relations

Shaft diameter =d

Outside diameter of Hub=

Length of Hub/ effective length of key = l h =1.5d

Thickness of output flange = t = 0.5 d

Pitch circle diameter =D = 3d to 4 d

Thickness of protective rim = t1= 0.25 d

Diameter of pin = d1 = 0.5 d /[( N)^(1/2)]

Number of pins=N

d h = 2d

Analysis of Bushed-Pin coupling : (1/3)

Analysis of Bushed-Pin coupling : (1/3) Mt = P x Radius Mt = P x (D/2)

Mt = P x Radius

Mt = P x (D/2) x N

P= Projected area x Intensity of pressure

P= (D b x l b ) x P m ----- (2)

---- (1)

Mt= Torque transmitted

P= force acting on each rubber or pin

D= Pitch circle

diameter of Pins

(mm)

N = Number of bushes or pins.

Analysis of Bushed-Pin coupling : (2/3)

Analysis of Bushed-Pin coupling : (2/3) Db= Outer diameter of bush (mm) lb= Length of bush

Db= Outer diameter of bush

(mm)

lb= Length of bush (mm)

Pm = Permissible intensity of pressure (N/mm2) = 1 for rubber bush and cast iron flange.

Ration of lb to Db is usually=1

.: lb=Db

Projected area= Db x lb ----(2)

Putting this value in eqn (1)

Mt= (D b x l b x P m ) x D/2 x N -----(3)

Mt= ½ x D b 2 DN -----(4)----

Outer diameter of rubber bush is obtained by this equation

Analysis of Bushed-Pin coupling : (3/3)

Shear stress :

T = P/( 3.14 d 1 2 ) ---(5)

P = 2 M t / ( D x N)

.: T = 8 M t /( 3.14 d 2 DN) -----(6)

According to Indian Standerds:

Allowable Shear Stress for ins is 35 N/mm2

Component

Material

Flanges

Pins

Grey cast iron Grade FG 200

Carbon Steel

More about Bushed-pin Flexible coupling

1. Pin is also aubjected to bending moment

2. Recommended fit for shft & hub is H 7 -j 7

3. Maximum allowabale peripheral speed of coupling is 30 m/s

4. Features of flexible coupling:

a. Can accommodate gap between driving & driven flanges

b. Permissible stress is Pm =1 N/mm 2 which is very less than rigid type of coupling. Hence corresponding diameter of pin and PCD is larger.

5. Location of coupling:

Should be as near as possible towards bearings to avoid Bending moment due to coupling forces.

Design Procedure for Flexible coupling: (1/3)

1.Shaft Diameter 2.Dimension of flanges 3.Diameter of Pins 4.Diameter of Bushes 5.Dimension of Keys

Muff Coupling= Sleeve coupling =Box coupling

Muff Coupling= Sleeve coupling =Box coupling

Design Procedure for Flexible coupling: (1/3)

I

Shaft Diameter

a

Mt= [60 x 106 (kW) ]/ [ 2 x3.14 x n]

b

T = [16 Mt] / [ 3.14 x d3]

II

Dimensions of flanges by Emperical relations

Shaft diameter =d Outside diameter of Hub=

Length of Hub/ effective length of key = lh =1.5d Thickness of output flange = t = 0.5 d Pitch circle diameter =D = 3d to 4 d Thickness of protective rim = t1= 0.25 d Diameter of pin = d1 = 0.5 d /[( N)^(1/2)] Number of pins=N

dh = 2d

Torsional Shear Stress:

T = [Mt r ]/ J

J

Muff Coupling

Muff Coupling Construction: It consists of sleeve or hollow cylinder which is fitted over the ends

Construction:

It consists of sleeve or hollow cylinder which is fitted over the ends of input and output shafts by means of sunk key

Power Transmission in Muff Coupling:

which is fitted over the ends of input and output shafts by means of sunk key

Muff Coupling

Advantages of Muff coupling:

1. Simplest Form of coupling.

Only two Parts: Sleeve & Key

Simple to design & manufacture.

2. No projecting parts except key head. External Surface is Smooth & safe.

3. Compact construction with small radial dimensions

4. Cheaper than other types of couplings.

Muff Coupling

Disadvantages of Muff coupling:

1.Difficult to assemble or disassemble (dismantle).

2.Rigid type of coupling & requires accurate alignment of shafts

3. No flexible element hence do not absorb shocks & vibrations.

4. It requires more axial space compared with flange coupling

Less popular and can be used for shaft diameter upto 70 mm.

Muff Coupling

Emperical Relations:

D= (2d +13) L = 3.5 d

D= Outer diameter of sleeve L= Length of sleeve D= Diameter of shaft

Muff Coupling

Design procedure for Muff coupling:

1. Calculate diameter of each shaft:

T= [60x 10 6 x (kW)]/2πn , T =[16 T ]/πd 3

2. Calculate dimensions of sleeve using ratios:

D= (2d+13) , L= 3.5 d

3. Check for torsional shear stress induced in the sleeve

T =[ T.D]/ [(π/16) (D 4 -d 4 )

4.Determine standard dimensions of key

Table

5. Check shear & compressive stress in key.

T = [2T ]/dbl , σ =[4 T ]/dhl

Clamp Coupling= Split Muff Coupling= Compression coupling

Clamp Coupling= Split Muff Coupling= Compression coupling
Clamp Coupling= Split Muff Coupling= Compression coupling
Construction: 1.Coupling sleeve is made up of two halves that are clamed together with bolts.

Construction:

1.Coupling sleeve is made up of two halves that are clamed together with bolts.

2.Number of bolts =2,4,8 etc. (multiples of four)

3.Bolts are placed in the recesses formed in the sleeve halves.

Construction: 1.Coupling sleeve is made up of two halves that are clamed together with bolts.

Construction:

1.Coupling sleeve is made up of two halves that are clamed together with bolts.

2.Number of bolts =2,4,8 etc. (multiples of four)

3.Bolts are placed in the recesses formed in the sleeve halves.

Clamp Coupling= Split Muff Coupling= Compression coupling

Advantages of clamp coupling:

1. Easy to assemble & dismantle

2. Easy to remove without shifting the shaft in axial direction unlike solid muff coupling.

3. As compared to flange coupling, small diametral dimensions.

Application of clamp coupling:

Line shaft in power transmission which has become obsolete nowadays.

Clamp Coupling= Split Muff Coupling= Compression coupling

Disadvantages of clamp coupling:

1. Difficult in dynamic balancing. So cannot be used for high speed applications

2. unsuitable for shock loads

3. It is necessary to provide a guard for coupling to comply with Factory Regulation Act.

Muff coupling Vs. Clamp Coupling

Muff coupling

Torque is transmitted by shear resistance of keys

Clamp Coupling

Torque is transmitted by 1] Friction between sleeve halves & shaft

2]shear resistance of keys

Clamp Coupling= Split Muff Coupling= Compression coupling

Ratios:

1. D=2.5 d

2. L = 3.5 d

Where, D= Outer diameter of Sleeve halves (mm) L= Length of Sleeve (mm) D= Diameter of shaft (mm)

3. Diametr of clamping bolt:

D 1 = 0.2d + 10

D 1 = 0.15d + 15

When d< 55 mm

When

d > 55 mm

Clamp Coupling= Split Muff Coupling= Compression coupling

Ratios:

4. Clamping force on each bolt:

P 1 = π/4. D 1 2 .σ t

5. Claming force on each shaft:

N =P 1 n/2

6. M t = [ f.d. P 1 .n] /2

Or P1 =[2 Mt]/ [ f.d.N]

Rigid flange coupling

Rigid flange coupling
Rigid flange coupling

Rigid flange coupling

Since rigid type of coupling, it requires precise location.

Spigot & recess are provided for precise location.

Spigot=cylindrical projection provided on driving flange. Recess= Corresponding hollow part on driven flange.

Spigot & recess are machined with more accuracy.

Rigid flange coupling

Construction:

Two flanges each key to one shaft.

Both flanges are connected by means of bolts arranged on PCD.

Power transmission:

Two flanges each key to one shaft. Both flanges are connected by means of bolts arranged