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1 Monoethanolamine

A PROJECT REPORT
ON

MONOETHANOLAMINE

Submitted to
The M.S. University of Baroda
in partial fulfilment for the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in
Chemical Engineering

Prepared By: Guided By:


Vismay Harani Dr. K.S. Agrawal

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING
THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO UNIVERSITY
OF BARODA
2013-14
2 Monoethanolamine

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING
THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO UNIVERSITY
OF BARODA

CERTIFICATE

Certified that the Project work entitled ‘Monoethanolamine’ is a bonafide work


carried out in final year by Vismay Harani (Roll No. 804) in partial fulfillment for
the award of Bachelors of Engineering in Chemical Engineering from the Maharaja
Sayajirao University of Baroda during the academic year 2013-2014, who carried
out the Project work under guidance and no part of this work has been submitted
earlier for the award of any degree.

Guide Head of Department

Dr. K.S. AGRAWAL Dr. BINA SENGUPTA


3 Monoethanolamine

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my deepest gratitude to my respected guide Dr. K.S. AGRAWAL, for


his valuable guidance, constructive criticism and constant encouragement right
from the start to the completion of this Project. Not only that, he provided me the
freedom to explore in the direction I wanted to, intervening only when I was
digressing from the topic. Without his valuable insights, this Project report might
have been incomplete.

I would also like to express my sincere thanks to Head of the Department of


Chemical Engineering, Dr. BINA SENGUPTA for granting me the permission to
do work on this topic.

Presented By:

Mr. Vismay Harani,

B.E. IV Chemical
4 Monoethanolamine

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER TITLE PAGE NO.
nO 1. INTRODUCTION 8

2. LITERATURE REVIEW 9

2.1 HISTORY 9

2.2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 10

2.3 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 11

2.4 APPLICATIONS 11-12

2.5 TYPE OF PROCESS TECHNOLOGY 12-13

2.6 DAVY KVAERNER PROCESS (LIQUID PHASE) 13-16

3. MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCES 17

3.1 CAPACITY 17

3.2 DEGREE OF FREEDON ANALYSIS 18-21

3.3 MATERIAL BALANCE 22-28

3.4 ENERGY BALANCE 29-35

4. PROCESS DESIGN OF THE EQUIPMENTS 36

4.1 PROCESS DESIGN OF THE DISTILLATION COLUMN 36-53

4.2 PROCESS DESIGN OF A CONDENSOR 54-59

4.3 REACTOR DESIGN IN CHEMCAD 60-62

5 MECHANICAL DESIGN 63

5.1 MECHANICAL DESIGN OF DISTILLATION COLUMN 63-67

5.2 MECHANICAL DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER 68-69

6 COST ESTIMATION 70

6.1 ESTIMATION OF FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT 70-71

6.2 ESTIMATION OF TOTAL PRODUCT COST 72-74

6.3 GROSS EARNING/INCOME 75

6.4 RATE OF RETURN 75

7 PLANT LOCATION AND LAYOUT 76

7.1 PLANT LAYOUT 76

7.2 PLANT LOCATION 77-78


5 Monoethanolamine

TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED)


7.3 IDEAL LOCATION: HAZIRA, GUJARAT 78

8 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND SAFETY 79

8.1 STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION 79

8.2 HEALTH AND SAFETY FACTORS 79-80

9 PROCESS UTILITIES 81

10 BIBLIOGRAPHY 82-83
6 Monoethanolamine

LIST OF FIGURES
NO. TITLE PAGE NO.
2.1 FLOWSHEET OF DAVY KVAERNER PROCESS 13

3.1 DOF ANALYSIS 18

3.2 REACTOR 19

3.3 MIXER 19

3.4 NH3 FLASH 20

3.5 DEHYDRATOR 20

3.6 MEA TOWER 21

3.7 DEA TOWER 21

4.1 DISTILLATION COLUMN 36

4.2 RELATION OF (Ad/Ac)*100 v/s lw/Dc 41

4.3 EDULJEE WEEP POINT CORRELATION 42

4.4 RELATION OF Co v/s Ah/Ap*100 43

4.5 ENTRAINMENT CORRELATION GRAPH 45

4.6 TRIAL TRAY DESIGN 46

4.7 RELATION OF Ah/Ap v/s lp/dh 47

4.8 RELATION OF Φ v/s Fva 47

4.9 RELATION OF Lw/ Dc v/s lh/Dc 50

4.10 RELATION OF EMV/EOG v/s λ * EOG 51


7 Monoethanolamine

LIST OF TABLES
NO. TITLE PAGE NO.
2.1 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MEA 10

3.1 GLOBAL ETHANOLAMINE CAPACITY 17

3.2 FLOWRATES IN AND OUT OF REACTOR 23

4.1 T-x-y DATA FOR MEA-WATER SOLUTION 38

4.2 SPECIFICATION SHEET OF DISTILLATION COLUMN 53

6.1 COST DATA OF VARIOUS EQUIPMENTS 70


8 Monoethanolamine

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Ethanolamines have been traditionally used in surfactants, detergents and personal care products.
But now-a-days, its use has dramatically increased due to its major role in the Gas Sweetening
Process where it is used to remove hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide from the sour natural
gas in order to obtain sweet natural gas.

My Project primarily deals with the Manufacture of Monoethanolamine (MEA), one of the many
chemicals from the ethanolamine family consisting of members like MDEA, MEA, DEA, DIPA,
DGA etc. The primary amine, MEA is a very effective, cheap, highly reactive and stable
chemical used for removal of sour gas. Hence I have selected MEA as a chemical for my Project.

The Chapter 2 of this report is titled Literature Review wherein I explore the History of this
chemical, its physical and chemical properties, its many applications, the multiple routes to
manufacture this product, the conventional process used for manufacture of MEA and an
overview and process condition of the major unit processes.

Chapter 3 has the Material and Energy balances. This also includes the relevant data about the
Production capacity of the various facilities producing MEA around the world. I have also
performed a basic DOF analysis of the process, taking the help of Felder.

In Chapter 4, I have designed a distillation column, a Heat Exchanger and taking the help of the
software CHEMCAD, designed a reactor.

Chapter 5 includes the Mechanical design of the equipments whose process design I performed
in the previous chapter.

Chapter 6 deals with the Cost Estimation wherein I found the fixed capital investment, total
product cost, Gross Profit, Net profit and the Rate of Return.

Chapter 7, 8 and 9 includes the Plant Location and the Layout, Environmental Pollution and
Safety and the various Process Utilities used in the manufacture of MEA. Based on the
guidelines, I have found out the ideal location in Gujarat to setup an MEA manufacturing plant,
while Chapter 10 is the Bibliography wherein I mention various references which have helped
me in making this project.
9 Monoethanolamine

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter deals with the History, Physical and Chemical properties, Applications, Various
Production technologies and the Overview of the Current Production technology used in the
manufacture of Monoethanolamine.

2.1 HISTORY

Amino alcohols have been prepared industrially since the 1930s. However large scale production
started only after 1945. In industries amino alcohols are usually designated as alkanolamines.
Ethanolamines are the important compounds in this group.
Ethanolamines were prepared in 1860 by Wurtz from ethylene chlorohydrin and aqueous
ammonia. It was only toward the end of the 19th century that an ethanolamine mixture was
separated into its mono, di and triethanolamine components. It was achieved by fractional
distillation.
Ethanol amines were not available commercially before 1930’s; they assumed steadily growing
commercial importance as intermediates only after 1945, because of the large scale production of
ethylene oxide. Since the mid-1970’s production of very pure, colorless ethanolamine in
industrial quantities has been possible. All the ethanol amine now is obtained economically in
very pure form (Ullman, 2001)2.
The versatile family of ethanolamines – including MEA, DEA and TEA – offers a broad
spectrum of application opportunities. Because ethanolamines combine the properties of amines
and alcohols, they exhibit the unique capability of undergoing reactions common to both groups.
As AMINES, they are mildly alkaline and react with acids to form salts or soaps. As
ALCOHOLS, they are hygroscopic (tendency to absorb moisture from atmosphere) and can be
esterified (Ullman, 2001)2.

The molecular structure of these three compounds are given below:


10 Monoethanolamine

2.2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

TABLE 2.1: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MEA (DOW, 2003)4


Formula H2NCH2CH2OH HN(CH2CH2OH)2 N(CH2CH2OH)3
Molecular Weight 61.08 105.14 149.19
Apparent Sp. Gr. at 20/20°C 1.017 1.092 1.126
Sp. Gr./ at 10 to 80°C 0.00080 0.00065 0.00059
Boiling Point at
760 mm Hg, °C 170.4 268 335
at 50 mm Hg, °C 101 182 245
at 10 mm Hg, °C 71 150 205
Vapor Pressure at 20°C, mm Hg <1 <0.01 <0.001
Freezing Point, °C(°F) 10.5 (50.9) 28.0 (82.4) 21.6 (70.9)
Absolute Viscosity at 20°C, cP 24.1 — 921(f)
at 30°C, cP 16.2 380 404
Solubility at 20°C, % by wt
In Water Complete Complete Complete
Water In Complete — Complete
Solubility in organic Liquids at
25°C, % by wt.
Acetone Complete Complete Complete
Benzene 0.6 0.03 2
Carbon Tetrachloride 0.1 0.01 Complete
Ethyl Ether 0.7 0.5 2
Heptane 0.1 0.03 <0.03
Methanol Complete Complete Complete
Surface Tension, dynes/cm 48.3 48.5 48.9
Refractive Index, nD20 1.4539 1.4747 1.4852
ND/ t at 20 to 40°C per °C 0.00034 0.00027 0.00020
Flash Point, °C(°F) 96 (205) 191 (375) 208 (407)
11 Monoethanolamine

2.3 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

 Colorless to yellow liquid

 A clear colorless liquid with an odor resembling that of ammonia. Flash point 185°F.
 May attack copper, brass, and rubber. Corrosive to tissue.
 Moderately toxic. Produces toxic oxides of nitrogen during combustion.

 Water soluble with evolution of heat.

 Ethanolamine is a base. Reacts with organic acids (acetic acid, acrylic acid), inorganic acids
(hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid),
acetic anhydride, acrolein, acrylonitrile, cellulose, epichlorohydrin, mesityl oxide,
beta-propiolactone, vinyl acetate.

 Emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides when heated to decomposition.

 Vapor irritates eyes and nose. Liquid causes local injury to mouth, throat, digestive tract,
skin and eyes.

 Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Irritating vapors generated when heated.

2.4 APPLICATIONS

When combined with fatty acids, ethanolamines yields soap used extensively as detergents and
emulsifiers. Other uses include solvents, plasticizing agents, corrosion inhibitors (hygroscopic)
and conditioning agents. They are also used in various chemical synthesis processes. MEA is
widely used to purify refinery and natural gases and for the production of ethanoldiamines and
ethylenemine (Dutia P, 2004)5.
12 Monoethanolamine

Some of the uses are mentioned below:-

 GAS TREATING
It is used for the treatment of natural, refinery and synthesis gas. Aqueous solution of MEA
and DEA are used on the industrial scale for the absorption of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen
Sulphide as the main contaminants. The choice of appropriate ethanolamine depends upon
the required efficiency of the removal of contaminants.

 SURFACTANTS
It is used as a surface active agents for detergents and personal care products. It is mainly
used in shampoos, bubble baths and face and body gel-type cleansers impacting especially
the foaming properties, volatility, skin irritation and detergent properties of these products.

 METAL WORKING AND OIL FIELD CHEMICALS


Ethanolamines find use as corrosion inhibitors, neutralizing acid components to form
ethanolamine salts and soaps. These products, in turn, provide the alkalinity and non-
corrosiveness needed to protect metal against oxidation and are widely used in metal-
forming, cutting and grinding fluids. In a similar way, ethanolamines are operated within the
process of oil drilling and refining.

 AS INTERMEDIATES IN MANUFACTURE OF SURFACTANTS, COSMETICS


AND EMULSIFIERS

 IN CARBON DIOXIDE AND AMMONIA MANUFACTURE

2.5 TYPES OF PROCESS TECHNOLOGY

There are two processes used for the manufacture of Monoethanolamine (Dutia P, 2004)5:

 DAVY KVAERNER PROCESS (LIQUID PHASE)


 ANHYDROUS REACTION PROCESS (GAS PHASE)
13 Monoethanolamine

While the anhydrous reaction would be simple and clean, high operating pressures are necessary
in order to liquefy ammonia so that the reaction can occur in liquid phase in this case, so that the
reactivity of ethylene oxide (highly explosive) can be controlled and capital and operating costs
can be reduced (Fassler P, 2008)6.

Hence for all practical purposes, the conventional Davy Kvaerner Process (liquid phase) process
is used.

FIGURE 2.1: FLOWSHEET OF DAVY KVAERNER PROCESS (NPTEL) 10

2.6 DAVY KVAERNER PROCESS (LIQUID PHASE)

In all the conventional processes, reaction takes place in the liquid phase, and the reaction
pressure must be sufficiently large to prevent the vaporization of ammonia at the reaction
temperature. The pressure in the reactor is 160 atmposphere and the reaction is carried out at 150
0
C. This would also be a good method of reducing the reactivity of ethylene, for safety purposes
(ethylene oxide can be explosive).

The flow sheet for the production of MEA is as shown in the diagram. Raw materials used are
ammonia and ethylene oxide. Aqueous solution of Ammonia is mixed with the recycle stream of
ammonia to get a concentration of 85% ammonia in water, which is mixed with ethylene oxide
14 Monoethanolamine

and sent to the reactor (plug flow reactor). The pressure of 160 atmosphere is maintained in the
reactor so as to avoid the evaporation of ammonia and keep the ammonia in liquid solution to
carry out the reaction in liquid phase (Ruehl C, 1997)7.

The disadvantage of this process is that the water would have to be separated later from the
product stream, and also the fact that if anytime during the process the temperature or pressure of
the process stream is too high, the ethylene oxide will react with the water to form ethylene
glycol.

But the reaction temperature in this case would never rise above 200 0C and the ethylene glycol
formation takes place only above 430 0C. It was decided to carry out the reaction in the aqueous
phase because the safety gained with aqueous ethylene oxide and money saved by putting
ammonia into solution would outweigh the cost of a separator.

2.6.1 REACTOR:

Next we had to consider the temperature, feed rate, and reactor size and type for the reaction.
Since the reaction is not auto-catalytic, we selected a plug flow reactor type to give the most
efficient reaction for the space in the reactor. The reactor is made of Stainless Steel (SS-316).
Temperature is best around 120-160 degrees. Anywhere below around 120 C seriously hinders
the rate of the reactions. In our present case we take around 150 degrees (Ruehl C, 1997)7.

The reactions that take place are all exothermic and very fast. Thus, the reactor size does not
need to be very big. In simulation, it was found that the theoretical reactor size was actually
smaller than the feed pipe to the reactor, so the reactor was made to be a size accompanying the
approximate diameter of the ammonia feed pipe plus a little extra to account for the amount
injected of ethylene oxide in the reactor. The dimensions were 3 meters long and about 30 cm in
diameter (internal volume .2120715 m3, residence time about 30 sec.). The extra length was to
ensure that all of the ethylene oxide reacted.

Reaction between ethylene oxide and ammonia is exothermic process with the release of 125
KJ/mole of ethylene oxide. Hence in order to maintain the reaction temperature heat has to be
removed by passing the cooling water in the jacket covering the reactor. Hence in the reactor, all
15 Monoethanolamine

the amines are produced i.e. MEA, DEA and TEA. In order to enhance the production of MEA,
we need to control the ammonia: ethylene oxide ratio.

High ratios of NH3 to EO lead to high ratios of MEA in the product stream, which is desirable
because it is generally the most profitable of the three products. However, high NH3 levels mean
a larger recycle stream, which increase compression costs and separation costs of water. It is
indicated that a 10:1 ratio of NH3 / EO was sufficient to produce virtually all MEA and that
roughly a 1:1 ratio can lead to a more even distribution of the products (Ruehl C, 1997)7.

Hence we optimize and take the ration of NH3 to EO around 2:1. Hence the product distribution
would be 70% MEA, 20% DEA and 5% TEA.

For the safety reasons, ethylene oxide must be metered into the ammonia stream; in the reverse
procedure, ammonia or amine may cause ethylene oxide to undergo an explosive polymerization
reaction.

Basic Reactions taking place:

2.6.2 FLASH COLUMN:

The product coming out of the reactor is sent to the flash unit to remove excess ammonia used
which is recycled. Reactor outlet stream will have a temperature of 150 degrees and 160 atm. In
the flash unit, pressure is lowered to about 1 atm. So in this manner, the ammonia is completely
removed from the top stream, from the bottom stream, we obtain the remaining product which is
sent as a feed to the DEHYDRATION TOWER.
16 Monoethanolamine

2.6.3 DEHYDRATION TOWER:

In this, almost all the water entering in the feed is removed as the top product. Only a negligible
amount of MEA will be lost due to the large temperature difference in the boiling point of water
and MEA. The boiling point of DEA and TEA are very high, hence they are removed as
Bottoms. Hence the seperation occurs only between MEA and water.

2.6.4 MONO ETHANOLAMINE TOWER:

The bottoms of the DEHYDRATION TOWER is taken as a feed in the MEA tower. MEA is
obtained as a distillate (top product), both DEA and TEA are obtained as bottom product, which
are further sent for the vacuum column for their seperation. MEA of 99% purity is obtained, only
a small fraction od DEA is obtained along with it.

2.6.5 DI ETHANOLAMINE TOWER:

The bottoms of the MEA TOWER is taken as a feed in the DEA tower. DEA is obtained as a
distillate (top product), both TEA and other heavy products are obtained as bottom products.

There are two grades of DEA obtained, Grade A (98% DEA) and Grade B (55% DEA). In our
present case, we obtain Grade A type DEA.
17 Monoethanolamine

CHAPTER 3: MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCES

This chapter contains the Production Capacity of various facilities around the world along with
the assumed Capacity for the Project under consideration, DOF analysis and the Material and
Energy Balances.

3.1 CAPACITY

The consumption of ethanolamines in Asia has been 560,000 tons in 2011. Out of that China
consumed about 366,000 tons (Zhang B, 2012)11. Taiwan’s OUCC Company produces 40,000
tons/year of Ethanolamines whereas Akzo Nobel in China produces about 80,000 tons/year.
Sabic produces about 100,000tons/year of Ethanolamines. In India, Amines and Plasticizers Ltd.
(APL) produces about 10,000 tons per year.

TABLE 3.1: GLOBAL ETHANOLAMINE CAPACITY (Dutia P, 2004)5

Hence, we assume in our case, that if we want to setup an Ethanolamine Plant, we assume the
average production 30,000 tons/year with 300 working days in a year.
18 Monoethanolamine

3.2 DEGREE OF FREEDOM ANALYSIS


x9 : total
0.99x9: water
0.01x9: MEA
0.98x8 = 0.99x9

x14 :total
0.99x14: MEA
0.01x14: DEA
0.99x10 = 0.99x14
x4 NH3 recycle
MEA Tower x18 :total
0.99x18: DEA
0.01x18: TEA
Dehydrator
Ammonia DEA Tower
Mixer Reactor
flash

a ammonia x1 NH3
MEA x5 MEA
solution DEA x6 DEA
0.7x1 NH3 TEA x7 TEA
0.3x1 water x3 water x8 water
x4 NH3 x10 MEA
x19 DEA
x11 DEA x15 DEA
x20 TEA
x12 TEA x16 TEA
x21 water
x13 water x17 water

y water x2 ethylene oxide

FIGURE 3.1: DOF ANALYSIS (Felder, 2000)3

3.2.1 OVERALL DOF


 No of unknowns (a, y, x2, x9, x14, x18, x19, x20, x21) = 9
 Atomic Balance (C, H, O, N) = 4
 Hence DOF = 9-4 = 5
19 Monoethanolamine

3.2.2 REACTOR DOF

Ethylene oxide x2 MEA

Ammonia solution x1 DEA


0.3 x1 Ammonia TEA
0.7 x1 water x3 water
x4 NH3

FIGURE 3.2: REACTOR

 No of unknowns (x1, x2, x3, x4): 4


 No of independent reactions: 3
 Molecular Species Balance: 6
 Relation (x1/x2=0.5): 1
 DOF = 4+3-6-1 = 0

Hence on solving for the reactor first, we might be able to calculate Material Balance for the
entire plant.

3.2.3 MIXER DOF x4 ammonia recycle

Ammonia solution x1
0.3 x1: ammonia
a ammonia 0.7x1: water

FIGURE 3.3: MIXER y water

 No of unknowns (a, y): 2


 Molecular species balance: 2
 DOF = 2-2 = 0
20 Monoethanolamine

3.2.4 NH3 FLASH DOF


x4 ammonia recycle

MEA x5 MEA
DEA x6 DEA
TEA x7 TEA
x3 water x8 water
x4 ammonia

FIGURE 3.4: NH3 FLASH

 No of Unknowns (x5, x6, x7, x8): 4


 Molecular species balance: 4
 DOF = 4-4 = 0

3.2.5 DEHYDRATOR DOF

x9 : total
0.99x9: water
0.01x9: MEA
0.98x8 = 0.99x9
x5 MEA
x6 DEA
x7 TEA
x8 water x10: MEA
x11: DEA
x12: TEA
x13: water

FIGURE 3.5: DEHYDRATOR

 No of Unknowns (x9, x10, x11, x12, x13): 5


 Molecular Species Balance: 4
 One Relation (0.98x8 = 0.99x9): 1
 DOF: 5-4-1 = 0
21 Monoethanolamine

3.2.6 MEA TOWER DOF

x14 : total
0.99x14: MEA
0.01x14: DEA
0.99x10 = 0.99x14
x10 MEA
x11 DEA
x12 TEA
x13 water
x15: DEA
x16: TEA
FIGURE 3.6: MEA TOWER x17: water

 No of Unknowns (x14, x15, x16, x17): 4


 Molecular Species Balance: 3
 One Relation (0.99x10 = 0.99x14): 1
 DOF = 4-3-1 = 0

3.2.7 DEA TOWER DOF

x18 : total
0.99x18: DEA
0.01x18: TEA
0.99x15 = 0.99x18
x15 DEA
x16 TEA
x17 water
x19: DEA
x20: TEA
x21: water

FIGURE 3.7: DEA TOWER

 No of Unknowns (x18, x19, x20, x21): 4


 Molecular Species Balance: 3
 One Relation (0.99x15 = 0.99x18): 1
 DOF = 4-3-1 = 0
22 Monoethanolamine

3.3 MATERIAL BALANCE

3.3.1 REACTOR

ethylene oxide ethanol amines


Reactor

30% ammonia solution recycle ammonia + water


in water

Basic reaction:

BASIS:
Approx tons/day of ethanol amines produced (30000/300): 100.0
Now 70% MEA is produced (tons/day): 70
20% DEA is produced (tons/day) 20.0
5% TEA is produced (tons/day) 5.0
Molecular weight of Ammonia (gm/mol) 17
Molecular weight of MEA (gm/mol) 61
Molecular weight of DEA (gm/mol) 105
Molecular weight of TEA (gm/mol) 149
Molecular weight of ethylene oxide (gm/mol) 44
23 Monoethanolamine

1 mole of ammonia consumed = 1 mole of MEA/DEA/TEA produced


The amount of ammonia consumed (tons/day) for MEA: 19.51
The amount of ammonia consumed (tons/day) for DEA: 3.24
The amount of ammonia consumed (tons/day) for TEA: 0.57
Total Ammonia (tons/day) consumed: 23.32
1 mole of ethylene oxide consumed = 1 mole MEA produced
The amount of ethylene oxide consumed (tons/day) for MEA: 50.49
2 mole of ethylene oxide consumed = 1 mole DEA produced
The amount of ethylene oxide consumed (tons/day) for DEA: 16.76
3 mole of ethylene oxide consumed = 1 mole TEA produced
The amount of ethylene oxide consumed (tons/day) for TEA: 4.43
95% ethylene oxide (tons/day) consumed: 71.68
Total ethylene oxide (tons/day) consumed: 75.46
Ammonia/ethylene oxide ratio: 2
Hence ammonia required as per the ratio: 150.91
But consumed ammonia is 23.32 tons/day
Hence recycled ammonia is around: 127.60
Water required for 85% ammonia solution (tons/day): 64.68

TABLE 3.2: FLOWRATES IN AND OUT OF REACTOR


Different Mass flow rates (tons/day) kg/hr
ethylene oxide inlet 75.46 20.96
ammonia inlet 150.91 41.92
water inlet 64.68 17.97
MEA outlet 70 19.44
DEA outlet 20.0 5.56
TEA outlet 5.0 1.39
Water outlet 64.7 17.97
Recycle ammonia 127.60 35.44
24 Monoethanolamine

3.3.2 FLASH COLUMN

ammonia recovery

Flash
ammonia+water Column

MEA+ DEA+ TEA+


water

Excess ammonia is vaporized. The product mixture then contains MEA, DEA,TEA and water.

Recycle Ratio containing only excess ammonia 0.44


25 Monoethanolamine

3.3.3 DEHYDRATION TOWER

98% water is removed in top fraction giving 99% wt. water and 1% wt. MEA.
2% of the feed water is in the bottoms as 1.29% wt. of the bottoms

99% water + 1% MEA

DEHYDRATION
water+MEA+DEA+ TOWER
TEA

1.29% water + rest


(MEA+DEA+TEA)

WATER BALANCE
Feed (F) (tons/day): 164.68
weight fraction of feed xf 0.39
Distillate (D) (tons/day): 64.02
weight fraction of distillate xd 0.99
Bottoms (W) (tons/day): 100.653
weight fraction of bottoms xw: 0.0129
Amount of MEA lost in distillate (tons/day): 0.64
Amount of MEA remaining in the bottoms (tons/day): 69.36
26 Monoethanolamine

3.3.4 MEA TOWER


It is assumed that the distillate would give 99% MEA with weight fraction 99% wt MEA
and 1% DEA)

99%MEA + 1% DEA

MEA
MEA+DEA+ TOWER
TEA

2% MEA + DEA+
TEA

MEA BALANCE
Feed (F) (tons/day): 100.65
weight fraction of feed xf : 0.69
Distillate (D) (tons/day): 69.36
weight fraction of distillate xd: 0.99
Bottoms (W) (tons/day): 31.29
weight fraction of bottoms xw: 0.02
Amount of MEA produced in a day (tons/day) containing 1% DEA 69.36
Amount of MEA produced in a day (tons/year) 20807.93
27 Monoethanolamine

3.3.5 DEA TOWER


To obtain grade A , DEA, mass fraction of DEA in the distillate more than 98% by wt.

99%DEA + 1% TEA

DEA + TEA DEA


TOWER

1.6% DEA + 99%


TEA

DEA BALANCE

1% of the DEA is lost in the MEA tower (ton/day): 0.69


DEA remaining in residue which enters the DEA tower as feed: 19.31
Total feed entering (tons/day) (F): 31.29
weight fraction of the feed xf : 0.62
Distillate (tons/day): 19.31
weight fraction of the distillate xd : 0.99
Bottoms (W) (tons/day): 11.99
weight fraction of the bottoms xw: 0.016
28 Monoethanolamine

3.3.6 RESULTS

Amount of MEA produced (tons/day) (containing 1% DEA) 69.36


Amount of MEA produced (tons/year) (containing 1%DEA) 20807.93
Amount of DEA produced (tons/day) (containing 1%TEA) 19.31
Amount of DEA produced (tons/year) (containing 1%TEA) 5791.92
Amount of TEA produced (tons/day) (containing 1.1% DEA with water) 11.99
Amount of TEA produced (tons/year) (containing 1.1% DEA with water) 3596.14

1% MEA loss in dehydration tower (tons/day) 0.64


1% MEA loss in dehydration tower (tons/year) 192.07
1.76% water still in bottoms of dehydration tower which remains in TEA bottoms
(tons/day) 1.29
1.76% water still in bottoms of dehydration tower which remains in TEA bottoms
(tons/year) 388.06

Amount of MEA + DEA + TEA assumed to be produced in reactor 30000


Amount of MEA + DEA + TEA separated in various separators by taking into
consideration
192.07 tons of water - 388.06 tons of MEA loss 30195.99
MEA+DEA+TEA produced (19954.29+5800.46+5312.31) 30195.99
Error in Material Balance calculation 0%
29 Monoethanolamine

3.4 ENERGY BALANCE

3.4.1 REACTOR ENERGY BALANCE

INLET TEMPERATURE OF THE FEED ETHYLENE OXIDE AND AMMONIA


(DEGREE C) 35
INLET TEMPERATURE OF THE FEED ETHYLENE OXIDE AND AMMONIA
(DEGREE K) 308.15
OUTLET TEMPERATURE OF THE PRODUCT (DEGREE C) 150
OUTLET TEMPERATURE OF THE PRODUCT (DEGREE K) 423.15
FEED INLET PRESSURE (atm) 160
HEAT OF REACTION IN TERMS OF ETHYLENE OXIDE (KJ/mole) -125
Tons/day of ethylene oxide reacted 71.68
kmoles/sec of ethylene oxide 0.019
HEAT OF REACTION IN TERMS OF ETHYLENE OXIDE (KJ/sec) -2357.01
Average Cp for ammonia at 35 degree C (KJ/mol.K) 0.0964864
Average Cp for ammonia at 150 degree C (KJ/mol.K) 0.2485
Kmoles/sec of ammonia fed 0.103
kmoles/sec of ammonia outlet 0.087
Average Cp of ethylene oxide at 35 degree C (KJ/mol.K) 0.0428
Average Cp of ethylene oxide at 150 degree C (KJ/mol.K) 0.06582
Kmoles/sec of ethylene oxide reacted 0.019
Kmoles/sec of ethylene oxide coming out 0
30 Monoethanolamine

Average Cp of water at 35 degree C (KJ/mol.K) 0.074829


Average Cp of water at 150 degree C (KJ/mol.K) 0.0777
Kmoles/sec of water inlet 0.04
kmoles/sec of water outlet 0.04
Average Cp of MEA at 150 degree C (KJ/g.K) 0.00314
Grams/sec of MEA 810.19
Average Cp of DEA at 150 degree C (KJ/g.K) 0.0029
Grams/sec of DEA 231.48
Average Cp of TEA at 150 degree C (KJ/g.K) 0.00261
Grams/sec of TEA 57.87
Heat input (KJ/sec) 4262.48
Heat output (KJ/sec) 10560.49
Heat generated (KJ/sec) -2357.01
Heat Removed (KJ/sec) (this much amount of heat has to be
continuously removed) -8655.02

3.4.2 FLASH COLUMN


ASSUMPTION:
The pressure is reduced from 160 atmosphere to almost 1 atmosphere.
Mass fraction of various components

MASS FRACTION OF MEA 0.2437


MASS FRACTION OF DEA 0.070
MASS FRACTION OF TEA 0.0174
MASS FRACTION OF AMMONIA 0.4442
MASS FRACTION OF WATER 0.23
AT 1 ATMOSPHERE, THE TEMPERATURE OF THE MIXTURE IS
(FROM T-x-y DIAGRAM) (degree c) (Dow, 2003)4 99.89
31 Monoethanolamine

Inlet temperature of the mixture (degree C) 150


Inlet temperature of the mixture (degree K) 423.15
Outlet Temperature of the Mixture (degree C) 99.89
Outlet Temperature of the Mixture (degree K) 373.04
Average Cp for ammonia at 150 degree C (KJ/mol.K) 0.249
Average Cp of MEA at 150 degree C (KJ/g.K) 0.00314
Average Cp of DEA at 150 degree C (KJ/g.K) 0.00290
Average Cp of TEA at 150 degree C (KJ/g.K) 0.00261
Average Cp of water at 150 degree C (KJ/mol.K) 0.0777
Average Cp of Ammonia at 100 degree C (KJ/mol.K) 0.1824
Average Cp of MEA at 100 degree C (KJ/gram.K) 0.00314
Average Cp of DEA at 100 degree C (KJ/gram.K) 0.0029
Average Cp of TEA at 100 degree C (KJ/gram.K) 0.00261
Average Cp of water at 100 degree C (KJ/mol.K) 0.076
kmoles/sec of ammonia inlet 0.087
kmoles/sec of water inlet 0.04
Grams/sec of MEA inlet 810.19
Grams/sec of DEA inlet 231.48
Grams/sec of TEA inlet 57.87
kmoles/sec of ammonia outlet as distillate 0.087
kmoles/sec of water outlet as bottoms 0.04
Grams/sec of MEA outlet as bottoms 810.19
Grams/sec of DEA outlet as bottoms 231.48
Grams/sec of TEA outlet as bottoms 57.87
Latent Heat of Vaporization of Ammonia (KJ/Kg) (λ) 648.52
Mass flow rate of Ammonia (Kg/sec) (m) 1.48
32 Monoethanolamine

Equation of Energy Balance

Heat leaving in the outlet stream(KJ/sec) 9303.54


Heat in the input stream (KJ/sec) 11926.47
Heat Removed (KJ/sec) -2622.93

3.4.3 DEHYDRATION TOWER


ASSUMPTIONS:
The top distillate temperature is 95 degree C.
The Bottom residue temperature is around 163 degree C.

Inlet temperature of the feed (degree C) 99.89


Inlet temperature of the feed (degree K) 373.04
Outlet temperature of the distillate (degree C) 95
Outlet temperature of the distillate (degree K) 368.15
Outlet Temperature of the Bottom (degree C) 163
Outlet Temperature of the Bottom (degree K) 436.15
Average Cp of MEA at 100 degree C (KJ/gram.K) 0.00314
Average Cp of DEA at 100 degree C (KJ/gram.K) 0.0029
Average Cp of TEA at 100 degree C (KJ/gram.K) 0.00261
Average Cp of water at 100 degree C (KJ/mol.K) 0.076
33 Monoethanolamine

Average Cp of MEA at 163 degree C (KJ/gram.K) 0.00347


Average Cp of DEA at 163 degree C (KJ/gram.K) 0.00318
Average Cp of TEA at 163 degree C (KJ/gram.K) 0.002846
Average Cp of water at 163 degree C (KJ/mol.K) 0.078
Average Cp of water at 95 degree C (KJ/mol.K) 0.0759
kmoles/sec of water inlet 0.0416
Grams/sec of MEA inlet 810.19
Grams/sec of DEA inlet 231.48
Grams/sec of TEA inlet 57.87
Kmoles/sec of water outlet in distillate 0.04117
Grams/sec MEA outlet in bottoms 802.78
Grams/sec of DEA outlet in bottoms 231.481
Grams/sec of TEA outlet in bottoms 57.87
Kmoles/sec of water outlet in bottom 0.00083
Latent heat of vaporization of water at 95 degree C at top (λ) (Kcal/kg) 540
Latent heat of vaporization of water at 95 degree C at top (λ) (KJ/kg) 2260.332
Kg/sec of water in top product (m) 0.74
Heat duty of condensor (mλ) (KJ/sec) 1674.93
Heat entering in the input system (KJ/sec) 2434.85
Condensor load (KJ/sec) 1674.93
Heat out in distillate (KJ/sec) 1150.32
Heat out with residue stream (KJ/sec) 1636.14
Hence, the value of reboiler heat load can be obtained by Energy Balance
Reboiler Heat Load (KJ/sec) 2026.54
34 Monoethanolamine

3.4.4 MEA TOWER


Assumptions
Distillate temperature is 175 degree C. Bottoms temperature is 260 degree C.

Inlet Temperature of Feed (degree C) 163


Inlet Temperature of Feed (degree K) 436.15
Outlet Temperature of MEA in distillate (degree C) 175
Outlet Temperature of MEA in distillate (degree K) 448.15
Outlet Temperature of DEA+TEA+ residual water in bottoms (degree C) 260
Outlet Temperature of DEA+TEA+ residual water in bottoms (degree K) 533.15
Average Cp of MEA at 163 degree C (KJ/gram.K) 0.00347
Average Cp of DEA at 163 degree C (KJ/gram.K) 0.00318
Average Cp of TEA at 163 degree C (KJ/gram.K) 0.002846
Average Cp of water at 163 degree C (KJ/mol.K) 0.078
Average Cp of MEA at 175 degree C in distillate (KJ/gram.K) 0.00349
Average Cp of DEA at 175 degree C in distillate(KJ/gram.K) 0.00322
Average Cp of MEA at 260 degree C in bottoms(KJ/gram.K) 0.0038
Average Cp of DEA at 260 degree C in bottoms(KJ/gram.K) 0.0034
Average Cp of TEA at 260 degree C in bottoms(KJ/gram.K) 0.0031
Average Cp of water at 260 degree C in bottoms (KJ/mol.K) 0.089124
kmoles/sec of water inlet 0.00083
Grams/sec of MEA inlet 802.78
Grams/sec of DEA inlet 231.481
Grams/sec of TEA inlet 57.87
Grams/sec of MEA outlet as distillate 794.747
Grams/sec of DEA outlet as distillate 8.028
kmoles/sec of water outlet as bottom 0.00083
35 Monoethanolamine

Grams/sec of MEA outlet as bottom 7.95


Grams/sec of DEA outlet as bottom 223.454
Grams/sec of TEA outlet as bottom 57.87
Condensor heat load calculation for distillate
G = (R + 1)* D
value of Reflux ration is very small, as temperature difference is very large 0.1
G (tons/day) 76.30
G(Kg/sec) 0.88
Latent heat of Vaporization of MEA (KJ/Kg) 848.1
Latent Heat of Vaporization of DEA (KJ/Kg) 638.4
Mole fraction of MEA 0.99
Mole fraction of DEA 0.01
Condensor Heat Duty (KJ/sec) 747.07

Heat entering in the input stream (KJ/sec) 1636.136


Condensor load (KJ/sec) 747.07
heat out in distillate (KJ/sec) 1254.604
heat out with residue stream (KJ/sec) 556.326
Hence, the reboiler heat duty (KJ/sec) can be calculated as below by energy
balance equation
reboiler heat load (KJ/sec) 921.86
36 Monoethanolamine

CHAPTER 4: PROCESS DESIGN OF THE EQUIPMENTS


This chapter includes the Process Design of a Distillation column where number of plates is
found through McCabe Thiele method, Heat Exchanger using the Kern Method and a Reactor
design using CHEMCAD.

4.1 PROCESS DESIGN OF THE DISTILLATION COLUMN (DEHYDRATOR)

Vn = 4263.3 kmol/day

Ln= 704.54 kmol/day

D = 3531.78 kmol/day

F = 4964.72 kmol/day Vm = 4236.3 kmol/day

Lm = 5669.24 kmol/day W = 1432.94 kmol/day


kmol/day

FIGURE 4.1: DISTILLATION TOWER

F = molar flow rate of feed, kmol/day


D = molar flow rate of distillate, kmol/day
W = molar flow rate of residue, kmol/day
xF = molar fraction of water in feed
xD = molar fraction of water in distillate
xW = molar fraction of water in residue
Rmin = Minimum reflux ratio
R = actual Reflux Ratio
Vn = molar flow rate of vapor in enriching section, kmol/day
Ln = molar flow rate of liquid in enriching section, kmol/day
Vm = molar flow rate of vapor in stripping section, kmol/day
Lm = molar flow rate of liquid in stripping section, kmol/day
Q = thermal condition of the feed = 1
37 Monoethanolamine

Hence in the dehydrator, following components are to be considered: MEA, DEA, TEA and water

BOILING POINT OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS


0
WATER 100 C
0
MEA 172.2 C
0
DEA 270 C
0
TEA 360 C

Hence in this case, the boiling point of DEA and TEA is too high. Hence it would do straight to the
bottom.
We consider the separation between water and MEA in this case. We design a distillation column based
on that.

F= 164676.6 kg/day
xf (weight fraction) = 0.39
xf (molar fraction) = 0.724
D (weight fraction) = 64023.31 kg/day
xd (weight fraction) = 0.99
xd (molar fraction) = 0.997
W= 100653.299 kg/day
xw (weight fraction) = 0.013
xw (molar fraction) = 0.050

F D W
kg/day 164676.61 64023.31 100653.299
kmol/day 4964.72 3531.78 1432.94

xf xd xw
weight fraction 0.39 0.99 0.013
molar fraction 0.724 0.997 0.050
38 Monoethanolamine

Now in order to further calculate the number of trays, we must first find Rmin. For that we use x-y plot.

TABLE 4.1: T-x-y DATA FOR MEA-WATER SOLUTION (Park SB, 1997)13

T (0K) T (0C) x y
443.3 170.15 0 0
440.1 166.95 0.02 0.11
437.4 164.25 0.04 0.21
435.1 161.95 0.05 0.26
433 159.85 0.06 0.31
430 156.85 0.09 0.41
420.6 147.45 0.16 0.59
418.5 145.35 0.18 0.64
415.2 142.05 0.21 0.69
408.5 135.35 0.28 0.77
404.4 131.25 0.32 0.83
397.3 124.15 0.42 0.88
392.8 119.65 0.49 0.92
385.5 112.35 0.65 0.96
382 108.85 0.75 0.97
378.5 105.35 0.84 0.98
374.3 101.15 0.97 1.00
373.1 99.95 1 1

xd/(Rm+1) from graph = 0.88


Rmin = 0.1330
R = 1.5*Rmin = 0.199
xd/(R+1) is the intercept = 0.831

No. of plates from the McCabe


Thiele Method is = 8

Ln = R*D (Kmol/day) = 704.52


Vn = Ln + D (Kmol/day) = 4236.30
Lm = Ln + F (kmol/day) = 5669.24
Vm = Lm - W (kmol/day) = 4236.30
39 Monoethanolamine

4.1.1 DATA REQUIRED FOR CALCULATIONS

Mean Molecular Weight of feed (gm/mol) = 50.28


Mean molecular weight of top (gm/mol) = 18.43
Mean Molecular weight at bottom (gm/mol) = 70.53
Density of Water at 1620C (kg/m3) = 905.00
Density of MEA at 1620C (kg/m3) = 940.00
Density of DEA at 1620C (kg/m3) = 1090.00
Density of Water at 1000C (kg/m3) = 958.00
Density of MEA at 1000C = 945.00
Liquid Viscosity at top (cP) = μl = 0.2885
Vapor Viscosity at top (cP) = μg = 0.0137
Vapor Diffusivity at top (cm2/sec) = Dg = 1.365
Liquid Diffusivity at top (cm2/sec) = DL = 0.0000135
Liquid Density at top (kg/m3) = ρL = 957.87
Vapor Density at top (kg/m3) = ρV = 0.58
Surface Tension at top (dynes/cm) = 26.059

At top:
Mass Flow rate Vwd of vapor (kg/s) = 0.90
Volumetric Rate of vapor (m3/sec) = 1.558
Mass Flow rate Lwd of liquid (kg/s) = 0.15
Volumetric Rate of liquid (m3/sec) = 0.0001569
40 Monoethanolamine

4.1.2 DIAMETER OF THE COLUMN:

For designing, 80-85% of flooding velocity is used. Column diameter is determined from flooding
velocities. Flooding Velocities Uf is determined by Fair’s Correlation,

 L  V
U f  K1
V
To determine K1 from plot we require FLV

LW V
FLV 
VW L

FLV = 0.0041
Tray spacing = 18 inches normally = 0.5 metre
From the Fair’s chart of FLV versus K1 with tray spacing given:
value of K1 from the graph = 0.086 m/sec
Uf = 3.68 m/sec
Designing for 80% flooding velocity, U* = 0.8 * Uf = 2.95 m/sec
Net area required An = Vol. Rate for Vapor / U* = 0.53 m2
Net Area (An) = Column C/S area (Ac) - downcomer area (Ad)
if downcomer area is taken as 12% of Ac, An = (1-12/100)* Ac
Ac = ∏/4 * Dc2 = 0.601 m2
Hence, column diameter = 0.87 m
Approx. column diameter Dc = 0.9 m
therefore, Ac = 0.64 m2
From the graph of volumetric flow rate versus column diameter, we find that
the path is single path cross flow.
41 Monoethanolamine

4.1.3 PROVISIONAL TRAY DIAMETER (SIEVE TRAY):


Column Diameter Dc = 0.9 m
Column area Ac = 0.64 m2
Ad = 12% * Ac = 0.0763 m2
An = Ac – Ad = 0.56 m2
Aa = Ac - 2* Ad = 0.48 m2
Ah = 10% * Aa = 0.048 m2
Assume,
Hole diameter dh = 5 mm
plate thickness = 5 mm

4.1.4 WEIR LENGTH


With segmental downcomer, weir length fixes the area of the downcomer. For
Ad/Ac = 0.12
from the graph (Ad/Ac)*100 v/s lw/Dc

FIGURE 4.2: (Ad/Ac)*100 v/s lw/Dc (Perry, 2007)1


lw/Dc = 0.76
length of weir lw = 0.684 m
height of weir (take) hw = 50 mm
42 Monoethanolamine

4.1.5 CHECK FOR WEEPING


maximum liquid rate Lw 0.15 m/sec
minimum liquid rate at 70% turndown 0.105 m/sec
Height of Liquid Crest (Francis Formula)
2
 L 3
how  750 W 
  L lW 

Max how = 2.81 mm


Min how = 2.216 mm
at minimum rate , hw + how 52.216 mm
From the Eduljee Weep point Correlation , we calculate K2

FIGURE 4.3: Eduljee Weep point Correlation (Perry, 2007)1


value of K2
30
43 Monoethanolamine

The Eduljee correlation is used to find Minimum Vapor Velocity

K 2  0.9( 25.4  d h )
uh 
 v0.5

uh (min) = 15.28 m/sec


Actual Minimum vapor velocity = 0.7 * Volumetric flow / Ah = 22.57 m/sec
hence actual minimum vapor velocity is greater that uh (min),
Hence, no weeping will occur in this case.

4.1.6 PLATE PRESSURE DROP


Dry tray pressure drop:
Maximum vapor velocity through the holes = uh = Vol. flow/ Ah 32.24 m/sec
Ratio of tray thickness and hole diameter = 1
Ratio of Ah/Ap = 0.1
hence from the graph, the orifice coefficient, Co 0.84

FIGURE 4.4: Co v/s Ah/Ap*100 (Perry, 2007)1


44 Monoethanolamine

Dry tray pressure drop


2
U  v
hd  51 h 
 Co  L

Dry Tray Pressure Drop hd = 45.49 mm


Residual head hr
12.5 103
hr 
L

Residual Head hr = 13.05 mm


Total Tray Pressure Drop ht = hd + (hw + how) + hr
Total tray Pressure Drop ht = 111.35 mm
0.11135 m

Total Tray Pressure Drop P = ρ*g*h = 1046.34 Pa


0.1517 psi

4.1.7 DOWNCOMER BACKUP


hap = hw – 10 = 40 mm
area under the apron Aap = hap * lw = 0.02736 m2
Head loss in downcomer hdc
2
 L 
hdc  166 wd 
  L Am 

Where, Lwd = 0.15 kg/sec and Am = Aap


Head loss in downcomer hdc = 0.00546 mm
hb= (hw + how) + ht + hdc 164.17 mm
0.1642 m
for no downcomer back up:-
hb < 0.5*(plate spacing + weir Height) = 0.5*(0.5+0.05)
hb < 0.275 m
which it is, hence no downcomer backup required.
45 Monoethanolamine

Downcomer Residence Time tr


Ad hbc  L
tr 
Lwd
Where Lwd = 0.15 kg/sec, hbc = hb

Downcomer residence time tr = 79.84 sec

This is greater than 3 second, hence condition satisfied.

4.1.8 ENTRAINMENT

Actual Flooding Velocity for the design area = Vol. flow rate for Vapor/ net area An

Actual flooding velocity U 2.78 m/sec


%flooding = U/ Uf * 100 = 75.59 %
Where Uf = 3.68 m/sec
Flv = 0.0041

FIGURE 4.5: ENTRAINMENT CORRELATION GRAPH (Perry)1

from Entrainment Correlation graph, value of entrainment ψ = 0.12


46 Monoethanolamine

4.1.8 TRIAL TRAY DESIGN

FIGURE 4.6: TRIAL TRAY DESIGN (Perry)1


Unperforated strip round plate edge = 50 mm
wide calming zone wz 50 mm
at lw/Dc = 0.76, θ 99 0

0
Angle subtended at the plate edge by the unperforated strip 81

Mean length of unperforated edge strip = 3.14*(Dc- unperforated strip)*81/180

Mean length of unperforated edge strip = 1.201 m


area of the unperforated edge strip = Mean length * width (0.05) = 0.06 m2
Area of the calming zone = 2* wz * (lw – 2 * wz) = 0.0584 m2

Total area available for the perforations Ap = Aa - (area of unperforated strip + area of calming zone)
Ap = 0.36
Ah/Ap = 0.132
47 Monoethanolamine

from the graph, lp/dh comes out to be 2.75 ( it should be between 2.5 and 4)

FIGURE 4.7: Ah/Ap v/s lp/dh (Perry, 2007)1

Area of a hole = 3.14/4* dh^2 = 0.000020 m2


No. of holes + Ah/ area of a hole = 2462.4
Approx. No. of holes = 2500

4.1.9 HYDRAULIC GRADIENT


Q
Fva     0.5
 Aa 

Fva = 2.46
Φ (froth) from the Fva curve 0.2

FIGURE 4.8: Φ v/s Fva (Perry, 2007)1


Φp ( aeration) = 0.6
48 Monoethanolamine

ha = Φp* (0.1*hw + how) = 3.17 cm


hf (froth height) = ha/ (2*Φp - 1) = 15.84 cm
Df = (Lw + Dc)/2 = 0.792 m
Rh = hf*Df/(2*hf +100* Df) = 0.158 m

100q
uf 
h f Dt
Velocity of the aerated mass uf = 5.50E-06 m/s
Reynold's No = Rh*uf*ρL/μL = 2.882
F= 0.075

10 4 fu 2f L f

Rh g

Where Lf = Lw

Δ 1.0E-10 cm
Δ is very small to be neglected.
49 Monoethanolamine

4.1.10 EFFICIENCY CALCULATIONS (AIChE Method)

Point Efficiency (EOG):


EOG  1  exp(  NOG )
1 1  mG  1
  
NOG N G  L  N L
0.776  4.57hw  0.238Fv  105LP
N G 0.5
Scv

FV = Ua * (ρV)^0.5, where Ua is the vapor velocity based on Aa.

Ua = Vol. Vapor Rate/ Aa = 3.22 m/sec


FV = 2.455
Lp = Vol. liquid rate/ Lw = 0.000229 m
Sc = Schmidt No. = μg/(ρg* Dg) = 0.173
NG (No. of gas phase transfer units) = 1.011

N L  (3.875 108 DL ) 0.5 (0.4 Fv  0.17)t L


Zc Z L
tL 
LP
3
Zc  0.006  (0.73 10 )hw  (0.24 103 ) Fv hw  1.22Lp
ZL = Dc - 2* lh

Lp = Vol. liquid rate/ average width


average width = Aa/ length of liquid path
50 Monoethanolamine

length of liquid path lh, calculated from the graph,


given that Lw/ Dc = 0.76 is :

FIGURE 4.9: Lw/ Dc v/s lh/Dc (Perry, 2007)1


lh/Dc (from the graph) = 0.12
lh = 0.108 m
average width = 4.475 m
Lp = 3.506E-5 m2/s
ZL = 0.684
Zc = 0.0131 m3/m2
tL = 255.13 sec
NL = 212.6
m = slope of operating line of the enriching section in graph of y v/s x while
performing McCabe Thiele Method = 0.1818
m/(L/G) = λ = 1.09
51 Monoethanolamine

1/NOG = 0.99
NOG = 1.006
EOG = 0.634
Hence, Point Efficiency = 63.4 %

Dry Plate Murphee Efficiency (EMV):

DE  (6.68 10 3 )u1a.44  (0.922 10 4 )hL  0.00562

hL = hw + how = 52.81 mm
DE = 0.0353 m2/s
z L2
Pe 
DE t L
Peclet Number Pe = 0.0520
m/(L/G)*EOG = λ * EOG = 0.69

FIGURE 4.10: EMV/EOG v/s λ * EOG (Perry, 2007)1


from the graph, value of EMV/EOG = 1.1
52 Monoethanolamine

EMV = 0.698
Hence Dry Murphee Plate Efficiency = 69.8 %

Wet Plate Murphee Efficiency (E’MV) :


'
Emv 1

Emv   
1  Emv  
 1  

E’MV = 0.637
Wet Plate Murphee Efficiency = 63.70 %

Overall Plate Efficiency (EOC):

log[ 1  Emv
'
(  1)]
EOC 
log 

Overall Plate Efficiency = 0.5934


59.34 %
Theoretical Number of trays 8
Actual Number of trays = Theoretical Trays/ EOC = 13.48
Approx. Number of plates 14
Height of the tower = tray spacing * No. of plates = 7 m
Where the tray spacing is 0.5 m.
53 Monoethanolamine

TABLE 4.2: SPECIFICATION SHEET OF DISTILLATION COLUMN

SPECIFICATION SHEET
COLUMN ID 0.9 m
HOLE SIZE 5 mm
NUMBER OF HOLES 2500
WEIR LENGTH 0.684 m
WEIR HEIGHT 50 mm
FLOODING% 75.59 %
PLATE SPACING 0.5 m
THICKNESS 5 mm
PRESSURE DROP 0.1517 psi
Carbon
SHELL MATERIAL Steel
INSULATION MATERIAL asbestos
DENSITY OF INSULATION 2700 kg/m3
54 Monoethanolamine

4.2 PROCESS DESIGN OF A CONDENSOR

Condensor at the top of dehydration column, operates at 1 atm.

STEAM SHELL SIDE (Only latent heat


WATER TUBE SIDE transfer takes place)

For steam
Qc= mλ = m1λ1 + m2λ2
λ1 (MEA) = 848.1 KJ/kg
λ2 (water) = 2260.332 KJ/kg
m1 (MEA) = 0.640 tons/day
0.0074 Kg/sec
m2 (water) = 63.38 tons/day
0.734 kg/sec
Qc= mλ = m1λ1 + m2λ2 = 1664.46 KJ/sec

INLET OUTLET
TUBE SIDE TEMPERATURE (0C) = 30 (t1) 50 (t2)
SHELL SIDE TEMPERATURE (0C) = 102 (T1) 102 (T2)
TUBE SIDE PASS = 2
SHELL SIDE PASS = 1

Material of the tube is Cupronickel.


Qc = Qh = mCp∆T
m (mass flowrate of water) = ? kg/sec
Cp = 4.184 KJ/sec. kg. 0 C
∆T = t2 – t1 = 20 0
C
55 Monoethanolamine

m= 19.891 kg/sec
∆T1 = T1 – t1 = 72 0
C
∆T2 = T2 – t2 = 52 0
C
∆Tlmtd = 61.46 0
C
R= (T1-T2)/(t2-t1) = 0
S= (t2-t1)/(T1-t1) = 0.28
Ft (from 11.6 graph in Perry) = 1
∆Tlm = Ft * ∆Tlmtd
∆Tlm = 61.46

From 11.3 table in Perry, assume the value of U.


U (overall heat transfer coefficient) = 400 BTU
2271.32 J/m2. sec. K
Q = U*A*∆Tlm
A (heat transfer area) = 11.92 m2

ASSUMPTIONS
o.d. = 20 mm
i.d. = 16 mm
length of the tube = 3.048 m
AREA OF SINGLE TUBE = ∏DL
AREA OF SINGLE TUBE = 0.19
No. of tubes = (Provisional Area/ Area of a single tube)
No. of tubes = 62.29
Approx. tubes (Nt) = 65

Shell side fluid is relatively clean, so we consider triangular pitch,


which gives greater heat transfer.
56 Monoethanolamine

Pt (tube pitch) = 1.25 do = 0.025 m


K1 = 0.249
n1 = 2.207
1
N  n1
Db  d o  t 
 K1 
Bundle Diameter Db = 0.249 m
clearance (split ring floating head type) = 0.068 m
shell diameter Ds = 0.317 m

4.2.1 TUBE SIDE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT


tube c/s area = 0.000201 m2
0
tube mean temperature = 40 C
tube side passes = 2
tubes/passes = 32.5
total flow area = no of tubes per pass * tube c/s area
total flow area = 0.00653 m2
mass velocity of water (G) = water mass flow rate/ total flow area
mass velocity of water (G) = 3045.51 kg/m2. sec
density of water at 40 0C = 998.7 kg/m3
water linear velocity = G/ density of water
water linear velocity = 3.049 m/sec
Reynold's No. = density* velocity * diameter/ viscosity
Viscosity = 0.8 cP
Cp = 4.184 KJ/sec. kg. 0 C
thermal conductivity K = 0.59
Reynold's No. = 60910.20
57 Monoethanolamine

Prandtl No = Cp*μ/k
Prandtl No = 5.67
Now, as Reynold's No. is very high, it is in turbulent region
Hence we apply the Dittus Boelter Equation.
Nu = 0.023 * Nre 0.8 * Npr 0.3
Nu = 260.39
Nu = hi*di/k
hi = 9601.98 J/m2. sec. K

4.2.2 SHELL SIDE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

Assume Baffle spacing Bs = Ds/2 = 0.158 m


Pt = 25 mm
c/s flow area, As = (Pt-do)*Ds*Bs/Pt
As = 0.01004 m2
Gs = mass flow rate of shell side fluid/ cross sectional flow area
Gs = 73.77971759
0
wall temperature = 71 C
0
film temperature = 86.5 C
Density = 967.97 kg/m3
Cp = 4.39 KJ/Kg. K
K= 0.679
Viscosity = 0.33 cp

Reynold's No 182.283
58 Monoethanolamine

ho 8070.901

4.2.3 OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

do
d o ln
1 1 1 di do  1  do 1
      
U ho hod 2K w d i  hid  d i hi

Kw = 50
dirt factor (1/hod + do/di *1/hid) = 0.00008805
1/Uo = 0.000386762
Design Uo = 2585.569
Assumed Uo = 2271.32
Design Uo > Assumed Uo
Hence our design is correct.

4.2.4 PRESSURE DROP CALCULATIONS

TUBE SIDE PRESSURE DROP


Velocity = 3.049 m/s
Density = 998.7 kg/m3
k= 0.59
Cp = 4.184 KJ/sec. kg. 0 C
Viscosity = 0.8 cP
NRe = 60910.20
59 Monoethanolamine

∆P length = 4*f*L*v2*density*g/(2*g*di)

f= 0.079 (Nre)-0.25 = 0.0050


∆P length = 17793.63 N/m2

∆P radial = 2.5*G2/(2*density)

∆P radial = 11609.00 N/m2

Total ∆P = ∆P length + ∆P radial


Total ∆P = 29402.63 N/m2
<70000 N/m2

SHELL SIDE PRESSURE DROP


viscosity of vapor = 0.0118 cP
density of vapor = 0.58 kg/m3
Nre= Gs*De/ viscosity of vapor = 90167.568

De=1.1/do* (Pt2 - 0.907 do2)


De = 14.421 mm

f = 1.87 * (NRe) -0.2 = 0.191

∆P= 0.5*(4*f *(Nb+1)*Ds*Gs2*g)/(2*g*De*density of vapor)


Nb = 2
∆P = 118126.43 N/m2
60 Monoethanolamine

4.3 REACTOR DESIGN IN CHEMCAD

CHEMCAD 6.2.0 Page 1

Simulation: Untitled Date: 02/02/2011 Time: 23:48:45


EQUIPMENT SUMMARIES

Kinetic Reactor Summary

Equip. No. 1
Name
Reactor type 1
Thermal mode 2
Pressure In atm 160.0000
Tout C 256.7071
Reactor volume m3 1.0759
Specify calc. mode 1
Conversion 0.9500
Key 2
No. of Reactions 3
Overall IG Ht of Rxn -5.1522e+007
(J/h)
Overall Liq H of Rxn -5.8430e+007
(J/h)

Reaction Stoichiometrics and Parameters for unit no. 1

Reaction 1
RateConst = 5.0000e+000 Act.E = 1.0000e-020 Hrxn = 0.0000e+000
Comp Stoich. Exp.factor AdsorbFac. AdsorbE AdsorbExp.
3 -1.00e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000
2 -1.00e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000
4 1.00e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000

Reaction 2
RateConst = 5.0000e+000 Act.E = 1.0000e-020 Hrxn = 0.0000e+000
Comp Stoich. Exp.factor AdsorbFac. AdsorbE AdsorbExp.
4 -1.00e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000
2 -1.00e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000
5 1.00e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000

Reaction 3
RateConst = 5.0000e+000 Act.E = 1.0000e-020 Hrxn = 0.0000e+000
Comp Stoich. Exp.factor AdsorbFac. AdsorbE AdsorbExp.
5 -1.00e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000
2 -1.00e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000
6 1.00e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 0.0000e+000
61 Monoethanolamine

CHEMCAD 6.2.0 Page 1

Simulation: Untitled Date: 02/02/2011 Time: 23:48:13


STREAM PROPERTIES

Stream No. 1 2
Name feed product
- - Overall - -
Molar flow kmol/h 3.9373 3.4844
Mass flow kg/h 80.9200 80.9200
Temp C 25.0000 256.7071
Pres atm 1.0000 160.0000
Vapor mole fraction 0.6715 0.0000
Enth J/h -4.2894E+008 -4.4731E+008
Tc C 195.9296 269.7397
Pc atm 122.3345 208.7063
Std. sp gr. wtr = 1 0.738 0.795
Std. sp gr. air = 1 0.710 0.802
Degree API 60.2337 46.4681
Average mol wt 20.5524 23.2235
Actual dens lb/ft3 0.0788 24.3018
Actual vol m3/h 64.0768 0.2079
Std liq m3/h 0.1096 0.1018
Std vap 0 C m3/h 88.2484 78.0980
- - Vapor only - -
Molar flow kmol/h 2.6439
Mass flow kg/h 57.8405
Average mol wt 21.8772
Actual dens lb/ft3 0.0564
Actual vol m3/h 64.0497
Std liq m3/h 0.0829
Std vap 0 C m3/h 59.2587
Cp Btu/lbmol-F 9.0942
Z factor 0.9904
Visc cP 0.01006
Th cond Btu/hr-ft-F 0.0124
- - Liquid only - -
Molar flow kmol/h 1.2934 3.4844
Mass flow kg/h 23.0795 80.9200
Average mol wt 17.8441 23.2235
Actual dens kg/m3 851.2886 389.2775
Actual vol m3/h 0.0271 0.2079
Std liq m3/h 0.0268 0.1018
Std vap 0 C m3/h 28.9896 78.0980
Cp Btu/lbmol-F 18.9239 29.4702
Z factor 0.0011 0.4259
Visc cP 0.5418 0.08722
Th cond Btu/hr-ft-F 0.3181 0.1408
Surf. tens. dyne/cm 47.5582 0.1196
62 Monoethanolamine

CHEMCAD 6.2.0 Page 1

Simulation: Untitled Date: 02/02/2011 Time: 23:47:31


FLOW SUMMARIES:

Stream No. 1 2
Stream Name feed product
Temp C 25.0000* 256.7071
Pres atm 1.0000* 160.0000
Enth J/h -4.2894E+008 -4.4731E+008
Vapor mole frac. 0.67150 0.00000
Total kmol/h 3.9373 3.4844
Total kg/h 80.9200 80.9200
Total std L m3/h 0.1096 0.1018
Total std V m3/h 88.25 78.10
Flowrates in kg/h
Water 18.0000 18.0000
Ethylene Oxide 21.0000 1.0500
Ammonia 41.9200 35.3849
Monoethanolamine 0.0000 19.7850
Diethanolamine 0.0000 5.3088
Triethanolamine 0.0000 1.3913
63 Monoethanolamine

CHAPTER 5: MECHANICAL DESIGN


This chapter includes the Mechanical Design of the Distillation column and Heat Exchanger.

5.1 MECHANICAL DESIGN OF DISTILLATION


COLUMN (DEHYDRATOR)

Necessary Specifications:
Shell:
Shell Material - IS: 2002- 1962 Grade 1 Plain Carbon Steel
Permissible tensile strength ft = 950 kg/cm2
Elastic Modulus E = 188000 MN/m2
Insulation Material : Asbestos
Insulation Thickness = 2 inch
50.8 mm
Density of Insulation = 575 kg/m3
Head: Torispherical Dished Head
Diameter = Di = 0.9 m
Operating Pressure = 1 atm
1.033 kg/cm2
Design Pressure = 1.1 * Operating Pressure = P = 1.1363 kg/cm2

5.1.1 CALCULATING THE SHELL THICKNESS

PDi
Consider the vessel to be an internal pressure vessel ts  C
2 fJ  P

Corrosion Allowance ( C) = 2 mm
Joint Efficiency (J) = 0.85
and ft = f
Shell thickness = ts = 2.63 mm
Taking the thickness of the shell as ts = 6 mm as this is the lowest available thickness.
Therefore, thickness = 6 mm
64 Monoethanolamine

5.1.2 DESIGN OF SUPPORT

Skirt Support:
The cylindrical shell of skirt id designed for the combination of stresses due to vessel dead weight,
wind load and the seismic load. The thickness of the skirt is uniform and it is designed to withstand
maximum values of tensile or compressive stresses.

Available Data:
Diameter of column = 0.9 m
Height of column = 7 m
Density of the material = 7700 kg/m3
Thickness of the tray = 5 mm
Thickness of shell ts = 6 mm
Outer diameter of the skirt Dok = diameter of the column + 2 * ts = 91.2 cm

Weight of one tray = (3.14*D2*t/4) * ρ = 24.48 kg


Total weight of all the trays = weight of single plate * no. of trays = 342.72 kg.
where the number of trays is 14
Weight of the distillation Column = (3.14DHts ρ) + weight of trays = 1256.65 kg

W
Stress due to dead weight = fd 
Dok t sk

fd = stress
ΣW= dead weight of vessel contents and attachments = 1256.65 kg
Outer diameter of the skirt Dok = 91.2 cm
So, fd tsk = 4.39 kg/cm2
fd = 4.39/tsk kg/cm2
65 Monoethanolamine

Stress due to wind load =


pw = k * p1* h1* Do
p1 =wind pressure for the lower part of vessel = 25 lb/ft2 = 37.204 kg/cm2
K = coefficient depending on shape factor = 0.7
(K = 0.7 for cylindrical vessel)
Do= outside diameter of vessel = 0.9 m
h1 = height of column = 7 m
So, pw = 164.07 kg

The bending moment due to wind at the base of the vessel is given by
Mw= pw * H/2 = 574.24 kg m
fwb = Mw/Z = 4 * Mw/(π * (Do)2 * tsk)
Z = Modulus of section of skirt cross-section
(fwb tsk) = 9.031 kg/cm2
fwb = 9.031/tsk kg/cm2

Stress due to Seismic Load:


Load = C*W
C = seismic coefficient = 0.08

Stress at the base fsb


2  CHW 
f sb   2 

3  Rok t sk 
fsb tsk = 7.19
fsb = 7.19/tsk kg/cm2
Now, Maximum tensile stress, ft (max.) =(fsb or fwb) - fd and,
Maximum compressive stress, fc (max.) =(fsb or fwb) + fd
We take stress whichever is maximum between seismic or wind load. Here wind load is
more than seismic load, so we use wind load for finding maximum tensile and compressive
stress.
66 Monoethanolamine

fsb > fwb, so we use fsb


So, Maximum tensile stress, ft (max.) = 4.64/ /tsk kg/cm2
Permissible tensile stress = 950 kg/cm2
Maximum tensile stress = Permissible tensile stress
tsk 0.0049 cm
0.049 mm
Maximum compressive stress, fc(max.) = 13.42/ /tsk kg/cm2
fc, (permissible) <= (1/3) yield point
Yield point = 1500 kg/cm2
fc, (permissible) 500 kg/cm2
Maximum compressive stress = Permissible compressive stress
so, tsk = 0.027 cm
0.27 mm
As per IS 2825-1969, minimum corroded skirt thickness = 7 mm
Thus we use a thickness of 7 mm for the skirt.

Design of skirt bearing plate:


Assume both circle diameter = ( skirt diameter +32.5 ) cm
Diameter of skirt = 91.2 cm
Circle Diameter 123.7 cm
Let, b = circumferential length =(circle diameter-skirt diameter) = 32.5 cm
Compressive stress between Bearing plate and concrete foundation:
fc = (ΣW/A) + (Mw/Z)
A =area of contact between the bearing plate and foundation
A = 3.14/4 * ((circle diameter)2 - (diameter of skirt)2) = 5482.64 cm2
Z = Section Modulus of area
Z = 3.14/32 * ((circle diameter)4 - (diameter of skirt)4))/(Circle Diameter) = 130856.001 cm4
Mw= the bending moment due to wind = 574.24 kg m
fc 0.668 kg/cm2

Which is less than the permissible value for concrete.


67 Monoethanolamine

Let, tb is thickness of bearing plate.


Maximum bending moment in bearing plate Mmax= fc * (b)2 /2 352.81 Kg cm
Stress, f = (6* fc *(b)2 /(2*tb2) 2116.86 /tb2
Permissible stress in bending = 1000 kg/cm2
Equating ,stress f= permissible stress in bending, we get
tb2 = 2.12 cm2
tb = 1.45 cm
Therefore, a bolted chair has to be used.

Anchor Bolts:
Minimum weight of Vessel (Assumed Value) = Wmin = 2000 kg
fc,min = ( Wmin/A) - (Mw/Z)
where,
Wmin = 2000 kg
A= 5482.64 cm2
M w= 574.24 kg m
Z= 130856.001 cm4
hence, fc, min = -0.074 kg/cm2
Since, fc is negative, the vessel skirt must be anchored to the concrete foundation by anchor bolts.
Assuming there are 20 bolts .
Pbolt = ( fc /20) * (π/4 *(circle diameter2- skirt diameter2) 20.299 kg

Load on one anchor bolt, Pbolt = 20.299 kg


68 Monoethanolamine

5.2 MECHANICAL DESIGN OF HEAT


EXCHANGER

SHELL SIDE
Material Carbon Steel
Fluid water vapor
Working Pressure 1 atmosphere
Design Pressure 0.1114 N/mm2
0
Temperature 102 C
Ds 316.92 mm
Permissible stress for carbon steel is 95 N/mm2

TUBE SIDE
Number of tubes 65
Number of passes 2
Inside Diameter 16 mm
Outside Diameter 20 mm
length of tube 3.048 m
Working and operating pressures are same as that of shell side.
0
Inlet Temperature 30 C
0
Outlet Temperature 50 C

5.2.1 SHELL THICKNESS:

ts = PD/(2fJ+P)
let J = 85% 0.85
ts 0.22 mm
Minimum thickness of shell including corrosion resistance is taken as 8 mm.
69 Monoethanolamine

5.2.2 GASKET WIDTH

material asbestos
Assume a gasket thickness of 0.6 mm
y (minimum design yield seating stress) 44.85 MN/m2
m (gasket factor) 3.5
do/di 1.001255 m
gasket inside diameter = shell outside diameter
di 0.31692 m
do 0.31731 m
Minimum Gasket Width (N) = (do-di)/2 0.00019889118 m
But take minimum width (10 mm) (new N) 0.01 m
new do 0.3369 m
Basic gasket seating width (b) 6 mm
Diameter at location of gasket load reaction G = di + N 0.3269 m
326.9156496 mm
5.2.3 TIE RODS AND SPACERS
These are provided to retain all cross baffles and tube support plates in position
For shell diameter 300-700 mm. Diameter of rod is 10mm and number of rods = 6

KP
5.2.4 Tube Sheet Thickness (Cylindrical Shell) :
Tts  GC
f
Gc = mean gasket diameter for cover = 326.92 mm
P = design pressure = 0.1114 N/mm2
K-factor(when cover is bolted with full faced gasket) = 0.25
F = permissible stress at design temperature = 95 N/mm2
So, Tube sheet thickness = Tts = 5.597 mm
70 Monoethanolamine

CHAPTER 6: COST ESTIMATION


In this chapter, we have calculated the Total Capital Investment, Total Product Cost, Gross
Profit, Net Profit and the Rate of Return.

TABLE 6.1: COST DATA OF VARIOUS EQUIPMENTS (FROM PERRY 6TH EDITION)
Marshal and Swift index : 1048 (Year 2002)

Equipment Size Unit Cost ($) n


Distillation 4000 trays 3300000 1
H.E. (Shell and tube) 93 m2 21700 0.59
3
Jacketed Reactor 0.38 m 53000 0.48
Centrifugal Pump 10 hp 16000 0.3
Pressure Vessel (Flash) 3.8 m3 63000 0.62
AC Motor 10 hp 12300 0.56

Now the available data with us :- Marshall and Swift Index : 1448.3 (Year 2010)
Number of Calculated
Equipment Size Unit equipment Cost ($)
Distillation tower 14 trays 2 31923.41
H.E. (Shell and Tube) 11.92 m2 5 44619.53
3
Jacketed Reactor 1.0759 m 1 120705.62
Centrifigal Pump 5 hp 4 71840.31
Pressure Vessel (Flash) 2.5 m3 1 67157.54
AC motor 5 hp 4 46119.60
Total Sum : 382366.02

where the formula used for calculating the cost is:-

where,
C1 is the Capitalized Cost of the Designed Plant.
C2 is the Capitalized Cost of the Existing Plant.
Q1 is the size of plant 1
Q2 is the size of plant 2
M1 is the Marshall and Swift index in 2002
M2 is the Marshall and Swift Index in 2010
71 Monoethanolamine

Total Cost of Equipments = 382366.02 $


Total Cost of Equipments = 22941961.26 Rupees
Total Cost of Equipment including 20% extra for accessories = 27530353.52 Rupees

6.1 ESTIMATION OF FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT:


Purchased Equipment delivered = E = 27530353.52 Rupees
Purchased Equipment installation = 39% E = 10736837.87 Rupees
Instrumentation (installed) = 28% E = 7708498.98 Rupees
Electrical Installed = 10% E = 2753035.35 Rupees
Piping Installed = 31% E = 8534409.59 Rupees
Buildings including services = 22% E = 6056677.77 Rupees
Yard Improvement = 10% E = 2753035.35 Rupees
Service Facilities Installed = 55% E = 15141694.43 Rupees
Land = 6% E = 1651821.21 Rupees

TOTAL DIRECT PLANT COST = D = 82866364.09 Rupees

Engineering and Supervision = 32% E = 8809713.13 Rupees


Construction Expense = 34% E = 9360320.20 Rupees

TOTAL DIRECT AND INDIRECT COST = D + I = 101036397.41 Rupees

Contractor's fee = 5% (D+I) = 5051819.87 Rupees


Contingency = 10% (D+I) = 10103639.74 Rupees

FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT = FCI = 116191857.02 Rupees


WORKING CAPITAL COST = 10-20% FCI = 15% FCI = 17428778.55 Rupees
TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT = FCI + WORKING CAPITAL = 133620635.57 Rupees
72 Monoethanolamine

6.2 ESTIMATION OF TOTAL PRODUCT COST

6.2.1 MANUFACTURING COST:


Manufacturing Cost = Direct Production cost + Fixed Charges + Plant Overhead cost

A) FIXED CHARGES ( 10-20% OF THE TOTAL PRODUCT COST)

Depreciation depends on life period, salvage value and method of


calculation
Consider depreciation = 10% of FCI for machinery and equipment and 3% for Building
Value for Buildings)
1) Depreciation = 11619185.70 Rupees
2) Local Taxes = 1-4% FCI = 4% FCI = 4647674.28 Rupees
3) Insurances = (0.4-1% FCI) = 0.6% FCI = 697151.14 Rupees
4) Rent ( 8-12% of Rented Land + Building) = 10% (Land + Building) = 770849.90 Rupees

FIXED CHARGES = Depreciation + Taxes + Insurance + Rent = 17734861.02 Rupees

B) DIRECT PRODUCTION COST (60% TOTAL PRODUCT COST)

let the total product cost be X

1) Raw Materials (10-50% of total product cost)


consider, the cost of raw material as 25% Total Product Cost 0.25X Rupees

2) Operating Labor (10-20% of the Total Product Cost)


consider the cost of Operating Labor as 15% Total Product Cost 0.15X Rupees

3) Direct Supervisory and Clerical Labor (10-25% OL)


consider direct supervisory and clerical labor as 12% OL 0.018X Rupees
73 Monoethanolamine

4) Utilities (10-20% of the total product cost)


Take Utilities as 15% of the total product Cost 0.15X Rupees

5) Maintenance and Repairs (2-10% FCI)


consider Maintenance and Repairs as 5% FCI 5809592.85 Rupees

6) Operating Supplies (10-20% 0f Maintenance and Repairs)


consider Operating Supplies as 15% Maintenance and Repairs 871438.93 Rupees

7) Laboratory Charges (10-20% of Operating Labor)


let Laboratory Charges be 15% of Operating Labor 0.0225X Rupees

8) Patent and Royalties (0-6% of the Total Product Cost)


consider Patent and Royalties as 5% of the total product cost 0.05X Rupees

0.6405X +
DIRECT PRODUCTION COST = 6681031.43 Rupees

C) PLANT OVERHEAD COST


(50-70% of the Operating Labor, supervision and maintenance or 5-15% of the total
Product Cost);
includes for the following: general plant upkeep and overhead, payroll overhead, packaging,
medical
services, safety & protection, restaurants, recreation, salvage, laboratories and storage
facilities.

Consider the plant overhead cost as 60% of Operating Labor, Direct Supervisory & clerical labor,
Maintenance & Repair
74 Monoethanolamine

PLANT OVERHEAD COST = 0.1X +


3485755.71

Manufacturing Cost = Direct Production cost + Fixed Charges + Plant Overhead cost

0.7405x +
MANUFACTURING COST 27901648.16 Rupees

6.2.2 GENERAL EXPENSES:


General Expenses = Administrative Cost + Distribution and selling cost + Research and Development
Cost

A) Administrative Cost (40-60% of Operating Labor)


consider Administrative cost as 50% of Operating Labor 0.075X Rupees

B) Distribution and Selling Cost (2-20% of Total Product Cost)


This includes cost of sales offices, salesmen, shipping and advertising.
Consider Distribution and Selling Cost as 10% of Total Product Cost 0.1X Rupees

C) Research and Development Cost (3% of Total Product Cost) 0.03X Rupees

GENERAL EXPENSES 0.205X Rupees

TOTAL PRODUCT COST (X) = MANUFACTURE COST + GENERAL EXPENSES

0.9455X +
TOTAL PRODUCT COST (X) = 27901648.16 Rupees

TOTAL PRODUCT COST = X = 511956847 Rupees


75 Monoethanolamine

6.3 GROSS EARNING/INCOME


Wholesale Price of MEA per kg 30 Rupees

Total income = selling price * quantity of product manufactured = S.P. * 70 tons/year *300
days/year
TOTAL INCOME 630000000 Rupees

Gross Income = Total Income - Total Product Cost


GROSS INCOME = 118043153 Rupees

let the tax rate be 34% (common) of Gross Income


TAXES = 40134672.02 Rupees

Net Profit = Gross Income - Taxes


NET PROFIT = 77908480.98 Rupees

6.4 RATE OF RETURN

Rate of Return = (Net Profit / Total Capital Investment) * 100


RATE OF RETURN = 58.31 %
76 Monoethanolamine

CHAPTER 7: PLANT LOCATION AND LAYOUT


This chapter includes the Plant Location and Layout Details for the Production of MEA. Based
on the guidelines, I have found out an ideal location for setting up the manufacturing plant.

7.1 PLANT LAYOUT


The layout of process units in the plant and the equipments within these process units must be
planned before detailed piping, structural and electrical design. This layout plays an important
role in determining construction and manufacturing costs and thus must be planned carefully
with attention being given to future problems. Proper layout will include arrangement of
processing area, storage area and handling area in efficient coordination. This regards to factors
as (SBIO) 14:

 New site development or addition to previously developed sites.


 Type and quantity of products to be produced
 Type of process and product control.
 Economical distribution of services, such as water, process stream, power and gas.
 Operational convenience and accessibility.
 Health and safety considerations.
 Types of buildings and building codes.
 Waste disposal problems.
 Possible future expansion.
 Space available and space required.
77 Monoethanolamine

7.2 PLANT LOCATION


The geographical location of the final plant can have a strong influence on the success of
industrial venture. Primary factor to be considered in selection of plant location is the plant must
be located where the minimum cost of production and distribution can be obtained, other factors
such as room for expansion and general living conditions, are also important. The following
factors must be considered in choosing a plant site (SBIO) 14:

 RAW MATERIALS:
Location near the raw materials source permits considerable reduction in the
transportation and storage charge.

 MARKETS:
This is one of the major deciding factors of the plant location and in this respect the plant
should be near a big city which should be a major trade center so that lots of money can
be saved on the transportation.

 LABOR SUPPLY:
Consideration should be given to prevailing pay rates, restriction on number of hours
worked per week, high turnover rates among the workers and variation in the skill and
intelligence of the worker.

 WATER SUPPLY:
Amount of water required for manufacture of MEA is high, hence the site near the river
will be quite feasible as water can be obtained from it.
78 Monoethanolamine

 CLIMATE:
Excessive humidity or extremes of hot or cold weather can have a serious effect on the
economic operation of plant; and these factors must be examined while selecting the site.

 TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES:
The kind and the amount of the raw material and product determine most suitable type of
transportation facility. Water rail road and highways are the common means of the
transportation. If possible plant site should have access to all three types of
transportation; at least two types should be available.

7.3 IDEAL LOCATION: HAZIRA, GUJARAT


Based on the above mention conditions, the MEA manufacturing plant must be ideally located in
Hazira, Gujarat.

Reliance is the major manufacturer of Ethylene Oxide which is used as a raw material in the
manufacture of Ethanolamines. Reliance has India’s largest EO/EG Plant with the installed
capacity of 300 KTA and Pure EO Capacity of 56 KTA at its Hazira facility (Reliance) 8.

KRIBHCO is a major manufacturer of Ammonia which too is located in Hazira, which is used as
a raw material for the manufacturing of Ethanolamine. The installed capacity of ammonia plant
is 10.02 lakh MT per annum (KRIBHCO)9.

Hence there is an easy availability of raw materials. Also ONGC is the biggest costumer which
consumes Ethanolamines as it has a Gas Sweetening Unit, Hazira Gas Processing Plant, ONGC.
It is the largest gas processing plant in India, processing 42 Million Metric Standard Cubic Meter
(MMSCM) per day (Pandey M, 2005)12.

Also, there is an easy availability of labor in Hazira as it is one of the major manufacturing cities
in Gujarat. Plus, River Tapi flows nearby. Hence there is an easy availability of water.

So, Hazira is an ideal location for manufacture of Ethanolamines.


79 Monoethanolamine

CHAPTER 8: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND SAFETY


Various safety issues, during the storage, transportation and handling of the various chemicals,
its toxicity, explosibility, fire safety, Environmental Protection has been addressed in this
chapter.
8.1 STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION
Alkanolamines should be stored in stainless steel containers with exclusion of air (O2, CO2) and
moisture, preferably under dry nitrogen. Storage temperature should not exceed 500C. Steel tanks
may be used if absorption of iron (upto 10ppm) is not important. Ethanolamines turn yellow on
prolonged storage, especially in presence of oxygen.
Depending on the quantity requirements and sensitivity of the products, steel, stainless steel, or
polyethylene containers can be used for transportation. The container must air tight closures to
prevent absorption of water and carbon dioxide. Zinc and other non ferrous metals are attacked
by ethanolamines. Rubber gloves and safety goggles must be worn when handling ethanolamines
and other alkanolamines also (SBIO) 14.

8.2 HEALTH AND SAFETY FACTORS

8.2.1 TOXICITY:
Monoethanolamine: Prominent among the toxic effects of ethanolamines is irritating effect on
skin and mucous membranes. Based on toxicity testing on rats and rabbits it is found that, rats
survive 8-h inhalation of saturated vapor at 200C without any symptoms. Above 100 ppm
exposure to the ethylene oxide vapor is harmful to human beings.
Ethylene oxide is a reactant used for production of Monoethanolamine. Ethylene oxide is a
relatively toxic liquid and gas. Liquid causes eye injuries and the gas may cause eye irritation.
Ethylene oxide is a gas used primarily as a chemical intermediate in the production of
ethanolamines and other chemicals. A small percentage is also used as a fumigant for sterilizing
medical and dental equipment, and foods, such as spices and nuts. It is well established that
ethylene oxide can induce cancer, along with genetic, reproductive, developmental, and acute
health effects (SBIO) 14.
80 Monoethanolamine

8.2.2 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION:


Ammonia or amine containing off gases from ethanolamines production are either burned or
purified by acid scrubbing. Wastewater from plant cleaning and acid scrubbing is treated in a
sewage plant. When fed to biological treatment plant, appropriate bacteria readily degrade
ethanolamines. Spilled material must be removed with an absorptive material such as urea resin
foam or peat dust, which is then incinerated.

8.2.3 EXPLOSIBILITY AND FIRE SAFETY:


Pure ethylene oxide explodes in the presence of common igniters. Hence in order to avoid the
possibility of explosive decomposition of ethylene oxide in the reactor, in which the reaction of
ethylene oxide occurs with ammonia to produce ethanolamines, it should be diluted with
ammonia solution. Explosive decomposition is more dangerous in case of liquids because of the
greater concentration of potential energy (Ruehl C, 1997)7.

Following Steps must be undertaken to prevent Environment and Health Hazards:

 Direct pipe-in of ethylene oxide


Since EO is so reactive, storage of incoming EO creates the need for special storage
facilities. The safest method would be constructing this unit in the proximity of an EO
production facility in order to directly pipe in EO to the ethanolamines reactors.
 Gas blanket system
Ethanolamines react readily with CO2. Storage tanks should be equipped with a N2 gas
blanket system to prevent air from entering the tanks.
 EO injection system
It is vital that the EO be metered into the ammonia stream. Otherwise, an unwanted
explosive polymerization reaction could occur with the addition of ammonia to EO. This
system should also be equipped with fail-safe systems to prevent the backflow of EO into
the ammonia stream.
 Relief valve system
Because of the high pressure environment, a relief valve system is mandatory to prevent
the possible over pressuring of the reactor unit.
81 Monoethanolamine

CHAPTER 9: PROCESS UTILITIES

A plant cannot operate without utilities. The various utilities that a plant may require:- AIR,
NITROGEN, STEAM, OXYGEN, COOLING WATER, HOT OIL, AND ELECTRICITY.

Now in the manufacturing of MEA, we require WATER, NITROGEN, HOT OIL AND
ELECTRICITY.

 WATER: A huge quantity of water is required, not only for preparing Ammonia solution
but also as a coolant in the Condenser at the top for the Dehydrator.

 NITROGEN: Ethanolamines readily react with CO2. Hence to prove an inert medium in
the storage tank of MEA, DEA and TEA, we need nitrogen.

 HOT OIL: It is required as a heating fluid in the reboilers situated at the bottom of the
two separating towers. They are Multitherm heat transfer fluids, Dowtherm heat transfer
fluids, etc.

 ELECTRICITY: It is essential for the Instrumentation to operate.


82 Monoethanolamine

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books, Magazines and Journals
1. Green D, Perry R. Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook-8th Edition. McGraw
Hill.2007
2. Frauenkron M, Melder JP et al. Ethanolamines and Propanolamines, in Ullmann’s
Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley. 2001
3. Felder R, Rousseau R. Balances on Reactive Process, in Elementary Principles of
Chemical Processes. Wiley. 2000; 125-142
4. No author identified. Ethanolamines. Dow Chemical. 2003
5. Dutia P. Ethanolamines: A Techno-commercial Profile. Chemical Weekly. August 2004;
203-209
6. Fassler P. Cost-efficient Production of Ethanolamines. Suzler Technical Review. 2008;
12-15

Web References
7. Ruehl C, Hou C et al. Design Of A System Of Ethanolamine Reactors. Ceng 403.
October 7, 1997. http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~ceng403/etham97.html
8. Ethylene Oxide. Reliance Industries.
http://www.ril.com/html/business/other_petrochemicals_eohome.html
9. Hazira Plant. KRIBHCO.
http://www.kribhco.net/index.php/en/operations/manufacturing/production-at-hazira
10. Lecture 17: Ethylene Oxide and Ethanol Amines.
http://nptel.ac.in/courses/103103029/module3/lec17/3.html
11. Zhang B. Asian ethanolamines demand to grow by 6-7% over next 3-5 years. ICIS. 2012.
http://www.icis.com/resources/news/2012/02/29/9536732/asian-ethanolamines-demand-
to-grow-by-6-7-over-next-3-5-years/
83 Monoethanolamine

12. Pandey M. Process Optimization in Gas Sweetening Unit. International Petroleum


Technology Conference, Doha, Qatar. 2005.
https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/IPTC-10735-MS

13. Park SB, Lee H. Vapor-Liquid Equilibria for the binary Monoethanolamine + Water and
Monoethanolamine + Ethanol systems. 1997.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02706075

14. Stand-alone document, no author identified


http://www.sbioinformatics.com/design_thesis/Monoethanolamine/