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Restoration

Introduction to Signal

and Image Processing

1 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Contents

Contents

Abstract 2

1 Image Degradation & Restoration Model

Image Degradation & Restoration Model 4

Image Degradation & Restoration Model (2) 5

2 Noise Models

Noise Models 7

Gaussian Noise 8

Rayleigh Noise 9

Erlang Noise 10

Exponential Noise 11

Uniform Noise 12

Impulse (Salt-and-Pepper) Noise 13

Noise Models 14

Visual Comparison of Diﬀerent Noise Sources 15

Periodic Noise 16

Estimation of Noise Parameters (1) 17

Estimation of Periodic Noise Parameters 18

3 Restoration in the Precense of Noise Only

Restoration in the Precense of Noise Only 20

4 Periodic Noise Reduction by Frequency Domain

Filtering

4.1 Bandreject Filter

Bandreject Filter 23

Bandreject Filter Example 24

4.2 Bandpass Filter

Introduction to Signal and Image Processing April 19th/26th, 2016

2 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Bandpass Filter 26

Bandpass Filter Example 27

4.3 Notch Filter

Notch Filter 29

Notch Filter (2) 30

Ideal Notch Filter D_0=16 Example 31

Butterworth Notch Filter D_0=64 32

Example

Gaussian Notch Filter D_0=64 Example 33

General Notch Filter Example 34

4.4 Optimum Notch Filtering

Optimum Notch Filtering 36

Optimum Notch Filtering Principle 37

Optimum Notch Filter Example 38

Optimum Notch Filter Example with 39

Pixel Increments

Optimum Notch Filter Example with 40

Pixel Increments (2)

5 Estimating the Degradation Function

Estimating the Degradation Function 42

Estimating the Degradation Function (2) 43

Estimating by Image Observation 44

Estimating by Experimentation 45

Estimating by Mathematical Modelling 46

Illustration of the Atmospheric Turbulence 47

Model

6 Inverse Filtering

6.1 Direct Inverse Filtering

Direct Inverse Filtering 50

Two Practical Approaches for Inverse 51

Filtering

Introduction to Signal and Image Processing April 19th/26th, 2016

3 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Artiﬁcial Inverse Filtering Example 52

Artiﬁcial Inverse Filtering Example (2) 53

Inverse Filtering Example (2) 54

6.2 Wiener Filtering

Wiener Filtering 56

Wiener Filtering (2) 57

Parametric Wiener Filter 58

Artiﬁcial Wiener Filtering Example 59

Wiener Filtering Example with Little 60

Noise

Wiener Filtering Example with Medium 61

Noise

Wiener Filtering Example with Heavy 62

Noise

Comparison Param. Wiener vs. Wiener 63

Filtering

Drawback of the Wiener Filter 64

6.3 Geometric Mean Filter

Geometric Mean Filter 66

6.4 Constrained Least Squares Filtering

Constrained Least Squares (Regularised) 68

Filtering

Constrained Least Squares Filtering (2) 69

Constrained Least Squares Filtering (3) 70

Optimal Selection for Gamma 71

Artiﬁcial Constrained Least Squares 72

Filter Example

Constrained Least Squares Filter 73

Example

4 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration

Abstract (2)

As in image enhancement the goal of restoration is to

improve an image for further processing. In contrast to

image enhancement that was subjective and largely based

on heuristics, restoration attempts to reconstruct or

recover an image that has been distorted by a known

degradation phenomenon. Restoration techniques thus try

to model the degradation process and apply the inverse

process in order to reconstruct the original image.

5 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Image

Degradation &

Restoration Model

Image Degradation & (4)

Restoration Model

The degradation process is generally modelled as a

degradation function and the additive noise term

together they yield .

the objective of restoration to estimate . Of course

this estimate should be as close as possible to .

6 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Image Degradation & Restoration Model

Restoration Model (2)

If the degradation function is a linear, shift-invariant

process, then the degraded image is given in the spatial

domain by

(6.1)

degradation function, and indicates convolution.

rewritten in the frequency domain

(6.2)

respective function in Eq 6.1.

7 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Noise Models

Noise Models (7)

The principle sources of noise in digital images arise

during image acquisition and/or transmission.

variety of factors during acquisition, such as

Light levels (low light conditions require high gain

ampliﬁcation)

Sensor temperature (higher temp implies more

ampliﬁcation noise)

interference in the channel for example

Lightning or other

Atmospheric disturbances

must be selected that accurately reproduces the spatial

characteristics of the noise.

8 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Noise Models

Because of its mathematical

tractability in both the spatial and

frequency domain, Gaussian noise

models (aka normal distribution)

are used frequently in practice.

probability density function

function) of a Gaussian random

variable is given by

(6.3)

the mean value and the

standard deviation.

convenient that it is often used in situations in

which they are marginally applicable at best.

9 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Noise Models

The PDF of Rayleigh noise is deﬁned by

(6.4)

Fig 6.3: Rayleigh

probability

density function

the mean and variance are given by

(6.5)

is useful for approximating skewed histograms.

10 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Noise Models

The PDF of the Erlang noise is given

by

(6.6)

probability density

where , is a positive integer. function

The mean and variance are then

given by

(6.7)

11 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Noise Models

The PDF of the exponential noise

is given by

(6.8)

Fig 6.5: Probability density

function of

where . The mean and exponential noise

variance of the density function

are

(6.9)

noise model with .

12 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Noise Models

The PDF of the uniform noise is

given by

(6.10)

Fig 6.6: Probability density

function of uniform

The mean and variance of the noise

density function are given by

(6.11)

13 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Noise Models

and-Pepper) Noise

The PDF of bipolar impulse noise

model is given by

(6.12)

Fig 6.7: Probability density

function of the bipolar

impulse noise model

image. Conversely, will appear as dark dot (pepper). If

either is zero, the PDF is called unipolar.

the signal strength, the assumption is usually that and

are digitised as saturated values thus black (pepper) and

white (salt).

14 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Noise Models

The presented noise models provide a useful tool for

approximating a broad range of noise corruption situations

found in practice. For example:

caused by poor illumination and/or high temperature,

and electronic circuit noise

The Rayleigh noise model is used to characterise noise

phenomena in range images

Exponential and Erlang noise models ﬁnd their

application in Laser imaging

Impulse noise takes place in situations where high

transients (faulty switching) occurs

15 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Noise Models

Diﬀerent Noise Sources

Although the corresponding histograms show close

resemblance to the PDF of the respective noise model, it is

virtually impossible to select the type of noise causing the

degradation from the image alone.

Gaussian noise

model

Rayleigh noise

model

16 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Exponential noise

model

Uniform noise

model

Impulse noise

model

17 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Noise Models

Periodic noise typically arises from electrical or

electromechanical interference during image acquisition

and is spatial dependent.

Fig 6.8: Periodic noise on a satellite Fig 6.9: Spectrum of the Pompeii

image of Pompeii image with periodic noise (peaks of

the periodic noise visually

enhanced)

18 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Noise Models

Parameters (1)

noise PDFs may be known from

sensor speciﬁcations, but it is

often necessary to estimate them

for a particular imaging

arrangement.

Fig 6.10: Sample histogram

If the imaging system is available, of a small patch of Erlang

one simple way to study noise noise

characteristics would be to

capture multiple images of

homogeneous environments, such

as solid grey cards.

from already captured images. The simplest way is to

estimate the mean and variance of the grey levels from

small patches of reasonably constant grey level.

19 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Noise Models

Noise Parameters

The parameters of

periodic noise are

typically estimated

by inspection of

the Fourier

spectrum. The

frequency spikes

can often be

detected by visual

analysis. Fig. 6.11: Fig. 6.12:

Automatic analysis

is possible if the

noise spikes are

either

exceptionally

pronounced or a

priori knowledge

about their

location is known.

20 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Restoration in the

Precense of Noise

Only

Restoration in the (20)

Precense of Noise Only

When noise is the only image degradation present in an

image, thus , Eqs 6.1 & 6.2 become

(6.13)

and

(6.14)

from the spectrum of and subtract it to

obtain an estimate of the original image .

subtracting them from is impossible. Spatial

ﬁltering is the method of choice in situations when only

additive noise is present.

21 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Periodic Noise

Reduction by

Frequency Domain

Filtering

Bandreject Filter

22 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Bandreject Filter (23)

Bandreject ﬁlters remove or attenuate a band of

frequencies around the origin in the Fourier domain.

(6.15)

ﬁlter

Butterworth Bandreject Filter

(6.16)

bandreject ﬁlter

Gaussian Bandreject Filter

(6.17)

bandreject ﬁlter

23 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Bandreject Filter

Example

Fig 6.16: Aerial image of Pompeii Fig 6.17: Ideal bandreject ﬁlter

with periodic noise

ﬁlter

24 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Bandpass Filter

Bandpass Filter (26)

The Bandpass ﬁlter performs the opposite of a bandreject

ﬁlter and thus lets pass the frequencies in a narrow band

of width around . The transfer function can

be obtained from a corresponding bandreject ﬁlter by

using the equation

(6.18)

depicted in Fig 6.20.

Fig 6.20 (a) Ideal bandpass ﬁlter, (b) Butterworth bandpass ﬁlter, and

(c) Gaussian bandpass ﬁlter

25 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Bandpass Filter

Fig 6.21: Aerial image of Pompeii Fig 6.22: Ideal bandpass ﬁlter

with periodic noise

ﬁlter

26 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Notch Filter

27 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Notch Filter (29)

A Notch ﬁlter rejects or passes frequencies in predeﬁned

neighbourhoods about a centre frequency. Due to the

symmetry of the Fourier transform, notch ﬁlters must

appear in symmetric pairs about the origin (except the one

at the origin).

Gaussian notch reject ﬁlter of radius (width) with

centres at and, by symmetry, at , are

(6.19)

notch ﬁlter

Butterworth Notch Filter

(6.20)

Fig 6.26:

Butterworth

notch ﬁlter

Gaussian Notch Filter

(6.21)

Fig 6.27:

Gaussian notch

ﬁlter

where

(6.22)

28 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Introduction to Signal and Image Processing April 19th/26th, 2016

29 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Notch Filter

Similar to the bandpass/bandreject ﬁlters, the Notch reject

ﬁlters can be turned into Notch pass ﬁlters with the

relation

(6.23)

ﬁlter, and the corresponding Notch reject ﬁlter.

If

and

the Notch pass ﬁlter becomes a lowpass ﬁlter.

30 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Notch Filter

D_0=16 Example

periodic noise

Fig 6.29: Notch reject ﬁltered Fig 6.30: Notch pass ﬁltered image

image (contrast enhanced)

31 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Notch Filter

D_0=64 Example

periodic noise

Fig 6.32: Notch reject ﬁltered Fig 6.33: Notch pass ﬁltered image

image (contrast enhanced)

32 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Notch Filter

D_0=64 Example

periodic noise

Fig 6.35: Notch reject ﬁltered Fig 6.36: Notch pass ﬁltered image

image (contrast enhanced)

33 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Notch Filter

Example

Fig 6.37: Original Mariner 6 Fig 6.38: Log Fourier spectra of the

martian image image

Fig 6.39: Notch ﬁltered log spectra Fig 6.40: Notch ﬁltered image

34 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Optimum Notch

Filtering

35 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Optimum Notch Filtering (36)

Images derived from electro-optical scanners, such as

those used in space and aerial imaging, are sometimes

corrupted by coupling and ampliﬁcation of low-level

signals in the scanners' circuitry. The resulting images

tend to contain substantial periodic noise. The

interference pattern are, however, in practice not always

as clearly deﬁned as in the samples shown thus far.

principal frequency components and placing notch pass

ﬁlters at the location of each spike, yielding . The

Fourier transform of the interference pattern is thus given

by

(6.24)

image. The corresponding interference pattern in the

spatial domain is obtained with the inverse Fourier

transform

(6.25)

the addition of the uncorrupted image and the

interference noise

(6.26)

subtracting it from would yield . The problem

is of course that the estimated interference pattern

is only an approximation. The eﬀect of components not

present in the estimate can be minimised be

subtracting from a weighted portion of to

obtain an estimate

Introduction forImage Processing

to Signal and April 19th/26th, 2016

36 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

(6.27)

determined and optimises in some meaningful way.

variance of is minimised over a speciﬁed

neighbourhood of size about every point

.

(6.29)

neighbourhood; that is

(6.30)

(6.31)

neighbourhood gives the approximation

(6.32)

the expression

(6.33)

Introduction to Signal and Image Processing April 19th/26th, 2016

37 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

in the neighbourhood. With these approximations Eq 6.30

becomes

(6.34)

To minimise , we solve

(6.35)

(6.36)

be computed from Eq 6.36 and substituted into Eq 6.27 to

determine .

38 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Optimum Notch Filtering

Principle

39 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Optimum Notch Filtering

Example

Fig 6.42 Aerial image of Pompeii Fig 6.43 Noise estimation with

with heavy periodic noise Gaussian notch pass ﬁlter

distortions

Fig 6.44 Notch reject ﬁltered Fig 6.45 Result ﬁltered with an

image optimum notch ﬁlter of size

40 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Optimum Notch Filtering

Example with Pixel

Increments

Fig 6.46 Aerial image of Pompeii corrected with the optimal notch ﬁlter

of size with the window shifted pixelwise

41 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Optimum Notch Filtering

Example with Pixel

Increments (2)

42 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Estimating the

Degradation

Function

Estimating the (42)

Degradation Function

So far we concentrated mainly at the additive noise term

. In the remainder of this presentation we

concentrate on ways to remove the degradation function

.

43 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Estimating the Degradation Function

Degradation Function (2)

There are three principle methods to estimate the

degradation function

1. Observation

2. Experimentation

3. Mathematical modelling

estimated degradation function is sometimes called blind

deconvolution, as the true degradation is seldom known

completely.

likelihood estimation (MLE) often called blind

deconvolution has been proposed.

equations in this part of the lecture are

componentwise.

44 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Estimating the Degradation Function

Observation

Given

degradation function .

Solution

2. By estimating the sample grey levels of the object and

background in we can construct an unblurred

image of the same size and characteristics as the

observed subimage →

3. Assuming that the eﬀect of noise is negligible (thus the

choice of a strong signal area), it follows from Eq 6.2

that

from

45 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Estimating the Degradation Function

Estimating by (45)

Experimentation

Given

degraded image

Solution

with various system settings until it closely matches

the degraded image

2. The system can then be characterised by measuring

the impulse (small bright dot of light) response. A

linear, shift invariant system can be fully described by

its impulse response.

3. As the Fourier transform of an impulse is a constant, it

follows from Eq 6.2

image, and is a constant describing the strength of

the impulse.

46 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Estimating the Degradation Function

Estimating by (46)

Mathematical Modelling

Degradation modelling has been used for many years. It,

however, requires an indepth understanding of the

involved physical phenomenon. In some cases it can even

incorporate environmental conditions that cause

degradations. Hufnagel and Stanly proposed in 1964 a

model to characterise atmospheric turbulence.

(6.37)

turbulence.

Except of the 5/6 power the above equation has the same

form as a Gaussian lowpass ﬁlter.

47 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Estimating the Degradation Function

Atmospheric Turbulence

Model

Fig 6.49: Aerial image of Pompeii Fig 6.50: Pompeii with mild

turbulence

Fig 6.51: Pompeii with medium Fig 6.52 Pompeii with heavy

turbulence turbulence

48 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Inverse Filtering

Direct Inverse

Filtering

49 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Direct Inverse Filtering (50)

The simplest approach to restore a degraded image is to

form an estimate of the form

(6.38)

Fourier transform. This method is called direct inverse

ﬁltering. With the degradation model Equation 6.2 we get

(6.39)

exactly we could not recover the undegraded image

completely because:

Fourier transform is not known, and

2. in practice can contain numerous zeros.

approach in practical applications

50 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Direct Inverse Filtering

Approaches for Inverse

Filtering

1. Low Pass Filter

(6.40)

the very low (or even zero) values often experienced in

the high frequencies.

2. Constrained Division

(6.41)

a special treatment.

Inverse Filtering.

51 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Direct Inverse Filtering

Filtering Example

direction

Fig 6.55: Additive noise with Fig 6.56: Motion and noise

degraded checkerboard

52 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Direct Inverse Filtering

Filtering Example (2)

Although very tempting from its simplicity, the direct

inverse ﬁltering approach does not work for practical

applications. Even if the degradation is known exactly.

53 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Direct Inverse Filtering

Example (2)

Fig 6.58: Inverse ﬁltering of Figure Fig 6.59: Pseudo Inverse ﬁltering

6.52 for freq. radius

Fig 6.60: Pseudo Inverse ﬁltering Fig 6.61: Pseudo Inverse ﬁltering

for frequencies radius for frequencies radius

54 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Wiener Filtering

Wiener Filtering (56)

The best known improvement to inverse ﬁltering is the

Wiener Filter. The Wiener ﬁlter seeks an estimate that

minimises the statistical error function

(6.42)

image. The solution to this equation in the frequency

domain is

(6.43)

where

with the complex

conjugate of

is the power spectrum of the noise

is the power spectrum of the

undegraded image

55 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Wiener Filtering

If the noise spectrum is zero, the noise-to-signal

power ratio

vanishes and the Wiener Filter reduces to the inverse

ﬁlter.

(6.44)

noise is present.

56 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Wiener Filtering

The main problem with the Wiener ﬁlter is that the power

spectrum of the undegraded image is seldom

known.

be estimated is to approximate Eq 6.43 by the expression

(6.45)

with spectrally white noise, where the noise spectrum

is constant. However, the problem still

remains that the power spectrum of

the undegraded image is unknown and must be estimated.

a simple matter to experiment interactively varying

the constant and viewing the results.

57 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Wiener Filtering

Filtering Example

This example shows the performance of the Wiener ﬁlter

on the example Fig 6.56 using (1) the approximation of Eq

6.45 with in Fig 6.62 and (2) the Wiener ﬁlter

using full knowledge of the noise and undegraded image's

power spectra in Fig 6.63.

Fig 6.62: Parametric Wiener ﬁlter Fig 6.63: Wiener ﬁlter knowing the

using a constant ratio noise and undegraded signal power

spectra

58 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Wiener Filtering

Example with Little Noise

Fig 6.64: Pompeii blurred with Fig 6.65: Result of direct inverse

Gaussian kernel , and ﬁltering

Gaussian noise

Fig 6.66: Result with Parametric Fig 6.67: Result with Wiener

Wiener ﬁltering ﬁltering

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Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Wiener Filtering

Example with Medium Noise

Fig 6.68: Pompeii blurred with Fig 6.69: Result of direct inverse

Gaussian kernel , and ﬁltering

Gaussian noise

Fig 6.70: Result with Parametric Fig 6.71: Result with Wiener

Wiener ﬁltering ﬁltering

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Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Wiener Filtering

Example with Heavy Noise

Fig 6.72: Pompeii blurred with Fig 6.73: Result of direct inverse

Gaussian kernel , and ﬁltering

Gaussian noise

Fig 6.74: Result with Parametric Fig 6.75: Result with Wiener

Wiener ﬁltering ﬁltering

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Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Wiener Filtering

Wiener vs. Wiener Filtering

(a) (b)

Fig 6.76 Aerial image of Pompeii with Gaussian blur ( ) and noise (

) (a) restored with the Parametric Wiener ( ), (b)

same image restored with Wiener ﬁlter.

62 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Wiener Filtering

Filter

The problem of having to know something about the

degradation function is common to all methods

discussed in this part.

the power spectra of the noise

must be known.

the Parametric Wiener ﬁlter, see Fig 6.62, this approach is

not always suitable.

63 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Geometric Mean

Filter

Geometric Mean Filter (66)

The Geometric Mean Filter is a generalisation of inverse

ﬁltering and the Wiener ﬁltering. Through its parameters

it allows access to an entire family of ﬁlters.

(6.46)

can be adjusted

: inverse ﬁltering

: spectrum equalisation ﬁlter

: parametric Wiener ﬁlter → Wiener

64 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Constrained Least

Squares Filtering

Constrained Least (68)

Squares (Regularised)

Filtering

The Constrained Least Squares Filtering approach only

requires knowledge of the mean and variance of the noise.

As shown in previous lectures these parameters can be

usually estimated from the degraded image.

(6.47)

model in vector notation

as

(6.48)

65 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Constrained Least Squares Filtering

Squares Filtering (2)

It seems obvious that the restoration problem is now

reduced to simple matrix manipulations. Unfortunately

this is not the case. The problem with the matrix

formulation is that the matrix is very large

and that its inverse is ﬁrstly very sensitive to noise and

secondly does not necessarily exist.

restoration on a measure of smoothness, such as the

second derivative of the image, e.g. the Laplacian.

(6.49)

(6.50)

undegraded image.

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Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Constrained Least Squares Filtering

Squares Filtering (3)

The Frequency domain solution to this optimisation

problem is given by

(6.51)

constraint in Eq 6.50 is satisﬁed, and is the Fourier

transform of the Laplace operator

(6.52)

computing the Fourier transform.

interactively until acceptable results are obtained.

67 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Constrained Least Squares Filtering

Gamma

If we are interested in optimality, the parameter must be

adjusted so that the constraint in Eq

6.50 is satisﬁed.

(6.53)

equation where are the mean and variance of the

noise.

restoration in the sense of constrained least

squares does not necessarily imply best in the

visual sense. In general, automatic determined

restoration ﬁlters yield inferior results to manual

adjustment of ﬁlter parameters.

68 of 70 22.02.2016 09:19

Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Constrained Least Squares Filtering

Least Squares Filter Example

This example shows the performance of the Constrained

Least Squares Filter on the example Fig 6.56 using (1) the

theoretical optimal value for in Fig 6.77 and (2)

the constrained least squares ﬁlter with a manually

selected of 6.78.

Fig 6.77: Result with optimal Fig 6.78: Results with manually

selected

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Ph. Cattin: Image Restoration Constrained Least Squares Filtering

Squares Filter Example

Fig 6.79: Pompeii blurred with Fig 6.80: Result with low Gaussian

Gaussian kernel noise of

Fig 6.81: Result with medium Fig 6.82: Result with high Gaussian

Gaussian noise of noise of

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