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A simple 220V Automatic Voltage Stabilizer

Sherief Ashour Abd elsatter Zagazig university,Egypt,sherief.karm@gmail.com

Abstract:

A voltage stabilizer is a device used for maintaining a constant voltage level. It has been constructed using simple and inexpensive components. This device will automatically sense the change in the input level and adjust itself to maintain a constant output according to the circuit used. Here; the writer will show the construction of a 220 V automatic voltage stabilizer and also shows the circuit diagram and components with its simulation.

I.

INTRODUCTION

The usual no load voltage is 220 V but when a load is connected, the voltage drops to a specific value below the 220

V.A new concept arises now, it’s the voltage regulation. Voltage regulation is defined as the amount the voltage changes between the no-load and full load conditions.it can be calculated using equation (1):

(1)

It’s a dimensionless quantity. If the value of full-load voltage is the same as the no-load voltage, the voltage regulation calculated is 0%, which is the best expected. This means that the supply is a perfect voltage source for which the output voltage is independent of the current drawn from the supply. The smaller the voltage regulation, the better is the operation of the voltage supplement. Voltage regulation in transmission lines occurs due to the impedance of the line between its sending and receiving ends. There are three methods that model the line impedance:

Short line approximation (the least accurate):

The short line approximation ignores capacitance of the transmission line and models the resistance and reactance of the transmission line as a simple series resistor and inductor. The writer will focus on Short line

approximation in this section.

Figure1 : Short line approximation

The current drawn from the source equals to zero.

Then, no voltage drop across the resistance or the reactance.

Since there is no voltage drop across the resistance or reactance the terminal voltage equals to the source voltage.

When a load is connected a current I passes through the resistance and reactance to the load and a voltage drop will occur across both of resistance and reactance.

Applying Kirchhoff voltage law (KVL):

Then the terminal voltage will be less than the no load terminal voltage by the value of the voltage drop across the resistance and reactance.

The medium line approximation (more accurate):

It takes into account the shunt admittance, usually pure capacitance, by distributing half the admittance at the sending and receiving end of the line.

Figure 2: Medium line approximation

Long line approximation (most accurate):

The long line approximation therefore requires the solving of differential equations and results in the highest degree of accuracy.

II. BLOCK DIAGRAM

III.

COMPONENTS

In this section, the writer will discuss the components used to

construct the circuit. Before the writer does, the writer will state them first.

 I. Transformer: 220/12 step down transformer 1 KVA multi-input step up transformer II. Diode MOSFET transistor: Irf540 N-channel MOSFET Irf4905 P-channel MOSFET III. Relay: A 5 V coil relay IV. Capacitor: A 1000 µf capacitor V. Resistor: 10kΩ constant resistor and 1kΩ potentiometer VI. Fuse: 4 A fuse VII. Switch I. Transformer:

A transformer is a static device used for lowering or raising the voltage from an AC power supply with a corresponding increase or decrease in current.it essentially consists of two winding, the primary and secondary, wound on a common laminated magnetic core as shown in figure 3

Figure3 : Transformer construction

The winding connected to the AC supply is called the primary and those connected to the load is called the secondary. Depending on the number of turns of the primary and secondary an EMF is induced in the

secondary causing a current to flow and a

voltage across the load to appear as

shown in figure4

Figure4 : Primary and secondary coils of transformer

If > it’s called step up transformer. On the

other contrary if < it’s called step down

transformer. Theory of transformers states that,

Where the transformation ratio. It depends on

the number of turns of the primary and the secondary winding.

II.

diode:

It is created by simply joining an n -type and a p -type material together, nothing more, just the joining of one material with a majority carrier of electrons to one with a majority carrier of holes, as shown in the figure 5

Figure5 : Diode construction

Figure 6: Diode electrical symbol

There are two states of biasing; the forward bias and the reverse bias.

The forward biasing:

A forward-bias or “on” condition is established by

applying the positive potential to the p -type material

and the negative potential to the n -type material as shown in Fig7 in this case a current will flow.

Figure 7: Diode forward biasing

Reverse biasing:

If an external potential of V volts is applied across the

p n junction such that the positive terminal is

connected to the n -type material and the negative terminal is connected to the p -type material as shown in Fig8. The current that exists under reverse-bias conditions is called the reverse saturation Current and is represented by Is .It is seldom more than a few microamperes and typically in nA, except for high- power devices.it can be approximated to zero. The term saturation comes from the fact that it reaches its

maximum level quickly and does not change significantly with increases in the reverse-bias potential.

Figure 8: Diode reverse biasing

Diode characteristics:

 Diode characteristics indicates the biasing of the diode and it changes exponentially according to

Shockley’s equation

Where:

is the reverse saturation current. is the applied forward-bias voltage across the diode. n is an ideality factor, which is a function of the operating conditions and physical construction; it has a range between 1 and 2 depending on a wide variety of factors ( n _ 1 will be assumed throughout this text unless otherwise noted).

Figure 9: Diode characteristics

Diode equivalent circuit:

An equivalent circuit is a combination of elements properly chosen to best represent the actual terminal characteristics of a device or system in a particular operating region. There are three models of diode which are piecewise linear, simplified and ideal model. The writer will deal with the simplified model in this paper. Simplified model:

It consists of a battery represents the drop across the diode in the conduction state (0.7V for silicon diode and 0.3V for germanium diode) and an ideal diode working as a switch as shown in fig10

Figure 10: Diode simplified model

Diode applications:

The writer can conclude the diode operation such that it’s a component used for allowing current to flow in one specific direction and prevent it to flow in the opposite direction. The most application in which the diode is used is rectification (making the alternating voltage undirected).there are various circuits for this purpose, the writer will focus on the full wave rectifier. Full wave rectifier:

Rectification is to convert AC to DC. The full wave rectifier required four diodes to do that as shown in fig 11

Figure 11: Full wave rectifier

The input is an AC and the output is undirected as shown in fig where the average dc voltage is:

Taking into account the drop of the two operating diode, then the equation becomes:

For silicon diodes voltage is:

then the average

Figure 12: Input and Output of full wave rectifier

Till now the writer could make the AC input undirected, to make it have a constant value the writer use filters. Filters also have various types but the writer will focus on the capacitor filter.

Capacitor filter:

By adding a capacitor parallel to the load the writer can obtain the capacitor filter consequently the constant value output as shown in fig13

Figure 13: Capacitor filter

If no load were connected across the capacitor, the output waveform would ideally be a constant dc level equal in value to the peak voltage ( ) from the rectifier circuit. On the other hand, under loading conditions the output wave form is shown in the fig14

Figure 14: Capacitor filter output waveform

The average voltage equation

can be calculated from the

where is the peak rectifier voltage, I dc is the load current in milliamperes, and C is the filter capacitor in microfarads.in this paper the writer will assume that

for simplicity.

Zener diode (Breakdown Diode):

The Zener diode behaves just like a normal general- purpose diode consisting of a silicon PN junction and when biased in the forward direction, that is Anode positive with respect to its Cathode, it behaves just like a normal signal diode passing the rated current. However, unlike a conventional diode that blocks any flow of current through itself when reverse biased, that is the Cathode becomes more positive than the Anode, as soon as the reverse voltage reaches a pre- determined value, the Zener diode begins to conduct in the reverse direction. The voltage point at which the voltage across the Zener diode becomes stable is called the Zener voltage . Zener diode symbol and characteristics are shown in

fig15

Figure 15: Zener diode symbol and characteristics

Zener Diodes can be used to produce a stabilized voltage output with low ripple under varying load current conditions. By passing a small current through the diode from a voltage source, via a suitable current limiting resistor (R S ), the Zener diode will conduct sufficient current to maintain a voltage drop of Vout. Zener diode regulator circuit is shown in fig16

Figure 16: Constant voltage level using zener diode

III. Operational amplifier (op amp):

An operational amplifier, or op-amp, is a very high gain differential amplifier with high input impedance and low output impedance. Typical uses of the operational amplifier are to provide voltage amplitude changes (amplitude and polarity), oscillators, filter circuits, and many types of instrumentation circuits. It’s basic symbol with two inputs and one output is shown in fig17

Figure 17: Op amp circuit symbol

Op amp has many applications; one of them is to use it as a comparator. The Op-amp comparator compares one analogue voltage level with another analogue voltage level, or some preset reference voltage, V REF and produces an output signal based on this voltage comparison. In other words, the op-amp voltage comparator compares the magnitudes of two voltage

inputs and determines which is the largest of the two. Op amp comparator circuit is shown in fig18 Then the writer can see that the op-amp voltage comparator is a device whose output is dependent on the value of the input voltage, V IN with respect to some DC voltage level as the output is HIGH when the voltage on the non-inverting input is greater than the voltage on the inverting input, and LOW when the non-inverting input is less than the inverting input voltage. This condition is true regardless of whether the input signal is connected to the inverting or the non-inverting input of the comparator.

Figure 18: Op amp comparator circuit

In this paper the writer use the reference voltage resulting from a Zener diode. This will be illustrated in the coming sections. The circuit used is shown in

fig19

Figure 19: Op amp circuit with a zener diode as a reference

IV.

Transistor:

For a certain period of time vacuum tubes has got a great interest and development. Thereafter, a third element called control grid has been added to it

resulting in the first amplifier called the triode. After the semi-conductor revolution, diodes and transistors were invented. They took the place of vacuum tubes because of these reasons:

It was smaller and lightweight.

It had no heater requirement or heater loss; it had a rugged construction; it was more efficient since less power was absorbed by the device itself.

It was instantly available for use, requiring no warm-up period; and lower operating voltages were possible.

In fact transistors have various types. Each type has its construction and modes of operation. Fig20 shows the various types of transistors. However a certain type which is enhancement MOSFET will be under the scope of this paper.

Figure 20: Transistors classification

MOSFET is an acronym for the metaloxidesemiconductor field-effect transistor.it has two types, depletion and enhancement. The writer will focus on

enhancement MOSFET. All FET (field effect transistors) has three terminals named as drain, source and gate.

N-channel Enhancement MOSFET:

Construction:

A slab of p -type material is formed from a silicon base and is again referred to as the substrate. The source and drain terminals are connected through metallic contacts to n - doped regions. The SiO2 layer is to isolate the gate metallic platform from the region between the drain and source. The constructions and symbol of it is shown in fig21 and fig 22

Figure21 : N-channel MOSFET construction

Figure 22: N-channel MOSFET symbol

Operation and characteristics:

Since there is no connection between the drain and source, the flowing current is zero and the device is normally off. Current will only flow when a gate voltage (V GS ) is applied to the gate terminal greater than the threshold voltage (V TH ) level in which conductance takes place. Where threshold voltage (V TH ) is the voltage at which a channel of conduction between the drain and source takes place as shown in

fig23

Figure 23: N-channel MOSFET operation

Fig24 shows the N-channel characteristics,

Figure 24: N-channel characteristics

P-channel Enhancement MOSFET:

Construction:

The construction of a p -channel enhancement-type MOSFET is exactly the reverse of the n-channel. There is now an n -type substrate and p -doped regions under the drain and source connections. The terminals remain as identified, but all the voltage polarities and the current directions are The constructions and symbol of it is shown in fig25 and fig26

Figure25 : P-channel MOSFET construction

Figure 26: P-channel MOSFET symbol

Fig27 shows the P-channel characteristics,

Figure 27: P-channel characteristics

V.

Relay:

Relays are electromechanical devices that use an electromagnet to operate a pair of movable contacts from an open position to a closed position. The advantage of relays is that it takes a relatively small amount of power to operate the relay coil, but the relay itself can be used to control motors, heaters, lamps or AC circuits which themselves can draw a lot more electrical power. The relay used in the circuit has five pins. Two of them are for the coil, one is common, one is normally closed and the last one is normally open. When a small current resulting from five or six volts applied to the coil pins flows through the coil, the common arm moves from the normally closed pin to contact the normally open pin and close the circuit. Fig28 shows the relay and its symbol

VI.

Figure 28: The relay and its symbol

Resistor:

When an electrical current passes through a resistor due to the presence of a voltage across it, electrical energy is lost by the resistor in the form of heat and the greater this current flow the hotter the resistor will get. This is known as the Resistor Power Rating.

Resistors are rated by the value of their resistance and the electrical power given in watts, (W) that they can safely dissipate based mainly upon their size. Every resistor has a maximum power rating which is determined by its physical size as generally, the greater its surface area the more power it can dissipate safely into the ambient air or into a heatsink.

A resistor can be used at any combination of voltage (within reason) and current so long as its “Dissipating Power Rating” is not exceeded with the resistor power rating indicating how much power the resistor can convert into heat or absorb without any damage to itself. The Resistor Power Rating is sometimes called the Resistors Wattage Rating and is defined as the amount of heat that a resistive element can dissipate for an indefinite period of time without degrading its performance.

VII.

Capacitor:

A capacitor consists of two metal plates separated by

a dielectric. Capacitors are energy storage devices

which have the ability to store an electrical charge across its plates. Thus capacitors store energy as a result of their ability to store charge and an ideal capacitor would not lose its stored energy.

The simplest construction of a capacitor is by using two parallel conducting metal plates separated through a distance by an insulating material, called a the dielectric as summarized below:

A

capacitor

consists

of

two

separated by a dielectric.

metal

plates

The dielectric can be made of many insulating materials such as air, glass, paper, plastic etc.

A capacitor is capable of storing electrical charge and energy.

The higher the value of capacitance, the more charge the capacitor can store.

The larger the area of the plates or the smaller their separation the more charge the capacitor can store.

A capacitor is said to be “Fully Charged” when the voltage across its plates equals the supply voltage.

Electrolytic capacitors are polarized. They have a +ve and a -ve terminal.

In AC capacitive circuits the voltage “lags” the current by 90 o .

The basic construction and symbol for a parallel plate capacitor is shown in fig29

Figure 29: Construction and Symbol of parallel plate capacitor

VIII.

Fuse:

In electronics and electrical engineering, a fuse is an electrical safety device that operates to provide overcurrent protection of an electrical circuit. Its essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows through it, thereby interrupting the current. It is a sacrificial device; once a fuse has operated it is an open circuit, and it must be replaced or rewired, depending on type. It’s shown in fig30. Fuses usually characterized by its rated current. The writer can calculate the suitable fuse using the following equation:

(2)

Figure 30: Fuse

IV. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

V.

OPERATION

At the standard condition (220 V input) the potentiometer is set to a value equals to or greater than 10 V. At this condition, the first and second op amp output is approximately 10.6 V because the input voltage(10.6 V) is greater than the reference voltage(10 V and 8 V respectively). The output value from the op amps is greater than the threshold voltage

) of irf540 (N-channel MOSFET) and irf4905 (P-

channel MOSFET) so the ifrf540 are on and the relay connected to them will move to the normally open pin which is connected to the 220 V terminal of the step up transformer. And the irf4905 are off and the relay connected to then is in the normally closed state. As

(

for the single relay, its coil terminals are connected directly to the output of the op amps (both are 10.6 V) so no current will flow through the coil and this relay is also in the normally closed state.

  If the input voltage drops and continues until it reaches 180 V. The rectifier output will be approximately 8.4 V. The first op amp output will be approximately zero, and the second op amp output will be approximately 8.4 V. The relays connected to the transistors are in the normally closed. Now, the single relay coil has one terminal connected to 8.4 V and the other terminal connected to the ground so a current will flow and move the relay arm to the normally open pin which is connected to the 180 V terminal of the step up transformer.  If the input voltage drops again, the first and second op amp output is approximately zero. The two P- channel MOSFET are now on and the relay connected to them will move to the normally open state which is connected to the 160 V terminal of the step up transformer. VI. MATHEMATICAL SOLUTION i- Step down transformer:

Calculations steps are to be done at different levels of input voltage using the following

equation:

Since the writer use a step down transformer with a transformation ratio equals to 220:12 The equation can be rewritten as following:

At 220 V:

Directly, the secondary voltage is 12 V.

At 180 V:

Substituting in the equation yields:

At 160 V:

 ii- Full wave rectifier: The maximum peak voltage from the rectifier equals to the maximum peak voltage from the transformer subtracted from it the drop across the two diodes. At 220 V: At 180 V: At 160 V: Assumption: For simplicity, the writer will assume that equals to the average DC voltage from the capacitor iii- Fuse:

Recalling equ (2)

According to the previous value the writer chose a 4 A fuse.

VII.

RESULTS

 Ac input Step down Rectifier Step up trans output trans output output
 180 < 9.8 < ≤ 8.4 < ≤ 220 V ≤ 220 12 10.6 160 < 8.7 < ≤ 7.3 < ≤ 220 V ≤ 180 9.8 8.4 110 < 6 < ≤ 8.7 4.6 < ≤ 220 V < 180 7.3

VIII. DC SIMULATION

In this part the writer construct the same circuit on Proteus program but the writer replace the step down transformer and the rectifier with an equivalent dc source and replace the step up transformer with LEDs. That’s for simplicity. The following simulation is done only for 220 V input. This simulation is shown on the following figures.

Figure 31: Before running the simulation

Figure 32: 180 < Vin ≤ 220

Figure 33: 160 < Vin ≤ 180

Figure 34: 110 < Vin < 180

IX.

CONCLUSION

A 220V automatic voltage stabilizer is a device used for maintaining a constant voltage level.it has been constructed using simple and inexpensive components. This device will automatically sense the change in the input level and adjust itself to maintain a constant output according to the circuit used.

X.

REFERENCE

 i- A. E. Fitzgerald, Charles Kingsley and Stephen D. Umans. Electric machinery .sixth edition. ii- Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory .11th Ed.