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NAME OF THE PROJECT:

STUDY OF COMMON PLANTS


AND ANIMALS
CALCUTTA UNIVERSITY
EXAMINATION (UNDER C.B.C.S)
- 2019, SEMESTER-II
NAME - ARPITA BARMAN
C.U REGISTRATION NUMBER -
031-1212-0276-18
C.U ROLL NUMBER - 183031-11-
0180
COLLEGE NAME – LADY
BRABOURNE COLLEGE
DEPARTMENT - PHYSICS
CONTACT NUMBER - 990-381-
9221
Introduction: Basic Principles in Identifying Common Plants and Animals:

Plants and animals interact with each other in the environment. They also interact with the
environment itself. The plants and animals depend on each other. Animals and humans depend
on plants. For animals and humans, plants provide food, protection and shelter. Plants are
actually the back bone of every ecosystem that humans and animals cohabit in. Along with
humans and animals, a harmony and equilibrium is created, which maintains the stability of the
environment. However not every plant and animal is beneficial for humans. Naturalists and
scholars like Maria Sibylla Merian, Charles Darwin have intensively studied plants and animals
and have come up with basic principles and patterns which help us in identifying various plants
animals. While providing knowledge to young minds, these principles also induce a hunger and
appreciation for the natural world within people.

Basically, identification of plants


and animals is an essential skill
set.

All living organisms are


classified into groups based on
very basic, shared characteristics.
Organisms within each group are
then further divided into smaller
groups. These smaller groups are
based on more detailed
similarities within each larger CHARLES ROBERT
MARIA SIBYLLA MERIAN group. This grouping system DARWIN
makes it easier for scientists to
study certain groups of organisms. Characteristics such as
appearance, reproduction, mobility, and functionality are just a few ways in which living
organisms are grouped together. These specialized groups are collectively called the
classification of living things. The classification of living things includes 7
levels: kingdom, phylum, classes, order, families, genus, and species .
THE SEVEN LEVELS OF CLASSIFICATION:

Kingdoms : The most basic classification of living things is kingdoms. Currently there are five
kingdoms. Living things are placed into certain kingdoms based on how they obtain their food,
the types of cells that make up their body, and the number of cells they contain.

Phylum : The phylum is the next level following kingdom in the classification of living things.
It is an attempt to find some kind of physical similarities among organisms within a kingdom.
These physical similarities suggest that there is a common ancestry among those organisms in a
particular phylum.

Classes : Classes are way to further divide organisms of a phylum. As you could probably guess,
organisms of a class have even more in common than those in an entire phylum. Humans belong
to the Mammal Class because we drink milk as a baby.

Order : Organisms in each class are further broken down into orders. A taxonomy key is used to
determine to which order an organism belongs. A taxonomy key is nothing more than a checklist
of characteristics that determines how organisms are grouped together.

Families : Orders are divided into families. Organisms within a family have more in common
than with organisms in any classification level above it. Because they share so much in common,
organisms of a family are said to be related to each other. Humans are in the Hominidae Family.

Genus : Genus is a way to describe the generic name for an organism. The genus classification
is very specific so there are fewer organisms within each one. For this reason, there are a lot of
different genera among both animals and plants. When using taxonomy to name an organism, the
genus is used to determine the first part of its two-part name.

Species : Species are as specific as you can get. It is the lowest and strictest level of
classification of living things. The main criterion for an organism to be placed in a particular
species is the ability to breed with other organisms of that same species. The species of an
organism determines the second part of its two-part name.
Study Area: Garchumuk Deer Park
Area studies (also called regional studies) are interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship
pertaining to particular geographical, national, federal, or cultural regions. In contrast to cultural
studies, area studies often include diaspora and emigration from the area.
Here we have chosen Garchumuk Deer Park as our study area.

Garchumuk Deer Park

Garchumuk is located on the district of Howrah of West Bengal at the confluence of River
Hooghly River Damodar, enhancing the scenic beauty of the riverside. The spot, offering the
spectacular view of the Ganges is gradually emerging as a popular tourist destination ideal for a
weekend tour. The area of the zoo is approx.13.40 Ha under Howrah Zillah Parishad. A man
made forests was created within the said area earlier by Howrah Forestry Division, WB under
Social Forestry Scheme of Forest Directorate. Considering its scenic beauty as well as suitability
for wild animal, a Deer Park was established on January 31st, 1991. This is the main attractions
of the tourists and the local people. The Park is recognized by the Central Zoo Authority. Main
objective of the Park is to provide awareness on the conservation and education of our wildlife to
the visitors. The Park is under the charge of the Divisional forest officer, Howrah Forest
Division, who is the Ex-Officio Director.
Presently the Zoo houses ninety-seven Mammals, four species of birds and four hundred-
seventy-seven types of Reptiles including one female crocodile. The zoo is well connected with
road and rail. It is 60 km away by road from Howrah District Head Quarters and 15 km from
Uluberia Railway Station. Present address of the zoo is Stadium Complex, Park, P.O. Howrah –
1, Dist.: Howrah, Pin: 711101.Nearest place of interest is Gadiara, 58 Gates and official contact
no. is 033-26411772.
Geographical map:
Common Plants:

Specimen: Common name: Scientific name:


Sal (also known Shorea robusta
as śāl, sakhua or
shala tree)
Specimen: Common Scientific
name: name:
Banyan tree Ficus
(also called benghalensis
Bargad or
Kalpavriksha)

Jackfruit (also Artocarpus


called kathhal) heterophyllus
Specimen: Common Scientific
name: name:
wood Aegle
apple marmelos L.
(also
called
bael or
bili or
bhel)

Burflower Neolamarckia
tree (or cadamba
kadam
phool)
Specimen: Common Scientific
name: name:
Parrot Butea
tree (also monosperma
called
palash
phool)
Common animals

Specimen: Common Scientific


name: name:
Spotted deer Axis axis
(also called
cheetal horin
or cheetal
hiran)

Porcupine Erethizon
(also called dorsatum
Śajāru or
saahee)
Specimen: Common name: Scientific name:
common green forest Calotes calotes
lizard

Crocodile (also called Crocodylinae


kumeer or
magarmachh)
Specimen: Common Scientific
name: name:
Rose-ringed Psittacula
parakeet krameri
(also called
tiya pakhi or
touta)

Indian Pavo
peafowl (also cristatus
called mor or
mayura)
Acknowledgements:
I take this opportunity to sincerely thank all those who have helped me carry out this project
successfully. I would like to thank all the professors we had in our A.E.C.C classes, who
imparted due knowledge and wisdom about the environment to us. I would like to offer my
sincere gratitude to our principal, Professor Siuli Sarkar and also our college committee members
for giving the encouragement that helped us to complete the project successfully.
Bibliography:
Google
Asthana, D. K (2006), Textbook of Environmental Studies
Wikipedia