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Topic:Microprocessor and its


-Presented by

Desai Suraj Ankush(16010202)

● Def:
A microprocessor is a multipurpose,
programmable, clock driven, register based
semiconductor device consists of electronic
logic circuits that reads binary instructions from
storage device called memory and processes
binary input data according to instructions and
provides results as output.
Generations of Microprocessor:
Generations of microprocessor:
First generation –
● From 1971 to 1972 the era of the first generation came which brought microprocessors like INTEL
4004 and INTEL 8008 etc.
Second generation –
● The second generation marked the development of 8 bit microprocessors from 1973 to 1978.
Processors like INTEL 8085 etc came into existence.
Third generation –
● The third generation brought forward the 16 bit processors like INTEL 8086/80186/80286.
Fourth generation –
● The fourth generation came into existence from 1981 to 1995. The 32 bit processors came into
Fifth generation –
● From 1995 till now we are in the fifth generation. 64 bit processors like PENTIUM, celeron, dual,
quad and octa core processors came into existence.
8085 Architecture:
● Digram:
Register Set
General Registers

The 8085 has six general-purpose registers to store 8-bit
data; these are identified as B, C, D, E, H, and L

They can be combined as register pairs - BC, DE, and HL
- to perform some 16-bit operations

The programmer can use these registers to store or copy
data into the registers by using data copy instructions

The HL register pair is also used to address memory

In other words, HL register pair plays the role of memory
address register
Accumulator & Pointers

The accumulator is an 8-bit register that is a
part of arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)

Program Counter - Deals with sequencing
the execution of instructions. Acts as a
memory pointer

Stack Pointer – Points to a memory location
in R/W memory, called the stack
Instruction Register/Decoder

The instruction register and the decoder are
considered as a part of the ALU

The instruction register is a temporary
storage for the current instruction of a

The decoder decodes the instruction and
establishes the sequence of events to follow .

The ALU includes five flip-flops, which are
set or reset after an operation according to
data conditions of the result in the accumulator
and other registers

They are called Zero (Z), Carry (CY), Sign
(S), Parity (P), and Auxiliary Carry (AC) flags
A microprocessor is a general-purpose entity. Several specialized
processing devices have followed:

● Microcontrollers integrate a microprocessor with peripheral devices in

embedded systems.
● A digital signal processor (DSP) is specialized for signal processing.
● Graphics processing units (GPUs) are processors designed primarily for
realtime rendering of images.
● Other specialized units exist for video processing and machine vision.
(See: Hardware acceleration.)
● Systems on chip (SoCs) often integrate one or more microprocessor or
microcontroller cores.