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1.

HW5
5.1 Show that the Fourier transform has properties 5.1(2), (3) and (4).
Proof. These properties are obviously true for L1 -functions by the properties of the
Lebesgue integrabl. Using the approximating sequences in L1 ∩ L2 , one can show
that these properties also hold for function in L2 . 
5.2 Prove the Riemann-Lebesgue lemma mentioned in Sect 5.1.
Proof. The Fourier transform defines a bounded linear map F from L1 (R) to L∞ (R)
and
(1.1) kF(f )k∞ ≤ Ckf kL1 , f ∈ L1 (R),
where F(f ) = fb. Suppose f is a smooth function with compact support. Then
kf 0 kL1
|fb(k)| ≤ C =⇒ lim |fb(k)| = 0.
|k| k→∞

If f ∈ L1 (R), choose a sequence of smooth functions with compact support (fn ) so


that (fn ) converges to f in L1 (R). Then given  > 0, there exists N > 0 so that
kfN − f kL1 < . By (1.1) and the Riemann Lebesgue lemma for smooth function
with compact support, we find that
lim sup |fb(k)| ≤ .
k→∞

Since  is arbitrary, limk→∞ |fb(k)| = 0. 


5.3 Show that the definition of the Fourier transform for functions in L2 (R) does not
depend on the approximating sequence.
Proof. Suppose that (fn ) and (gn ) are both sequences in L1 ∩ L2 which converges to
f in L2 (R). Now we want to show that
lim fbn = lim gbn in L2 (R).
n→∞ n→∞

Since fn → f and gn → f , fn −gn → 0 in L2 (R). By Plancherel theorem, fbn −b


gn → 0
2
in L (R) which completes the proof.

(1) Complete the proof of theorem 5.8.
Proof. Suppose f ∈ Lp (Rn ) and g ∈ Lq (Rn ), then we can find a sequence (fn ) in
Lp ∩ L1 and (gn ) ∈ Lq ∩ L1 so that fn → f in Lp and gn → g in Lq . Then by
Hausforff-Young inequality, we know (1 ≤ p, q ≤ 2),
kfbn − fbkp0 ≤ Cn,p kfn − f kp , kb
gn − gbkq0 ≤ Cn,q kgn − gkq .
0 0
Then fbn → fb in Lp and gbn → gb in Lq . Since 1 + 1/r = 1/p + 1/q, we have 1/r0 =
0
1/p0 + 1/q 0 , then by Young inequality and Holder’s inequality, we see f[ ∗ g, fbgb ∈ Lr .
Therefore by Young’s inequality and Hausdorff Young inequality,
n o
(1.2) kf[ ∗ g − fbgbkr0 ≤ C kf kp kgn − gkq + kf − fn kp kgn kq + kf\
n ∗ gn − f g
bbkr0 .

b bn , we find by Holder’s inequality, (since 1/p0 + 1/q 0 = 1/r0 )


n ∗ gn = fn g
Since f\
kf\
n ∗ gn − f g
bbkr0 ≤ kfbn gbn − fbgbn kr0 + kfbgbn − fbgbkr0
1
2

≤ kb
gn kq0 kfbn − fbkp0 + kfbkp0 kb
gn − gbkq0 .
0 0
Since fbn → fb in Lp and gbn → gb in Lq , then (b
gn ) is bounded and therefore
lim kf\
n ∗ gn − f g
bbkr0 = 0.
n→∞
Since fn → f in Lp and gn → g in Lq , then (gn ) is bounded and therefore
lim kf kp kgn − gkq + kf − fn kp kgn kq = 0.
n→∞

Taking n → ∞ on (1.2), we find kf[ ∗ g − fbgbkr0 ≤ 0; hence kf[


∗ g − fbgbkr0 = 0. Thus
0
f[∗ g = fbgb in Lr .

(2) For f ∈ Cc∞ (Rn ), show that its Fourier transform fb ia also in C ∞ . Show also that
ga = ||k|a fb(k)| is a bounded function for each a > 0.
Proof. Smoothness of fb can be proved by using the Lebesgue dominated comvergence
theorem. Moreover, for any multi-index α, using the definition of Fourier transform,
Ddα f (k) = k α fb(k).

This shows that |ga (k)| ≤ Cn kDα f kL1 for some constant Cn depending on n only
for each α ∈ Zn+ . One can show that the statement is true for any a.

5.7 Verify formula 5.10 (3).
Proof. Simple Calculus.

5.8 Show that
f ∗ g = (fbgb)∨ .
Proof. Using the Fourier inversion formula, you can show that this identity is true
by taking the approximating sequences. 
5.9 Verify 5.6 (1) cannot hold when p > 2 by considering Gaussian functions.
Proof. Show that
kb
gλ kq
lim =∞
λ→∞ kgλ kp
kb
gλ k q
by direct calculating kgλ kp .


Department of Mathematics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, U.S.A.


E-mail address: frankliou@math.ucdavis.edu