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IDENTIFICATION OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL ZONES USING

RS AND GIS
A.S. Chandra Bose1, M.V.S.S.Giridhar2 and G.K.Viswanadh3
1
Lecturer, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Govt. Polytechnic, Warangal – 506 001, India,
Tel: + 91-9849318002; Fax: +91-040-23158668
E.mail:smilesubhashbose@yahoo.com
2
Asst Prof in Center for Water Resources and Addl. Controller of Exams, J N T U Hyderabad, India,
Tel: + 91-9440590695; Fax: +91-040-23158668
E.mail: mvssgiri@yahoo.com
3
Professor of Civil Engg and Director of Evaluation, J.N.T.U.H, Hyderabad - 500 085, India,
Tel: + 91-9849163875; Fax: +91-040-23158668
E.mail:gorti_gkv@yahoo.co.in

KEYWORDS: 3D analyst, weighted overlay analysis, TIN, DEM, Slope map, spatial analyst.

ABSTRACT: A case study of Kadam reservoir catchment, Andhra Pradesh, India has been
taken up to identify the ground water potential zones. The thematic maps of soil,
Hydrogeomorphology and Land use/Land cover prepared for the study area. The Digital
Elevation Model (DEM) has been generated from the 20 m contour interval contour lines
derived from SOI toposheets. Slope map has been prepared from DEM. These maps have been
overlaid in terms of weighed overlay method using Spatial Analysis tool in Arc GIS 9.3 version.
During weighed overlay analysis, the ranking has been given for each individual parameter of
each thematic map and weights of 25%, 35%, 30% and 10% were assigned according to their
influence for Soil, Hydrogeomorphology, Land use/Land cover, and Slope themes respectively
and obtained the ground water potential zones in terms of Good, Moderate and Poor zones in
the form of a GIS map. Finally, the respective areal extents of Good, Moderate and Poor zones
were calculated and found to be 27.19, 2170.53 and 397.26 square kms respectively apart from
water bodies and settlements. The GIS based output was validated by conducting field survey
by selecting wells randomly in different locations of the catchment.

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Groundwater is a dynamic and replenishing natural resource. But in hard rock terrains,
availability of groundwater is of limited extent. Occurrence of groundwater in such rocks is
essentially confined to fractured and weathered horizons. Poor knowledge about this resource,
because of its hidden nature and its occurrence in complex subsurface formations has been and
is still a big obstacle to the efficient management of this important resource. In India, 65 percent
of the total geographical area is covered by hard rock formations with low porosity (<5%) and
very low permeability (10-1 to 10-5 m/day) (Saraf and Chodhury,1998). Therefore, efficient
management of and planning of groundwater in these areas is of utmost importance. The
Remote sensing and GIS tools have opened new paths in water resources studies. Remote
sensing provides multi-spectral, multi-temporal and multi- sensor data of the earth’s surface
(Choudhury et al., 2003). One of the greatest advantages of using RS and GIS for hydrological
investigations and monitoring is its ability to generate information in spatial and temporal
domain, which is crucial for successful analysis, prediction and validation (Sarma and Saraf,
2002).

In recent years, intensive use of satellite remote sensing has made it easier to define the spatial
distribution of different ground water prospect water zones on the basis of geomorphology,
hydrogeology and other associated features (Babar, 2001). In ground water exploration, remote
sensing plays a vital role both at regional level and local levels. When used in preliminary
stages of the survey, the technique helps in delineating potential area of water bearing capacity
where further exploration work could be taken up, thus drastically reducing the cost and time
involved in water exploration. Using image interpretation keys such as tone, texture, pattern,
drainage, topography etc., satellite imageries can be used to delineate geomorphic features like
paleo channels, older flood plains, valley fills, alluvial plains, pediments, abandoned channels,
Pedi plains, lineaments, weathered zones etc. Satellite imageries have been found to be useful
in identifying linear features such as fractures, faults, etc which are local idealizers of ground
water sinks especially in hard rock terrains. Lithologic contacts are also brought out fairly well
on the images. Remotely sensed data provides valuable information on the drainage pattern and
drainage density, which have a bearing on the recharge conditions and permeability of the
rocks. Dykes which act as ground water barrier can be easily identified on the imagery. Satellite
data thus offers unique tool in for extracting information on geology, drainage, Land use and
soils which are essential in identifying the possible occurrence of ground water.

2.0 STUDY AREA


The Godavari basin is situated between East longitudes 73 021' to 81009' and North latitudes
16007' to 22050' in the Deccan plateau. The Godavari basin extends over an area of 3,13,812
square km which is nearly 10% of the total geographical area of the country. Godavari
catchment was divided in to eight sub basins. In the present study, G-5 sub basin i.e. ‘Middle
Godavari’ sub basin of River Godavari has been considered to assess the ground water
prospects in the study area. The Middle Godavari sub basin lies between latitudes 17 004’ and
18030’N and longitudes 77043’ and 79053’E. The ‘Middle Godavari’ sub basin has a catchment
area of 35723 km2, which constitutes 11.38% of the total basin. The catchment area of the
‘Middle Godavari’ sub basin entirely lies in the State of Andhra Pradesh. In the present study,
Middle Godavari sub basin has been considered up to Kadam reservoir only which lies between
latitudes 19005’ and 19035’ North and longitudes 78010’ and 78055’ East. The areal extent of the
study area is 2617.56 km2, which constitutes 7.4% of the sub basin area.

3.0 DATA USED


3.1 Software used
 Arc GIS 9.3 and ERDAS 8.7

3.2 Data used


 Toposheets used(1:50,000scale) : 56-I 3, I 6, I 7, I 8, I 10, I 11, I 12, I 14, I 15
&I 16
 Satellite imagery of IRS-P6, LISS –III with a resolution of 23.5m dated 28 th
March, 2005
4.0 METHODOLOGY
In this section, preparation of various thematic maps such as Contour map, DEM map, Slope
map, Soil map, Land use / land cover map and Hydro geomorphology map for the study area
have been discussed.
Contour map: Contours are polylines that connect points of equal value of elevation. The
elevation points were prepared from toposheets 56-I 3, I 6, I 7, I 8, I 10, I 11, I 12, I 14, I 15 &
I 16 on a scale of 1:50,000 collected from Survey of India (SOI), Hyderabad. The collected
toposheets were scanned and registered with tic points and rectified. Further, the rectified maps
were projected. All individual projected maps were finally merged as a single layer. The
contours were digitized with an interval of 20 m. The contour attribute table contains an
elevation attribute for each contour polylines. The contour map was prepared using Arc Map of
Arc GIS 9.3. Contour map is a useful surface representation because they enable to
simultaneously visualize flat and steep areas, ridges, valleys in the study area.
Digital Elevation Models (DEM): A DEM is a raster representation of a continuous surface,
usually referring to the surface of the earth. The DEM is used to refer specifically to a regular
grid of spot heights. It is the simplest and most common form of digital representation of
topography. The Digital Elevation model for the study area was generated from the contour
map using Surface Analysis tool of Spatial Analyst in Arc Map as shown in Figure 4.1
Slope map: The Slope function in Arc GIS 9.2 calculates the maximum rate of change between
each cell and its neighbors. Every cell in the output raster has a slope value. The lower the slope
value indicates the terrain is flatter and the higher the slope value, the steeper the terrain. The
output slope raster can be calculated either in percent of slope or degree of slope. Slope map
was prepared from the DEM. The Figure 4.2 shows the slope of the terrain.
Soil map: The soil maps collected from National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use, Nagpur
were scanned and registered with tic points and rectified. Further, the rectified maps were
projected. All individual projected maps were finally merged as a single layer. And later, the
delineated study area map of Palleru sub basin was overlaid on projected soil map and finally,
soil map pertaining to the study area was thus extracted in GIS environment. Boundaries of
different soil textures were digitized in ARC/INFO and the polygons representing soil classes
were assigned different colours for reorganization of hydrologic soil groups and shown in
Figure 4.3.
Land Use/ Land Cover map: The topographic maps namely 56-I 3, I 6, I 7, I 8, I 10, I 11, I
12, I 14, I 15 &I 16 on a scale of 1:50,000 were collected from Survey of India, Uppal,
Hyderabad. The collected topographic sheets were scanned and registered with tic points and
rectified in Arc map of Arc GIS 9.2. Further, the rectified maps were projected and merged
together as a single layer. The present study area of Kadam watershed was delineated in GIS
environment. Spatial data in the form of satellite imagery for the preparation of Land use/Land
cover details for the study area was procured from National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC),
Hyderabad. The satellite imagery pertains to Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) P-6, Linear
Imaging and Self Scanning Sensor (LISS –III) with a resolution of 23.5m. The collected
satellite imagery was geo-referenced in ERDAS 8.7, then rectified and finally projected. The
delineated watershed in vector form was overlaid on projected satellite imagery to get sub set of
the study area. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was employed as the basis for
Land Use / Land Cover classification. This method of classification has been found to be
suitable for the study area as the data used was pertaining to the past period 2005 and also the
study area is considerably large comprising predominantly of vegetation. Study area has been
classified for Land Use / Land Cover into five classes viz., Water bodies, Crop land, Bare soil,
Fallow land and Forest in each sub area based on NDVI values generated in ERDAS 8.7 and
shown in Figure 4.4.
Hydrogeomorphology map: Hydrogeomorphology map for the study area has been prepared
and shown in Figure 4.5. Various Hydrogeomorphic units such as highly dissected plateau,
Mesa/butte, Shallow weathered Pedi plain, Pediment Isenberg complex, Shallow dissected
plateau, Residual hills and Structural hills have been found to associated with the study area.
Ground Potential zones map: The thematic maps of soil, Hydrogeomorphology and Land
use/Land cover prepared for the study area. The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) has been
generated from the 20 m contour interval contour lines derived from SOI toposheets. Slope map
has been prepared from DEM. These vector maps have been converted into raster format using
conversion tool in GIS environment. Further, these raster maps have been reclassified. These
reclassified maps have been overlaid in terms of weighed overlay method using Spatial Analyst
tool in Arc GIS 9.3 version. During weighed overlay analysis, the ranking has been given for
each individual parameter of each thematic map and weights of 25%, 35%, 30% and 10% were
assigned according to their influence for Soil, Hydrogeomorphology, Land use/Land cover, and
Slope themes respectively and obtained the ground water potential zones in terms of Good,
Moderate and Poor zones in the form of a GIS map as shown in Figure 4.6.

5.0 RESULTS & DISCUSSION:

Contour and DEM maps have been developed in GIS environment. The highest and lowest
elevations were found to be 350 and 160mts respectively. Slope map was prepared from the
DEM map. Slopes of the study area were found to vary between 0 to 28%. The various soil
units obtained from soil map are 19, 59, 60, 61,62,63,66 and 68 with coverage percentages of
0.58, 10.59, 0.67, 18.91, 14.85, 48.83 and 0.97 respectively. The soil unit 63 is found to be
predominant, covering 48.83 % in the study area. Study area has been classified for Land Use /
Land Cover into five classes’ viz., Water bodies, Crop land, Bare soil, Fallow land and Forest
based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values with areal extents of 20.244,
457.625, 49.931, 143.337 and 1946.43 sq km respectively. Forest class in the study has been
found to be predominant with 73% of the total area. Various Hydrogeomorphic units such as
highly dissected plateau, Mesa/butte, Shallow weathered Pedi plain, Pediment Isenberg
complex, shallow dissected plateau, Residual hills and Structural hills have been found to be
associated with the study area covering 554.46, 17.05, 146.69, 831.54, 983.21, 45.15 and 16.82
square kms respectively. These maps have been overlaid in terms of weighed overlay method
using Spatial Analysis tool in Arc GIS 9.3 version. During weighed overlay analysis, the
ranking has been given for each individual parameter of each thematic map and weights of
25%, 35%, 30% and 10% were assigned according to their influence for Soil,
Hydrogeomorphology, Land use/Land cover, and Slope themes respectively and obtained the
ground water potential zones in terms of Good, Moderate and Poor zones in the form of a GIS
map. Finally, the respective areal extents of Good, Moderate and Poor zones were calculated
and found to be 27.19, 2170.53 and 397.26 square kms respectively apart from water bodies
and settlements. The GIS based output was validated by conducting field survey by selecting
wells randomly in different locations of the catchment.
Fig 4.1 DEM map Fig 4.2 Slope Map

Fig 4.4 Land Use/Land Cover map


Fig 4.3 Soil Map
Fig 4.6 Groundwater potential zone map
Fig 4.5 Hydro Geomorphology Map

6. 0References
1. Arnoff S (1989) ‘Geographical Information System’, WELP Publication, Ottawa,
Canada.
2. Baber, Md.(2001) Hydrogeomorphological studies by Remote sensing application in
AkoliWatershed(Jintur) Parbhani dist., Maharashtra, India. Spatial information
Technology, Remote sensing and GIS-ICORG, Vol-II pp 137-143
3. Chowdhary, VM, Rao NH and Sarma PBS (2003) GIS- based decision support system
for ground water assessment in large irrigation project areas, Agricultural water
management 62:229-252.
4. Krishna Murhy J, Kumar NV, jayaraman V and Manivel M(1996) An approach to
demarcate ground water potential zones through remote sensing and GIS .International
Journal of Remote Sensing 17(10): 1867-1884
5. Saraf AK and Chowdary PR (1998) integrated remote sensing and GIS for ground water
exploration and identification of artificial recharge sites. International Journal of Remote
sensing 19(10): 1825-1841
6. Sarma B and Saraf AK (2002) Study of land use – ground water relationship using an
integrated remote sensing and GIS approach, http://www.gisdevelopmentnet
Form for Full Paper

Paper Title: IDENTIFICATION OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL ZONES USING RS


AND GIS

Author(s): Chandra Bose A.S.1, Giridhar M.V.S.S.2 and Viswanadh G.K.3

Postal Address of Presenting Author:


Prof. G.K. Viswanadh
Professor of Civil Engineering and Director of Evaluation,
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad,
Kukatpally, Hyderabad – 500 085, Andhra Pradesh, India
Mobile no:091-9849163875
Fax:-091-40-23158668

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