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Chapter 1

Introduction
1.1 General

In situations like a big outbreak of fire in the building, the strength of structural components
must be good enough to keep the structure intact so as to keep the inmates or residents
safe.Hence effect of fire on concrete is very crucial in such cases. Many studies have been
carried out on monolithic structures but effect of fire on precast elements and connections is
yet a grey zone.

1.2 Need of the present study

The fire safety of any building depends to a great extenton its fire resistance, which in turn
depends on the combustibility and fire resistance of its main structural elements, i.e. slabs,
beams and columns. When precast structures are subjected to fire, there are some changes in
the size of panels due to expansion which will apply shear forces on the joints and sometimes
causes the failure of structures.

1.3Objective of study

The key objectives of study are as follows:-


 To study the effect of fire on precast beam to beam joint.
 To compare the performance of precast beam to beam connection with the
performance of monolithic concrete connection.
 To compare the experimental results of monolithic specimen and precast specimens.

1.4 Scope of work

In order to achieve the above objectives, the scope of work for major project is decided as
follows.
 To compare the results of precast beam to beam connection with monolithic
connection.
 Casting of 2 monolithic and 4 precast jointed beams of length 1m.
 Perform flexural test and fire test on the monolithic and precast beams and then
compare the results.
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Chapter 2

Literature Review
2.1 Research Papers

1. Effects of Fire on flexural behaviour of RC beam by Moetaz M. El-Hawary*t,


Ahmed M. RagabS, Ahmed Abd El-Azim and
Shadia Elibiarif
The effect of fire on the flexural behaviour of RC beams is investigated for 4 groups
of RC Beams at 650 degree Celsius for time durations of 0, 30, 60, 120min. The
compressive strength of concrete is determined non-distructively using Schmidt
hammer. Strains, Load, crack propagation and ultimate loads are recorded and the
beams are tested in flexure by applying two transverse loads incrementally,

After experiment it is observed that:


a. The ultimate loads for beams exposed to fire for 30, 60, 120min are less than that
for the reference beam by 11.8, 19.3, and 38.7% respectively.
b. At a load equal to about 61% of the ultimate load of the reference beam, the
maximum deflection of the beam subjected to fire ranged between 1.9 and 3.4
times that of the reference beam.

2. Fire resistance of reinforced concrete rigid beams by Mohammed Mansour


Kadhum:
In this experiment the specimens were subjected to fire flame temperatures ranging
from (25-750 degree Celsius) at age of 60 days, two temperature levels of 400 and
750 degree Celsius were chosen with exposure duration of 1.5 hr.
Test results indicate a remarkable reduction in the ultrasonic pulse velocity and
rebound number of the rigid beams cooled in water were (2-5%) more than the rigid
beam specimens cooled in air.
Also, it was noticed that the maximum crack width increases with increasing fire
temperature.

3. Behaviour of R.C. Beams Under Elevated Temperature by Jayasree.G,


Lakshmipathy.M and Santhanaselvi.S

4. Effects on Flexural Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beam Subjected to Fire by


Leonard MwanlambaKiute, Dr. G.N. Manguriu, Mr. Paul Mulu
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Chapter 3

Methodology and Experimental Work


3.1 Design of the Precast Element

Design
 Beam :-
150*150mm
Top – 2 bars - 8 Φ
Bottom – 2 bars - 10 Φ
Stirrups - 8 Φ
Cover – 15mm
Beam length – 1m

M=WL/3
1) Xu lim = 0.46d
d = 150-8-15-5
= 122mm
2) Xu lim = 0.46 * 122 = 56.12mm
3) Xu actual =
0.36 * fck * b * Xu actual = 0.87 fy * Ast
0.36 * 25 * 150 * Xu actual = 0.87 * 500 * 22 * 102 * 2/(4*7)
1350 * Xu actual = 68295
Xu actual = 50.59
Xu lim > Xu actual the beam is under reinforced
4) Mu = 0.87 * fy * Ast (d – 0.42 * Xu)
= 0.87 * 500 * 22 * 102 * 2 * (122 – 0.42 * 50.59) / (7 * 4)
= 68295 * 100.79
= 6.88 kNm
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Mu = WL/3
6.88 = W*0.9/3
Wdesign = 22.93kN
1.5 W = 22.93kN
W = 15.28kN
5) Lap Splices :-
Ld = 0.87 fy d / (4*1.4*1.6) = 485.49mm ~ 480mm
6) Spacing:-
2 legged - 8 Φ
Asv = π * 82 * 2 = 100.48mm2
Now, Asv / bsv = 0.4 / (0.87 * fy)
Sv = 100.48 * 0.87 * 250 / (0.4 * 150) = 364mm
0.75 * 122 = 91.7mm ~ 120mm
Number of stirrups = 1000/120 = 8.33 ~ 9 stirrups in 1 Beam
Beam size:-
0.15 * 0.15 * 1 = 0.0225 * 6 (beams) * 1.4 = 0.189 ~ 0.2mm3

We are taking = 0.3 m3


M25 mix design
Cement = 370kg/m3
Sand = 833kg/m3
Water = 160
Super plastisizer = 3.3
10mm = 446
20mm = 669
Cement = 111kg
Sand = 249.9kg
Water = 47.4kg
Super Plastisizer = 0.99kg
10mm = 133.8 kg
20mm = 200kg

For micro concreting


0.15 * 0.15 * 0.48 * 3 * 1.4 = 0.045 cm3
1m3 = 200kg
Micro concrete needed = 90kg

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3.2 Number of beams prepared

Monolithic Beam

Precast Wet Beam

3.3 Material
1. M25 Concrete :- 0.0945M3
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2. Steel Fe 500 :- TMT (08mm)  22.46Kg
TMT (10mm)  13.38Kg

Mis design & Material Quantities

Formwork with reinforcement for monolithic beams


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adffs df

Monolithic Beams

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Formwork with reinforcement for precast beams

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Precast Beams

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Cubes for Compressive strength test

3.4 Test to be performed on the beams and cubes


a. Visual Inspection.
b. NDT Test. (Rebound Hammer, Ultra pulse velocity test)
c. Compressive strength of concrete cubes.
d. Flexural strength test using 2 point load method.