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In the study of strength of materials, the compressive strength is the capacity of a

material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size. It can be measured by plotting
applied force against deformation in a testing machine. Some material fracture at their
compressive strength limit; others deform irreversibly, so a given amount of deformation may be
considered as the limit for compressive load. Compressive strength is a key value for design of
structures.

Compressive strength is often measured on a universal testing machine; these range from
very small table-top systems to ones with over 53 MN capacity.[1] Measurements of compressive
strength are affected by the specific test method and conditions of measurement. Compressive
strengths are usually reported in relationship to a specific technical standard.
the "strain" is the relative change in length under applied stress; positive strain
characterises an object under tension load which tends to lengthen it, and a compressive stress
that shortens an object gives negative strain. Tension tends to pull small sideways deflections
back into alignment, while compression tends to amplify such deflection into buckling.

Compressive strength is measured on materials, components,[2] and structures.[3]

By definition, the ultimate compressive strength of a material is that value of uniaxial


compressive stress reached when the material fails completely. The compressive strength is
usually obtained experimentally by means of a compressive test. The apparatus used for this
experiment is the same as that used in a tensile test. However, rather than applying a uniaxial
tensile load, a uniaxial compressive load is applied. As can be imagined, the specimen (usually
cylindrical) is shortened as well as spread laterally. A Stress–strain curve is plotted by the
instrument and would look similar to the following:

The "strain" is the relative change in length under applied stress; positive strain
characterises an object under tension load which tends to lengthen it, and a compressive stress
that shortens an object gives negative strain. Tension tends to pull small sideways deflections
back into alignment, while compression tends to amplify such deflection into buckling.

Compressive strength is measured on materials, components,[2] and structures.[3]

By definition, the ultimate compressive strength of a material is that value of uniaxial


compressive stress reached when the material fails completely. The compressive strength is
usually obtained experimentally by means of a compressive test. The apparatus used for this
experiment is the same as that used in a tensile test. However, rather than applying a uniaxial
tensile load, a uniaxial compressive load is applied. As can be imagined, the specimen (usually
cylindrical) is shortened as well as spread laterally. A Stress–strain curve is plotted by the
instrument and would look similar to the following:
1. Ultimate Strength
2. Yield Strength
3. Rupture
4. Strain hardening region
5. Necking region.
A: Apparent stress (F/A0)
B: Actual stress (F/A)

Brittle materials, which includes cast iron, glass, and stone, are characterized by the fact that
rupture occurs without any noticeable prior change in the rate of elongation.[4]

Brittle materials such as concrete or carbon fiber do not have a yield point, and do not strain-
harden. Therefore the ultimate strength and breaking strength are the same. A typical stress-
strain curve is shown in Fig.3. Typical brittle materials like glass do not show any plastic
deformation but fail while the deformation is elastic. One of the characteristics of a brittle failure
is that the two broken parts can be reassembled to produce the same shape as the original
component as there will not be a neck formation like in the case of ductile materials. A typical
stress strain curve for a brittle material will be linear. Testing of several identical specimen, cast
iron, or soil, tensile strength is negligible compared to the compressive strength and it is assumed
zero for many engineering applications. Glass fibers have a tensile strength stronger than steel,
but bulk glass usually does not. This is because of the stress intensity factor associated with
defects in the material. As the size of the sample gets larger, the size of defects also grows. In
general, the tensile strength of a rope is always less than the sum of the tensile strengths of its
individual fibers.
UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE

A universal testing machine (UTM), also known as a universal tester, materials testing
machine or materials test frame, is used to test the tensile stress and compressive
strength of materials. It is named after the fact that it can perform many standard tensile and
compression tests on materials, components, and structures.

A universal testing machine is used to subject a material sample or structure to either


tension ("stretch it") or compression ("crush it") for the purposes of experimentally determining
certain engineering properties or characteristics. These properties generally deal with the yield
strength of a material, ultimate or failure strength or a material or structure, or the stiffness and
ductility of a material.

COMPONENTS:

 Load frame - usually consisting of two strong supports for the machine. Some small machines
have a single support.
 Load cell - A force transducer or other means of measuring the load is required.
Periodic calibration is usually required by governing regulations or quality system.
 Cross head - A movable cross head (crosshead) is controlled to move up or down. Usually this
is at a constant speed: sometimes called a constant rate of extension (CRE) machine. Some
machines can program the crosshead speed or conduct cyclical testing, testing at constant force,
testing at constant deformation, etc. Electromechanical, servo-hydraulic, linear drive, and
resonance drive are used.
 Means of measuring extension or deformation- Many tests require a measure of the response
of the test specimen to the movement of the cross head. Extensometers are sometimes used.
 Output device - A means of providing the test result is needed. Some older machines have dial
or digital displays and chart recorders. Many newer machines have a computer interface for
analysis and printing.
 Conditioning - Many tests require controlled conditioning (temperature, humidity, pressure,
etc.). The machine can be in a controlled room or a special environmental chamber can be placed
around the test specimen for the test.
 Test fixtures, specimen holding jaws, and related sample making equipment are called for in
many test methods.

USE:
The set-up and usage are detailed in a test method, often published by a standards
organization. This specifies the sample preparation, fixturing, gauge length (the length which is
under study or observation), analysis, etc.
The specimen is placed in the machine between the grips and an extensometer if required
can automatically record the change in gauge length during the test. If an extensometer is not
fitted, the machine itself can record the displacement between its cross heads on which the
specimen is held. However, this method not only records the change in length of the specimen
but also all other extending / elastic components of the testing machine and its drive systems
including any slipping of the specimen in the grips.
Once the machine is started it begins to apply an increasing load on specimen.
Throughout the tests the control system and its associated software record the load and extension
or compression of the specimen.
Machines range from very small table top systems to ones with over 53 MN (12
million lbf) capacity.

The machine is capable of performing the following tests:

a) Tension
b) Compression
c) Transverse
d) Bending
e) Shear
f) Hardness
Materials samples may be tested for several reasons:
 To inspect the batch quality and consistency
 To determine whether a given sample meets ASTM or other standards for it's marked grading
 To determine properties of an unknown material and many more.
Structures or scale models of structures may be tested for several reasons:
It is cheaper and less risky to test a scale model of a design than it is to build a full scale
prototype only to find out that the design was flawed.
 Controlled testing conditions provide the desired data in the range of design loadings without
risking human injury and liability.
 Testing and certification of many designs is required before a full scale structure may be
constructed.
and many more.

ASTM E4 - Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines

ASTM E74 - Practice for Calibration of Force Measuring Instruments for Verifying the Force
Indication of Testing Machines

ASTM E83 - Practice for Verification and Classification on Extensometer Systems

ASTM E1012 - Practice for Verification of Test Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile
and Compressive Axial Force Application

ASTM E1856 - Standard Guide for Evaluating Computerized Data Acquisition Systems Used to
Acquire Data from Universal Testing Machines
A concrete masonry unit (CMU) – also called concrete block, cement block, besser
block, breeze block and cinder block – is a large rectangular brick used in construction.
SIZES AND STRUCTURE

Concrete blocks are made from cast concrete, Portland cement and aggregate,
usually sand and fine gravel for high-density blocks. Lower density blocks may use industrial
wastes as an aggregate. Lightweight blocks can also be produced using aerated concrete.

Concrete blocks may be produced with hollow centres to reduce weight or


improve insulation. The use of blockwork allows structures to be built in the
traditional masonry style with layers (or courses) of staggered blocks. Blocks come in many
sizes. In the US, with an R-Value of 1.11 the most common nominal size is 16 × 8 × 8 in (410
× 200 × 200 mm); the actual size is usually about 3⁄8 in (9.5 mm) smaller to allow for mortar
joints. In Ireland and the UK, blocks are usually 440 × 215 × 100 mm (17.3 × 8.5 × 3.9 in)
excluding mortar joints. In New Zealand, blocks are usually 390 × 190 × 190 mm (15.4 × 7.5
× 7.5 in) excluding mortar joints.

Block cores are typically tapered so that the top surface of the block (as laid) has a
greater surface on which to spread a mortar bed. There may be two, three or four cores, although
two cores are the most common configuration. The presence of a core allows steel reinforcing to
be inserted into the assembly, greatly increasing its strength. Reinforced cores are filled
with grout to secure the reinforcing in proper relationship to the structure, and to bond the block
and reinforcing. The reinforcing is primarily used to impart greater tensile to the assembly,
improving its ability to resist lateral forces such as wind load and seismic forces.

A variety of specialized shapes exist to allow special construction features. U-shaped


blocks or notches allow the construction of bond beams or lintel assemblies, using horizontal
reinforcing grouted into place in the cavity. Blocks with a channel on the end, known as "jamb
blocks", allow doors to be secured to wall assemblies. Blocks with grooved ends permit the
construction of control joints, allowing a filler material to be anchored between the un-mortared
block ends. Other features, such as radiuses corners known as "bull noses" may be incorporated.
A wide variety of decorative profiles also exist.

Concrete masonry units may be formulated with special aggregates to produce specific
colors or textures for finish use. Special textures may be produced by splitting a ribbed or solid
two-block unit; such factory-produced units are called "split-rib" or "split-face" blocks. Blocks
may be scored by grooves the width of a mortar joint to simulate different block modules (e.g.,
an 8" x 16" block may be scored in the middle to simulate 8" x 8" masonry), with the grooves
filled with mortar and struck to match the true joints.

It is faster to build with concrete blocks than with bricks, and using concrete blocks
reduces the mortarrequirement by half or more. If face-shell bedding is used, in which the mortar
is placed only along the edges of the blocks, the consumption of mortar is reduced by a further
50 percent. However, the total amount of cement required for the blocks and mortar is far greater
than that required for the mortar in a brick wall. Concrete blocks are often made of 1:3:6
concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 10 mm, or a cement sand mixture with a ratio of 1:7,
1:8 or 1:9. If properly cured, these mixtures produce concrete blocks with compression strength
well above what is required in a one-storey building. The blocks may be solid, cellular or hollow.
Cellular blocks have cavities with one end closed, while in hollow blocks the cavities pass
through. Lightweight aggregate, such as cracked pumice stone, is sometimes used.Blocks are
made to a number of coordinating sizes, the actual sizes being about 10 mm less in order to allow
for the thickness of the mortar.

USES
Concrete block, when built in tandem with concrete columns and tie beams and
reinforced with rebar, is a very common building material for the load-bearing walls of
buildings, in what is termed "concrete block structure" (CBS) construction. American suburban
houses typically employ a concrete foundation and slab with a concrete block wall on the
perimeter. Large buildings typically use copious amounts of concrete block; for even larger
buildings, concrete block supplements steel I-beams. Tilt-wall construction, however, is
replacing CBS for some large structures.

STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES
Concrete masonry can be used as a structural element in addition to being used as an
architectural element. Ungrouped, partially grouted, and fully grouted walls are the different
types of walls allowed. Reinforcement bars can be used both vertically and horizontally inside
the CMU to strengthen the wall and results in better structural performance. The cells in which
the rebar is placed must be grouted for the bars to bond to the wall. For this reason, high seismic
zones typically only allow fully grouted walls in their building codes. The American design code
that guides design engineers in using CMU as a structural system is the Masonry Standards Joint
Committee's Building Code Requirements & Specification for Masonry Structures (TMS
402/ACI 530/ASCE 5). The compressive strength of concrete masonry units and masonry walls
varies from approximately 1,000 psi (7 MPa) to 5,000 psi (34 MPa) based on the type of
concrete used to manufacture the unit, stacking orientation, the type of mortar used to build the
wall, and other factors.
Procedure for compressive strength of hollow block

INTRODUCTION

Concrete can be converted into precast masonry units such as Hollow and Solid normal and light
weight concrete blocks of suitable size to be used for load and non-load bearing units for
wallings. Use of such concrete blocks are more appropriate in region where soil bricks are costly,
poor in strength and are not available. Depending upon the structural requirements of masonry
unit, concrete mixes can be designed using ingredients available locally or if not found suitable
then with in the most economical distance. The concrete mix used for normal hollow and solid
blocks shall not be richer than one part by volume of cement to 6 parts by volume of combined
room dry aggregates before mixing. Hollow concrete blocks for normal work used in masonry
when reinforced is used shall not be leaner than 1 part cement to 8 parts room dry sand by
volume. The mixes are designed with the available materials to give overall economy and the
required properties of the products. The hollow load bearing concrete blocks of the standard size
400 x 200 x 200 mm will weight between 17 and 26 kg (1063 to 1625 kg/m3) when made with
normal weight aggregates. Normal weight blocks are made with cement, sand, gravel, crushed
stone and air-cooled slag. The grading for sand used in Hollow concrete block shall be as given
below:

I.S. Sieve Size Percentage Passing


4.75 mm 98-100
2.36 mm 80-100
1.18 mm 60-80
600 Micron 40-65
300 Micron 10-40
150 Micron 0-10

The aggregates for solid blocks shall be sand as per IS : 383-1970 and well graded aggregate of
suitable maximum size as per the dimensions of the block. The mixes are properly designed as
per standard practice. Concrete admixtures may be used in both Hollow and Solid concrete
blocks.

SPECIMENS

20 full size units shall be measured for length, width and height. Cored units shall also be
measured for minimum thickness of face, shells and webs. From these 3 blocks are to be tested
for block density, 8 blocks for compressive strength, 3 blocks for water absorption and 3 blocks
for drying shrinkage and moisture movement.
DETERMINATION OF BLOCK DENSITY

Three blocks shall be dried to constant mass in a suitable oven heated to approximately 1000C.
After cooling the blocks to room temperature, the dimensions of each block shall be measured in
centimeters to the nearest millimeter and the overall volume computed in cubic centimeters. The
blocks shall then be weighted in kilograms to the nearest 10 gm. The density of each block
calculated as follows:
Density in kg/m3 = Mass of block in kg/Mass of block in cm2 * 106

DETERMINATION OF WATER ABSORPTION

Three full size blocks shall be completely immersed in clean water at room temperature for 24
hours. The blocks shall then be removed from the water and allowed to drain for one minute by
placing them on a 10 mm or coarser wire mesh, visible surface water being removed with a damp
cloth, the saturated and surface dry blocks immediately weighed. After weighing all blocks shall
be dried in a ventilated oven at 100 to 1150C for not less than 24 hours and until two successive
weighing at intervals of 2 hours show an increment of loss not greater than 0.2 percent of the last
previously determined mass of the specimen. The water absorption calculates as given below:
Absorption, percent =(A-B)/B * 100
Where,
A=wet mass of unit in kg.
B = dry mass of unit in kg.

TESTING BLOCKS FOR COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH


COMPRESSING TESTING MACHINE (CTM)

The compression testing machine should be as per IS : 516-1959 and I.S : 14858-2000. The load
capacity, platens sizes, vertical space between platens and horizontal space between machine
columns shall be as per the requirements of the specimens to be tested.

However, IS : 2185 (pert-I) – 1979 specified that when the bearing area of the steel blocks is not
sufficient to cover the bearings area of the blocks, steel bearing plates shall be placed between
the bearing blocks and the capped specimen after the centroid of the masonry bearing surface has
been aligned with the centre of thrust of the bearing blocks. It is desirable that the bearing faces
of blocks and plates used for compression testing of concrete masonry have hardness of not less
than 60 (HRC).

When steel plates are employed between the steel bearing blocks and the masonry specimen, the
plates shall have thickness equal to at least one-third of the distance from the edge of the bearing
block to the most distant corner of the specimen. In no case shall the plate thickness be less than
12 mm.
ASTM: C 140-03 specified that when the bearing area of the upper platen or lower platen is not
sufficient to cover the area of the specimen, a single steel bearing plate with a thickness equal to
at least the distance from the edge of the platen to the most distant corner of the specimen shall
be placed between the platen and the capped specimen. The length and width of the steel plate
shall be at least 6.3 mm greater than the length and width of the unit. The surface of the platen or
plate hardness shall be not less than HRC 60 (BHN 620).

Thickness of bearing plates has a significant effect on the tested compressive strength of
masonry units when the bearing area of the platen is not sufficient to cover the area of the
specimen. Tested compressive strength will typically increase with increased plate thickness and
with reduce distance to the further corner of the specimen. Accordingly the CTM platens shall
have the required dimensions with respect to the specimens to be tested on it.

TEST SPECIMENS

Eight full size units shall be tested within 72 hours after delivery to the laboratory, during which
time they shall be stored continuously in normal room air.
For the purpose of acceptance, age of testing the specimens shall be 28 days. The age shall be
reckoned from the time of the addition of water to the dry ingredients.

CAPPING TEST SPECIMENS

The bearing surfaces of units shall be capped by gypsum. The gypsum and water paste shall be
spread evenly on a non-absorbent surface that has been lightly coated with oil. The surface of the
unit to be capped shall be brought into contact with the capping paste. The average thickness of
the cap shall be not more than 3 mm. The caps shall be aged for at least 2 hours before the
specimens are tested.

PROCEDURE

Specimens shall be tested with the centroid of their bearing surfaces aligned vertically with the
centre of thrust of the spherically seated steel bearing blocks of the testing machine.The load up
to one-half of the expected maximum load may be applied at any convenient rate, after which the
control of the machine shall be adjusted as required to give a uniform rate of travel of the moving
head such that the remaining load is applied in not less than one nor more than two minutes.

The compressive strength of a concrete masonry unit shall be taken as the maximum load in
Newtos divided by the gross cross sectional area of the unit in square millimeters. Report to the
nearest 0.1 N/mm2 separately for each unit and the average for the 8 full units
UTM
(UNIVERSAL TESTING
MACHINE)

GROUP 5: