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SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMER PROBLEMS WITH SOLUTIONS

Example: For a magnetic circuit, on no-load condition, core loss is, PC = 16 W; apparent
power, (VA)rms = 20 𝑉𝐴, E1 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 275 V, N=200 turns. Assuming a sinusoidal flux
waveform, find:
a) Power factor,
b) Iron current, 𝐼𝑐
c) Magnetizing current, 𝐼𝑚

(a) Core loss: 𝑃𝑐 = 𝐸1 . 𝐼∅ . 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑐


Pc 16
𝑝𝑓 = cosθc = = = 0.8
VA 20
275
(b) Pc = E1 Iϕ cosδc , E1rms = 2 = 194.5 Volt

16
Iϕ = = 0.103 A
(194.5)(0.8)

Ic = Iϕ cosθc = (0.103)(0.8) = 0.082 A

(c) Im = Iϕ sinθc = (0.103) sin(𝑐𝑜𝑠 −1 0.8) = 0.062 A

Example: A 50 KVA, 2400:240 V, 60 Hz transformer has the following winding impedances

H.V. side : 0.72+ j0.92 Ω

L.V. side: 0.007 + j0.009 Ω


1
Magnetising admittance, Yc = = (0.324-j2.24)x10-2, referred to secondary (LV side)
𝑍𝑐

Draw the equivalent circuit referring all parameters to H.V. & L.V. sides, respective/y,

SOLUTION:

Referring all parameters to H.V.


side (primary side):

𝑁1 2400 10 𝑁1
= = , 𝑍2′ = 𝑍2 ( )2
𝑁2 240 1 𝑁2

𝑁1
𝑍2′ = (0.007 + 𝑗0.009)( )2 Exact equivalent circuit with all parameters referred to HV side
𝑁2

= 0.7+ j0.9 Ω

~1~
Referring all parameters to LV 0.0072 0.007 Ω
side (secondary side): Ω

𝑁2 2
𝑍1 ′ = 𝑍1 ( )
𝑁1

Exact equivalent circuit with all parameters referred to LV side

𝑁 2 1 2
𝑍1 ′ = (0.72 + 𝑗0.92) (𝑁2 ) = (0.72 + 𝑗0.92) (10) = 0.0072 + 𝑗0.0092
1

Example: Find the secondary voltage 𝑉2 of the


transformer,

𝑍𝑇𝑟 referred to H.V. side: 1.42 + j1.82 Ohm

Neglecting shunt admittance of the transformer,


the equivalent circuit will be as follows. Equivalent circuit with all parameters referred to HV side is
shown in the figure. Rated primary current of the transformer is,
50000
|𝑰𝟏 | = = 20.8 𝐴𝑚𝑝
2400

⃗⃗⃗
𝑉𝑠 = ⃗⃗⃗
𝑉2 + ⃗⃗𝐼1 . 𝒁

⃗⃗𝐼1 = 20.8 ∠ − cos−1 0.8 A

⃗⃗𝐼1 = 20.8 ∠−36.9° = 16.64 − 𝑗12.48

Total impedance from the sending-end up to the load:

Z= Zf + Zt = 1.72 + 𝑗3.42 Ω

⃗⃗𝐼1 . 𝒁 = (16.64 − 𝑗12.48). (1.72 + 𝑗3.42)

= 28.62 − 𝑗21.45 + 𝑗56.96 + 42.6 = 71.30 + 𝑗35.44

2400∠𝛿 = 𝑉2′ ∠0 + 71.30 + 𝑗35.44

2400 cos 𝛿 − 𝑉2′ = 71.30

2400sin 𝛿 = 35.44 → 𝛿 = 0.842°

𝑉2 ′ = 2400 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛿 − 71.3024 = 2328.44 →

~2~
Referred to H.V. side:

240
𝑉2 = 2328.44 ( ) = 232.8 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡
2400

Example: A 50 KVA, 2400 : 240V transformer has the following test data:

V I (Amp) P (Watt)

O.C. Test 240 5.41 iron loss→ 186(L.V. side)

S.C. Test 48 20.8 copper loss→ 617(H.V. side)

Determine percentage efficiency and voltage regulation of the transformer at full load, 0.8 p.f.
lagging.

From the short-circuit test data, the transformer parameters to be determined are:

48
|𝑍𝑒𝑞 𝐻 | = = 2.31Ω
20.8
617
|𝑅𝑒𝑞 𝐻 | = = 1.42Ω
(20.8)2

|𝑋𝑒𝑞 𝐻 | = √(2.31)2 − (1.42)2 = 1.82Ω

Core loss at full load:

𝑃𝑐 = 186 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡

At full load , pf= 0.8 lag:

(𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 )𝐹.𝐿. = 50000(0.8) = 40000 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡

(𝑃𝑖𝑛 )𝐹.𝐿. = (𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 )𝐹.𝐿. + 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠 = (𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 )𝐹.𝐿. + 𝑃𝑐 + 𝑃𝐶𝑢

Where,
2
50000 2
(𝑃𝑐 )𝐹.𝐿. = 𝐼𝐹.𝐿 𝑅=( ) (1.42) = 617 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡
2400

𝑃𝑖𝑛 𝐹.𝐿. = 40000 + 186 + 617 = 40803 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡

𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 40000
%𝜂 = 𝑥100 = 𝑥100 = 98%
𝑃𝑖𝑛 40803

𝑉2 = 240𝑉,

2400
𝑉2 ′ = . 240 = 2400𝑉
240

~3~

⃗⃗⃗
𝑉1 = ⃗⃗⃗
𝑉2 + ⃗⃗𝐼1 . 𝑍𝑒𝑞𝐻 = 2400∠0∘ + 20.8∠−36.9∘ (1.42 + 𝑗1.82) = 2400∠0∘ + 48.0∠15.1∘

⃗⃗⃗1 | = 2446 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡


= 2446 + 𝑗12.5 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡 = 2446∠0.29° 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡 ⟹ |𝑉

If the load is removed while the primary voltage is held constant, the secondary voltage referred to
H.V. side will rise to 2446 Volt

|𝑉̅2𝑁.𝐿 | − |𝑉̅2𝐹.𝐿 | 2446 − 2400


% 𝑅𝑒𝑔 = 𝑥100 = 𝑥100 = 1.92%
|𝑉̅2𝐹.𝐿 | 2400

Example: A 50 Hz, two winding transformer is rated as 3 KVA, 220/110 Volt. This transformer is
connected as a step-up auto transformer to deliver 330 V to a resistive load when the input is from a
220 V source. Assuming that the transformer is ideal find:

a-) the value of the load resistance for which rated current will flow in each winding.
b-) the power delivered by transformer action and the power delivered by conduction.
c-) the input impedance looking from the load side

SOLUTION:

Rated Currents:

3000
𝐼1 = = 13.65 𝐴𝑚𝑝
220

3000
𝐼2 = = 27.3 𝐴𝑚𝑝
110
330
(a) 𝑅𝐿 = 27.3 = 12.1 Ω

(b) 𝑃𝑇 = 13.65 × 220 = 3000 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡

𝑃𝐶 = 𝑉1 . 𝐼𝐿 = 220 × 27.3 = 6000 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡

(c) 𝐼𝑖𝑛 = 27.3 + 13.65 = 40.95 𝐴𝑚𝑝

~4~
𝑉𝑖𝑛 220
𝑍𝑖𝑛 = = = 5.37 Ω
𝐼𝑖𝑛 40.95

Example: Figure (a) is a 2 winding transformer rated at


50 KVA, 2400/240 Volt. If it is connected as an auto
transformer shown in Fig. (b)

(a) Compute 𝑉ℎ & 𝑉𝑥


(b) Compute KVA rating of the auto–transformer
(c) If the losses are 803 W, compute the full load efficiency
at 0.8 p.f. lagging

SOLUTION:

50000
𝐼1 = = 20.8𝐴
2400

50000
𝐼2 = = 208𝐴
240

𝐼𝑠 = 208 + 20.8 = 228.8 𝐴𝑚𝑝

(a) 𝑉𝑥 = 2400 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡


𝑉𝐻 = 2400 + 240 = 2640 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡

(b) (𝑉𝐴)𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 𝑉𝐻 . 𝐼𝐻 = 𝑉𝐿 . 𝐼𝐿 = 2400𝑥228.8


= 2640𝑥208 = 550 𝑘𝑉𝐴

(c) 𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 550𝑋0.8 = 440 𝑘𝑊


𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 440
𝜂= 𝑥100 = 𝑥100 = 99.82%
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 + 𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑠 440 + 0.803

~5~