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Structural Design of Steel Truss Bridge

1.1 Basis
Basic design criteria have been prepared with a view to satisfy all the relevant technical requirements specified in the
contract.

1.2 Structure Description

The Bridge consists of 3 span seel truss bridge 72 m ,72m and 62 m c/c over RCC Pier with cantilever pier caps &
abutments.

1.3 Material :
a) Grades of concrete are as follows:
i) Foundation =M35
ii) Substructure =M35
iii) Superstructure Deck = M40
iv) Pedestal, crash barrier =M40
b) Grade of Reinforcement Fe 500
c) Grade of Structural Steel E410 BO

1.4 LOADS :
a) Unit Weight of Materials :
i) Unit weight of PSC super structure = 25 kN/m3
ii) Unit weight of RCC substructure & foundation = 25 kN/m3
iii) Unit weight of Structural steel = 78.5 kN/m3
iv) Unit weight of Wearing course = 22 kN/m3
v) Unit weight of Earth = 19 kN/m3

b) Dead Load (DL) :

Self weight of Steel composite girder have been considered for design of superstructure. In addition of self weight of
superstructure, self weight of substructure & foundation have also been considered in design of substructure &
foundation respectively.

c)Super Imposed Dead Load (SIDL) :


Weight of wearing course, crash barriers have been calculated.

d) Live Load (LL) :


As per IRC : 6 :2014, Live loads on two lane carriageway superstructure are as follows:
i) 1 Lane of Class A +One lane of 70R tracked
or ii) 1 Lane of Class A +One lane of 70R wheeled
or iii)Three lane class-A , whichever governs

IV . Special vehicle SPV as per IRC guidelines


e) Impact (IL)
Impact factor of live load has been calculated as per IRC: 6-2014

f) Braking Force (BF)


Braking has been calculated as per IRC: 6-2014
Braking force = 0.20 x First vehicle + 0.1 x Succeeding Vehicles for Two lane Carriageway
+ 0.05 x Vehicles on each excess lane Carriageway

g) Centrifugal Force (CF)


The centrifugal forces shall be determined from the following equation:
C = WV2/(127R) C = Centrifugal force acting normal to the traffic.
W= Live Load V = Design Speed (km/hr) R = Radius of Curvature (meters)

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h) Seismic Load (EQ)
Earthquake Loads has been calculated as per IS:1893 and IRC: 6-2014. Project is located in earthquake
zone IV. Horizontal seismic forces has been computed as per clause no. 219.2 of IRC : 6-2014 for zone IV .
z = zone factor = For Zone III = 0.16 I = Importance factor = 1.20
R = Response Reduction factor = 2.50 Sa/g = = 2.50

n) Wind Load (WL)


Wind Loads shall be calculated as per clause 209 of IRC: 6-2014.

o) Earth Pressure (EP) :


Value of f for backfill = 30 deg
Value of d of backfill = 20 deg
Active earth pressure Co-efficient shall be calculated as per Coulomb’s formula.

p) Water current force (Fwc)


Water current force is calculated as per clause no. 210 of IRC:6-2014 based on design hydrology for
the particular bridge.

q) Buoyancy (Gb)
Buoyancy is calculated as per clause no. 213 of IRC:6-2014 for water at HFL.
At HFL condition, earth pressure shall be reduced due to submerged unit wt of earth, dead load
of sub-structure & foundation.

r) Load Combination (LC)


As per Annex B of IRC:6-2014, the following load combination shall be considered for design
Load Combination - Ultimate limit state
1) Dead load +SIDL+Live load
2) Dead load +SIDL+ wind load (unloaded structure)
3) Dead load +SIDL+Live load(lead) + wind load (accompany) (loaded structure)
4) Dead load +SIDL+Live load(accompany) + wind load(lead) (loaded structure)
5) Dead load +SIDL+construction Live load(leading) + wind load(accompany)
Load
DL SIDL Live load Wind load
Case
1 1.35 1.75 1.5
2 (a) 1.35 1.75 1.5
2 (b) 1 1 1.5
3 (a) 1.35 1.75 1.5 0.9
3 (b) 1 1 1.5 0.9
4 (a) 1.35 1.75 1.15 1.5
4 (b) 1 1 1.15 1.5
5 (a) 1.35 1.75 1.35 0.9
5 (b) 1 1 1.35 0.9

Load Combination for Rare Combination (SL1)


1) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress
2) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+ wind load(lead) (unloaded structure)
3) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(lead)+wind load (accompany)
4) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(accompany)+wind load (lead)
5) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(lead)+Temperature(accompany)
6) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(accompany)+Temperature(lead)
Load Wind Temperatur
DL SIDL Prestress Live load
Case load e
1(a) 1 1.2 1.1 or 0.9
1(b) 1 1 1.1 or 0.9
2 (a) 1 1.2 1.1 or 0.9 1
2 (b) 1 1 1.1 or 0.9 1
3 (a) 1 1.2 1.1 or 0.9 1 0.6

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3 (b) 1 1 1.1 or 0.9 1 0.6
4 (a) 1 1.2 1.1 or 0.9 0.75 1
4 (b) 1 1 1.1 or 0.9 0.75 1
5 (a) 1 1.2 1.1 or 0.9 1 0.6
5 (b) 1 1 1.1 or 0.9 1 0.6
6 (a) 1 1.2 1.1 or 0.9 0.75 1
6 (b) 1 1 1.1 or 0.9 0.75 1

Load Combination for frequent Combination (SL2) - for prestressing member


1) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress
2) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+ wind load(lead) (unloaded structure)
3) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(lead)+wind load (accompany)
4) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(accompany)+wind load (lead)
5) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(lead)+Temperature(accompany)
6) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(accompany)+Temperature(lead)
Load Wind Temperatur
DL SIDL Prestress Live load
Case load e
1(a) 1 1.2 1.1 or 0.9
1(b) 1 1 1.1 or 0.9
2 (a) 1 1.2 1.1 or 0.9 0.6
2 (b) 1 1 1.1 or 0.9 0.6
3 (a) 1 1.2 1.1 or 0.9 0.75 0.5
3 (b) 1 1 1.1 or 0.9 0.75 0.5
4 (a) 1 1.2 1.1 or 0.9 0.2 0.6
4 (b) 1 1 1.1 or 0.9 0.2 0.6
5 (a) 1 1.2 1.1 or 0.9 0.75 0.5
5 (b) 1 1 1.1 or 0.9 0.75 0.5
6 (a) 1 1.2 1.1 or 0.9 0.2 0.6
6 (b) 1 1 1.1 or 0.9 0.2 0.6

Load Combination for Quasi-permanent (SL3) - for RCC structure


1) Dead load +SIDL
2) Dead load +SIDL+Temperature(lead)
Load Temperat
DL SIDL Live load Wind load
Case ure
1 1 1.2
2 (a) 1 1.2 0.5
2 (b) 1 1 0.5

1.5 Arrangement

The total length of Bridge is 206 m (2x72 m+1x62 m ) .Steel Truss over RCC piers/abutments and cantilever pier caps
on RCC pile foundation .For three lane bridge with footpath ,total width of carriageway is 13 m and total width of deck
slab is 16 m . POT-PTFE bearing and metalic guide bearing has been proposed to protect the superstructure from live
load breaking ,centrifugal force and seismic .

1.6 Analysis
All analysis and design has been carried out using MIDAS Civil software .
. SIDL, Live load have been done by MIDAS software Calculation of deflection has been done
by software . Forces & moment and design of abutment & its foundations have
been done by excel spreadsheet.

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1.7 Construction Methodology
Foundation
For abutment and pier location ,Pile foundation shall be provided .

Substructure

RCC cast-in-situ pier and abutment shall be cast over pile cap .The pedestal and seismic restrainer shall be cast over
pier cap .Pot cun PTFE shall be placed over pedestal before erection of steel girder .

Superstructure

All steel truss memeber and besm shall be erected at bearing level by launcing nose a .

1.8 Reference codes & books


1) IRC: 5-1998
2) IRC: 6-2014
3) IRC: 22-2008
4) IRC: 78-2014
5) IRC: 112-2012
6) IRC: 24-2010

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2.0 General Design Inputs

A Details of Span
Centre to centre distance of pier = 50.00 m
Distance between c/l of bearing end of girder = 0.50 m
Distance between c/l of bearing and c/l of expansion joint = 0.85 m
Effective Span of Girder = 48.30 m

B Details of Cross Section


Width of carriage way = 9.00 m
Width of Footpath = 1.50 m
Width of crash barrier = 0.50 m
Width of Railing = 0.50 m
Total Deck width = 12.00 m
Number of Longitudinal steel girder = 4.00 Nos
Thickness of Deck Slab = 0.25 m
Thickness of haunch = 0.10 m
C Spacing of main girders .cross girders and location of splice point
Spacing of longitudinal girder = 3.00 m
Average cantilever length in transverse direction = 1.50 m
No of cross girder = 11.00 Nos
Spacing of cross girder = 4.83 m
Spacing of vertical stiffener = 1.80 m
Location splice point from left end = 8.76 m
Location of Splice point from right end = 8.76 m

D Detail of Outer Longitudinal Steel Girder


TOP Flange
Width of top flange at mid span = 550.00 mm
Thickness of top flange at mid span = 32.00 mm
Width of Top flange at support = 550.00 mm
Thickness of top flange at support = 28.00 mm
Web
Depth of web at mid span = 2750.00 mm
Thickness of web at mid span = 18.00 mm
Depth of web after curtailment of flange thickness = 2750.00 mm
Thickness of web after curtailment of flange thickness = 18.00 mm
Depth of web at support = 2762.00 mm
Thickness of web at support = 18.00 mm
Bottom Flange
Width of bottom flange at mid span = 850.00 mm
Thickness of bottom flange at mid span = 36.00 mm
Width of bottom flange at support = 850.00 mm
Thickness of bottom flange at support = 28.00 mm

E Detail of Inner Longitudinal Steel Girder


TOP Flange
Width of top flange at mid span = 550.00 mm
Thickness of top flange at mid span = 32.00 mm
Width of Top flange at support = 550.00 mm
Thickness of top flange at support = 28.00 mm
Web
Depth of web at mid span = 2750.00 mm
Thickness of web at mid span = 18.00 mm

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Depth of web after curtailment of flange thickness = 2750.00 mm
Thickness of web after curtailment of flange thickness = 18.00 mm
Depth of web at support = 2762.00 mm
Thickness of web at support = 18.00 mm
Bottom Flange
Width of bottom flange at mid span = 850.00 mm
Thickness of bottom flange at mid span = 36.00 mm
Width of bottom flange at support = 850.00 mm
Thickness of bottom flange at support = 28.00 mm
F Details of End Cross Girder
Width of Top flange at span = 350.00 mm
Thickness of top flange at mid span = 18.00 m
Depth of web at mid span = 2525.00 mm
Thickness of web at mid span = 18.00 mm
Width of Bottom Flane at Mid span = 350.00 mm
Thickness of bottom flange at mid span = 18.00 mm

G Details of Intermediate Cross Girder


Two no of channel at top and bottom ISMC 125 X50
Area of Each memb a = 32.82 cm2
Unit weight w = 25.40 Kg/m
Moment of Inertia Ixx=Iyy = 832.80 cm4
Depth of Neutral Axis Cxx = 5.00 cm
Radius of Gyration along x-x rxx = 5.07 cm
Radius of Gyration along y-y ryy = 3.51 cm

H Density of structural Member


Density of RCC = 25.00 kN/m3
Density of wearing coat = 22.00 kN/m3
Density of Steel = 78.50 kN/m3
Thickness of wearing coat considering future overlay = 0.10 m
Depth of Neutral Axis Cxx = 5.00 cm
Radius of Gyration along x-x rxx = 5.07 cm
Radius of Gyration along y-y ryy = 3.51 cm

I Material Data
Grade of Steel conforming to IS :2062 = E410 BO 540
Grade of Concrete of Deck Slab = = M40
Grade of HYSD bar = =Fe 500
Creep factor for long term loading [ Cl.604.2.4 of IRC 222-2008] = = 0.50
Short term Elastic Modulus of concrete [ Cl 303.1 of IRC 21-2008] Ecs = 3.33E+04 N/mm2
Long term Elastic Modulus of concrete [ Ecl =0.5 Ecs] = 1.67E+04 N/mm2
Elastic Modulus of Steel Es [ Cl 502.2.2.1 of IRC 24-2010] = 2.00E+05 N/mm2
Short term modular ratio for transient loading ms= Max (Es/Ecs,7.5) = 7.5
Long term modular ratio for transient loading ml= Max (Es/Ecl,15) = 15
[Cl 604.2.4 of IRC 22-2008]

J Basic permissible Stress


Plate thickness = <20 mm >20mm
Maximum guranteed Yeild Stress fy = 410 390 N/mm2
Bending Stress in steel girder 0.62fy = 254.2 241.8 N/mm2
Average Shear stress steel girder 0.35 fy = 143.5 136.5 N/mm2
Bearing stress in Flat Surface 0.8 fy = 328 312 N/mm2
Equivalent Stress in steel girder 0.92 fy = 377.2 358.8 N/mm2
Shear stress in shop fillet weld [ Cl 502.2.2.1 of IRC 24-2010] = 236.714 225.1666 N/mm2

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Shear stress in power driven field rivets 0.40 fy = 164 156 N/mm2
Bearing stress in power driven field rivets 0.90fy = 369 351 N/mm2

K Concrete Details (IRC :112-2011)


Grade of Concrete = M40 Mean concrete strength fcm = 50 Mpa
Modulus of Elasticity Ecm = 33346 Mpa Mean Tensile Strength fctm = 3.03 Mpa
Lower Fractile tension fctm = 2.12 Mpa Upper Fractile tensile fctm 95 = 3.94 Mpa
Material Safety factor ym = 1.5 Design concrete strength fcd = 17.87 Mpa
Unit weight of concrete = 25 kN/m 3 Coefficient of thermal expansion 1.20E-05
Permissible compressive stress at rare combination of load = 19.2 Mpa
Permissible Tensile stress at rare combination of load = 14.4 Mpa
perm tensile stress
L Others
Type of Bearing = Pot Cum PTFE
Seismic Zone = Zone IV
Seismic Horizontal Coefficient = 0.12
Seismic Vertical Coefficient = 0.08
Compressive stress is represented by +ve sign
Tensile stress is represented by -Ve sign
M SKETCHES
12.000
0.50 9.000 0.50 1.500 0.500

65 thk w/c

0.250

G1 G2 G3 G4

1.500 3.000 3.000 3.000 1.500


Section X-X

Center of Symmetry

0.000 0.000

0.85 48.30
50.00
0.500
Section Y-Y

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X

1.5
Y Y
Longitudinal girder

12.000
3

3
Cross Girder

1.5

X
0.850 48.30
50.00
Plan

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3.0 Sectional properties of Steel Girder and Composite Girder

a Girder at Mid Span


Checking compression /Tension Flange Width and Thickness of Web of steel Girder

Thickness of compression flange tf = 32 mm


Maximum permissible out stand as per Cl G4.3.4 OF IRC:24-
2010 = 12tf = 384 mm

Maximum permissible out strand as per Table 2 of IRC 24-


402.2 mm
2010 = 15.7ԑtf =

Min permissible out strand as per Table 2 of IRC 24-2010 = 269 mm


10.5ԑtf =
ԑ = (250/fy)1/2 0.80
Pemissible overall width of compression flange
786 mm
=btf =2*12tf+tw =
> 550 OK
Thickness of Tensile flange
Maximum permissible out strand as per Cl G4.3.5 OF IRC:24-
20tf = 720 mm
2010 =
Pemissible overall width of compression flange
= 1458 mm
=btf =2*20tf+tw
> 850 OK

Thickness of Web
When transverse stiffener are not required as per Cl .No. 509.6.11a of
IRC 24-2010 =
Thckness of web plate without any stiffener plates d/tw < 200 ԑw d= 2750 mm
ԑ = (250/fy)1/2 = 0.78
tw > 17.61 mm

Asp per Cl No.509.6.1.1 b (i) of IRC 24-2010 When 3d >c>d d/tw < 200 ԑw
Asp per Cl No.509.6.1.1 b (ii) of IRC 24-2010 When d >c>0.74d c/tw < 200 ԑw
Asp per Cl No.509.6.1.1 b (i) of IRC 24-2010 When c<0.74d d/tw < 270 ԑw
c= clear panel = = 1800 mm
tw = 11.526 mm

Effective Flange width of Longitudinal Girder


Minimum spacing of longitudinal girder as per Cl No-603.3 (b) of IRC 22-
L0 = 48.300
2008
bef = L0/8+X where L0/8 <B/2 and X<B/2 B= 3X= 1.500 m
Effective width of compression flange for external girder
Grade of Concrete Deck Slab = = M40
Elastic modulus of Cocrete Ec = 3.33E+04
Elastic modulus of steel Es = 2.00E+05
Modular Ratio m = 7.5 Short Term
= 15 Long Term

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3.1 Sectional properties of Precast Longitudinal Girder : At Mid Span
3 m
0.75 m

0.25
0.1
0.032
0.55
1.3700

0.01 2.75 0.018

1.37
0.85
0.036

S.NO A Y AY AY2 I0 I0+AY2


1. Deck Slab 0.1 3.043 0.3043 0.9260 0.000521 0.926506
2 . Triangular portion Deck 0.001333 2.8847 0.00385 0.011095 0.000001 0.011096
3. Rectangular Portion Deck 0.007333 2.868 0.021032 0.0603198 6.111E-06 0.060325887
4. Top Flange Plate 0.0176 2.802 0.049315 0.1381812 1.502E-06 0.138182692
5. Web Plate 0.0495 1.411 0.069845 0.0985506 0.0311953 0.129745902
Deduction for web Opening -0.00018 1.411 -0.000254 -0.000358 -1.5E-09 -0.00035837
6. Bottom Flange Plate 0.0306 0.018 0.000551 9.914E-06 3.305E-06 1.32192E-05
Composite Section for short term
0.2062 0.4486 1.2338 0.0317 1.2655
modular ratio

Composite Section for long term modular


0.1519 0.2840 0.7351 0.0315 0.7665
ratio
Dist
anc
Girder only 0.0975 0.1195 0.2364 0.0312 0.2676
e of
CG ∑ ∑A ∑AY ∑AY 2 ∑I0 ∑I0 +AY2
fro
m
Section properties of Composite Section for Short Term Modular Ratio
Bott
Area
om ∑A = 0.2062 m2
Fibr
e ∑AY/∑A
Dist
(Y) = 2.1759 m
anc
e of ∑I0 +AY2-
CG
Moment of Inertia IZ
= ∑AY2 = 0.2893 m4
fro
Torsional
m Constant Ix = ∑1/3*X*Y3 = 2.14E-03 m4
Bott
om
Section properties of Composite Section for Long Term Modular Ratio
Fibr
Area
e ∑A = 0.1519 m2
(Y) ∑AY/∑A = 1.8705 m

∑I0 +AY2-
Moment of Inertia IZ = ∑AY2 = 0.2352 m4
Torsional Constant Ix = ∑1/3*X*Y 3
= 1.08E-03 m4

Section properties of Steel Girder


Area ∑A = 0.0975 m2
Distance of CG from Bottom
Fibre (Y) ∑AY/∑A = 1.2249 m

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∑I0 +AY2- 0.1213
Moment of Inertia IZ = ∑AY2 = m4
Torsional Constant Ix = ∑1/3*X*Y3 = 2.46E-05 m4

A. Section properties of Composite Section for short Term Modular Ratio (in equvalent of steel )

Area A = 0.2062 m2 Yb = 2.1759 m


IZ = 0.2893 m4 Zb = 0.132977524 m3
Ix = 2.14E-03 m4 Ytg = 0.6421 m
Zts = 0.2916357 m3 Yts = 0.9921 m
Ztg = 0.4505941 m 3

Zpz = 0.1664 m3 0.199466286


Zpy = 0.0217545 m 3

B Section properties of Composite Section for lONG Term Modular Ratio (in equvalent of steel )

Area A = 0.1519 m2 Yb = 1.8705 m


IZ = 0.2352 m 4 Zb = 0.125757333 m3
Ix = 1.08E-03 m4 Ytg = 0.9475 m
Zts = 0.1813003 m 3 Yts = 1.2975 m
Ztg = 0.2482732 m 3

Zpz = 0.188636 m3
Zpy = 0.01199 m3

C Section properties of Girder (in equvalent of steel )


Area A = 0.0975 m2 Yb = 1.2249 m
IZ = 0.1213 m4 Zb = 0.098988967 m3
Ix = 2.46E-05 m4 Ytg = 1.5931 m
Zt = 0.0761153 m3 Iy = 2.29E-03 m4
Ztg = 0.0761153 m3
Zpz = 0.0988 m3 ry 0.153151812 1.53E+02
Zpy = 0.0091453 m 3 rz 1.115076421 1.12E+03

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4.0 Calculation of Load
A Dead Load During Construction
Dead Load will be carried by beam acting alone with no composite action
Steel Girder Alone
Unit weight of structural steel = 78.5 kN/m3
Cross sectional area of girder (Near Mid span) = 0.09752 m2
Considering 20% extra for stifener and splices = 9.186384 kN/m
Self weight of girder at Mid span

Steel Cross Girder


Cross Sectional area of girder = 0.034736 m2
Self weight of cross girder with 20% = 3.272131 kN/m
Length of cross girder for external girder = 1.5 m
Length of cross girder for internal girder = 3 m
Weight of external cross girder = 4.91 kN
Weight of internal cross girder = 9.82 kN

Cast-in-situ deck slab near span


Unit weight of green concrete = 25.00 kN/m3
Area of deck for external girder = 0.82 m2
Load from deck to girder = 20.38 kN/m
Eccentric Load = 18.75 kN/m
Eccentricity = 0.00 m
Torsion developed due to eccentricity = 0.00 kNm/m
Area of deck for internal girder = 0.82 m2
Load from deck to girder = 20.38 kN/m

Cast-in-situ deck slab near support


Unit weight of green concrete = 25.00 kN/m3
Area of deck for external girder = 0.82 m2
Load from deck to girder = 20.38 kN/m
Eccentric Load = 18.75 kN/m
Eccentricity = 0.00 m
Torsion developed due to eccentricity = 0.00 kNm/m
Area of deck for internal girder = 0.75 m2
Load from deck to girder = 18.75 kN/m

B Construction Stage Live load with Shuttering


Live load during construction = 0.5 kN/m2
Construction live load on external girder = 1.5 kN/m
construction live load on internal gider = 1.5 kN/m
Shuttering Load on each girder = 1.5 kN/m
Total load on external girder = 3 kN/m
Total load on internal girder = 3 kN/m

C Super Imposed Dead Load


Wearing Coat
Weight of wearing course- per m
Unit weight of wearing course = 22 kN/m3
Thickness of wearing course including overlay = 0.065 m
Width Lever arm
Outer girder G1 = 2.500 m =2.500x0.065x22 = 3.575 kN/m 0.250 m
Inner girder G2 = 3.0 m = 4.290 kN/m 0 m
Inner girder G3 = 3.0 m = 4.290 kN/m 0 m

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Outer girder G4 = 2.500 m = 3.575 kN/m 0.25 m

For Outer Girder bef = 2.5 m


Unit weight of concrete = 22 kN/m3
Considering future overlay ,thickness of wearing course = 0.065 m
Weight of wearing course over outer girder = 3.575 kN/m
CG from outer Girder = -0.250 m
Moment outer girder LG1 = -0.89375 kNm/m

For Outer Girder


Width of wearing course over outer girder = 2.5 m
Weight of wearing coat over outer girder = 3.575 kN/m
CG from outer girder = 1.25 m
Moment outer girder = 4.46875 kNm/m

For Inner Girder bef = 3 m


Weight of wearing course over innerr girder = 6.6 kN/m
CG for Inner Girder = 0 m
D SIDL - Crash Barrier - per m 150 50 200
Unit weight of concrete = 25.00 kN/m3 50
Load Weight Lever Moment g mm
Sl No Area(m2) 200
Calculation (KN) arm(m) (KN-m)
a 0.45x0.165 0.074 1.856 0.225 0.418
b 1/2x(0.5+0.25)x0.05 0.019 0.469 0.033 0.016 500 f
c (0.5+0.25)x0.2 0.150 3.750 0.150 0.563 j c
d 0.25x0.05 0.013 0.313 0.275 0.086 d
e 1/2x0.25x0.15 0.019 0.469 0.350 0.164 250
b
f 1/2x0.5x0.05 0.013 0.313 0.267 0.083 e 450
g 0.100 0.150 0.015 g mm
Total 0.287 7.269 1.344 165 a
Total load of crash barrier = 7.269 kN/m
Say, = 7.5 kN/m 450
Lever arm = 0.185 m from outer face 0.235 m
Distance from outer girder LG1 = (1.500+1.500)/2 -0.185-0.05 = 1.265 m
Moment from outer girder LG1 = 9.488 kN/m/m
Distance from outer girder LG4 = (1.500+1.500)/2 -0.5-1.5-0.185-0.05 = -0.685 m
Moment from outer girder LG4 = -5.13688 kN/m/m
Dead load of Footpath - per m
Thickness of footpath finish = 100 mm Unit weight = 22 kN/m3
Dead Load of footpath at each side = 1.5x20/1000x22 = 3.3 kN/m
Distance from outer girder LG4 = (1.500+1.500)/2 -0.5-1.5/2 = 0.250 m
Moment from outer girder LG4 = 0.825 kN/m/m
Weight of Railing - per m
Dead Load of 3 nos.railing at each = 0.175x0.2x3x25 = 2.625 kN/m
kerb = 0.25x0.5x25 = 3.125 kN/m
Dead Load of post = 0.25x0.25x1.15x25/1.5 = 1.198 kN/m
Total 6.948 kN/m
Say, = 7.0 kN/m
Distance from outer girder LG4 = (1.500+1.500)/2 -0.5/2 = 1.25 m

Moment from outer girder LG4 = 8.75 kN/m/m

E Pedestrian Live Load


Intensity of Pedestrian Live Load Calculation

P = (P/-260 +4800/L)(16.5-W)/15
P/ = Live load in kg/cm2 as per sub clause 209.1 of IRC :6 = 500 kg/cm2
P = Live load in kg/cm2
L = Effective Span of main girder in m = 48.3 m
W = Width of footpath in m = 1.5 m
P = 339.379 kg/cm2

13 of 221
Hence pedestrian Live Load = 5.091 kN/m
CG form the extreme end for footpath side stringer = 0.15 m
Torsion Due to eccentricity = 0.764 kN/m/m

4.1 Snow load


As per clause no. 221 of IRC:6-2014, a) 0.25m ht of snow load to be added over 70R wheeled loading
b) 0.5m ht of snow load to be added over 70R tracked loading
Case-1 For 70R Wheeled loading, udl on Girder = 7.50 7.50 7.50 kN/m
Case-2 For 70R Tracked loading, udl on Girder = 15.00 15.00 15.00 kN/m
4.2
Wind Load as per Clause 209 .3.7 of IRC:6-2014
As per clause 209.3.7 the bridges shall not be considered to be carrying any live load
when the wind speed at deck level exceeds 36m/s.
Vb = design wind speed at any height = 50 m/s
Tranverse wind Force FT = PZxA1xGxCD
Longitudinal wind Force FL = 25% of FT
Vertical wind Force FV = PZxA3xGxCL
Span (c/c of exp gap) = 50.00 m
Overall width = 12.00 m
Depth of superstructure = 3.17 m
where, Pz = The design wind pressure at the location of the bridge.
A1 = Solid area as seen in elevation. 215.900 sqm
A3 = Plan area of the Superstructure =50x12 = 600.000 sqm
Type of Superstructure : Single beam/Box girder
b/d ratio for the Superstructure : =12/3.168 = 3.8
CD = Drag coefficient for the Superstructure = 1.41

(For slab bridge, C D =1.1, For Single beam/Box girder, C D =1.5 for b/d<=2.0, C D =1.3 for b/d>=6.0 and inbetween interpolated C D to be considered)
G = Gust Factor (If Span<=150, G=2, Otherwise Wind tunnel testing required) = 2.0
CL = Lift coefficient = 0.75

14 of 221
4.3 Wind load on Unloaded structure
a) Wind load on Superstructure
Vb = design wind speed at any height = 55 m/s
Bridge situated in : = Plain Terrain
As per note no. 5 of cl no. 209 of IRC :6-2014, wind pressure shall be i 20 %
Wind Speed & design wind pressure for Basic wind speWind speed & design wind pr. for Basic wind speed of 55m/s
H Plain Terrain Terrain with Obstructions H Plain Terrain Terrain with Obstruct
(m) Vz (m/s) Pz (N/m ) 2
Vz (m/s) Pz (N/m ) 2
(m) Vz (m/s) Pz (N/m ) Vz (m/s) Pz (N/m2)
2

10 27.8 463.7 17.8 190.5 < 10 77.2 1288.1 49.4 529.2


15 29.2 512.5 19.6 230.5 15 81.1 1423.6 54.4 640.3
20 30.3 550.6 21 265.3 20 84.2 1529.4 58.3 736.9
30 31.4 590.2 22.8 312.2 30 87.2 1639.4 63.3 867.2
50 33.1 659.2 24.9 370.4 50 91.9 1831.1 69.2 1028.9
60 33.6 676.3 25.6 392.9 60 93.3 1878.6 71.1 1091.4
70 34.0 693.6 26.2 412.8 70 94.4 1926.7 72.8 1146.7
80 34.4 711.2 26.9 433.3 80 95.6 1975.6 74.7 1203.6
90 34.9 729.0 27.5 454.2 90 96.9 2025.0 76.4 1261.7
100 35.3 747.0 28.2 475.6 100 98.1 2075.0 78.3 1321.1
Average Height of superstructure = 15 m
Lower bound Height = 15 m Pz = = 1423.6 N/m2
Upper Bound Height = 15 m Pz = = 1423.6 N/m2
Pz = The design wind pressure at the bridge location for h= ### 1708.3 N/m2
A1 = Solid area as seen in elevation. = 136.8 sqm
A3 = Plan area of the Superstructure = 1152.0 sqm
Summary of wind Force on superstructure
Tranverse wind Force FT = 659.3 kN Longitudinal wind Force FL = 164.8 kN
Vertical wind Force FV = 2952 kN udl = 2.56 kN/m2
UDL on girder Outer udl = 7.69 kN/m
Inner udl = 7.69 kN/m
Outer udl = 7.69 kN/m

4.4 Wind load on loaded structure


a) Wind load on Superstructure
Vb = design wind speed at any height = 36 m/s
Bridge situated in : = Plain Terrain
Wind Speed & design wind pressure for Basic wind speWind speed & design wind pr. for Basic wind speed of 36m/s
H Plain Terrain Terrain with Obstructions H Plain Terrain Terrain with Obstruct
(m) Vz (m/s) Pz (N/m2) Vz (m/s) Pz (N/m2) (m) Vz (m/s) Pz (N/m ) Vz (m/s) Pz (N/m2)
2

10 27.8 463.7 17.8 190.5 < 10 33.08 551.84 21.18 226.71


15 29.2 512.5 19.6 230.5 15 34.75 609.92 23.33 274.31
20 30.3 550.6 21 265.3 20 36.06 655.26 24.99 315.73
30 31.4 590.2 22.8 312.2 30 37.37 702.39 27.13 371.54
50 33.1 659.2 24.9 370.4 50 39.39 784.50 29.63 440.81
60 33.6 676.3 25.6 392.9 60 39.99 804.85 30.47 467.58
70 34.0 693.6 26.2 412.8 70 40.46 825.44 31.18 491.27
80 34.4 711.2 26.9 433.3 80 40.94 846.39 32.01 515.66
90 34.9 729 27.5 454.2 90 41.53 867.57 32.73 540.54
100 35.3 747 28.2 475.6 100 42.01 888.99 33.56 566.00
Average Height of superstructure = 15 m
Lower bound Height = 15 m Pz = = 609.9 N/m2
Upper Bound Height = 15 m Pz = = 609.9 N/m2
Pz = The design wind pressure at the bridge location for h= ### 731.9 N/m2
A1 = Solid area as seen in elevation. = 215.90 sqm
A3 = Plan area of the Superstructure = 600.00 sqm
Summary of wind Force on superstructure
Tranverse wind Force FT = 445.8 kN Longitudinal wind Force FL = 111.5 kN

15 of 221
Vertical wind Force FV = 658.7 kN udl = 1.098 kN/m2
UDL on girder Outer udl = 3.29 kN/m
Inner udl = 3.29 kN/m
Outer udl = 3.29 kN/m

16 of 221
4.5
i) Single Lane 70-R Track Loading

0.84

2.06 2.9

0.84
0.914 0.914 0.914 0.914 0.914
4.57
3.656

Live Load Position in Plan

12.00
0.50 9.00 0.50 1.500 0.5
2.9
1.2 0.84 0.84

4.18 5.530 7.880


2.06
Live Load Position along Transverse Direction

70R Track loading have been divided by five concentrated loading


Total Vertical Load = 700 kN
Load at each units = 70 kN
Impact Factor For L = 33.50 m = 10 %
Load at each units including impact = 77 kN

ii) Single Lane 70-R Wheel Loading


170 170 170 170 120 120 80
1.37 3.05 1.37 2.13 1.52 3.96

13.4

Live Load Position


12.00
0.50 9.00 0.50 1.500 0.5
2.79
1.2 0.86 0.86

4.06 5.465 7.870


1.93
Live Load Position along Tranverse Direction

As per Cl. No. 208.3 b(i) of IRC:6-2000, For L = 33.50 m = 15.00 %


One wheel load including impact for 8 t = 46.00 kN
One wheel load including impact for 12 t = 69.00 kN
One wheel load including impact for 17 t = 97.75 kN

iii) Two Lane Class-A Loading


27 27 114 114 68 68 68 68
1.1 3.2 1.2 4.3 3.0 3.0 3.0

18.80

Live Load Position

17 of 221
12.00
0.50 9.00 0.50 1.500 0.5
0.4
1.8 1.7 1.8

2.70 5.600 9.100


6.20

Live Load Position along Tranverse Direction


As per Cl. No. 211.3 b(i) of IRC:6-2000, For L = 33.50 m = 19.15 %
One wheel load including impact for 2.7 t = 16.09 kN
One wheel load including impact for 11.4 t = 67.91 kN
One wheel load including impact for 6.8 t = 40.51 kN

4.6
1) Dead load +SIDL+Live load
2) Dead load +SIDL+ wind load (unloaded structure)
3) Dead load +SIDL+Live load(lead) + wind load (accompany) (loaded structure)
4) Dead load +SIDL+Live load(accompany) + wind load(lead) (loaded structure)
5) Dead load +SIDL+construction Live load(leading) + wind load(accompany)
Load Case DL SIDL Live load Wind load
1 1.35 1.75 1.5
2 (a) 1.35 1.75 1.5
2 (b) 1 1 1.5
3 (a) 1.35 1.75 1.5 0.9
3 (b) 1 1 1.5 0.9
4 (a) 1.35 1.75 1.15 1.5
4 (b) 1 1 1.15 1.5
5 (a) 1.35 1.75 1.35 0.9
5 (b) 1 1 1.35 0.9

4.7 Load Combination for Rare Combination (SL1)


1) Dead load +SIDL
2) Dead load +SIDL+ wind load(lead) (unloaded structure)
3) Dead load +SIDL+Live load(lead)+wind load (accompany)
4) Dead load +SIDL+Live load(accompany)+wind load (lead)
5) Dead load +SIDL+Live load(lead)+Temperature(accompany)
6) Dead load +SIDL+Live load(accompany)+Temperature(lead)
Load Case DL SIDL Live load Wind load Temperature

1(a) 1 1.2
1(b) 1 1
2 (a) 1 1.2 1
2 (b) 1 1 1
3 (a) 1 1.2 1 0.6
3 (b) 1 1 1 0.6
4 (a) 1 1.2 0.75 1
4 (b) 1 1 0.75 1
5 (a) 1 1.2 1 0.6
5 (b) 1 1 1 0.6
6 (a) 1 1.2 0.75 1
6 (b) 1 1 0.75 1

4.8 Load Combination for Frequent Combination (SL2)

1) Dead load +SIDL


2) Dead load +SIDL+ wind load(lead) (unloaded structure)
3) Dead load +SIDL+Live load(lead)+wind load (accompany)
4) Dead load +SIDL+Live load(accompany)+wind load (lead)

Load Case DL SIDL Live load Wind load


1 1 1
2 1 1 1
3 1 1 1 0.6
4 1 1 0.75 1

18 of 221
5 Calculation of Load due to Shrinkage and Temperature Gradient

A Outer Girder
(i) Computation of Stresses due to differential shrinkage modified by creep
Diferential shrinkage occurs between the prefabricated steel girder and in-situ concrete deck slab and this results the
development of internal stresses
Force developed due to restaint of deck Fi = hi*bi*E*ɸ*ԑds
The efect of diferential shrinkage will be reduced by creep .Allowance is made for this in calculation by using a
rdction coefficient ,ɸ
At
At Mid
Splice
Span
point
Diferential shrinkage strain [Cl .220.3 of IRC :6-2006] ԑds = 0.0002 0.0002
The Creep modification factor [Cl.604.2.4 of IRC 22-1986] ɸ 0.5 0.5
Total height of the girder 3.17 3.17 m
Distance of long term N.A from top of deck 1.297 1.213 m
M.O.I of Section 0.2352 0.2105 m4
Area of the section 0.152 0.134 m2
Long term Elastic modulus of concrete ### 1.67E+07 kN/m2
Modulus of Elasticity of Steel ### 2.00E+08 kN/m2
Long term section modulus at the top of slab 0.1813 0.173486 m3
Long term section modulus at the top of girder 0.248273 0.243829 m3
Long term section modulus at the bottom girder 0.125757 0.107671 m3

-0.002
1 0.25 h1 = 0.25 m
h2 = 0.1 m
2 0.1

Fig : Differential Shrinkage modified by creep


At Mid Section
y from
h b E Force
top
e Moment
Segment

m m kN/m2 kN m m kNm
1 0.25 3 1.67E+07 -2499.78 0.125 1.172 -2930.93
2 0.1 0.75 1.67E+07 -249.98 0.3 0.997 -249.347
### -3180.3

Stress Final
Stress Final
Due to Equivale
Assumed End Due to Equivale
Release nt
Restrained Axial nt steel
of concret
Force Stress
Moment eStress
Section

Eԑ -P/A -M/Z σ σ/m

kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2


At top of Deck Slab -40000.00 18107.99 17541.47 -4350.539 -290.036
At Mid
Span At Bottom of Deck Slab -40000.00 18107.99 12809.57 -9082.438 -605.496

At top of Girder 18107.99 12809.57 ###


At Bottom of Girder 18107.99 -25289 -7180.984

19 of 221
At Splice Section
y from
h b E Force
top
e Moment
Segment

m m kN/m2 kN m m kNm
1 0.25 3 1.67E+07 -2499.78 0.125 1.088 -2720.27
2 0.1 0.75 1.67E+07 -249.98 0.3 0.913 -228.281
### -2948.5

Stress Final
Stress Final
Due to Equivale
Assumed End Due to Equivale
Release nt
Restrained Axial nt steel
of concret
Force Stress
Moment eStress
Section

Eԑ -P/A -M/Z σ σ/m

kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2


At top of Deck Slab -40000.00 20508.14 16995.88 -2495.981 -166.399
At Mid
Span At Bottom of Deck Slab -40000.00 20508.14 12092.7 -7399.165 -493.278

At top of Girder 20508.14 12092.7 ###


At Bottom of Girder 20508.14 -27384.9 -6876.798

B Inner Girder
(i) Computation of Stresses due to differential shrinkage modified by creep
Diferential shrinkage occurs between the prefabricated steel girder and in-situ concrete deck slab and this results the
development of internal stresses
Force developed due to restaint of deck Fi = hi*bi*E*ɸ*ԑds
The efect of diferential shrinkage will be reduced by creep .Allowance is made for this in calculation by using a
rdction coefficient ,ɸ
At
At Mid
Splice
Span
point
Diferential shrinkage strain [Cl .220.3 of IRC :6-2006] ԑds = 0.0002 0.0002
The Creep modification factor [Cl.604.2.4 of IRC 22-1986] ɸ 0.5 0.5
Total height of the girder 3.17 3.17 m
Distance of long term N.A from top of deck 1.660 1.580 m
M.O.I of Section 0.1037 0.0899 m4
Area of the section 0.122 0.108 m2
Long term Elastic modulus of concrete ### 1.67E+07 kN/m2
Modulus of Elasticity of Steel ### 2.00E+08 kN/m2
Long term section modulus at the top of slab 0.115024 0.109456 m3
Long term section modulus at the top of girder 0.187978 0.190701 m3
Long term section modulus at the bottom girder 0.068782 0.056609 m3

-0.002
1 0.25 h1 = 0.25 m
h2 = 0.1 m
2 0.1

Fig : Diferential Shrinkage modified by creep

20 of 221
At Mid Section
y from
h b E Force
top
e Moment
Segment

m m kN/m2 kN m m kNm
1 0.25 3 1.67E+07 -2499.78 0.125 1.535 -3836.77
2 0.1 0.75 1.67E+07 -249.98 0.3 1.360 -339.931
### -4176.7

Stress Final
Stress Final
Due to Equivale
Assumed End Due to Equivale
Release nt
Restrained Axial nt steel
of concret
Force Stress
Moment eStress
Section

Eԑ -P/A -M/Z σ σ/m

kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2


At top of Deck Slab -40000.00 22539.00 36311.38 ### 1256.692
At Mid
Span At Bottom of Deck Slab -40000.00 22539.00 22219.12 4758.128 317.2085

At top of Girder 22539.00 22219.12 ###


At Bottom of Girder 22539.00 -60723.9 ###

At Splice Section
y from
h b E Force
top
e Moment
Segment

m m kN/m2 kN m m kNm
1 0.25 3 1.67E+07 -2499.78 0.125 1.455 -3636.01
2 0.1 0.75 1.67E+07 -249.98 0.3 1.280 -319.855
### -3955.9

Stress Final
Stress Final
Due to Equivale
Assumed End Due to Equivale
Release nt
Restrained Axial nt steel
of concret
Force Stress
Moment eStress
Section

Eԑ -P/A -M/Z σ σ/m

kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2


At top of Deck Slab -40000.00 25430.59 36141.2 ### 1438.119
At Mid
Span At Bottom of Deck Slab -40000.00 25430.59 20743.86 6174.448 411.6298

At top of Girder 25430.59 20743.86 ###


At Bottom of Girder 25430.59 -69880.5 ###

21 of 221
(ii) Computation of Stresses due to Rise in Temperature
At
At Mid
Splice
Span
Point
Total Height of the girder h = 3.168 3.17
Distance of short term N.A from top of deck Yts = 1.423 1.35
M.O.I of the section I = 0.126 0.1072
Area of the Section A = 0.177 0.1631
Short term Elastic modulus of concrete Ecs = 3.33E+07 ###
Modulus of Elasticity of Steel Es = 2.00E+08 ###
Coefficient of Themal Expansion of Concrete α = 1.17E-05 1.17E-05
Short term section modulus at the top of slab Zts = 0.190 0.181183
Short term section modulus at the top of girder Ztg = 0.400 0.443387
Short term section modulus at the bottom of girder Zb = 0.072 0.058979

19.25

1 4 0.21 h1 = 0.21 m
h2 = 0.04 m
2 3.70 h3 = 0.10 m
0.04 h4 = 0.028 m
3 2.96 h5 = 0.372 m
0.10
4 2.76 T1 = 19.25 0
C
0.028 T2 = 4 0
C
T3 = 0 0
C
5
0.372

0.540

( As per Fig No 10(b) of IRC :6-2014


At Mid Span
Average Y form
h b E t Force e Moment
Segment Temp Top
m m kN/m2 0
C 0
C kN m m kNm
1 0.21 3 3.33E+07 19.25 11.6 2856.012 0.08204 1.3412 3830.375
2 0.04 3 3.33E+07 4.00 3.9 180.251 0.230 1.1935 215.122
3 0.10 0.75 3.33E+07 3.70 3.3 97.491 0.298 1.1251 109.683
4 0.028 0.45 2.00E+08 2.96 2.9 84.302 0.364 1.0594 89.308
5 0.372 0.016 2.00E+08 2.76 1.4 19.189 0.502 0.9212 17.677
3237 4262.17

At Splice Point
Average Y form
h b E t Force e Moment
Segment Temp Top
m m kN/m 2 0
C 0
C kN m m kNm
1 0.21 3 3.33E+07 19.25 11.6 2856.012 0.08204 1.2678 3620.873
2 0.04 3 3.33E+07 4.00 3.9 180.251 0.22974 1.1201 201.900
3 0.10 0.75 3.33E+07 3.70 3.3 97.491 0.29815 1.0517 102.532
4 0.03 0.45 2.00E+08 2.96 2.9 84.302 0.36383 0.9860 83.124
5 0.37 0.016 2.00E+08 2.76 1.4 19.189 0.50200 0.8479 16.270
3237 4024.70

22 of 221
Fianl
Fianl
Stress Due to Stress Due to Equivale
Assuming End Equivale
Release of Axail Release of nt
Restrained nt Steel
Force Moment Concrete
Stress
Stress
Section
EαT -P/A -M/Z σ σ/m

kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2

At Top Deck Slab 45045.00 -18289.52 -22481.67 4273.81 569.84


At Mid At Top of Girder 6690.67 -18289.52 -10652.86 ###
At Bottom of Girder 0.0 -18289.52 58968.10 40678.58
At Top Deck Slab 45045.00 -19844.82 -22213.45 2986.73 398.23081
At Splice At Top of Girder 6690.67 -19844.82 -9077.18 ###
At Bottom of Girder 0.0 -19844.82 68239.17 48394.35

(ii) Computation of Stresses due to Fall in Temperature

-5.6
1 h1 = 0.21 m
0.21 h2 = 0.14 m
h3 = 0.028 m
0.14 h4 = 0.372 m
h5 = 2.386 m
h6 = 0.032 m
0.028
-0.6 T1 = -5.6 C
0

0.372 T2 = 8 C
0

-8

2.386

-8
0.032

-8
( As per Fig No 10(b) of IRC :6-2014

At Mid Span
Average Y form
h b E t Force e Moment
Segment Temp Top
m m kN/m 2 0
C 0
C kN m m kNm
1 0.21 3 3.33E+07 -5.60 -2.8 -687.900 0.07000 1.353 -930.9
2 0.028 0.45 2.00E+08 -0.56 -0.3 -8.256 0.369 1.055 -8.7
3 0.372 0.016 2.00E+08 -8.00 -4.3 -59.610 0.618 0.805 -48.0
4 2.386 0.016 2.00E+08 -8.00 -8.0 -714.655 1.943 -0.520 371.5
5 0.032 0.7 2.00E+08 -8.00 -8.0 -419.328 3.152 -1.729 725
-1890 108.83

At Splice Point
Average Y form
h b E t Force e Moment
Segment Temp Top
m m kN/m2 0
C 0
C kN m m kNm
1 0.210 3.0000 3.33E+07 -5.600 -2.8 -687.900 0.07000 1.2799 -880.409
2 0.028 0.4500 2.00E+08 -0.560 -0.3 -8.256 0.36867 0.9812 -8.100
3 0.372 0.0160 2.00E+08 -8.000 -4.3 -59.610 0.61789 0.7320 -43.633
4 2.386 0.0160 2.00E+08 -8.000 -8.0 -714.655 1.94300 -0.5931 423.897
5 0.032 0.7000 2.00E+08 -8.000 -8.0 -419.328 3.15200 -1.8021 755.692
-1890 247.45

23 of 221
Fianl
Fianl
Stress Due to Stress Due to Equivale
Assuming End Equivale
Release of Axail Release of nt
Restrained nt Steel
Force Moment Concrete
Stress
Stress
Section
EαT -P/A -M/Z σ σ/m

kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2

At Top Deck Slab -13104.00 10676.54 -574.02 -3001.48 -400.20


At Mid At Top of Girder 0.00 10676.54 -272.00 10404.55
At Bottom of Girder -18720.0 10676.54 1505.62 -6537.8
At Top Deck Slab -13104.00 11584.45 -1365.73 -2885.28 -384.7044
At Splice At Top of Girder 0.00 11584.45 -558.09 11026.37
At Bottom of Girder -18720.0 11584.45 4195.50 -2940.05

24 of 221
6.0 Calculation of Flexural Stress at Splice Point of Outer Girder (G1) = m
6.1 Moment and Shear From STAAD Output

Member Load Case Node No: FX (kN) Fy (kN) Fz (kN) MX (kNm) My (kNm) Mz (kNm)
248 1. DEAD LOAD 108 0 29.078 0 0 0.000 -960.1
116 0 -0.991 0 0 0.000 1024.56
2. SIDL 108 0 86.1 0 0 0.000 -2691.7
116 0 0 0 0 0.000 2872.48
3.CONSTRUCTION 108 0 31.5 0 0 0.000 -985.02
116 0 0 0 6.517 0.000 1051.17
459 1. DEAD LOAD 210 0 -7.089 0 6.755 0.000 -370.19
216 0 17.589 0 0.948 0.000 352.915
2. SIDL 210 0 10.707 0 0.977 0.000 -978.4
216 0 -3.007 0 0 0.000 988.003
3.CONSTRUCTION
210 0 -10.5
( Removal ) 0 0 0.000 1042.65
216 0 0 0 -0.004 0.000 -1050
459 4.FOOTPATH 210 0 -2.842 0 0.004 0.000 148.293
216 0 2.842 0 0 0.000 -152.27
5.WIND LOAD (UNLOAD) 210 0 -8.96 0 0 0.000 889.728
216 0 0 0 0 0.000 -896
6. WIND LOAD (LOADED) 210 0 4.62 0 0 0.000 -458.77
216 0 0 0 1.104 0.000 462
459 7. Live Load
MAX ( +VE) 0 185.567 0 0 0.000 -4670.2
0 0
MAX ( -VE) 0 -158.151 0 -0.226 0.000

6.2 Summary of Bending Moment and Shear at L/2

Shear Force (kN) Moment (kNm)


Moment/Shear Due to self weight of girder = 0.991 2753.000
Moment/Shear Due to weight of Deck Slab = 0 5570.000
Moment/Shear Due to Construction Load = 0 1051.170
Moment/Shear Due to Dead Load = 7.089 352.915
Moment/Shear Due to SIDL = 3.007 1899.000
Removal of Construction Stage Live LL = 0 -1050.000
Moment/Shear Due to Carriage way LL = 158.151 6953.000
Wind Load unload = 0 896.000
Wind Load Loaded = 0 462.000
Moment Due to Foot path Live Load = 2.842 148.293
7101.293
6.3 Check For Ultimate Strength of Girder in Flexure

5.31 .Erection Stage


Properties of Girder Only
Thickness of Top Flange tf = 32 mm Width of Top Flange b = 550.000 mm
Thickness of Bottom Flange tf = 36 mm Width of Top Bottom Flange b = 850.000 mm
Thickess of Web tw = 18 mm Overall Depth D = 2818.000 mm
Sectional Area Aa = 97520 mm 2 Moment of Inertia Izz = 1.21E+11 mm4
Efective Length kl = 4630 mm Moment of Inertia Iyy= 1.13E+09 mm4
Radius of Gyration ry = 107.5 mm Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 76115282 mm 3 Plastic Section Modulus Zpy = 9145250 mm3
Plastic Section Modulus Zpz = 98791877.78 mm 3

Elastic Modulus Es = 200000 N/mm2


Yeild Stress of Steel Plate thk>20 mm = 390 N/mm2 ԑ1 = 0.801
Yeild Stress of Steel Plate thk<20 mm = 410 N/mm 2 ԑ2 = 0.781
Partial Safety Factor for Material ϒm0 = 1.1
Type of Section Used = Welded
6.3.2 Classification of Sections
For outstanding Element of Compression Flange (As per Table 2 ,Clause 3.7.2 and 3.7.4 of IS 800-2007)
Coefficient for Plastic Section = 8.4
Coefficient for Compact Section = 9.4
Coefficient for Semi Compact = 13.6
For Web element of I,H and Box Section
Coefficient for Plastic Section = 84
Coefficient for Compact Section = 105
Coefficient for Semi Compact = 126

25 of 221
b/tf = 8.31 > 8.4ԑ = 6.73
> 9.4ԑ = 7.53
< 13.6ԑ = 10.9
Hence section is Semi Compact
d/tw = 156.55556 > 126ԑ = 98.4
Hence section is Selender
Hence a part of web section is efective for making the section is Semi-Compact .Efective Depth d= 1771 mm
This section is Semi-Compact
Hence ,the section is Semi -Compact for Shear and the section is Semi-compact for Bending

6.3.3 Check for resistance of the section against material due to the Bending :(Clause -509 of IRC :24-2010)

Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections


= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section

= Design Bending Compressive Stress

=Bending Stress reduction factor

αLT = Imperfection Parameter


= 0.21 for rolled steel section
= 0.49 for welded steel section

λLT =

KLY= KL 4630 = KLY/ ry = 30.23


= KLZ/ rz = 4.15

λy = = 0.43 pi()= 3.14


αLT = 0.49

λz = hf = 2784 m
= 0.06

Mcr = 1.449E+11 N-mm


Y direction Z direction
Now λLT = 0.16 0.516
ɸLT = 0.50 0.71
XLT= 1.0 0.8
fbd 355 N/mm2 296 N/mm2
Hence Md = 941 kNm 22511 kNm
6.3.4 Long Term Effect
Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 125757333 mm3

Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections


= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section
Zpz = 103172691 mm3 Zpy = 161505758 mm3

XLT= 1.0 fy = 390

26 of 221
ϒm0 = 1.1
fbd = 355 N/mm 2

Mdy = 941 kNm Mdz = 44587 kNm

6.3.5 Short Term Effect


Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 132977524 mm3

Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections


= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section
Zpz = 166441399 mm3 Zpy = 21754509 mm3

XLT= = fy = 390

fbd = 355 N/mm2 ϒm0 = 1.1


Mdy = 941 kNm Mdy = 47147 kNm

6.3.6 Check for Ultimate Capacity


Type of Mz Muz Mdz
Description ULS factor Ultimate Stress
Loading
Erection
DL +Cons LL 9374.170 1.35 12655.1 < 22511 166.263
Stage
Crash Barrier load 370 1.35 500 < 44587 3.972
Long Term SIDL 1899.000 1.75 3323 < 26.426
Moment Cons LL -1050 1.35 -1418 < -11.272
Live Load +Snow Load 6953.000 1.5 10430 < 47147 78.431
Short Term Wind Load 462 0.9 416 < 3.127
Moment Foot path Live Load 148 1.5 222 < 1.669
My Factor Muy < Mdy 269

Erection
DL +Cons LL 0 1.35
Stage
Moment
SIDL 0 1.75

CONS LL 0 1.35
Long Term
Moment

Live Load 0 1.5


Short Term
Moment Wind Load 0 0.9

Combined Effect = Mz/Mdz +My/Mdy <1

=6680/12042+811/23538+7643/24473+0/1143+0/1143+0/1143 = 0.85 < 1 OK

6.3.7 Check for Ultimate Strength of Girder in Shear

Shear capacity shall be calculated as per shear buckling method as specified in 509.4.2.2(a) of IRC 24-2010
Vn =Vcr =Avꚍv Fyw = 410 N/mm2
Where Vn = Applied Shear Force

Type of Loading Description V Factor Vn


Erection Stage DL ,Con LL 1 1.35 1.35
Crash Barrier 7 1.35 9.45
Long Term Moment SIDL 3 1.75 5.25
Cons LL 0 1.35 0
Live LL+Snow
Short Term Load 158 1.5 237
Wind Load 0 0.9 0
Foot path LL 3 1.5 4.5

172 258

I) Resistance of Shear Buckling shall be verified as specified


d= Depth of effective Web = 1771 mm

27 of 221
tw = Thickness of Web = 18 mm
d/tw = 98.4 > 67ԑ = 53.64 For web without Stiffeners
> 67ԑw*SQRT(Kv/5.35)
Vcr = Shear Force correspond to web buckling
Av = Area of Web
λw = Non dimensional selenderness ratio of shear buckling stress
SQRT(FYW/SQRT(3) ꚍcr
ꚍcr = Elastic critical Shear stress of the web
Kv*pi^2*E/(12*(1-ɥ^2)*(d/tw)^2)
ɥ = Poision Ratio 0.3
E = Young's Modulus = 200000 Mpa
Kv = 5.35 for unstiffened Web
= 4+5.35/(c/d)^2 for c/d<1
5.35+4/(c/d)^2 for c/d>1
c= = 1800 mm c/d = 1.57
Kv = = 6.98
ꚍcr = 130
λw = = 1.35 > 0.8 and 1.2
ꚍv = Shear stress corresponding to web buckling
λw <0.8 ꚍv = fyw/sqrt(3) = 236.714 Mpa
0.8< λw <1.2 ꚍv =(1-0.8*(λw -0.8))*fyw/sqrt(3) 132.911 Mpa
λw >1.2 =fyw/sqrt(3)/λw ^2 = 130.242 Mpa
Vcr = Av ꚍ v = 4152 kN

II) Tension Field Method As per Clause 8.4.2.2b of IRC 24-2010 Vn =Vtf
Vtf = [ Avtv+0.9wttwfysinɸ]<Vnp
ꚍv = 130.242 Mpa

Plastic Moment of the Flange Plate

Mtf = 0.25bftf2fyf[1-{Nf/bftffyf/ϒm0}^2]
bf = 550.000 mm tf = 28 mm fyf = 390.000 Mpa
Nf = Mu /d 4545664.332 N
Mtf = 22138838.49 N-mm 15733277

Inclination of tension field


ɸ= tan-1(d/c) = d= 1771 mm c= 1800 mm

ɸ= 44.5349 Degree

Anchorage Length of tension field in compression and tension flange


Sc = St 2/ Sin(ɸ )*(Mfr/(fytw)^0.5 <c = 131.7 mm
Wtf = dcos(ɸ)-(c-sc-st)sin(ɸ ) = 184.7 mm
Yield Strength of Tension Field
fv = {fyw2-3ꚍv2+ψ2)^0.5-ψ = 178.0 MPa
ψ= 1.5ꚍvsin(2ɸ) = 195.34 Mpa

The Shear Resitance Vt = 6589 kN > 257.550 OK

6.4 Check For Serviciblity case


6.4 .1 Permissible Stress in Outer Longitudinal Girder
(i) Permissible tensile and compressive bending stress As per Clause Annex-G of IRC 24-2010
C/s area of both flanges at the maximum BM zone A 1 = 0.0482 m2
C/s area of both flanges at the minimum BM zone A 2 = 0.027248 m2
Ratio of total area of both the flanges ,ψ = A2/A1 = 0.57
Coefficient associated with ψ k1 = 0.98
[ Table G.6.of IRC 24-2010]

28 of 221
MOI of the compressive flange aboyt Y axis at Max BM zone ,I 1 = 4.44E-04 m4
MOI of the both the flange aboyt Y axis at Max BM zone ,I 2= 2.29E-03 m4
Ratio of the compression flange to the sum of MOI of each flange = β = 0.194
Coefficient associated with β k2 = -0.62 [ Table G.7.of IRC 24-2010]
Effective Length of compression flange L = 4.63 m
MOI of minor axis Iy = 1.13E-03 m4
Cross sectional area of steel girder A = 0.0975 m2
Radius of Gyration of Minor Axis ry = 0.1075 m
Selenderness ratio λ = 43.05 <300
Overall Depth of Beam D = 2.818 m
Mean thickness of compression flange T = 0.032 m
Coefficient y = 26.5x105/λ2 = 1429.8 N/mm2
Coefficient x = y[1+1/20*(λT/D)2]^(1/2) = 1438.4 N/mm2
Lesser distance of extreme fibre from NA C1 = 1.225 m
Greater distance of extreme fibre from NA C2 = 1.593 m
Thickness of Web tw = 0.018 m
Thickness of compression flange to web ratio T/tw = 1.77777778
Clear Depth of web d3 = 2.75 m
Clear depth of web to thickness ratio d3/tw = 152.777778
Elastic critical stress fcb = 703 N/mm2
fcb = 1.2xk1[X+K2Y][C2/C1] If T/tw <2 and d3/tw <85
fcb=k1[X+K2Y][C2/C1]
Yeild stress of steel fy = 390 N/mm2
Permissible bending compressive stress
σbc =0.66xfcbxfy/[(fcb)1.4+(fy)1.4]^(1/1.4) σbc = 198.6 N/mm2
Maximum bending stress σb = 0.62fy = 241.8 N/mm2

Permissible bending compressive stress at erection stage 198.6 N/mm2


=

During service condition compression flange is fully restrained with deck slab by shear connector

Permissible bending tensile stress at erection stage 241.8 N/mm2


=

(i) Permissible shear stress in steel girder

Spacing of transvese stiffener near span c = 1.8 m

Clear spacing between flanges and horizontal siffener d 2.8 m


=

Thickness of Web t 0.018 m


=

Permissible average shear stress in un stiffend steel girder =0.35fy 136.5 N/mm2

Permissible average shear stress in stiffend steel girder 121.9 N/mm2


=

ꚍva =0.35fy[1.3- fy1/2c/t/4000{1+1/2(c/d)2}


if c<d

=0.35fy[1.3- fy1/2d/t/4000{1+1/2(d/c)2}
if c>d

Hence permissible average shear stress in steel girder ꚍva = 121.9 N/mm2

Maximum shear stress 0.43fy= 167.7 N/mm2

OK

Permissible Concrete Stress as per CL No.604.3.1 of IRC:22-2008 = 1/3*fck = 13.33 N/mm2

Permissible bending compressive stress at erection stage 198.6 N/mm2


=

Permissible bending tensile stress at erection stage 241.8 N/mm2


=

29 of 221
Permissible steel bending stress at service stage (all sections) 241.8 N/mm2
=
Max Elastic Steel Stress at service condition as per Cl N0.604.3.1 of IRC
22-2008 =0.87fy 339.3 N/mm2
=

Long term modular ratio for permanent loading 15.0


=

Short term modular ratio for transient loading 7.5


=

6.4 2 Summary of Section Properties ( In equivalent of Steel )

Mid Span

Properties Unit Composite Composite


Only Girder Section Section
for DL Long term -Short term
SIDL for LL

A= m2 0.098 0.152 0.206

Iz = m4 0.1213 0.2352 0.2893

Yb = m 1.225 1.8705262 2.2

Zb = m3 0.099 0.126 0.133

Yts = m 1.297 0.99

Zts = m3 0.181 0.29

Ytg= m 1.593 0.947 0.64

Ztg = m3 0.076 0.248 0.45

6.4 3 Stress Check at Different cases

(i) Calculation of stress at different sections during erection stage

Moment of Moment of Stress for Stress for


Section Self Weight Moment ( kNm) Construction Deck Slab Stress for Construc Stress for Erection Check Permissible
Load ( kNm) ( kNm) Self Weight Load Dek Slab Stage Stress
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab

At
Top of
Mid 1024.56 1051.17 2872.48 13.46 13.81 37.74 65.009 < 198.6
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-10.35 -10.62 -29.02 -49.987 < -241.8
Girder

(ii) Calculation of stress after applied SIDL -Long term

Moment of Stress for Stress for Stress for


SIDL Moment Crash Removal of Crash Erection Total Permissible
Section Removal of Shutter ( kNm)
( kNm) Barrier load Shutter Stress SIDL Barrier Stage Stress Stress
( kNm) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab -0.386 0.698 0.136 0.448 13.33

At
Top of
Mid -1050 1899.000 370.19 -4.2 7.6 1.5 65.009 69.920 198.6
Girder
Span
Bottom of
8.35 -15.10 -2.94 -49.987 -59.682 -241.8
Girder

(iii) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with wind load -short term Hence ok

30 of 221
Stress for
Moment Due to Live Load Moment Due to Wind Load x Stress for Stress for Differential Stress Total Permissible
Section
+Snow Load ( kNm) 0.6 (kNm) Live Load Wind Load Shrinkage After SIDL Stress Stress
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 3.25 0.13 -0.29 0.448 3.5 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 7101.293 277.2 15.76 0.62 30.92 69.920 117.2 198.6
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-53.40 -2.08 -7.18 -59.682 -122.35 -241.8
Girder

Hence ok

(iv) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with (+ ) Temperature

Stress for
Stress 0.6 x Temerature
Section Stress Live Load (Mpa) Differential Total Stress (Mpa) Check Permissible
(Mpa)
Shrinkage Stress After Stress
(Mpa) SIDL (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 3.25 0.342 -0.29 0.45 3.75 < 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 15.76 -13.35 30.92 69.92 103.25 < 198.6
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-53.40 24.41 -7.18 -59.68 -95.86 < -241.8
Girder

(iv) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with (-) Temperature Hence ok

Stress for
Stress 0.6 x Temerature Differential Permissible
Section Stress Live Load (Mpa) Total Stress (Mpa) Check
(Mpa) Shrinkage Stress After Stress
(Mpa) SIDL (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 3.25 -0.240 -0.29 0.45 3.16 < 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 15.76 6.24 30.92 69.92 122.84 < 198.6
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-53.40 -3.923 -7.18 -59.68 -124.19 < -241.8
Girder

Hence ok

6.4 4 Load combination for Rare Combination

1) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge

2) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+ wind load(lead) (unloaded structure)

3) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(lead)+wind load (accompany)

4) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(accompany)+wind load (lead)

5) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(lead)+Temperature(accompany)

6) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(accompany)+Temperature(lead)

a) Load combination

Load Case 1 (a) 2 (a) 2 (b) 3 (a) 3 (b) 4 (a) 4 (b) 5 (a)

DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

SIDL 1.2 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2

Shrinkage 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

31 of 221
Live load 1 1 0.75 0.75 1

Wind load-
Unloaded
1 1

Wind load-
Loaded
0.6 0.6 1 1

Temp (+ve) 0.6

Temp (-ve)

Load Case 5 (b) 5 (c) 5 (d) 6 (a) 6 (b) 6 (c) 6 (d)

DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

SIDL 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1

Shrinkage 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Live load 1 0.75 0.75 1 1 0.75 0.75

Wind load-
Unloaded

Wind load-
Loaded

Temp (+ve) 0.6 1 1

Temp (-ve) 0.6 0.6 1 1

6.4 5 Check for Rare Combination (SL1)

Stress for Stress for Stress for Stress for Stress


Dead Load
Removal of Differential Stress Stress Live Wind load Wind load Temepera Stress
Section Stress
(Mpa) Stress for Construction Load Shuttering Shrinkage SIDL Load (Mpa) Unloaded Loaded ture (+) Temeperat
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) Mpa ure (-) Mpa
Top of
0.136 0.0 -0.386 -0.29 0.698 3.25 0.410 0.2112 0.570 -0.40
Slab

Top of
52.7 13.8 -4.229 30.92 7.649 15.76 1.988 1.0253 -22.252 10.40
Girder

Bottom
of -42.3 -10.6 8.349 -7.18 -15.101 -53.40 -6.738 -3.4743 40.679 -6.54
Girder

Stress for Different Load Cases

Section 1 2(a) 2(b) 3(a) 3(b) 4(a) 4(b) 5(a) 5(b)

Top of
0.684 1.1 0.954 4.06 3.918 3.33 3.191 4.2726 4.133
Slab

Top of
92.786 94.8 93.245 109.16 107.632 105.63 104.102 95.1952 93.665
Girder

Bottom
of -67.614 -74.4 -71.332 -123.10 -120.080 -111.14 -108.120 -96.6088 -93.589
Girder

32 of 221
Permissibl
Max Stress Min Stress
Section 5(c) 5(d) 6(a) 6(b) 6(c) 6(d) e Stress Check
(Mpa) (Mpa)
(Mpa)

Top of
3.7 3.549 3.69 3.551 2.72 2.579 4.2726 0.684 13.333 OK
Slab

Top of
82.4 80.825 114.79 113.259 115.01 113.481 115.0108 80.825 198.577 OK
Girder

Bottom
of -67.0 -63.967 -124.94 -121.919 -114.20 -111.183 -63.9667 -124.939 -241.800 OK
Girder

6.4 .6 Shear Stress Check for Rare Combination (SL1)

From STAAD and


Maximum Shear Force V = 173 kN
Combination

Depth of Web d = 1771 mm

Thickness of Web tw = 18 mm

Shear Stress V/dtw = 5.43 N/mm2 < 121.9

6. 5 Deflection Check for frequent combination (SL2)

Load Case SIDL Live Load Wind Load (Accompany)


Dead Load

Comb 1 1 0.6
1

DISPACEMENT OBTAINED FROM STAAD MODEL

Absolute
Absolute Absolute Absolute
Node No : Load Case x y z Displaceme
rotation x rotation y rotation Z
nt

116 1.Dead Load 0 -13 0 13 0 0


0

2.Dead Load 0 -35.123 0 35.123 0 0


0

3. Construction 0 -12.854 0 12.854 0 0


0

116 1. Dead Load 0 -2.085 0 2.085 0 0


0

2.SIDL 0 -5.243 0 5.243 0 0


0

3.CONS LL 0 5.608 0 5.608 0 0


0

116 3.FOOTPATH LIVE 0 0.64 0 0.64 0 0


0

4. WIND LOAD -UNLOADED 0 4.488 0 4.488 0 0


0

5.WIND LOAD LOADED 0 -2.336 0 2.336 0 0


0

116 Live Load 0 -19.252 0 19.252 -0.002 0


0

33 of 221
Total Deflection at service case = 82.71 mm > L/600 = 80.50

CAMBER REQUIRED

Deflection for Live Load Case Only = 19.252 mm < L/800 = 60.375

HENCE OK

6. 6 Fatigue Check

The girder is built-up welded .as per Table 19(b) of IRC 24-2010 detail category = 80 Mpa

Partial safety factor as per Cl 511.2.3 of IRC :24-2010

ϒfft = Partial safety factor for loads and other effects = 1

ϒmft = Partial safety factor for fatigue strength (Refer Table 18 of IRC :24-2010) =
1.15

Applying partial factor of safety ,allowable stress variation (f/(ϒfft*ϒmft)) = 69.6 Mpa

Correction factor ɥc for larger plate thickness than 25 mm thick = (25/tf)^0.25

For tf =32mm = 0.913

Hence Allowable fatigue strength fn = 63.50 Mpa

Actual Number of Stress Cycles = Nsc

Maximum Stress variation due to lIve load = 53.40 Mpa

Bending stress at the edge of stiffener = 51.29 Mpa

Clear Distance of Stiffener palte from Bottom Flane = 0.05 m

Thickness of Bottom Flange = 0.036 m

Shear Stress at the edge of stiffener = VAY/Ib

Shear Force V = 158.151 kN

=
A = 0.0015 m2
0.016*0.032+0.05*0.016

Y= 0.043 = 2.133 m

AY With Hole = 0.003302 m3

I= 0.011 = 0.0177899 m4

b = m
0.016

Shear Stress = 2.966839 Mpa

Principal Shear Stress = ( Sigmax +sigmay)/2+((sigmax+sigmay)/2)^2+shear stress^2)^0.5 = 51.46 Mpa

Fatigue strength is not required for f<27/ϒmft or Nsc <5x10^6X(27/ϒmft/ϒfftxf)^3 = 23.48 Mpa

Design Life N= 100 Years N= 100 Years

Average number of stress fluctuation in a day A= 100

34 of 221
Total Number of Stress Cycle Nsc = 365NA = 3.65E+06 <5000000

Stress variation 53.40 Mpa

=5x10^6x(27/ϒmft /ϒfft
> f <27/ϒmft 23.48 Mpa Nsc <
xf)

f = fn *(5x10^6/Nsc)^(1/3) = 70.53 > 51.46

Hence OK

35 of 221
6.0 Calculation of Flexural Stress at Splice Point of Outer Girder (G1) = m
6.1 Moment and Shear From STAAD Output

Member Load Case Node No: FX (kN) Fy (kN) Fz (kN) MX (kNm) My (kNm) Mz (kNm)
248 1. DEAD LOAD 108 0 29.078 0 0 0.000 -960.1
116 0 -0.991 0 0 0.000 1024.56
2. SIDL 108 0 86.1 0 0 0.000 -2691.7
116 0 0 0 0 0.000 2872.48
3.CONSTRUCTION 108 0 31.5 0 0 0.000 -985.02
116 0 0 0 6.517 0.000 1051.17
459 1. DEAD LOAD 210 0 -7.089 0 6.755 0.000 -370.19
216 0 17.589 0 0.948 0.000 352.915
2. SIDL 210 0 10.707 0 0.977 0.000 -978.4
216 0 -3.007 0 0 0.000 988.003
3.CONSTRUCTION
210 0 -10.5
( Removal ) 0 0 0.000 1042.65
216 0 0 0 -0.004 0.000 -1050
459 4.FOOTPATH 210 0 -2.842 0 0.004 0.000 148.293
216 0 2.842 0 0 0.000 -152.27
5.WIND LOAD (UNLOAD) 210 0 -8.96 0 0 0.000 889.728
216 0 0 0 0 0.000 -896
6. WIND LOAD (LOADED) 210 0 4.62 0 0 0.000 -458.77
216 0 0 0 1.104 0.000 462
459 7. Live Load
MAX ( +VE) 0 185.567 0 0 0.000 -4670.2
0 0
MAX ( -VE) 0 -158.151 0 -0.226 0.000

6.2 Summary of Bending Moment and Shear at L/2

Shear Force (kN) Moment (kNm)


Moment/Shear Due to self weight of girder = 0.991 1024.560
Moment/Shear Due to weight of Deck Slab = 0 2872.480
Moment/Shear Due to Construction Load = 0 1051.170
Moment/Shear Due to Dead Load = 7.089 352.915
Moment/Shear Due to SIDL = 3.007 988.003
Removal of Construction Stage Live LL = 0 -1050.000
Moment/Shear Due to Carriage way LL = 158.151 4670.200
Wind Load unload = 0 896.000
Wind Load Loaded = 0 462.000
Moment Due to Foot path Live Load = 2.842 148.293
4818.493
6.3 Check For Ultimate Strength of Girder in Flexure

5.31 .Erection Stage


Properties of Girder Only
Thickness of Top Flange tf = 28 mm Width of Top Flange b = 550.000 mm
Thickness of Bottom Flange tf = 32 mm Width of Top Bottom Flange b = 850.000 mm
Thickess of Web tw = 16 mm Overall Depth D = 2818.000 mm
Sectional Area Aa = 97520 mm2 Moment of Inertia Izz = 1.21E+11 mm4
Efective Length kl = 4200 mm Moment of Inertia Iyy= 1.13E+09 mm4
Radius of Gyration ry = 107.5 mm Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 76115282 mm 3 Plastic Section Modulus Zpy = 9145250 mm3
Plastic Section Modulus Zpz = 98791877.78 mm 3

Elastic Modulus Es = 200000 N/mm2


Yeild Stress of Steel Plate thk>20 mm = 390 N/mm2 ԑ1 = 0.801
Yeild Stress of Steel Plate thk<20 mm = 410 N/mm 2 ԑ2 = 0.781
Partial Safety Factor for Material ϒm0
= 1.1
Type of Section Used = Welded
6.3.2 Classification of Sections
For outstanding Element of Compression Flange (As per Table 2 ,Clause 3.7.2 and 3.7.4 of IS 800-2007)
Coefficient for Plastic Section = 8.4
Coefficient for Compact Section = 9.4
Coefficient for Semi Compact = 13.6
For Web element of I,H and Box Section
Coefficient for Plastic Section = 84
Coefficient for Compact Section = 105

36 of 221
Coefficient for Semi Compact = 126

b/tf = 225/28 = 8.04 > 8.4ԑ = 6.73


> 9.4ԑ = 7.53
< 13.6ԑ = 10.9
Hence section is Semi Compact
d/tw = 2000/16 = 125 > 126ԑ = 98.4
Hence section is Selender
Hence a part of web section is efective for making the section is Semi-Compact .Efective Depth d= 1574 mm
This section is Semi-Compact
Hence ,the section is Semi -Compact for Shear and the section is Semi-compact for Bending

6.3.3 Check for resistance of the section against material due to the Bending :(Clause -509 of IRC :24-2010)

Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections


= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section

= Design Bending Compressive Stress

=Bending Stress reduction factor

αLT = Imperfection Parameter


= 0.21 for rolled steel section
= 0.49 for welded steel section

λLT =

KLY= KL 4200 = KLY/ ry = 27.42


= KLZ/ rz = 3.77

λy = = 0.39 pi()= 3.14


αLT = 0.49

λz = hf = 2784 m
= 0.05

Mcr = 1.759E+11 N-mm


Y direction Z direction
Now λLT = 0.14 0.468
ɸLT = 0.50 0.68
XLT= 1.0 0.9
fbd 355 N/mm 2
305 N/mm2
Hence Md = 941 kNm 23226 kNm
6.3.4 Long Term Effect
Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 125757333 mm3

Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections


= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section
Zpz = 103172691 mm3 Zpy = 161505758 mm3

37 of 221
XLT= 1.0 fy = 390
ϒm0 = 1.1
fbd = 355 N/mm 2

Mdy = 941 kNm Mdz = 44587 kNm

6.3.5 Short Term Effect


Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 132977524 mm3

Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections


= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section
Zpz = 166441399 mm3 Zpy = 21754509 mm3

XLT= = fy = 390

fbd = 355 N/mm2 ϒm0 = 1.1


Mdy = 941 kNm Mdy = 47147 kNm

6.3.6 Check for Ultimate Capacity


Type of Mz Muz Mdz
Description ULS factor Ultimate Stress
Loading
Erection
DL +Cons LL 4948 1.35 6679.8 < 23226 87.759
Stage
Crash Barrier load 370 1.35 500 < 44587 3.972
Long Term SIDL 988 1.75 1729 < 13.749
Moment Cons LL -1050 1.35 -1418 < -11.272
Live Load +Snow Load 4670 1.5 7005 < 47147 52.678
Short Term Wind Load 462 0.9 416 < 3.127
Moment Foot path Live Load 148 1.5 222 < 1.669
My Factor Muy < Mdy 152

Erection
DL +Cons LL 0 1.35
Stage
Moment
SIDL 0 1.75

CONS LL 0 1.35
Long Term
Moment

Live Load 0 1.5


Short Term
Moment Wind Load 0 0.9

Combined Effect = Mz/Mdz +My/Mdy <1

=6680/12042+811/23538+7643/24473+0/1143+0/1143+0/1143 = 0.47 < 1 OK

6.3.7 Check for Ultimate Strength of Girder in Shear

Shear capacity shall be calculated as per shear buckling method as specified in 509.4.2.2(a) of IRC 24-2010
Vn =Vcr =Avꚍv Fyw = 410 N/mm2
Where Vn = Applied Shear Force
Type of Loading Description V Factor Vn
Erection Stage DL ,Con LL 1 1.35 1.35
Crash Barrier 7 1.35 9.45
Long Term Moment SIDL 3 1.75 5.25
Cons LL 0 1.35 0
Live LL+Snow
Short Term Load 158 1.5 237
Wind Load 0 0.9 0
Foot path LL 3 1.5 4.5

172 258

38 of 221
I) Resistance of Shear Buckling shall be verified as specified
d= Depth of effective Web = 1574 mm

tw = Thickness of Web = 16 mm
d/tw = 98.4 > 67ԑ = 53.64 For web without Stiffeners
> 67ԑw*SQRT(Kv/5.35)
Vcr = Shear Force correspond to web buckling
Av = Area of Web
λw = Non dimensional selenderness ratio of shear buckling stress
SQRT(FYW/SQRT(3) ꚍcr
ꚍcr = Elastic critical Shear stress of the web
Kv*pi^2*E/(12*(1-ɥ^2)*(d/tw)^2)
ɥ = Poision Ratio 0.3
E = Young's Modulus = 200000 Mpa
Kv = 5.35 for unstiffened Web
= 4+5.35/(c/d)^2 for c/d<1
5.35+4/(c/d)^2 for c/d>1
c= = 1800 mm c/d = 1.57
Kv = = 6.98
ꚍcr = 130
λw = = 1.35 > 0.8 and 1.2
ꚍv = Shear stress corresponding to web buckling
λw <0.8 ꚍv = fyw/sqrt(3) = 236.714 Mpa
0.8< λw <1.2 ꚍv =(1-0.8*(λw -0.8))*fyw/sqrt(3) 132.911 Mpa
λw >1.2 =fyw/sqrt(3)/λw ^2 = 130.242 Mpa
Vcr = Av ꚍv = 3280 kN

II) Tension Field Method As per Clause 8.4.2.2b of IRC 24-2010 Vn =Vtf
Vtf = [ Avtv+0.9wttwfysinɸ]<Vnp
ꚍv = 130.242 Mpa

Plastic Moment of the Flange Plate

Mtf = 0.25bftf2fyf[1-{Nf/bftffyf/ϒm0}^2]
bf = 550.000 mm tf = 28 mm fyf = 390.000 Mpa
Nf = Mu /d 2395911.047 N
Mtf = 36512718.23 N-mm 15733277

Inclination of tension field


ɸ= tan-1(d/c) = d= 1574 mm c= 1800 mm

ɸ= 41.1721 Degree

Anchorage Length of tension field in compression and tension flange


Sc = St 2/ Sin(ɸ )*(Mfr/(fytw)^0.5 <c = 148.8 mm
Wtf = dcos(ɸ)-(c-sc-st)sin(ɸ ) = 195.9 mm
Yield Strength of Tension Field
fv = {fyw2-3ꚍv2+ψ2)^0.5-ψ = 178.8 MPa
ψ= 1.5ꚍvsin(2ɸ) = 193.62 Mpa

The Shear Resitance Vt = 5314 kN > 257.550 OK

6.4 Check For Serviciblity case


6.4 .1 Permissible Stress in Outer Longitudinal Girder
(i) Permissible tensile and compressive bending stress As per Clause Annex-G of IRC 24-2010

39 of 221
C/s area of both flanges at the maximum BM zone A 1 = 0.0426 m2
C/s area of both flanges at the minimum BM zone A 2 = 0.027248 m2
Ratio of total area of both the flanges ,ψ = A 2/A1 = 0.64
Coefficient associated with ψ k1 = 0.98
[ Table G.6.of IRC 24-2010]
MOI of the compressive flange aboyt Y axis at Max BM zone ,I 1 = 3.88E-04 m4
MOI of the both the flange aboyt Y axis at Max BM zone ,I 2= 2.03E-03 m4
Ratio of the compression flange to the sum of MOI of each flange = β = 0.192
Coefficient associated with β k2 = -0.62 [ Table G.7.of IRC 24-2010]
Effective Length of compression flange L = 4.2 m
MOI of minor axis Iy = 1.13E-03 m4
Cross sectional area of steel girder A = 0.0975 m2
Radius of Gyration of Minor Axis ry = 0.1075 m
Selenderness ratio λ = 39.05 <300
Overall Depth of Beam D = 2.818 m
Mean thickness of compression flange T = 0.028 m
Coefficient y = 26.5x105/λ2 = 1737.6 N/mm2
Coefficient x = y[1+1/20*(λT/D)2]^(1/2) = 1744.1 N/mm2
Lesser distance of extreme fibre from NA C1 = 1.225 m
Greater distance of extreme fibre from NA C2 = 1.593 m
Thickness of Web tw = 0.016 m
Thickness of compression flange to web ratio T/tw = 1.75
Clear Depth of web d3 = 2.75 m
Clear depth of web to thickness ratio d3/tw = 171.875
Elastic critical stress fcb = 850 N/mm2
fcb = 1.2xk1[X+K2Y][C2/C1] If T/tw <2 and d3/tw <85
fcb=k1[X+K2Y][C2/C1]
Yeild stress of steel fy = 390 N/mm2
Permissible bending compressive stress
σbc =0.66xfcbxfy/[(fcb)1.4+(fy)1.4]^(1/1.4) σbc = 209.3 N/mm2
Maximum bending stress σb = 0.62fy = 241.8 N/mm2

Permissible bending compressive stress at erection stage 209.3 N/mm2


=

During service condition compression flange is fully restrained with deck slab by shear connector

Permissible bending tensile stress at erection stage 241.8 N/mm2


=

(i) Permissible shear stress in steel girder

Spacing of transvese stiffener near span c = 1.8 m

Clear spacing between flanges and horizontal siffener d 2.8 m


=

Thickness of Web t 0.016 m


=

Permissible average shear stress in un stiffend steel girder =0.35fy 136.5 N/mm2

Permissible average shear stress in stiffend steel girder 115.0 N/mm2


=

ꚍva =0.35fy[1.3- fy1/2c/t/4000{1+1/2(c/d)2}


if c<d

=0.35fy[1.3- fy d/t/4000{1+1/2(d/c)2}
1/2

if c>d

Hence permissible average shear stress in steel girder ꚍva = 115.0 N/mm2

Maximum shear stress 0.43fy= 167.7 N/mm2

OK

40 of 221
Permissible Concrete Stress as per CL No.604.3.1 of IRC:22-2008 = 1/3*fck = 13.33 N/mm2

Permissible bending compressive stress at erection stage 209.3 N/mm2


=

Permissible bending tensile stress at erection stage 241.8 N/mm2


=

Permissible steel bending stress at service stage (all sections) 241.8 N/mm2
=
Max Elastic Steel Stress at service condition as per Cl N0.604.3.1 of IRC
22-2008 =0.87fy 339.3 N/mm2
=

Long term modular ratio for permanent loading 15.0


=

Short term modular ratio for transient loading 7.5


=

6.4 2 Summary of Section Properties ( In equivalent of Steel )

Mid Span

Properties Unit Composite Composite


Only Girder Section Section
for DL Long term -Short term
SIDL for LL

A= m2 0.098 0.152 0.206

Iz = m4 0.1213 0.2352 0.2893

Yb = m 1.225 1.8705262 2.2

Zb = m3 0.099 0.126 0.133

Yts = m 1.297 0.99

Zts = m3 0.181 0.29

Ytg= m 1.593 0.947 0.64

Ztg = m3 0.076 0.248 0.45

6.4 3 Stress Check at Different cases

(i) Calculation of stress at different sections during erection stage

Moment of Moment of Stress for Stress for


Section Self Weight Moment ( kNm) Construction Deck Slab Stress for Construc Stress for Erection Check Permissible
Load ( kNm) ( kNm) Self Weight Load Dek Slab Stage Stress
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab

At
Top of
Mid 1024.56 1051.17 2872.48 13.46 13.81 37.74 65.009 < 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-10.35 -10.62 -29.02 -49.987 < -241.8
Girder

(ii) Calculation of stress after applied SIDL -Long term

Moment of Stress for Stress for Stress for


SIDL Moment Crash Removal of Crash Erection Total Permissible
Section Removal of Shutter ( kNm)
( kNm) Barrier load Shutter Stress SIDL Barrier Stage Stress Stress
( kNm) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab -0.386 0.363 0.136 0.113 13.33

At
Mid
Span
41 of 221
At
Top of
Mid -1050 988.003 370.19 -4.2 4.0 1.5 65.009 66.251 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
8.35 -7.86 -2.94 -49.987 -52.438 -241.8
Girder

(iii) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with wind load -short term Hence ok

Stress for
Moment Due to Live Load Moment Due to Wind Load x Stress for Stress for Differential Stress Total Permissible
Section
+Snow Load ( kNm) 0.6 (kNm) Live Load Wind Load Shrinkage After SIDL Stress Stress
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 2.20 0.13 -0.29 0.113 2.2 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 4818.493 277.2 10.69 0.62 30.92 66.251 108.5 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-36.24 -2.08 -7.18 -52.438 -97.94 -241.8
Girder

Hence ok

(iv) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with (+ ) Temperature

Stress for
Stress 0.6 x Temerature
Section Stress Live Load (Mpa) Differential Total Stress (Mpa) Check Permissible
(Mpa)
Shrinkage Stress After Stress
(Mpa) SIDL (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 2.20 0.342 -0.29 0.11 2.37 < 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 10.69 -13.35 30.92 66.25 94.51 < 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-36.24 24.41 -7.18 -52.44 -71.45 < -241.8
Girder

(iv) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with (-) Temperature Hence ok

Stress for
Stress 0.6 x Temerature Differential Permissible
Section Stress Live Load (Mpa) Total Stress (Mpa) Check
(Mpa) Shrinkage Stress After Stress
(Mpa) SIDL (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 2.20 -0.240 -0.29 0.11 1.79 < 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 10.69 6.24 30.92 66.25 114.10 < 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-36.24 -3.923 -7.18 -52.44 -99.78 < -241.8
Girder

Hence ok

6.4 4 Load combination for Rare Combination

1) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge

2) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+ wind load(lead) (unloaded structure)

3) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(lead)+wind load (accompany)

4) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(accompany)+wind load (lead)

5) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(lead)+Temperature(accompany)

6) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(accompany)+Temperature(lead)

a) Load combination

42 of 221
Load Case 1 (a) 2 (a) 2 (b) 3 (a) 3 (b) 4 (a) 4 (b) 5 (a)

DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

SIDL 1.2 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2

Shrinkage 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Live load 1 1 0.75 0.75 1

Wind load-
Unloaded
1 1

Wind load-
Loaded
0.6 0.6 1 1

Temp (+ve) 0.6

Temp (-ve)

Load Case 5 (b) 5 (c) 5 (d) 6 (a) 6 (b) 6 (c) 6 (d)

DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

SIDL 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1

Shrinkage 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Live load 1 0.75 0.75 1 1 0.75 0.75

Wind load-
Unloaded

Wind load-
Loaded

Temp (+ve) 0.6 1 1

Temp (-ve) 0.6 0.6 1 1

6.4 5 Check for Rare Combination (SL1)

Stress for Stress for Stress for Stress for Stress


Dead Load
Removal of Differential Stress Stress Live Wind load Wind load Temepera Stress
Section Stress
(Mpa) Stress for Construction Load Shuttering Shrinkage SIDL Load (Mpa) Unloaded Loaded ture (+) Temeperat
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) Mpa ure (-) Mpa
Top of
0.136 0.0 -0.386 -0.29 0.363 2.20 0.410 0.2112 0.570 -0.40
Slab

Top of
52.7 13.8 -4.229 30.92 3.979 10.69 1.988 1.0253 -22.252 10.40
Girder

Bottom
of -42.3 -10.6 8.349 -7.18 -7.856 -36.24 -6.738 -3.4743 40.679 -6.54
Girder

Stress for Different Load Cases

Section 1 2(a) 2(b) 3(a) 3(b) 4(a) 4(b) 5(a) 5(b)

43 of 221
Top of
0.282 0.7 0.619 2.61 2.539 2.15 2.073 2.8269 2.754
Slab

Top of
88.383 90.4 89.576 99.69 98.896 97.43 96.633 85.7258 84.930
Girder

Bottom
of -58.921 -65.7 -64.088 -97.24 -95.669 -89.57 -88.000 -70.7491 -69.178
Girder

Permissibl
Max Stress Min Stress
Section 5(c) 5(d) 6(a) 6(b) 6(c) 6(d) e Stress Check
(Mpa) (Mpa)
(Mpa)

Top of
2.5 2.431 2.24 2.172 1.53 1.461 2.8269 0.282 13.333 OK
Slab

Top of
74.2 73.356 105.32 104.524 106.81 106.012 106.8080 73.356 209.284 OK
Girder

Bottom
of -45.4 -43.847 -99.08 -97.508 -92.64 -91.064 -43.8475 -99.079 -241.800 OK
Girder

6.4 .6 Shear Stress Check for Rare Combination (SL1)

From STAAD and


Maximum Shear Force V = 173 kN
Combination

Depth of Web d = 1574 mm

Thickness of Web tw = 16 mm

Shear Stress V/dtw = 6.87 N/mm2 < 115.0

6. 5 Deflection Check for frequent combination (SL2)

Load Case SIDL Live Load Wind Load (Accompany)


Dead Load

Comb 1 1 0.6
1

DISPACEMENT OBTAINED FROM STAAD MODEL

Absolute
Absolute Absolute Absolute
Node No : Load Case x y z Displaceme
rotation x rotation y rotation Z
nt

116 1.Dead Load 0 -13 0 13 0 0


0

2.Dead Load 0 -35.123 0 35.123 0 0


0

3. Construction 0 -12.854 0 12.854 0 0


0

116 1. Dead Load 0 -2.085 0 2.085 0 0


0

2.SIDL 0 -5.243 0 5.243 0 0


0

3.CONS LL 0 5.608 0 5.608 0 0


0

44 of 221
116 3.FOOTPATH LIVE 0 0.64 0 0.64 0 0
0

4. WIND LOAD -UNLOADED 0 4.488 0 4.488 0 0


0

5.WIND LOAD LOADED 0 -2.336 0 2.336 0 0


0

116 Live Load 0 -19.252 0 19.252 -0.002 0


0

Total Deflection at service case = 82.71 mm > L/600 = 80.50

CAMBER REQUIRED

Deflection for Live Load Case Only = 19.252 mm < L/800 = 60.375

HENCE OK

6. 6 Fatigue Check

The girder is built-up welded .as per Table 19(b) of IRC 24-2010 detail category = 80 Mpa

Partial safety factor as per Cl 511.2.3 of IRC :24-2010

ϒfft = Partial safety factor for loads and other effects = 1

ϒmft = Partial safety factor for fatigue strength (Refer Table 18 of IRC :24-2010) =
1.15

Applying partial factor of safety ,allowable stress variation (f/(ϒfft*ϒmft)) = 69.6 Mpa

Correction factor ɥc for larger plate thickness than 25 mm thick = (25/tf)^0.25

For tf =32mm = 0.940

Hence Allowable fatigue strength f n = 65.40 Mpa

Actual Number of Stress Cycles = Nsc

Maximum Stress variation due to lIve load = 36.24 Mpa

Bending stress at the edge of stiffener = 34.87 Mpa

Clear Distance of Stiffener palte from Bottom Flane = 0.05 m

Thickness of Bottom Flange = 0.032 m

Shear Stress at the edge of stiffener = VAY/Ib

Shear Force V = 158.151 kN

=
A = 0.0013 m2
0.016*0.032+0.05*0.016

Y= 0.041 = 2.135 m

AY With Hole = 0.002801 m3

I= 0.011 = 0.0177899 m4

45 of 221
b = m
0.016

Shear Stress = 2.5168881 Mpa

Principal Shear Stress = ( Sigmax +sigmay)/2+((sigmax+sigmay)/2)^2+shear stress^2)^0.5 = 35.05 Mpa

Fatigue strength is not required for f <27/ϒmft or Nsc <5x10^6X(27/ϒmft/ϒfftxf)^3 = 23.48 Mpa

Design Life N= 100 Years N= 100 Years

Average number of stress fluctuation in a day A= 100

Total Number of Stress Cycle Nsc = 365NA = 3.65E+06 <5000000

Stress variation 36.24 Mpa

=5x10^6x(27/ϒmft /ϒfft
> f <27/ϒmft 23.48 Mpa Nsc <
xf)

f = fn *(5x10^6/Nsc)^(1/3) = 72.64 > 35.05

Hence OK

46 of 221
Grade of Concrete Deck Slab = = M40
Elastic modulus of Cocrete Ec = 3.33E+04
Elastic modulus of steel Es = 2.00E+05
Modular Ratio m = 7.5 Short Term
= 15 Long Term

Section at Splice Location


Deduct hole diameter from section
Diameter of bolt = 24 mm
Diameter of Hole = 25.5 mm
For a particular plane

Nos of hole in top flange = 4 Nos


No of hole in Web plate = 20 Nos
No of hole in bottom flange = 6 Nos

3.2 Sectional properties of Precast Longitudinal Girder : At Mid Span


3 m
0.75 m

0.25
0.1
0.032
0.55
1.1325

0.4845 0.485 2.75 0.018

1.1325
0.85
0.036

S.NO A Y AY AY2 I0 I0+AY2


1. Deck Slab 0.1 3.043 0.3043 0.9260 0.000521 0.926506
2 . Triangular portion Deck 0.001333 2.8847 0.00385 0.011095 0.000001 0.011096
3. Rectangular Portion Deck 0.007333 2.868 0.021032 0.0603198 6.111E-06 0.060325887
4. Top Flange Plate 0.014336 2.802 0.040169 0.1125549 1.502E-06 0.112556362
5. Web Plate 0.04032 1.411 0.056892 0.0802739 0.0311953 0.111469247
Deduction for web Opening 0.00000 1.411 0 0 -0.000171 -0.00017113
6. Bottom Flange Plate 0.025092 0.018 0.000452 8.13E-06 3.305E-06 1.14346E-05
Composite Section for short term
0.1884 0.4267 1.1902 0.0316 1.2218
modular ratio

Composite Section for long term modular


0.1341 0.2621 0.6915 0.0313 0.7228
ratio
Dist
anc
Girder
e of only 0.0797 0.0975 0.1928 0.0310 0.2239
CG ∑I0 ∑I0 +AY2
∑ ∑A ∑AY ∑AY2
fro
m
Section properties of Composite Section for Short Term Modular Ratio
Bott
om
Area ∑A = 0.1884 m2
Fibr
e ∑AY/∑A
(Y) = 2.2646 m
∑I0 +AY2-
Moment of Inertia IZ = ∑AY2 = 0.2555 m4
Torsional Constant Ix = ∑1/3*X*Y3 = 2.14E-03 m4

47 of 221
Dist
anc
e of
CG
fro
m
Bott
om
Section properties of Composite Section for Long Term Modular Ratio
Fibr
Area
e ∑A = 0.1341 m2
(Y) ∑AY/∑A = 1.9548 m
∑I0 +AY2-
Moment of Inertia IZ
= ∑AY2 = 0.2105 m4
Torsional Constant Ix = ∑1/3*X*Y3 = 1.08E-03 m4

Section properties of Steel Girder


Area ∑A = 0.0797 m2
Distance of CG from Bottom
Fibre (Y) ∑AY/∑A = 1.2228 m
∑I0 +AY2- 0.1046
Moment of Inertia IZ = ∑AY2 = m4
Torsional Constant Ix = ∑1/3*X*Y 3
= 2.46E-05 m4

A. Section properties of Composite Section for short Term Modular Ratio (in equvalent of steel )

Area A = 0.1884 m2 Yb = 2.2646 m


IZ = 0.2555 m 4 Zb = 0.112818649 m3
Ix = 2.14E-03 m4 Ytg = 0.5534 m
Zts = 0.2828247 m 3 Yts = 0.9034 m
Ztg = 0.4617103 m 3

Zpz = 0.1379 m3 0.169227974


Zpy = 0.0196451 m 3

B Section properties of Composite Section for lONG Term Modular Ratio (in equvalent of steel )

Area A = 0.1341 m2 Yb = 1.9548 m


IZ = 0.2105 m4 Zb = 0.107670505 m3
Ix = 1.08E-03 m4 Ytg = 0.8632 m
Zts = 0.1734862 m3 Yts = 1.2132 m
Ztg = 0.243829 m 3

Zpz = 0.1615058 m3
Zpy = 0.01199 m3

C Section properties of Girder (in equvalent of steel )


Area A = 0.0797 m2 Yb = 1.2228 m
IZ = 0.1046 m 4 Zb = 0.085569851 m3
Ix = 2.46E-05 m4 Yt = 1.5952 m
Zt = 0.0655897 m 3 Iy = 2.29E-03 m4
Ztg = 0.0655897 m3
Zpz = 0.1006 m3
Zpy = 0.0091453 m3

48 of 221
13 Design of Slpice Joint
A inner Girder
[ As per Clause 512.5.2 of IRC:24-
(i) Design of Slice Joint of Top Flange Plate
2010]

Width of Top Flange b = 550 mm

Cross Sectional Area of Top Flange Aft1 ,Max = 0.0176 m2


Cross Sectional Area of Top Flange Aft1 ,Min = 0.014336 m2
Splice Cover Plate Required 1.05* Aft1 ,Max = 0.01848 m2
Maximum Compressive Stress at Top = 235 N/mm2
Compressive Force in Top Flange Plate = 4136 KN
Design force for each Side of Splice Shall be greater of
1. 1.10 x Computed Force at the splice point = 4549.6 KN
2. 0.8 x the maximum force in the weaker flange plate = 3792.5 KN
Permissible bending stress = 330.68 N/mm2
Hence Design Force on Each Side of Splice = 4549.60 KN
Splice Cover Plate Required from force considerartion = 0.0138 m2
No of Splice plate required for Top Flange = 2.0 Nos
Width of Top Slpice Plate for Top Flange = 0.550 m
Width of Bottom Splice Plate for Top Flange = 0.250 m
Thickness of Splice Plate of Top Flange required = 0.013 m
Thickness of Splice Plate of Top Flange Provided = 0.018 m
Area of Slpice Plate Provided = 0.0189 m2
OK
Design of High Strength Friction Grip Bolt
Property of Class of Bolt = 10.9
Nominal Diameter of Bolt = 24.0 mm
Nominal Diameter of Bolt hole = 25.5 mm
Minimum Edge Distance = 1.75 x 25.5 = 44.625 mm
Edge Distance Provided along length and width = 50 mm
Minimum pitch for 24 mm dia bolt =2.5x 24 = 60 mm
Maximum Pith for 24 mm Dia Bolt
Min of = 12 x Web thickness = = 216 mm
200 = 200 mm
Pitch Provided Along Length = 75 mm
Pitch Provided Along Width = 100 mm
No of Interface = 2 Nos
Minimum Permissible bolt tension [ Table 7 of IS
= 293 kN
:1367-Part3-2002 ]
Slip factor for surface blasted grit [ Clause 5.4.1
= 0.35
of IS:4000-1992]

Permissible shear capacity of each bot [Clause


= 146.50 kN
5.4.2 of IS :4000-1992]
No of Bolt Required Each side of Splice = 31.06 Nos
Provide No of Rows along width = 4.00
No of Bolts require along length = 7.76
Provided No of Bolt along length = 12.00 Nos
Design shear strength of bolts at splice location
= 7032 kN
Vdf
Design Appliied Shear Vsf = 4549.6 kN
Design Tension Strength of Bolt Tdf = 11251.2 kN
Design Applied Tension = 0.0 kN
As per Clause 512.6.5 of IRC 24-2010
(Vsf/Vdf)2 + (Tf/Tdf)2<1
Here (Vsf/Vdf)2 + (Tf/Tdf)2 = 0.419 <1
Length of Splice Plate required = 1850.000 mm
Hence net width of Top Flange = 448.000 mm
Summary of Splice plate for Top Flange
Top Splice Plate 1 Nos 550 mm x ### 18 mm
Bottom Splice Plate 2 Nos 249 mm x ### 18 mm

SKETCH-1 ( TOP FLANGE SPLICE DETAIL)

[ As per Clause 512.5.2 of IRC:24-


(ii) Design of Slice Joint of Bottom Flange Plate
2010]

Width of Bottom Flange b = 850 mm

Cross Sectional Area of Top Flange Afb1 ,Max = 0.0306 m2


Cross Sectional Area of Top Flange Afb1 ,Min = 0.01750 m2
Splice Cover Plate Required 1.05* Afb1 ,Max = 0.03213 m2
Maximum Tensile Stress at Bottom = 259.678 N/mm2
Compressive Force in Bottom Flange Plate = 7946.1468 KN
Design force for each Side of Splice Shall be greater of
1. 1.10 x Computed Force at the splice point = 8740.8 KN
2. 0.8 x the maximum force in the weaker flange plate = 4630.6 KN
Permissible bending stress = 330.68 N/mm2
Hence Design Force on Each Side of Splice = 8740.76 KN
Splice Cover Plate Required from force considerartion = 0.0264 m2
No of Splice plate required for bottom Flange = 2.0 Nos
Width of bottom Slpice Plate for bottom Flange = 0.850 m
Width of top Splice Plate for bottom Flange = 0.325 m
Thickness of Splice Plate of bottom Flange
= 0.016 m
required
Thickness of Splice Plate of bottom Flange
= 0.022 m
Provided
Area of Slpice Plate Provided = 0.0363 m2
OK
Design of High Strength Friction Grip Bolt
Property of Class of Bolt = 10.9
Nominal Diameter of Bolt = 24.0 mm
Nominal Diameter of Bolt hole = 25.5 mm
Minimum Edge Distance = 1.75 x 25.5 = 44.625 mm
Edge Distance Provided along length and width = 50 mm
Minimum pitch for 24 mm dia bolt =2.5x 24 = 60 mm
Maximum Pith for 24 mm Dia Bolt
Min of = 16 x Web thickness = 16x20 = 352 mm
200 = 200 mm
Pitch Provided Along Length = 75 mm
Pitch Provided Along Width = 112.5 mm
No of Interface = 2 Nos
Minimum Permissible bolt tension [ Table 7 of IS
= 293 kN
:1367-Part3-2002 ]
Slip factor for surface blasted grit [ Clause 5.4.1
= 0.35
of IS:4000-1992]

Permissible shear capacity of each bot [Clause


= 146.50 kN
5.4.2 of IS :4000-1992]
No of Bolt Required Each side of Splice = 59.66 Nos
Provide No of Rows along width = 6.00
No of Bolts require along length = 9.94
Provided No of Bolt along length = 12.00 Nos
Design shear strength of bolts at splice location
= 10548 kN
Vdf
Design Appliied Shear Vsf = 8740.8 kN
Design Tension Strength of Bolt Tdf = 16876.8 kN
Design Applied Tension = 0.0 kN
As per Clause 512.6.5 of IRC 24-2010
(Vsf/Vdf)2 + (Tf/Tdf)2<1
Here (Vsf/Vdf)2 + (Tf/Tdf)2 = 0.687 <1
Length of Splice Plate required = 1850.000 mm
Hence net width of bott Flange = 697.000 mm
Summary of Splice plate for Top Flange
Top Splice Plate 1 Nos 850 mm x ### 22 mm
49 of 221
Bottom Splice Plate 2 Nos 400 mm x ### 22 mm

SKETCH-2 (BOTTOM FLANGE SPLICE DETAIL)

[ As per Clause 512.5.2 of IRC:24-


(iii) Design of Slice Joint of Web Plate
2010]

Calculation of Design Shear and bending moment of web

Depth of web plate = 2.750 m


Thickness of web plate = 0.0180 m
MOI of web plate about centre line Iw = 0.0312 m4

Bending Moment taken by Web only


a) At Erection Stage
Depth of Neutral Axis from Bottom Plate = 1.225 m
MOI of Whole Section = 0.1213 m4
Design Bending Moment = 9374 kNm

Bending moment resisted by web plate = 2412 kNm

b) At Pemanent Loading on Composite Section


Depth of Neutral Axis from Bottom Plate = 1.871 m
MOI of Whole Section = 0.2352 m4
Design Bending Moment = 152 kNm

Bending moment resisted by web plate = 20.1 kNm

c ) At transient Loading on Composite Section


Depth of Neutral Axis from Bottom Plate = 2.176 m
MOI of Whole Section = 0.2352 m4
Design Bending Moment = 7563 kNm

Bending moment resisted by web plate = 1003.0 kNm

Shear Force resisted by Web V = 795.9 kN

Eccetricity of Bolt Group from splice joint


=(50+75/2) = 0.1625 m

Total Moment Resisted by Web alone M w = 3564.2 kNm

Details of High Strength Friction Grip Bolt

Nominal Diameter of Bolt = 24.0 mm

Nominal diameter of Bolt Hole ɸ = 25.5 mm

Minimum Edge Distance =1.75xɸ = 44.6 mm


Edge Distance provided along length and width = 50.0 mm
Maximum Pith for 24 mm Dia Bolt

Min of = 12 x splice thickness = 12x12 = 144 mm

200 = 200 mm

Pitch Provided in the horizontal direction = 75.0 mm

No of efective interface = 2.0 Nos

Minimum Permissible bolt tension [ Table 7 of IS


= 293 kN
:1367-Part3-2002 ]

Slip factor for surface blasted grit [ Clause 5.4.1


= 0.35
of IS:4000-1992]

Permissible shear capacity of each bot [Clause


= 146.50 kN
5.4.2 of IS :4000-1992]

Design for Combined Moment and Shear

Thickness of Plate = 12.0 mm


Clearance of Moment Plate from Flange plate = 65.0 mm
Depth of web plate d = 2750.0 mm
Lever Arm between CG of Tension and
= 2620.0 mm
Compression Plate d1
Ultimate steel Bending stress at Service stage σb = 330.68 N/mm2
No of Bolt in Vertical Column n1 = 20 Nos

Area of Splice Plate required As =Mw d/σb d12 = 4318 mm2

Thickness of Moment Plate t1 required = As /2(ds-n1 ɸ)


1.02 mm
=

Average Shear Stress ꚍva = 153.59 N/mm2

Thickness of shear plate required t2 =V/(2*d1* ꚍva) = 0.99 mm


Total Thickness required = 2.01 mm
Hence OK
Horizontal Force Due to Moment H = σb *As = 1427.9 kN
Horizontal Force Due to Shear = 795.9 kN ?????
Total Shear Force = 2223.8 kN
No of Bolt column required = 3.0 Nos
No of Bolt in Column Required = 5.1 Nos
Provide No of Bolt in Column = 15 Nos
Provide Edge Distance = 50 mm
Pitch in vertical Direction provided = 125 mm
<12t = 144 mm
>2.5 dia of Bolt = 60 mm
Not OK
Width of Shear plate provided =(50+75x2+50)x = 500 mm

Hence Provide 2620 mm long 500 mm Wide 12 mm thick


Web splice Plate on either side of Web
Design Shear strength of Bolt at splice location
= 13185 kN
Vdf
Design Applied Shear Vsf = 795.9 kN
Design tension strength of bolt Tdf = 10548.0 kN
Design tension Force Applied = 0.0 kN
As per Clause 512.6.5 of IRC 24-2010
(Vsf/Vdf)2 + (Tf/Tdf)2<1
Here (Vsf/Vdf)2 + (Tf/Tdf)2 = 0.004 <1
Hence OK

50 of 221
Girder at Mid Span for STAAD Input ( Inner)
Efective flange width of longitudianl girder as per Cl No- 603.3 (b) of IRC L0 = 48.3 m
22-2008
bef = L0/4<B1+B2/2 where L0/4 < B and B =B1=B2
Efective width of compression flange of external girder = 3 m
Grade of Concrete Deck Slab = = M40
Elastic modulus of Cocrete Ec = 3.33E+04
Elastic modulus of steel Es = 2.00E+05
Modular Ratio m = 7.5 Short Term
= 15 Long Term

3.3 Sectional properties of Precast Longitudinal Girder : At Mid Span


3 m
1.05 m

0.25
0.1
0.028
0.45

2 0.016

0.7
0.032

S.NO A Y AY AY2 I0 I0+AY2


1. Deck Slab 0.1 2.285 0.2285 0.5221 0.000521 0.522643
2 . Triangular portion Deck 0.004 2.1267 0.00851 0.018091 0.000002 0.018093
3. Rectangular Portion Deck 0.006 2.11 0.01266 0.0267126 0.000005 0.0267176
4. Top Flange Plate 0.0126 2.046 0.02578 0.0527451 8.232E-07 0.052745885
5. Web Plate 0.032 1.032 0.033024 0.0340808 0.0106667 0.044747435
6. Bottom Flange Plate 0.0224 0.016 0.000358 5.734E-06 1.911E-06 7.64587E-06
Composite Section for short term
0.1770 0.3088 0.6538 0.0112 0.6650
modular ratio

Composite Section for long term modular


0.1220 0.1840 0.3703 0.0109 0.3812
ratio
Dist
anc
Girder
e of only 0.0670 0.0592 0.0868 0.0107 0.0975
CG ∑I0 ∑I0 +AY2
∑ ∑A ∑AY ∑AY 2
fro
m
Section properties of Composite Section for Short Term Modular Ratio
Bott
om
Area ∑A = 0.1770 m2
Fibr
Dist
e
anc ∑AY/∑A
(Y)
e of = 1.7448 m
∑I0 +AY2-
CG
Moment of Inertia IZ
= ∑AY2 = 0.1261 m4
fro
Torsional
m Constant Ix = ∑1/3*X*Y3 = 2.14E-03 m4
Bott
om
Section properties of Composite Section for Long Term Modular Ratio
Fibr
Area
e ∑A = 0.1220 m2
(Y) ∑AY/∑A = 1.5082 m

51 of 221
∑I0 +AY2-
Moment of Inertia IZ = ∑AY2 = 0.1037 m4
Torsional Constant Ix = ∑1/3*X*Y3 = 1.08E-03 m4

Section properties of Steel Girder


Area ∑A = 0.0670 m2
Distance of CG from Bottom
Fibre (Y) ∑AY/∑A = 0.8830 m
∑I0 +AY2- 0.0453
Moment of Inertia IZ = ∑AY2 = m4
Torsional Constant Ix = ∑1/3*X*Y 3
= 1.37E-05 m4

A. Section properties of Composite Section for short Term Modular Ratio (in equvalent of steel )

Area A = 0.1770 m2 Yb = 1.7448 m


IZ = 0.1261 m 4 Zb = 0.072279182 m3
Ix = 2.14E-03 m4 Ytg = 0.3152 m
Zts = 0.1895841 m 3 Yts = 0.6652 m
Ztg = 0.4000959 m 3

Zpz = 0.0889 m3 0.108418774


Zpy = 0.0171108 m 3

B Section properties of Composite Section for lONG Term Modular Ratio (in equvalent of steel )

Area A = 0.1220 m2 Yb = 1.5082 m


IZ = 0.1037 m4 Zb = 0.068781794 m3
Ix = 1.08E-03 m4 Ytg = 0.5518 m
Zts = 0.1150245 m3 Yts = 0.9018 m
Ztg = 0.1879776 m 3

Zpz = 0.1031727 m3
Zpy = 0.01199 m3

C Section properties of Girder (in equvalent of steel )


Area A = 0.0670 m2 Yb = 0.8830 m
IZ = 0.0453 m 4 Zb = 0.051256253 m3
Ix = 1.37E-05 m4 Yt = 1.1770 m
Zt = 0.0384542 m3 Iy = 1.13E-03 m4
Ztg = 0.0384542 m3
Zpz = 0.0500 m3 ry 0.129751446 1.30E+02
Zpy = 0.0054655 m 3 rz 0.82190202 8.22E+02

52 of 221
Girder at Splice STTAD INPUT (Inner Girde)
Grade of Concrete Deck Slab = = M40
Elastic modulus of Cocrete Ec = 3.33E+04
Elastic modulus of steel Es = 2.00E+05
Modular Ratio m = 7.5 Short Term
= 15 Long Term

Section at Splice Location


Deduct hole diameter from section
Diameter of bolt = 24 mm
Diameter of Hole = 25.5 mm
For a particular plane

Nos of hole in top flange = 4 Nos


No of hole in Web plate = 15 Nos
No of hole in bottom flange = 6 Nos

3.4 Sectional properties of Precast Longitudinal Girder : At Mid Span


3 m
1.05 m

0.25
0.1
0.028
0.45

2 0.016

1
0.7
0.032

S.NO A Y AY AY2 I0 I0+AY2


1. Deck Slab 0.1 2.285 0.2285 0.5221 0.000521 0.522643
2 . Triangular portion Deck 0.004 2.1267 0.00851 0.018091 0.000002 0.018093
3. Rectangular Portion Deck 0.006 2.11 0.01266 0.0267126 0.000005 0.0267176
4. Top Flange Plate 0.009744 2.046 0.019936 0.0407895 8.232E-07 0.040790338
5. Web Plate 0.02588 1.032 0.026708 0.0275628 0.0106667 0.038229488
Deduction for web Opening 0.00000 0 0 0 0 0
6. Bottom Flange Plate 0.017504 0.016 0.00028 4.481E-06 1.911E-06 6.39249E-06
Composite Section for short term
0.1631 0.2966 0.6353 0.0112 0.6465
modular ratio

Composite Section for long term modular


0.1081 0.1718 0.3518 0.0109 0.3628
ratio
Dist
anc
Girder
e of only 0.0531 0.0469 0.0684 0.0107 0.0790
CG ∑I0 ∑I0 +AY2
∑ ∑A ∑AY ∑AY 2
fro
m
Section properties of Composite Section for Short Term Modular Ratio
Bott
om
Area ∑A = 0.1631 m2
Fibr
e ∑AY/∑A
(Y) = 1.8181 m

53 of 221
Dist
anc
e of ∑I0 +AY2-
CG
Moment of Inertia IZ
= ∑AY2 = 0.1072 m4
fro
Torsional Constant
m
Ix = ∑1/3*X*Y3 = 2.14E-03 m4
Bott
om
Section properties of Composite Section for Long Term Modular Ratio
Fibr
Area
e ∑A = 0.1081 m2
(Y) ∑AY/∑A2 = 1.5885 m
∑I0 +AY -
Moment of Inertia IZ = ∑AY2 = 0.0899 m4
Torsional Constant Ix = ∑1/3*X*Y3 = 1.08E-03 m4

Section properties of Steel Girder


Area ∑A = 0.0531 m2
Distance of CG from Bottom
Fibre (Y) ∑AY/∑A = 0.8832 m
∑I0 +AY2- 0.0376
Moment of Inertia IZ = ∑AY2 = m4
Torsional Constant Ix = ∑1/3*X*Y3 = 1.37E-05 m4

A. Section properties of Composite Section for short Term Modular Ratio (in equvalent of steel )

Area A = 0.1631 m2 Yb = 1.8181 m


IZ = 0.1072 m4 Zb = 0.058979298 m3
Ix = 2.14E-03 m4 Ytg = 0.2419 m
Zts = 0.1811829 m 3 Yts = 0.5919 m
Ztg = 0.4433865 m 3

Zpz = 0.0716 m3 0.088468947


Zpy = 0.0155869 m 3

B Section properties of Composite Section for lONG Term Modular Ratio (in equvalent of steel )

Area A = 0.1081 m2 Yb = 1.5885 m


IZ = 0.0899 m4 Zb = 0.056609048 m3
Ix = 1.08E-03 m4 Ytg = 0.4715 m
Zts = 0.1094559 m3 Yts = 0.8215 m
Ztg = 0.1907007 m3
Zpz = 0.0849136 m3
Zpy = 0.01199 m3

C Section properties of Girder (in equvalent of steel )


Area A = 0.0531 m2 Yb = 0.8832 m
IZ = 0.0376 m 4 Zb = 0.042549272 m3
Ix = 1.37E-05 m4 Yt = 1.1768 m
Zt = 0.0319358 m 3 Iy = 1.13E-03 m4
Ztg = 0.0319358 m3
Zpz = 0.0511 m3
Zpy = 0.0054655 m3

54 of 221
3.5 Sectional properties of End Cross Girder

0.016
0.3
0.7870

0.129 1.7000 0.016

0.787
0.3
0.016

S.NO A Y AY AY2 I0 I0+AY2


1 Top Flange Plate 0.0048 1.724 0.008275 0.0142664 1.024E-07 0.014266547
2. Web Plate 0.0272 0.866 0.023555 0.0203988 0.0065507 0.02694947
Deduction for web Opening -0.00206 0.8675 -0.001791 -0.001553 -2.86E-06 -0.00155614
3. Bottom Flange Plate 0.0048 0.008 3.84E-05 3.072E-07 1.024E-07 4.096E-07

Girder only 0.0347 0.0301 0.0331 0.0065 0.0397


∑ ∑A ∑AY ∑AY2 ∑I0 ∑I0 +AY2

Section properties of Steel Girder


Area ∑A = 0.0347 m2
Distance of CG from Bottom
Fibre (Y) ∑AY/∑A = 0.8659 m
∑I0 +AY -
2
0.0136
Moment of Inertia IZ = ∑AY2 = m4
Torsional Constant Ix = ∑1/3*X*Y3 = 3.14E-06 m4

Section properties of the Cross Girder


Area A = 0.0347 m2 Yb = 0.8659 m
IZ = 0.0136 m 4 Zb = 0.015723534 m3
Ix = 3.14E-06 m4 Yt = 0.8661 m
Zt = 0.0157203 m 3 Iy = 7.26E-05 m4

Zpz = 0.0199 m3
Zpy = 0.0008288 m3

55 of 221
3.6 Sectional properties of End Cross Girder (STAAD)

0.016
0.3

1.7000 0.016

0.3
0.016

S.NO A Y AY AY2 I0 I0+AY2


1 Top Flange Plate 0.0048 1.724 0.008275 0.0142664 1.024E-07 0.014266547
2. Web Plate 0.0272 0.866 0.023555 0.0203988 0.0065507 0.02694947
3. Bottom Flange Plate 0.0048 0.008 3.84E-05 3.072E-07 1.024E-07 4.096E-07

Girder only 0.0368 0.0319 0.0347 0.0066 0.0412


∑ ∑A ∑AY ∑AY 2 ∑I0 ∑I0 +AY2

Section properties of Steel Girder


Area ∑A = 0.0368 m2
Distance of CG from Bottom
Fibre (Y) ∑AY/∑A = 0.8660 m
∑I0 +AY -
2
0.0136
Moment of Inertia IZ = ∑AY2 = m4
Torsional Constant Ix = ∑1/3*X*Y3 = 3.14E-06 m4

Section properties of the Cross Girder


Area A = 0.0368 m2 Yb = 0.8660 m
IZ = 0.0136 m4 Zb = 0.015725226 m3
Ix = 3.14E-06 m4 Yt = 0.8660 m
Zt = 0.0157252 m3 Iy = 7.26E-05 m4

Zpz = 0.0198 m3
Zpy = 0.0008288 m3

56 of 221
3.6 Sectional properties of End Cross Girder (STAAD)
0.004
0.0082
0.125 2 Nos of ISMC 125

0.0053
1.775
0.065

S.NO A Y AY AY2 I0 I0+AY2


1 Top Angles 0.00668 1.7125 0.01144 0.0195901 0 0.019590144
2. Bottom Angles 0.00668 0.0625 0.000418 2.609E-05 0 2.60938E-05

Girder only 0.0134 0.0119 0.0196 0.0000 0.0196


∑ ∑A ∑AY ∑AY2 ∑I0 ∑I0 +AY2

Section properties of Steel Girder


Area ∑A = 0.0134 m2
Distance of CG from Bottom
Fibre (Y) ∑AY/∑A = 0.8875 m
∑I0 +AY -
2
0.0091
Moment of Inertia IZ = ∑AY2 = m4
Torsional Constant Ix = ∑1/3*X*Y3 = 2.78E-05 m4

Section properties of the Cross Girder


Area A = 0.0134 m2 Yb = 0.8875 m
IZ = 0.0091 m 4 Zb = 0.010245803 m3
Ix = 2.78E-05 m4 Yt = -0.8875 m
Zt = -0.010246 m 3 Iy = 0.00E+00 m4

Zpz = #DIV/0! m3
Zpy = 0 m3

57 of 221
7.0 Calculation of Flexural Stress at Support of Outer Girder (G1) = m
7.1 Moment and Shear From STAAD Output

Member Load Case Node No: FX (kN) Fy (kN) Fz (kN) MX (kNm) My (kNm) Mz (kNm)
248 1. DEAD LOAD 108 0 29.078 0 0 0.000 -960.1
116 0 -0.991 0 0 0.000 1024.56
2. SIDL 108 0 86.1 0 0 0.000 -2691.7
116 0 0 0 0 0.000 2872.48
3.CONSTRUCTION 108 0 31.5 0 0 0.000 -985.02
116 0 0 0 6.517 0.000 1051.17
459 1. DEAD LOAD 210 0 -7.089 0 6.755 0.000 -370.19
216 0 17.589 0 0.948 0.000 352.915
2. SIDL 210 0 10.707 0 0.977 0.000 -978.4
216 0 -3.007 0 0 0.000 988.003
3.CONSTRUCTION
210 0 -10.5
( Removal ) 0 0 0.000 1042.65
216 0 0 0 -0.004 0.000 -1050
459 4.FOOTPATH 210 0 -2.842 0 0.004 0.000 148.293
216 0 2.842 0 0 0.000 -152.27
5.WIND LOAD (UNLOAD) 210 0 -8.96 0 0 0.000 889.728
216 0 0 0 0 0.000 -896
6. WIND LOAD (LOADED) 210 0 4.62 0 0 0.000 -458.77
216 0 0 0 1.104 0.000 462
459 7. Live Load
MAX ( +VE) 0 185.567 0 0 0.000 -4670.2
0 0
MAX ( -VE) 0 -158.151 0 -0.226 0.000

7.2 Summary of Bending Moment and Shear at L/2

Shear Force (kN) Moment (kNm)


Moment/Shear Due to self weight of girder = 0.991 1024.560
Moment/Shear Due to weight of Deck Slab = 0 2872.480
Moment/Shear Due to Construction Load = 0 1051.170
Moment/Shear Due to Dead Load = 7.089 352.915
Moment/Shear Due to SIDL = 3.007 988.003
Removal of Construction Stage Live LL = 0 -1050.000
Moment/Shear Due to Carriage way LL = 158.151 4670.200
Wind Load unload = 0 896.000
Wind Load Loaded = 0 462.000
Moment Due to Foot path Live Load = 2.842 148.293
4818.493
7.3 Check For Ultimate Strength of Girder in Flexure

5.31 .Erection Stage


Properties of Girder Only
Thickness of Top Flange tf = 28 mm Width of Top Flange b = 550.000 mm
Thickness of Bottom Flange tf = 32 mm Width of Top Bottom Flange b = 850.000 mm
Thickess of Web tw = 16 mm Overall Depth D = 2818.000 mm
Sectional Area Aa = 97520 mm2 Moment of Inertia Izz = 1.21E+11 mm4
Efective Length kl = 4200 mm Moment of Inertia Iyy= 1.13E+09 mm4
Radius of Gyration ry = 107.5 mm Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 76115282 mm3 Plastic Section Modulus Zpy = 9145250 mm3
Plastic Section Modulus Zpz = 98791877.78 mm3
Elastic Modulus Es = 200000 N/mm2
Yeild Stress of Steel Plate thk>20 mm = 390 N/mm2 ԑ1 = 0.801
Yeild Stress of Steel Plate thk<20 mm = 410 N/mm2 ԑ2 = 0.781
Partial Safety Factor for Material ϒm0 = 1.1
Type of Section Used = Welded
7.3.2 Classification of Sections
For outstanding Element of Compression Flange (As per Table 2 ,Clause 3.7.2 and 3.7.4 of IS 800-2007)
Coefficient for Plastic Section = 8.4
Coefficient for Compact Section = 9.4
Coefficient for Semi Compact = 13.6
For Web element of I,H and Box Section
Coefficient for Plastic Section = 84
Coefficient for Compact Section = 105
Coefficient for Semi Compact = 126

b/tf = 225/28 = 8.04 > 8.4ԑ = 6.73


> 9.4ԑ = 7.53
< 13.6ԑ = 10.9

58 of 221
Hence section is Semi Compact
d/tw = 2000/16 = 125 > 126ԑ = 98.4
Hence section is Selender
Hence a part of web section is efective for making the section is Semi-Compact .Efective Depth d= 1574 mm
This section is Semi-Compact
Hence ,the section is Semi -Compact for Shear and the section is Semi-compact for Bending

7.3.3 Check for resistance of the section against material due to the Bending :(Clause -509 of IRC :24-2010)

Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections


= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section

= Design Bending Compressive Stress

=Bending Stress reduction factor

αLT = Imperfection Parameter


= 0.21 for rolled steel section
= 0.49 for welded steel section

λLT =

KLY= KL 4200 = KLY/ ry = 27.42


= KLZ/ rz = 3.77

λy = = 0.39 pi()= 3.14


αLT = 0.49

λz = hf = 2784 m
= 0.05

Mcr = 1.759E+11 N-mm


Y direction Z direction
Now λLT = 0.14 0.468
ɸLT = 0.50 0.68
XLT= 1.0 0.9
fbd 355 N/mm2 305 N/mm2
Hence Md = 941 kNm 23226 kNm
7.3.4 Long Term Effect
Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 125757333 mm3

Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections


= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section
Zpz = 103172691 mm3 Zpy = 161505758 mm3

XLT= 1.0 fy = 390


ϒm0 = 1.1
fbd = 355 N/mm2
Mdy = 941 kNm Mdz = 44587 kNm

7.3.5 Short Term Effect


Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 132977524 mm3

59 of 221
Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections
= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section
Zpz = 166441399 mm3 Zpy = 21754509 mm3

XLT= = fy = 390

fbd = 355 N/mm2 ϒm0 = 1.1


Mdy = 941 kNm Mdy = 47147 kNm

7.3.6 Check for Ultimate Capacity


Type of Mz Muz Mdz
Description ULS factor Ultimate Stress
Loading
Erection
DL +Cons LL 4948 1.35 6679.8 < 23226 87.759
Stage
Crash Barrier load 370 1.35 500 < 44587 3.972
Long Term SIDL 988 1.75 1729 < 13.749
Moment Cons LL -1050 1.35 -1418 < -11.272
Live Load +Snow Load 4670 1.5 7005 < 47147 52.678
Short Term Wind Load 462 0.9 416 < 3.127
Moment Foot path Live Load 148 1.5 222 < 1.669
My Factor Muy < Mdy 152

Erection
DL +Cons LL 0 1.35
Stage
Moment
SIDL 0 1.75

CONS LL 0 1.35
Long Term
Moment

Live Load 0 1.5


Short Term
Moment Wind Load 0 0.9

Combined Effect = Mz/Mdz +My/Mdy <1

=6680/12042+811/23538+7643/24473+0/1143+0/1143+0/1143 = 0.47 < 1 OK

7.3.7 Check for Ultimate Strength of Girder in Shear

Shear capacity shall be calculated as per shear buckling method as specified in 509.4.2.2(a) of IRC 24-2010
Vn =Vcr =Avꚍv Fyw = 410 N/mm2
Where Vn = Applied Shear Force
Type of Loading Description V Factor Vn
Erection Stage DL ,Con LL 1 1.35 1.35
Crash Barrier 7 1.35 9.45
Long Term Moment SIDL 3 1.75 5.25
Cons LL 0 1.35 0
Live LL+Snow
Short Term Load 158 1.5 237
Wind Load 0 0.9 0
Foot path LL 3 1.5 4.5

172 258

I) Resistance of Shear Buckling shall be verified as specified


d= Depth of effective Web = 1574 mm

tw = Thickness of Web = 16 mm
d/tw = 98.4 > 67ԑ = 53.64 For web without Stiffeners
> 67ԑw*SQRT(Kv/5.35)
Vcr = Shear Force correspond to web buckling
Av = Area of Web
λw = Non dimensional selenderness ratio of shear buckling stress
SQRT(FYW/SQRT(3) ꚍcr
ꚍcr = Elastic critical Shear stress of the web
Kv*pi^2*E/(12*(1-ɥ^2)*(d/tw)^2)
ɥ = Poision Ratio 0.3
E = Young's Modulus = 200000 Mpa

60 of 221
Kv = 5.35 for unstiffened Web
= 4+5.35/(c/d)^2 for c/d<1
5.35+4/(c/d)^2 for c/d>1
c= = 1800 mm c/d = 1.57
Kv = = 6.98
ꚍcr = 130
λw = = 1.35 > 0.8 and 1.2
ꚍv = Shear stress corresponding to web buckling
λw <0.8 ꚍv = fyw/sqrt(3) = 236.714 Mpa
0.8< λw <1.2 ꚍv =(1-0.8*(λw -0.8))*fyw/sqrt(3) 132.911 Mpa
λw >1.2 =fyw/sqrt(3)/λw ^2 = 130.242 Mpa
Vcr = A v ꚍv = 3280 kN

II) Tension Field Method As per Clause 8.4.2.2b of IRC 24-2010 Vn =Vtf
Vtf = [ Avtv+0.9wttwfysinɸ]<Vnp
ꚍv = 130.242 Mpa

Plastic Moment of the Flange Plate

Mtf = 0.25bftf2fyf[1-{Nf/bftffyf/ϒm0}^2]
bf = 550.000 mm tf = 28 mm fyf = 390.000 Mpa
Nf = Mu /d 2395911.047 N
Mtf = 36512718.23 N-mm 15733277

Inclination of tension field


ɸ= tan-1(d/c) = d= 1574 mm c= 1800 mm

ɸ= 41.1721 Degree

Anchorage Length of tension field in compression and tension flange


Sc = St 2/ Sin(ɸ )*(Mfr/(fytw)^0.5 <c = 148.8 mm
Wtf = dcos(ɸ)-(c-sc-st)sin(ɸ ) = 195.9 mm
Yield Strength of Tension Field
fv = {fyw2-3ꚍv2+ψ2)^0.5-ψ = 178.8 MPa
ψ= 1.5ꚍvsin(2ɸ) = 193.62 Mpa

The Shear Resitance Vt = 5314 kN > 257.550 OK

7.4 Check For Serviciblity case


7.4 .1 Permissible Stress in Outer Longitudinal Girder
(i) Permissible tensile and compressive bending stress As per Clause Annex-G of IRC 24-2010
C/s area of both flanges at the maximum BM zone A 1 = 0.0426 m2
C/s area of both flanges at the minimum BM zone A 2 = 0.027248 m2
Ratio of total area of both the flanges ,ψ = A 2/A1 = 0.64
Coefficient associated with ψ k1 = 0.98
[ Table G.6.of IRC 24-2010]
MOI of the compressive flange aboyt Y axis at Max BM zone ,I1 = 3.88E-04 m4
MOI of the both the flange aboyt Y axis at Max BM zone ,I2= 2.03E-03 m4
Ratio of the compression flange to the sum of MOI of each flange = β = 0.192
Coefficient associated with β k2 = -0.62 [ Table G.7.of IRC 24-2010]
Effective Length of compression flange L = 4.2 m
MOI of minor axis Iy = 1.13E-03 m4
Cross sectional area of steel girder A = 0.0975 m2
Radius of Gyration of Minor Axis ry = 0.1075 m
Selenderness ratio λ = 39.05 <300
Overall Depth of Beam D = 2.818 m
Mean thickness of compression flange T = 0.028 m
Coefficient y = 26.5x105/λ2 = 1737.6 N/mm2
Coefficient x = y[1+1/20*(λT/D)2]^(1/2) = 1744.1 N/mm2
Lesser distance of extreme fibre from NA C1 = 1.225 m
Greater distance of extreme fibre from NA C2 = 1.593 m
Thickness of Web tw = 0.016 m
Thickness of compression flange to web ratio T/tw = 1.75

61 of 221
Clear Depth of web d3 = 2.75 m
Clear depth of web to thickness ratio d3/tw = 171.875
Elastic critical stress fcb = 850 N/mm2
fcb = 1.2xk1[X+K2Y][C2/C1] If T/tw <2 and d3/tw <85
fcb=k1[X+K2Y][C2/C1]
Yeild stress of steel fy = 390 N/mm2
Permissible bending compressive stress
σbc =0.66xfcbxfy/[(fcb)1.4+(fy)1.4]^(1/1.4) σbc = 209.3 N/mm2
Maximum bending stress σb = 0.62fy = 241.8 N/mm2

Permissible bending compressive stress at erection stage 209.3 N/mm2


=

During service condition compression flange is fully restrained with deck slab by shear connector

Permissible bending tensile stress at erection stage 241.8 N/mm2


=

(i) Permissible shear stress in steel girder

Spacing of transvese stiffener near span c = 1.8 m

Clear spacing between flanges and horizontal siffener d 2.8 m


=

Thickness of Web t 0.016 m


=

Permissible average shear stress in un stiffend steel girder =0.35fy 136.5 N/mm2

Permissible average shear stress in stiffend steel girder 115.0 N/mm2


=

ꚍva =0.35fy[1.3- fy1/2c/t/4000{1+1/2(c/d)2}


if c<d

=0.35fy[1.3- fy1/2d/t/4000{1+1/2(d/c)2}
if c>d

Hence permissible average shear stress in steel girder ꚍva = 115.0 N/mm2

Maximum shear stress 0.43fy= 167.7 N/mm2

OK

Permissible Concrete Stress as per CL No.604.3.1 of IRC:22-2008 = 1/3*fck = 13.33 N/mm2

Permissible bending compressive stress at erection stage 209.3 N/mm2


=

Permissible bending tensile stress at erection stage 241.8 N/mm2


=

Permissible steel bending stress at service stage (all sections) 241.8 N/mm2
=
Max Elastic Steel Stress at service condition as per Cl N0.604.3.1 of IRC
22-2008 =0.87fy 339.3 N/mm2
=

Long term modular ratio for permanent loading 15.0


=

Short term modular ratio for transient loading 7.5


=

7.4 2 Summary of Section Properties ( In equivalent of Steel )

Mid Span

Properties Unit Composite Composite


Only Girder Section Section
for DL Long term -Short term
SIDL for LL

A= m2 0.098 0.152 0.206

Iz = m4 0.1213 0.2352 0.2893

62 of 221
Yb = m 1.225 1.8705262 2.2

Zb = m3 0.099 0.126 0.133

Yts = m 1.297 0.99

Zts = m3 0.181 0.29

Ytg= m 1.593 0.947 0.64

Ztg = m3 0.076 0.248 0.45

7.4 3 Stress Check at Different cases

(i) Calculation of stress at different sections during erection stage

Moment of Moment of Stress for Stress for


Section Self Weight Moment ( kNm) Construction Deck Slab Stress for Construc Stress for Erection Check Permissible
Load ( kNm) ( kNm) Self Weight Load Dek Slab Stage Stress
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab

At
Top of
Mid 1024.56 1051.17 2872.48 13.46 13.81 37.74 65.009 < 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-10.35 -10.62 -29.02 -49.987 < -241.8
Girder

(ii) Calculation of stress after applied SIDL -Long term

Moment of Stress for Stress for Stress for


SIDL Moment Crash Removal of Crash Erection Total Permissible
Section Removal of Shutter ( kNm)
( kNm) Barrier load Shutter Stress SIDL Barrier Stage Stress Stress
( kNm) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab -0.386 0.363 0.136 0.113 13.33

At
Top of
Mid -1050 988.003 370.19 -4.2 4.0 1.5 65.009 66.251 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
8.35 -7.86 -2.94 -49.987 -52.438 -241.8
Girder

(iii) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with wind load -short term Hence ok

Stress for
Moment Due to Live Load Moment Due to Wind Load x Stress for Stress for Differential Stress Total Permissible
Section
+Snow Load ( kNm) 0.6 (kNm) Live Load Wind Load Shrinkage After SIDL Stress Stress
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 2.20 0.13 -0.29 0.113 2.2 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 4818.493 277.2 10.69 0.62 30.92 66.251 108.5 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-36.24 -2.08 -7.18 -52.438 -97.94 -241.8
Girder

Hence ok

(iv) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with (+ ) Temperature

Stress for
Stress 0.6 x Temerature
Section Stress Live Load (Mpa) Differential Total Stress (Mpa) Check Permissible
(Mpa)
Shrinkage Stress After Stress
(Mpa) SIDL (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 2.20 0.342 -0.29 0.11 2.37 < 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 10.69 -13.35 30.92 66.25 94.51 < 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-36.24 24.41 -7.18 -52.44 -71.45 < -241.8
Girder

(iv) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with (-) Temperature Hence ok

63 of 221
Stress for
Stress 0.6 x Temerature Differential Permissible
Section Stress Live Load (Mpa) Total Stress (Mpa) Check
(Mpa) Shrinkage Stress After Stress
(Mpa) SIDL (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 2.20 -0.240 -0.29 0.11 1.79 < 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 10.69 6.24 30.92 66.25 114.10 < 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-36.24 -3.923 -7.18 -52.44 -99.78 < -241.8
Girder

Hence ok

7.4 .4 Load combination for Rare Combination

1) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge

2) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+ wind load(lead) (unloaded structure)

3) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(lead)+wind load (accompany)

4) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(accompany)+wind load (lead)

5) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(lead)+Temperature(accompany)

6) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(accompany)+Temperature(lead)

a) Load combination

Load Case 1 (a) 2 (a) 2 (b) 3 (a) 3 (b) 4 (a) 4 (b) 5 (a)

DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

SIDL 1.2 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2

Shrinkage 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Live load 1 1 0.75 0.75 1

Wind load-
Unloaded
1 1

Wind load-
Loaded
0.6 0.6 1 1

Temp (+ve) 0.6

Temp (-ve)

Load Case 5 (b) 5 (c) 5 (d) 6 (a) 6 (b) 6 (c) 6 (d)

DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

SIDL 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1

Shrinkage 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Live load 1 0.75 0.75 1 1 0.75 0.75

Wind load-
Unloaded

Wind load-
Loaded

Temp (+ve) 0.6 1 1

64 of 221
Temp (-ve) 0.6 0.6 1 1

7.4 .5 Check for Rare Combination (SL1)

Stress for Stress for Stress for Stress for Stress


Dead Load
Removal of Differential Stress Stress Live Wind load Wind load Temepera Stress
Section Stress
(Mpa) Stress for Construction Load Shuttering Shrinkage SIDL Load (Mpa) Unloaded Loaded ture (+) Temeperat
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) Mpa ure (-) Mpa
Top of
0.136 0.0 -0.386 -0.29 0.363 2.20 0.410 0.2112 0.570 -0.40
Slab

Top of
52.7 13.8 -4.229 30.92 3.979 10.69 1.988 1.0253 -22.252 10.40
Girder

Bottom
of -42.3 -10.6 8.349 -7.18 -7.856 -36.24 -6.738 -3.4743 40.679 -6.54
Girder

Stress for Different Load Cases

Section 1 2(a) 2(b) 3(a) 3(b) 4(a) 4(b) 5(a) 5(b)

Top of
0.282 0.7 0.619 2.61 2.539 2.15 2.073 2.8269 2.754
Slab

Top of
88.383 90.4 89.576 99.69 98.896 97.43 96.633 85.7258 84.930
Girder

Bottom
of -58.921 -65.7 -64.088 -97.24 -95.669 -89.57 -88.000 -70.7491 -69.178
Girder

Permissibl
Max Stress Min Stress
Section 5(c) 5(d) 6(a) 6(b) 6(c) 6(d) e Stress Check
(Mpa) (Mpa)
(Mpa)

Top of
2.5 2.431 2.24 2.172 1.53 1.461 2.8269 0.282 13.333 OK
Slab

Top of
74.2 73.356 105.32 104.524 106.81 106.012 106.8080 73.356 209.284 OK
Girder

Bottom
of -45.4 -43.847 -99.08 -97.508 -92.64 -91.064 -43.8475 -99.079 -241.800 OK
Girder

7.4 .6 Shear Stress Check for Rare Combination (SL1)

From STAAD and


Maximum Shear Force V = 173 kN
Combination

Depth of Web d = 1574 mm

Thickness of Web tw = 16 mm

Shear Stress V/dtw = 6.87 N/mm2 < 115.0

7. 5 Deflection Check for frequent combination (SL2)

Load Case SIDL Live Load Wind Load (Accompany)


Dead Load

Comb 1 1 0.6
1

65 of 221
DISPACEMENT OBTAINED FROM STAAD MODEL

Absolute
Absolute Absolute Absolute
Node No : Load Case x y z Displaceme
rotation x rotation y rotation Z
nt

116 1.Dead Load 0 -13 0 13 0 0


0

2.Dead Load 0 -35.123 0 35.123 0 0


0

3. Construction 0 -12.854 0 12.854 0 0


0

116 1. Dead Load 0 -2.085 0 2.085 0 0


0

2.SIDL 0 -5.243 0 5.243 0 0


0

3.CONS LL 0 5.608 0 5.608 0 0


0

116 3.FOOTPATH LIVE 0 0.64 0 0.64 0 0


0

4. WIND LOAD -UNLOADED 0 4.488 0 4.488 0 0


0

5.WIND LOAD LOADED 0 -2.336 0 2.336 0 0


0

116 Live Load 0 -19.252 0 19.252 -0.002 0


0

Total Deflection at service case = 82.71 mm > L/600 = 80.50

CAMBER REQUIRED

Deflection for Live Load Case Only = 19.252 mm < L/800 = 60.375

HENCE OK

7. 6 Fatigue Check

The girder is built-up welded .as per Table 19(b) of IRC 24-2010 detail category = 80 Mpa

Partial safety factor as per Cl 511.2.3 of IRC :24-2010

ϒfft = Partial safety factor for loads and other effects = 1

ϒmft = Partial safety factor for fatigue strength (Refer Table 18 of IRC :24-2010) =
1.15

Applying partial factor of safety ,allowable stress variation (f/(ϒfft*ϒmft)) = 69.6 Mpa

Correction factor ɥc for larger plate thickness than 25 mm thick = (25/tf)^0.25

For tf =32mm = 0.940

Hence Allowable fatigue strength fn = 65.40 Mpa

Actual Number of Stress Cycles = Nsc

Maximum Stress variation due to lIve load = 36.24 Mpa

Bending stress at the edge of stiffener = 34.87 Mpa

Clear Distance of Stiffener palte from Bottom Flane = 0.05 m

Thickness of Bottom Flange = 0.032 m

Shear Stress at the edge of stiffener = VAY/Ib

66 of 221
Shear Force V = 158.151 kN

=
A = 0.0013 m2
0.016*0.032+0.05*0.016

Y= 0.041 = 2.135 m

AY With Hole = 0.002801 m3

I= 0.011 = 0.0177899 m4

b = m
0.016

Shear Stress = 2.5168881 Mpa

Principal Shear Stress = ( Sigmax +sigmay)/2+((sigmax+sigmay)/2)^2+shear stress^2)^0.5 = 35.05 Mpa

Fatigue strength is not required for f<27/ϒmft or Nsc <5x10^6X(27/ϒmft/ϒfftxf)^3 = 23.48 Mpa

Design Life N= 100 Years N= 100 Years

Average number of stress fluctuation in a day A= 100

Total Number of Stress Cycle Nsc = 365NA = 3.65E+06 <5000000

Stress variation 36.24 Mpa

=5x10^6x(27/ϒmft /ϒfft
> f <27/ϒmft 23.48 Mpa Nsc <
xf)

f = fn *(5x10^6/Nsc)^(1/3) = 72.64 > 35.05

Hence OK

67 of 221
8.0 Calculation of Flexural Stress at Mid Span of Outer Girder (G2) = m
8.1 Moment and Shear From STAAD Output

Member Load Case Node No: FX (kN) Fy (kN) Fz (kN) MX (kNm) My (kNm) Mz (kNm)
248 1. DEAD LOAD 108 0 29.078 0 0 0.000 -960.1
116 0 -0.991 0 0 0.000 1024.56
2. SIDL 108 0 86.1 0 0 0.000 -2691.7
116 0 0 0 0 0.000 2872.48
3.CONSTRUCTION 108 0 31.5 0 0 0.000 -985.02
116 0 0 0 6.517 0.000 1051.17
459 1. DEAD LOAD 210 0 -7.089 0 6.755 0.000 -370.19
216 0 17.589 0 0.948 0.000 352.915
2. SIDL 210 0 10.707 0 0.977 0.000 -978.4
216 0 -3.007 0 0 0.000 988.003
3.CONSTRUCTION
210 0 -10.5
( Removal ) 0 0 0.000 1042.65
216 0 0 0 -0.004 0.000 -1050
459 4.FOOTPATH 210 0 -2.842 0 0.004 0.000 148.293
216 0 2.842 0 0 0.000 -152.27
5.WIND LOAD (UNLOAD) 210 0 -8.96 0 0 0.000 889.728
216 0 0 0 0 0.000 -896
6. WIND LOAD (LOADED) 210 0 4.62 0 0 0.000 -458.77
216 0 0 0 1.104 0.000 462
459 7. Live Load
MAX ( +VE) 0 185.567 0 0 0.000 -4670.2
0 0
MAX ( -VE) 0 -158.151 0 -0.226 0.000

8.2 Summary of Bending Moment and Shear at L/2

Shear Force (kN) Moment (kNm)


Moment/Shear Due to self weight of girder = 0.991 1024.560
Moment/Shear Due to weight of Deck Slab = 0 2872.480
Moment/Shear Due to Construction Load = 0 1051.170
Moment/Shear Due to Dead Load = 7.089 352.915
Moment/Shear Due to SIDL = 3.007 988.003
Removal of Construction Stage Live LL = 0 -1050.000
Moment/Shear Due to Carriage way LL = 158.151 4670.200
Wind Load unload = 0 896.000
Wind Load Loaded = 0 462.000
Moment Due to Foot path Live Load = 2.842 148.293
4818.493
8.3 Check For Ultimate Strength of Girder in Flexure

5.31 .Erection Stage


Properties of Girder Only
Thickness of Top Flange tf = 28 mm Width of Top Flange b = 550.000 mm
Thickness of Bottom Flange tf = 32 mm Width of Top Bottom Flange b = 850.000 mm
Thickess of Web tw = 16 mm Overall Depth D = 2818.000 mm
Sectional Area Aa = 97520 mm2 Moment of Inertia Izz = 1.21E+11 mm4
Efective Length kl = 4200 mm Moment of Inertia Iyy= 1.13E+09 mm4
Radius of Gyration ry = 107.5 mm Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 76115282 mm3 Plastic Section Modulus Zpy = 9145250 mm3
Plastic Section Modulus Zpz = 98791877.78 mm3
Elastic Modulus Es = 200000 N/mm2
Yeild Stress of Steel Plate thk>20 mm = 390 N/mm2 ԑ1 = 0.801
Yeild Stress of Steel Plate thk<20 mm = 410 N/mm2 ԑ2 = 0.781
Partial Safety Factor for Material ϒm0 = 1.1
Type of Section Used = Welded
8.3.2 Classification of Sections
For outstanding Element of Compression Flange (As per Table 2 ,Clause 3.7.2 and 3.7.4 of IS 800-2007)
Coefficient for Plastic Section = 8.4
Coefficient for Compact Section = 9.4
Coefficient for Semi Compact = 13.6
For Web element of I,H and Box Section
Coefficient for Plastic Section = 84
Coefficient for Compact Section = 105
Coefficient for Semi Compact = 126

b/tf = 225/28 = 8.04 > 8.4ԑ = 6.73


> 9.4ԑ = 7.53
< 13.6ԑ = 10.9

68 of 221
Hence section is Semi Compact
d/tw = 2000/16 = 125 > 126ԑ = 98.4
Hence section is Selender
Hence a part of web section is efective for making the section is Semi-Compact .Efective Depth d= 1574 mm
This section is Semi-Compact
Hence ,the section is Semi -Compact for Shear and the section is Semi-compact for Bending

8.3.3 Check for resistance of the section against material due to the Bending :(Clause -509 of IRC :24-2010)

Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections


= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section

= Design Bending Compressive Stress

=Bending Stress reduction factor

αLT = Imperfection Parameter


= 0.21 for rolled steel section
= 0.49 for welded steel section

λLT =

KLY= KL 4200 = KLY/ ry = 27.42


= KLZ/ rz = 3.77

λy = = 0.39 pi()= 3.14


αLT = 0.49

λz = hf = 2784 m
= 0.05

Mcr = 1.759E+11 N-mm


Y direction Z direction
Now λLT = 0.14 0.468
ɸLT = 0.50 0.68
XLT= 1.0 0.9
fbd 355 N/mm2 305 N/mm2
Hence Md = 941 kNm 23226 kNm
8.3.4 Long Term Effect
Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 125757333 mm3

Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections


= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section
Zpz = 103172691 mm3 Zpy = 161505758 mm3

XLT= 1.0 fy = 390


ϒm0 = 1.1
fbd = 355 N/mm2
Mdy = 941 kNm Mdz = 44587 kNm

8.3.5 Short Term Effect


Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 132977524 mm3

69 of 221
Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections
= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section
Zpz = 166441399 mm3 Zpy = 21754509 mm3

XLT= = fy = 390

fbd = 355 N/mm2 ϒm0 = 1.1


Mdy = 941 kNm Mdy = 47147 kNm

8.3.6 Check for Ultimate Capacity


Type of Mz Muz Mdz
Description ULS factor Ultimate Stress
Loading
Erection
DL +Cons LL 4948 1.35 6679.8 < 23226 87.759
Stage
Crash Barrier load 370 1.35 500 < 44587 3.972
Long Term SIDL 988 1.75 1729 < 13.749
Moment Cons LL -1050 1.35 -1418 < -11.272
Live Load +Snow Load 4670 1.5 7005 < 47147 52.678
Short Term Wind Load 462 0.9 416 < 3.127
Moment Foot path Live Load 148 1.5 222 < 1.669
My Factor Muy < Mdy 152

Erection
DL +Cons LL 0 1.35
Stage
Moment
SIDL 0 1.75

CONS LL 0 1.35
Long Term
Moment

Live Load 0 1.5


Short Term
Moment Wind Load 0 0.9

Combined Effect = Mz/Mdz +My/Mdy <1

=6680/12042+811/23538+7643/24473+0/1143+0/1143+0/1143 = 0.47 < 1 OK

8.3.7 Check for Ultimate Strength of Girder in Shear

Shear capacity shall be calculated as per shear buckling method as specified in 509.4.2.2(a) of IRC 24-2010
Vn =Vcr =Avꚍv Fyw = 410 N/mm2
Where Vn = Applied Shear Force
Type of Loading Description V Factor Vn
Erection Stage DL ,Con LL 1 1.35 1.35
Crash Barrier 7 1.35 9.45
Long Term Moment SIDL 3 1.75 5.25
Cons LL 0 1.35 0
Live LL+Snow
Short Term Load 158 1.5 237
Wind Load 0 0.9 0
Foot path LL 3 1.5 4.5

172 258

I) Resistance of Shear Buckling shall be verified as specified


d= Depth of effective Web = 1574 mm

tw = Thickness of Web = 16 mm
d/tw = 98.4 > 67ԑ = 53.64 For web without Stiffeners
> 67ԑw*SQRT(Kv/5.35)
Vcr = Shear Force correspond to web buckling
Av = Area of Web
λw = Non dimensional selenderness ratio of shear buckling stress
SQRT(FYW/SQRT(3) ꚍcr
ꚍcr = Elastic critical Shear stress of the web
Kv*pi^2*E/(12*(1-ɥ^2)*(d/tw)^2)
ɥ = Poision Ratio 0.3
E = Young's Modulus = 200000 Mpa

70 of 221
Kv = 5.35 for unstiffened Web
= 4+5.35/(c/d)^2 for c/d<1
5.35+4/(c/d)^2 for c/d>1
c= = 1800 mm c/d = 1.57
Kv = = 6.98
ꚍcr = 130
λw = = 1.35 > 0.8 and 1.2
ꚍv = Shear stress corresponding to web buckling
λw <0.8 ꚍv = fyw/sqrt(3) = 236.714 Mpa
0.8< λw <1.2 ꚍv =(1-0.8*(λw -0.8))*fyw/sqrt(3) 132.911 Mpa
λw >1.2 =fyw/sqrt(3)/λw ^2 = 130.242 Mpa
Vcr = A v ꚍv = 3280 kN

II) Tension Field Method As per Clause 8.4.2.2b of IRC 24-2010 Vn =Vtf
Vtf = [ Avtv+0.9wttwfysinɸ]<Vnp
ꚍv = 130.242 Mpa

Plastic Moment of the Flange Plate

Mtf = 0.25bftf2fyf[1-{Nf/bftffyf/ϒm0}^2]
bf = 550.000 mm tf = 28 mm fyf = 390.000 Mpa
Nf = Mu /d 2395911.047 N
Mtf = 36512718.23 N-mm 15733277

Inclination of tension field


ɸ= tan-1(d/c) = d= 1574 mm c= 1800 mm

ɸ= 41.1721 Degree

Anchorage Length of tension field in compression and tension flange


Sc = St 2/ Sin(ɸ )*(Mfr/(fytw)^0.5 <c = 148.8 mm
Wtf = dcos(ɸ)-(c-sc-st)sin(ɸ ) = 195.9 mm
Yield Strength of Tension Field
fv = {fyw2-3ꚍv2+ψ2)^0.5-ψ = 178.8 MPa
ψ= 1.5ꚍvsin(2ɸ) = 193.62 Mpa

The Shear Resitance Vt = 5314 kN > 257.550 OK

8.4 Check For Serviciblity case


8.4 .1 Permissible Stress in Outer Longitudinal Girder
(i) Permissible tensile and compressive bending stress As per Clause Annex-G of IRC 24-2010
C/s area of both flanges at the maximum BM zone A 1 = 0.0426 m2
C/s area of both flanges at the minimum BM zone A 2 = 0.027248 m2
Ratio of total area of both the flanges ,ψ = A 2/A1 = 0.64
Coefficient associated with ψ k1 = 0.98
[ Table G.6.of IRC 24-2010]
MOI of the compressive flange aboyt Y axis at Max BM zone ,I1 = 3.88E-04 m4
MOI of the both the flange aboyt Y axis at Max BM zone ,I2= 2.03E-03 m4
Ratio of the compression flange to the sum of MOI of each flange = β = 0.192
Coefficient associated with β k2 = -0.62 [ Table G.7.of IRC 24-2010]
Effective Length of compression flange L = 4.2 m
MOI of minor axis Iy = 1.13E-03 m4
Cross sectional area of steel girder A = 0.0975 m2
Radius of Gyration of Minor Axis ry = 0.1075 m
Selenderness ratio λ = 39.05 <300
Overall Depth of Beam D = 2.818 m
Mean thickness of compression flange T = 0.028 m
Coefficient y = 26.5x105/λ2 = 1737.6 N/mm2
Coefficient x = y[1+1/20*(λT/D)2]^(1/2) = 1744.1 N/mm2
Lesser distance of extreme fibre from NA C1 = 1.225 m
Greater distance of extreme fibre from NA C2 = 1.593 m
Thickness of Web tw = 0.016 m
Thickness of compression flange to web ratio T/tw = 1.75

71 of 221
Clear Depth of web d3 = 2.75 m
Clear depth of web to thickness ratio d3/tw = 171.875
Elastic critical stress fcb = 850 N/mm2
fcb = 1.2xk1[X+K2Y][C2/C1] If T/tw <2 and d3/tw <85
fcb=k1[X+K2Y][C2/C1]
Yeild stress of steel fy = 390 N/mm2
Permissible bending compressive stress
σbc =0.66xfcbxfy/[(fcb)1.4+(fy)1.4]^(1/1.4) σbc = 209.3 N/mm2
Maximum bending stress σb = 0.62fy = 241.8 N/mm2

Permissible bending compressive stress at erection stage 209.3 N/mm2


=

During service condition compression flange is fully restrained with deck slab by shear connector

Permissible bending tensile stress at erection stage 241.8 N/mm2


=

(i) Permissible shear stress in steel girder

Spacing of transvese stiffener near span c = 1.8 m

Clear spacing between flanges and horizontal siffener d 2.8 m


=

Thickness of Web t 0.016 m


=

Permissible average shear stress in un stiffend steel girder =0.35fy 136.5 N/mm2

Permissible average shear stress in stiffend steel girder 115.0 N/mm2


=

ꚍva =0.35fy[1.3- fy1/2c/t/4000{1+1/2(c/d)2}


if c<d

=0.35fy[1.3- fy1/2d/t/4000{1+1/2(d/c)2}
if c>d

Hence permissible average shear stress in steel girder ꚍva = 115.0 N/mm2

Maximum shear stress 0.43fy= 167.7 N/mm2

OK

Permissible Concrete Stress as per CL No.604.3.1 of IRC:22-2008 = 1/3*fck = 13.33 N/mm2

Permissible bending compressive stress at erection stage 209.3 N/mm2


=

Permissible bending tensile stress at erection stage 241.8 N/mm2


=

Permissible steel bending stress at service stage (all sections) 241.8 N/mm2
=
Max Elastic Steel Stress at service condition as per Cl N0.604.3.1 of IRC
22-2008 =0.87fy 339.3 N/mm2
=

Long term modular ratio for permanent loading 15.0


=

Short term modular ratio for transient loading 7.5


=

8.4 2 Summary of Section Properties ( In equivalent of Steel )

Mid Span

Properties Unit Composite Composite


Only Girder Section Section
for DL Long term -Short term
SIDL for LL

A= m2 0.098 0.152 0.206

Iz = m4 0.1213 0.2352 0.2893

72 of 221
Yb = m 1.225 1.8705262 2.2

Zb = m3 0.099 0.126 0.133

Yts = m 1.297 0.99

Zts = m3 0.181 0.29

Ytg= m 1.593 0.947 0.64

Ztg = m3 0.076 0.248 0.45

8.4 3 Stress Check at Different cases

(i) Calculation of stress at different sections during erection stage

Moment of Moment of Stress for Stress for


Section Self Weight Moment ( kNm) Construction Deck Slab Stress for Construc Stress for Erection Check Permissible
Load ( kNm) ( kNm) Self Weight Load Dek Slab Stage Stress
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab

At
Top of
Mid 1024.56 1051.17 2872.48 13.46 13.81 37.74 65.009 < 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-10.35 -10.62 -29.02 -49.987 < -241.8
Girder

(ii) Calculation of stress after applied SIDL -Long term

Moment of Stress for Stress for Stress for


SIDL Moment Crash Removal of Crash Erection Total Permissible
Section Removal of Shutter ( kNm)
( kNm) Barrier load Shutter Stress SIDL Barrier Stage Stress Stress
( kNm) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab -0.386 0.363 0.136 0.113 13.33

At
Top of
Mid -1050 988.003 370.19 -4.2 4.0 1.5 65.009 66.251 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
8.35 -7.86 -2.94 -49.987 -52.438 -241.8
Girder

(iii) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with wind load -short term Hence ok

Stress for
Moment Due to Live Load Moment Due to Wind Load x Stress for Stress for Differential Stress Total Permissible
Section
+Snow Load ( kNm) 0.6 (kNm) Live Load Wind Load Shrinkage After SIDL Stress Stress
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 2.20 0.13 -0.29 0.113 2.2 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 4818.493 277.2 10.69 0.62 30.92 66.251 108.5 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-36.24 -2.08 -7.18 -52.438 -97.94 -241.8
Girder

Hence ok

(iv) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with (+ ) Temperature

Stress for
Stress 0.6 x Temerature
Section Stress Live Load (Mpa) Differential Total Stress (Mpa) Check Permissible
(Mpa)
Shrinkage Stress After Stress
(Mpa) SIDL (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 2.20 0.342 -0.29 0.11 2.37 < 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 10.69 -13.35 30.92 66.25 94.51 < 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-36.24 24.41 -7.18 -52.44 -71.45 < -241.8
Girder

(iv) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with (-) Temperature Hence ok

73 of 221
Stress for
Stress 0.6 x Temerature Differential Permissible
Section Stress Live Load (Mpa) Total Stress (Mpa) Check
(Mpa) Shrinkage Stress After Stress
(Mpa) SIDL (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 2.20 -0.240 -0.29 0.11 1.79 < 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 10.69 6.24 30.92 66.25 114.10 < 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-36.24 -3.923 -7.18 -52.44 -99.78 < -241.8
Girder

Hence ok

8.4 4 Load combination for Rare Combination

1) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge

2) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+ wind load(lead) (unloaded structure)

3) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(lead)+wind load (accompany)

4) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(accompany)+wind load (lead)

5) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(lead)+Temperature(accompany)

6) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(accompany)+Temperature(lead)

a) Load combination

Load Case 1 (a) 2 (a) 2 (b) 3 (a) 3 (b) 4 (a) 4 (b) 5 (a)

DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

SIDL 1.2 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2

Shrinkage 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Live load 1 1 0.75 0.75 1

Wind load-
Unloaded
1 1

Wind load-
Loaded
0.6 0.6 1 1

Temp (+ve) 0.6

Temp (-ve)

Load Case 5 (b) 5 (c) 5 (d) 6 (a) 6 (b) 6 (c) 6 (d)

DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

SIDL 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1

Shrinkage 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Live load 1 0.75 0.75 1 1 0.75 0.75

Wind load-
Unloaded

Wind load-
Loaded

Temp (+ve) 0.6 1 1

74 of 221
Temp (-ve) 0.6 0.6 1 1

8.4 5 Check for Rare Combination (SL1)

Stress for Stress for Stress for Stress for Stress


Dead Load
Removal of Differential Stress Stress Live Wind load Wind load Temepera Stress
Section Stress
(Mpa) Stress for Construction Load Shuttering Shrinkage SIDL Load (Mpa) Unloaded Loaded ture (+) Temeperat
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) Mpa ure (-) Mpa
Top of
0.136 0.0 -0.386 -0.29 0.363 2.20 0.410 0.2112 0.570 -0.40
Slab

Top of
52.7 13.8 -4.229 30.92 3.979 10.69 1.988 1.0253 -22.252 10.40
Girder

Bottom
of -42.3 -10.6 8.349 -7.18 -7.856 -36.24 -6.738 -3.4743 40.679 -6.54
Girder

Stress for Different Load Cases

Section 1 2(a) 2(b) 3(a) 3(b) 4(a) 4(b) 5(a) 5(b)

Top of
0.282 0.7 0.619 2.61 2.539 2.15 2.073 2.8269 2.754
Slab

Top of
88.383 90.4 89.576 99.69 98.896 97.43 96.633 85.7258 84.930
Girder

Bottom
of -58.921 -65.7 -64.088 -97.24 -95.669 -89.57 -88.000 -70.7491 -69.178
Girder

Permissibl
Max Stress Min Stress
Section 5(c) 5(d) 6(a) 6(b) 6(c) 6(d) e Stress Check
(Mpa) (Mpa)
(Mpa)

Top of
2.5 2.431 2.24 2.172 1.53 1.461 2.8269 0.282 13.333 OK
Slab

Top of
74.2 73.356 105.32 104.524 106.81 106.012 106.8080 73.356 209.284 OK
Girder

Bottom
of -45.4 -43.847 -99.08 -97.508 -92.64 -91.064 -43.8475 -99.079 -241.800 OK
Girder

8.4 .6 Shear Stress Check for Rare Combination (SL1)

From STAAD and


Maximum Shear Force V = 173 kN
Combination

Depth of Web d = 1574 mm

Thickness of Web tw = 16 mm

Shear Stress V/dtw = 6.87 N/mm2 < 115.0

8. 5 Deflection Check for frequent combination (SL2)

Load Case SIDL Live Load Wind Load (Accompany)


Dead Load

Comb 1 1 0.6
1

75 of 221
DISPACEMENT OBTAINED FROM STAAD MODEL

Absolute
Absolute Absolute Absolute
Node No : Load Case x y z Displaceme
rotation x rotation y rotation Z
nt

116 1.Dead Load 0 -13 0 13 0 0


0

2.Dead Load 0 -35.123 0 35.123 0 0


0

3. Construction 0 -12.854 0 12.854 0 0


0

116 1. Dead Load 0 -2.085 0 2.085 0 0


0

2.SIDL 0 -5.243 0 5.243 0 0


0

3.CONS LL 0 5.608 0 5.608 0 0


0

116 3.FOOTPATH LIVE 0 0.64 0 0.64 0 0


0

4. WIND LOAD -UNLOADED 0 4.488 0 4.488 0 0


0

5.WIND LOAD LOADED 0 -2.336 0 2.336 0 0


0

116 Live Load 0 -19.252 0 19.252 -0.002 0


0

Total Deflection at service case = 82.71 mm > L/600 = 80.50

CAMBER REQUIRED

Deflection for Live Load Case Only = 19.252 mm < L/800 = 60.375

HENCE OK

8. 6 Fatigue Check

The girder is built-up welded .as per Table 19(b) of IRC 24-2010 detail category = 80 Mpa

Partial safety factor as per Cl 511.2.3 of IRC :24-2010

ϒfft = Partial safety factor for loads and other effects = 1

ϒmft = Partial safety factor for fatigue strength (Refer Table 18 of IRC :24-2010) =
1.15

Applying partial factor of safety ,allowable stress variation (f/(ϒfft*ϒmft)) = 69.6 Mpa

Correction factor ɥc for larger plate thickness than 25 mm thick = (25/tf)^0.25

For tf =32mm = 0.940

Hence Allowable fatigue strength fn = 65.40 Mpa

Actual Number of Stress Cycles = Nsc

Maximum Stress variation due to lIve load = 36.24 Mpa

Bending stress at the edge of stiffener = 34.87 Mpa

Clear Distance of Stiffener palte from Bottom Flane = 0.05 m

Thickness of Bottom Flange = 0.032 m

Shear Stress at the edge of stiffener = VAY/Ib

76 of 221
Shear Force V = 158.151 kN

=
A = 0.0013 m2
0.016*0.032+0.05*0.016

Y= 0.041 = 2.135 m

AY With Hole = 0.002801 m3

I= 0.011 = 0.0177899 m4

b = m
0.016

Shear Stress = 2.5168881 Mpa

Principal Shear Stress = ( Sigmax +sigmay)/2+((sigmax+sigmay)/2)^2+shear stress^2)^0.5 = 35.05 Mpa

Fatigue strength is not required for f<27/ϒmft or Nsc <5x10^6X(27/ϒmft/ϒfftxf)^3 = 23.48 Mpa

Design Life N= 100 Years N= 100 Years

Average number of stress fluctuation in a day A= 100

Total Number of Stress Cycle Nsc = 365NA = 3.65E+06 <5000000

Stress variation 36.24 Mpa

=5x10^6x(27/ϒmft /ϒfft
> f <27/ϒmft 23.48 Mpa Nsc <
xf)

f = fn *(5x10^6/Nsc)^(1/3) = 72.64 > 35.05

Hence OK

77 of 221
9.0 Calculation of Flexural Stress at Splice Point of Outer Girder (G2) = m
9.1 Moment and Shear From STAAD Output

Member Load Case Node No: FX (kN) Fy (kN) Fz (kN) MX (kNm) My (kNm) Mz (kNm)
248 1. DEAD LOAD 108 0 29.078 0 0 0.000 -960.1
116 0 -0.991 0 0 0.000 1024.56
2. SIDL 108 0 86.1 0 0 0.000 -2691.7
116 0 0 0 0 0.000 2872.48
3.CONSTRUCTION 108 0 31.5 0 0 0.000 -985.02
116 0 0 0 6.517 0.000 1051.17
459 1. DEAD LOAD 210 0 -7.089 0 6.755 0.000 -370.19
216 0 17.589 0 0.948 0.000 352.915
2. SIDL 210 0 10.707 0 0.977 0.000 -978.4
216 0 -3.007 0 0 0.000 988.003
3.CONSTRUCTION
210 0 -10.5
( Removal ) 0 0 0.000 1042.65
216 0 0 0 -0.004 0.000 -1050
459 4.FOOTPATH 210 0 -2.842 0 0.004 0.000 148.293
216 0 2.842 0 0 0.000 -152.27
5.WIND LOAD (UNLOAD) 210 0 -8.96 0 0 0.000 889.728
216 0 0 0 0 0.000 -896
6. WIND LOAD (LOADED) 210 0 4.62 0 0 0.000 -458.77
216 0 0 0 1.104 0.000 462
459 7. Live Load
MAX ( +VE) 0 185.567 0 0 0.000 -4670.2
0 0
MAX ( -VE) 0 -158.151 0 -0.226 0.000

9.2 Summary of Bending Moment and Shear at L/2

Shear Force (kN) Moment (kNm)


Moment/Shear Due to self weight of girder = 0.991 1024.560
Moment/Shear Due to weight of Deck Slab = 0 2872.480
Moment/Shear Due to Construction Load = 0 1051.170
Moment/Shear Due to Dead Load = 7.089 352.915
Moment/Shear Due to SIDL = 3.007 988.003
Removal of Construction Stage Live LL = 0 -1050.000
Moment/Shear Due to Carriage way LL = 158.151 4670.200
Wind Load unload = 0 896.000
Wind Load Loaded = 0 462.000
Moment Due to Foot path Live Load = 2.842 148.293
4818.493
9.3 Check For Ultimate Strength of Girder in Flexure

5.31 .Erection Stage


Properties of Girder Only
Thickness of Top Flange tf = 28 mm Width of Top Flange b = 550.000 mm
Thickness of Bottom Flange tf = 32 mm Width of Top Bottom Flange b = 850.000 mm
Thickess of Web tw = 16 mm Overall Depth D = 2818.000 mm
Sectional Area Aa = 97520 mm2 Moment of Inertia Izz = 1.21E+11 mm4
Efective Length kl = 4200 mm Moment of Inertia Iyy= 1.13E+09 mm4
Radius of Gyration ry = 107.5 mm Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 76115282 mm 3 Plastic Section Modulus Zpy = 9145250 mm3
Plastic Section Modulus Zpz = 98791877.78 mm 3

Elastic Modulus Es = 200000 N/mm2


Yeild Stress of Steel Plate thk>20 mm = 390 N/mm2 ԑ1 = 0.801
Yeild Stress of Steel Plate thk<20 mm = 410 N/mm 2 ԑ2 = 0.781
Partial Safety Factor for Material ϒm0
= 1.1
Type of Section Used = Welded
9.3.2 Classification of Sections
For outstanding Element of Compression Flange (As per Table 2 ,Clause 3.7.2 and 3.7.4 of IS 800-2007)
Coefficient for Plastic Section = 8.4
Coefficient for Compact Section = 9.4
Coefficient for Semi Compact = 13.6
For Web element of I,H and Box Section
Coefficient for Plastic Section = 84
Coefficient for Compact Section = 105

78 of 221
Coefficient for Semi Compact = 126

b/tf = 225/28 = 8.04 > 8.4ԑ = 6.73


> 9.4ԑ = 7.53
< 13.6ԑ = 10.9
Hence section is Semi Compact
d/tw = 2000/16 = 125 > 126ԑ = 98.4
Hence section is Selender
Hence a part of web section is efective for making the section is Semi-Compact .Efective Depth d= 1574 mm
This section is Semi-Compact
Hence ,the section is Semi -Compact for Shear and the section is Semi-compact for Bending

9.3.3 Check for resistance of the section against material due to the Bending :(Clause -509 of IRC :24-2010)

Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections


= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section

= Design Bending Compressive Stress

=Bending Stress reduction factor

αLT = Imperfection Parameter


= 0.21 for rolled steel section
= 0.49 for welded steel section

λLT =

KLY= KL 4200 = KLY/ ry = 27.42


= KLZ/ rz = 3.77

λy = = 0.39 pi()= 3.14


αLT = 0.49

λz = hf = 2784 m
= 0.05

Mcr = 1.759E+11 N-mm


Y direction Z direction
Now λLT = 0.14 0.468
ɸLT = 0.50 0.68
XLT= 1.0 0.9
fbd 355 N/mm 2
305 N/mm2
Hence Md = 941 kNm 23226 kNm
9.3.4 Long Term Effect
Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 125757333 mm3

Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections


= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section
Zpz = 103172691 mm3 Zpy = 161505758 mm3

79 of 221
XLT= 1.0 fy = 390
ϒm0 = 1.1
fbd = 355 N/mm 2

Mdy = 941 kNm Mdz = 44587 kNm

9.3.5 Short Term Effect


Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 132977524 mm3

Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections


= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section
Zpz = 166441399 mm3 Zpy = 21754509 mm3

XLT= = fy = 390

fbd = 355 N/mm2 ϒm0 = 1.1


Mdy = 941 kNm Mdy = 47147 kNm

9.3.6 Check for Ultimate Capacity


Type of Mz Muz Mdz
Description ULS factor Ultimate Stress
Loading
Erection
DL +Cons LL 4948 1.35 6679.8 < 23226 87.759
Stage
Crash Barrier load 370 1.35 500 < 44587 3.972
Long Term SIDL 988 1.75 1729 < 13.749
Moment Cons LL -1050 1.35 -1418 < -11.272
Live Load +Snow Load 4670 1.5 7005 < 47147 52.678
Short Term Wind Load 462 0.9 416 < 3.127
Moment Foot path Live Load 148 1.5 222 < 1.669
My Factor Muy < Mdy 152

Erection
DL +Cons LL 0 1.35
Stage
Moment
SIDL 0 1.75

CONS LL 0 1.35
Long Term
Moment

Live Load 0 1.5


Short Term
Moment Wind Load 0 0.9

Combined Effect = Mz/Mdz +My/Mdy <1

=6680/12042+811/23538+7643/24473+0/1143+0/1143+0/1143 = 0.47 < 1 OK

9.3.7 Check for Ultimate Strength of Girder in Shear

Shear capacity shall be calculated as per shear buckling method as specified in 509.4.2.2(a) of IRC 24-2010
Vn =Vcr =Avꚍv Fyw = 410 N/mm2
Where Vn = Applied Shear Force
Type of Loading Description V Factor Vn
Erection Stage DL ,Con LL 1 1.35 1.35
Crash Barrier 7 1.35 9.45
Long Term Moment SIDL 3 1.75 5.25
Cons LL 0 1.35 0
Live LL+Snow
Short Term Load 158 1.5 237
Wind Load 0 0.9 0
Foot path LL 3 1.5 4.5

172 258

80 of 221
I) Resistance of Shear Buckling shall be verified as specified
d= Depth of effective Web = 1574 mm

tw = Thickness of Web = 16 mm
d/tw = 98.4 > 67ԑ = 53.64 For web without Stiffeners
> 67ԑw*SQRT(Kv/5.35)
Vcr = Shear Force correspond to web buckling
Av = Area of Web
λw = Non dimensional selenderness ratio of shear buckling stress
SQRT(FYW/SQRT(3) ꚍcr
ꚍcr = Elastic critical Shear stress of the web
Kv*pi^2*E/(12*(1-ɥ^2)*(d/tw)^2)
ɥ = Poision Ratio 0.3
E = Young's Modulus = 200000 Mpa
Kv = 5.35 for unstiffened Web
= 4+5.35/(c/d)^2 for c/d<1
5.35+4/(c/d)^2 for c/d>1
c= = 1800 mm c/d = 1.57
Kv = = 6.98
ꚍcr = 130
λw = = 1.35 > 0.8 and 1.2
ꚍv = Shear stress corresponding to web buckling
λw <0.8 ꚍv = fyw/sqrt(3) = 236.714 Mpa
0.8< λw <1.2 ꚍv =(1-0.8*(λw -0.8))*fyw/sqrt(3) 132.911 Mpa
λw >1.2 =fyw/sqrt(3)/λw ^2 = 130.242 Mpa
Vcr = Av ꚍv = 3280 kN

II) Tension Field Method As per Clause 8.4.2.2b of IRC 24-2010 Vn =Vtf
Vtf = [ Avtv+0.9wttwfysinɸ]<Vnp
ꚍv = 130.242 Mpa

Plastic Moment of the Flange Plate

Mtf = 0.25bftf2fyf[1-{Nf/bftffyf/ϒm0}^2]
bf = 550.000 mm tf = 28 mm fyf = 390.000 Mpa
Nf = Mu /d 2395911.047 N
Mtf = 36512718.23 N-mm 15733277

Inclination of tension field


ɸ= tan-1(d/c) = d= 1574 mm c= 1800 mm

ɸ= 41.1721 Degree

Anchorage Length of tension field in compression and tension flange


Sc = St 2/ Sin(ɸ )*(Mfr/(fytw)^0.5 <c = 148.8 mm
Wtf = dcos(ɸ)-(c-sc-st)sin(ɸ ) = 195.9 mm
Yield Strength of Tension Field
fv = {fyw2-3ꚍv2+ψ2)^0.5-ψ = 178.8 MPa
ψ= 1.5ꚍvsin(2ɸ) = 193.62 Mpa

The Shear Resitance Vt = 5314 kN > 257.550 OK

9.4 Check For Serviciblity case


9.4 .1 Permissible Stress in Outer Longitudinal Girder
(i) Permissible tensile and compressive bending stress As per Clause Annex-G of IRC 24-2010

81 of 221
C/s area of both flanges at the maximum BM zone A 1 = 0.0426 m2
C/s area of both flanges at the minimum BM zone A 2 = 0.027248 m2
Ratio of total area of both the flanges ,ψ = A 2/A1 = 0.64
Coefficient associated with ψ k1 = 0.98
[ Table G.6.of IRC 24-2010]
MOI of the compressive flange aboyt Y axis at Max BM zone ,I 1 = 3.88E-04 m4
MOI of the both the flange aboyt Y axis at Max BM zone ,I 2= 2.03E-03 m4
Ratio of the compression flange to the sum of MOI of each flange = β = 0.192
Coefficient associated with β k2 = -0.62 [ Table G.7.of IRC 24-2010]
Effective Length of compression flange L = 4.2 m
MOI of minor axis Iy = 1.13E-03 m4
Cross sectional area of steel girder A = 0.0975 m2
Radius of Gyration of Minor Axis ry = 0.1075 m
Selenderness ratio λ = 39.05 <300
Overall Depth of Beam D = 2.818 m
Mean thickness of compression flange T = 0.028 m
Coefficient y = 26.5x105/λ2 = 1737.6 N/mm2
Coefficient x = y[1+1/20*(λT/D)2]^(1/2) = 1744.1 N/mm2
Lesser distance of extreme fibre from NA C1 = 1.225 m
Greater distance of extreme fibre from NA C2 = 1.593 m
Thickness of Web tw = 0.016 m
Thickness of compression flange to web ratio T/tw = 1.75
Clear Depth of web d3 = 2.75 m
Clear depth of web to thickness ratio d3/tw = 171.875
Elastic critical stress fcb = 850 N/mm2
fcb = 1.2xk1[X+K2Y][C2/C1] If T/tw <2 and d3/tw <85
fcb=k1[X+K2Y][C2/C1]
Yeild stress of steel fy = 390 N/mm2
Permissible bending compressive stress
σbc =0.66xfcbxfy/[(fcb)1.4+(fy)1.4]^(1/1.4) σbc = 209.3 N/mm2
Maximum bending stress σb = 0.62fy = 241.8 N/mm2

Permissible bending compressive stress at erection stage 209.3 N/mm2


=

During service condition compression flange is fully restrained with deck slab by shear connector

Permissible bending tensile stress at erection stage 241.8 N/mm2


=

(i) Permissible shear stress in steel girder

Spacing of transvese stiffener near span c = 1.8 m

Clear spacing between flanges and horizontal siffener d 2.8 m


=

Thickness of Web t 0.016 m


=

Permissible average shear stress in un stiffend steel girder =0.35fy 136.5 N/mm2

Permissible average shear stress in stiffend steel girder 115.0 N/mm2


=

ꚍva =0.35fy[1.3- fy1/2c/t/4000{1+1/2(c/d)2}


if c<d

=0.35fy[1.3- fy d/t/4000{1+1/2(d/c)2}
1/2

if c>d

Hence permissible average shear stress in steel girder ꚍva = 115.0 N/mm2

Maximum shear stress 0.43fy= 167.7 N/mm2

OK

82 of 221
Permissible Concrete Stress as per CL No.604.3.1 of IRC:22-2008 = 1/3*fck = 13.33 N/mm2

Permissible bending compressive stress at erection stage 209.3 N/mm2


=

Permissible bending tensile stress at erection stage 241.8 N/mm2


=

Permissible steel bending stress at service stage (all sections) 241.8 N/mm2
=
Max Elastic Steel Stress at service condition as per Cl N0.604.3.1 of IRC
22-2008 =0.87fy 339.3 N/mm2
=

Long term modular ratio for permanent loading 15.0


=

Short term modular ratio for transient loading 7.5


=

9.4 2 Summary of Section Properties ( In equivalent of Steel )

Mid Span

Properties Unit Composite Composite


Only Girder Section Section
for DL Long term -Short term
SIDL for LL

A= m2 0.098 0.152 0.206

Iz = m4 0.1213 0.2352 0.2893

Yb = m 1.225 1.8705262 2.2

Zb = m3 0.099 0.126 0.133

Yts = m 1.297 0.99

Zts = m3 0.181 0.29

Ytg= m 1.593 0.947 0.64

Ztg = m3 0.076 0.248 0.45

9.4 3 Stress Check at Different cases

(i) Calculation of stress at different sections during erection stage

Moment of Moment of Stress for Stress for


Section Self Weight Moment ( kNm) Construction Deck Slab Stress for Construc Stress for Erection Check Permissible
Load ( kNm) ( kNm) Self Weight Load Dek Slab Stage Stress
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab

At
Top of
Mid 1024.56 1051.17 2872.48 13.46 13.81 37.74 65.009 < 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-10.35 -10.62 -29.02 -49.987 < -241.8
Girder

(ii) Calculation of stress after applied SIDL -Long term

Moment of Stress for Stress for Stress for


SIDL Moment Crash Removal of Crash Erection Total Permissible
Section Removal of Shutter ( kNm)
( kNm) Barrier load Shutter Stress SIDL Barrier Stage Stress Stress
( kNm) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab -0.386 0.363 0.136 0.113 13.33

At
Mid
Span
83 of 221
At
Top of
Mid -1050 988.003 370.19 -4.2 4.0 1.5 65.009 66.251 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
8.35 -7.86 -2.94 -49.987 -52.438 -241.8
Girder

(iii) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with wind load -short term Hence ok

Stress for
Moment Due to Live Load Moment Due to Wind Load x Stress for Stress for Differential Stress Total Permissible
Section
+Snow Load ( kNm) 0.6 (kNm) Live Load Wind Load Shrinkage After SIDL Stress Stress
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 2.20 0.13 -0.29 0.113 2.2 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 4818.493 277.2 10.69 0.62 30.92 66.251 108.5 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-36.24 -2.08 -7.18 -52.438 -97.94 -241.8
Girder

Hence ok

(iv) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with (+ ) Temperature

Stress for
Stress 0.6 x Temerature
Section Stress Live Load (Mpa) Differential Total Stress (Mpa) Check Permissible
(Mpa)
Shrinkage Stress After Stress
(Mpa) SIDL (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 2.20 0.342 -0.29 0.11 2.37 < 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 10.69 -13.35 30.92 66.25 94.51 < 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-36.24 24.41 -7.18 -52.44 -71.45 < -241.8
Girder

(iv) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with (-) Temperature Hence ok

Stress for
Stress 0.6 x Temerature Differential Permissible
Section Stress Live Load (Mpa) Total Stress (Mpa) Check
(Mpa) Shrinkage Stress After Stress
(Mpa) SIDL (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 2.20 -0.240 -0.29 0.11 1.79 < 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 10.69 6.24 30.92 66.25 114.10 < 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-36.24 -3.923 -7.18 -52.44 -99.78 < -241.8
Girder

Hence ok

9.4 4 Load combination for Rare Combination

1) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge

2) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+ wind load(lead) (unloaded structure)

3) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(lead)+wind load (accompany)

4) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(accompany)+wind load (lead)

5) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(lead)+Temperature(accompany)

6) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(accompany)+Temperature(lead)

a) Load combination

84 of 221
Load Case 1 (a) 2 (a) 2 (b) 3 (a) 3 (b) 4 (a) 4 (b) 5 (a)

DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

SIDL 1.2 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2

Shrinkage 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Live load 1 1 0.75 0.75 1

Wind load-
Unloaded
1 1

Wind load-
Loaded
0.6 0.6 1 1

Temp (+ve) 0.6

Temp (-ve)

Load Case 5 (b) 5 (c) 5 (d) 6 (a) 6 (b) 6 (c) 6 (d)

DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

SIDL 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1

Shrinkage 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Live load 1 0.75 0.75 1 1 0.75 0.75

Wind load-
Unloaded

Wind load-
Loaded

Temp (+ve) 0.6 1 1

Temp (-ve) 0.6 0.6 1 1

9.4 5 Check for Rare Combination (SL1)

Stress for Stress for Stress for Stress for Stress


Dead Load
Removal of Differential Stress Stress Live Wind load Wind load Temepera Stress
Section Stress
(Mpa) Stress for Construction Load Shuttering Shrinkage SIDL Load (Mpa) Unloaded Loaded ture (+) Temeperat
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) Mpa ure (-) Mpa
Top of
0.136 0.0 -0.386 -0.29 0.363 2.20 0.410 0.2112 0.570 -0.40
Slab

Top of
52.7 13.8 -4.229 30.92 3.979 10.69 1.988 1.0253 -22.252 10.40
Girder

Bottom
of -42.3 -10.6 8.349 -7.18 -7.856 -36.24 -6.738 -3.4743 40.679 -6.54
Girder

Stress for Different Load Cases

Section 1 2(a) 2(b) 3(a) 3(b) 4(a) 4(b) 5(a) 5(b)

85 of 221
Top of
0.282 0.7 0.619 2.61 2.539 2.15 2.073 2.8269 2.754
Slab

Top of
88.383 90.4 89.576 99.69 98.896 97.43 96.633 85.7258 84.930
Girder

Bottom
of -58.921 -65.7 -64.088 -97.24 -95.669 -89.57 -88.000 -70.7491 -69.178
Girder

Permissibl
Max Stress Min Stress
Section 5(c) 5(d) 6(a) 6(b) 6(c) 6(d) e Stress Check
(Mpa) (Mpa)
(Mpa)

Top of
2.5 2.431 2.24 2.172 1.53 1.461 2.8269 0.282 13.333 OK
Slab

Top of
74.2 73.356 105.32 104.524 106.81 106.012 106.8080 73.356 209.284 OK
Girder

Bottom
of -45.4 -43.847 -99.08 -97.508 -92.64 -91.064 -43.8475 -99.079 -241.800 OK
Girder

9.4 .6 Shear Stress Check for Rare Combination (SL1)

From STAAD and


Maximum Shear Force V = 173 kN
Combination

Depth of Web d = 1574 mm

Thickness of Web tw = 16 mm

Shear Stress V/dtw = 6.87 N/mm2 < 115.0

9. 5 Deflection Check for frequent combination (SL2)

Load Case SIDL Live Load Wind Load (Accompany)


Dead Load

Comb 1 1 0.6
1

DISPACEMENT OBTAINED FROM STAAD MODEL

Absolute
Absolute Absolute Absolute
Node No : Load Case x y z Displaceme
rotation x rotation y rotation Z
nt

116 1.Dead Load 0 -13 0 13 0 0


0

2.Dead Load 0 -35.123 0 35.123 0 0


0

3. Construction 0 -12.854 0 12.854 0 0


0

116 1. Dead Load 0 -2.085 0 2.085 0 0


0

2.SIDL 0 -5.243 0 5.243 0 0


0

3.CONS LL 0 5.608 0 5.608 0 0


0

86 of 221
116 3.FOOTPATH LIVE 0 0.64 0 0.64 0 0
0

4. WIND LOAD -UNLOADED 0 4.488 0 4.488 0 0


0

5.WIND LOAD LOADED 0 -2.336 0 2.336 0 0


0

116 Live Load 0 -19.252 0 19.252 -0.002 0


0

Total Deflection at service case = 82.71 mm > L/600 = 80.50

CAMBER REQUIRED

Deflection for Live Load Case Only = 19.252 mm < L/800 = 60.375

HENCE OK

9. 6 Fatigue Check

The girder is built-up welded .as per Table 19(b) of IRC 24-2010 detail category = 80 Mpa

Partial safety factor as per Cl 511.2.3 of IRC :24-2010

ϒfft = Partial safety factor for loads and other effects = 1

ϒmft = Partial safety factor for fatigue strength (Refer Table 18 of IRC :24-2010) =
1.15

Applying partial factor of safety ,allowable stress variation (f/(ϒfft*ϒmft)) = 69.6 Mpa

Correction factor ɥc for larger plate thickness than 25 mm thick = (25/tf)^0.25

For tf =32mm = 0.940

Hence Allowable fatigue strength f n = 65.40 Mpa

Actual Number of Stress Cycles = Nsc

Maximum Stress variation due to lIve load = 36.24 Mpa

Bending stress at the edge of stiffener = 34.87 Mpa

Clear Distance of Stiffener palte from Bottom Flane = 0.05 m

Thickness of Bottom Flange = 0.032 m

Shear Stress at the edge of stiffener = VAY/Ib

Shear Force V = 158.151 kN

=
A = 0.0013 m2
0.016*0.032+0.05*0.016

Y= 0.041 = 2.135 m

AY With Hole = 0.002801 m3

I= 0.011 = 0.0177899 m4

87 of 221
b = m
0.016

Shear Stress = 2.5168881 Mpa

Principal Shear Stress = ( Sigmax +sigmay)/2+((sigmax+sigmay)/2)^2+shear stress^2)^0.5 = 35.05 Mpa

Fatigue strength is not required for f <27/ϒmft or Nsc <5x10^6X(27/ϒmft/ϒfftxf)^3 = 23.48 Mpa

Design Life N= 100 Years N= 100 Years

Average number of stress fluctuation in a day A= 100

Total Number of Stress Cycle Nsc = 365NA = 3.65E+06 <5000000

Stress variation 36.24 Mpa

=5x10^6x(27/ϒmft /ϒfft
> f <27/ϒmft 23.48 Mpa Nsc <
xf)

f = fn *(5x10^6/Nsc)^(1/3) = 72.64 > 35.05

Hence OK

88 of 221
10.0 Calculation of Flexural Stress at Support of Outer Girder (G2) = m
10.1 Moment and Shear From STAAD Output

Member Load Case Node No: FX (kN) Fy (kN) Fz (kN) MX (kNm) My (kNm) Mz (kNm)
248 1. DEAD LOAD 108 0 29.078 0 0 0.000 -960.1
116 0 -0.991 0 0 0.000 1024.56
2. SIDL 108 0 86.1 0 0 0.000 -2691.7
116 0 0 0 0 0.000 2872.48
3.CONSTRUCTION 108 0 31.5 0 0 0.000 -985.02
116 0 0 0 6.517 0.000 1051.17
459 1. DEAD LOAD 210 0 -7.089 0 6.755 0.000 -370.19
216 0 17.589 0 0.948 0.000 352.915
2. SIDL 210 0 10.707 0 0.977 0.000 -978.4
216 0 -3.007 0 0 0.000 988.003
3.CONSTRUCTION
210 0 -10.5
( Removal ) 0 0 0.000 1042.65
216 0 0 0 -0.004 0.000 -1050
459 4.FOOTPATH 210 0 -2.842 0 0.004 0.000 148.293
216 0 2.842 0 0 0.000 -152.27
5.WIND LOAD (UNLOAD) 210 0 -8.96 0 0 0.000 889.728
216 0 0 0 0 0.000 -896
6. WIND LOAD (LOADED) 210 0 4.62 0 0 0.000 -458.77
216 0 0 0 1.104 0.000 462
459 7. Live Load
MAX ( +VE) 0 185.567 0 0 0.000 -4670.2
0 0
MAX ( -VE) 0 -158.151 0 -0.226 0.000

10.2 Summary of Bending Moment and Shear at L/2

Shear Force (kN) Moment (kNm)


Moment/Shear Due to self weight of girder = 0.991 1024.560
Moment/Shear Due to weight of Deck Slab = 0 2872.480
Moment/Shear Due to Construction Load = 0 1051.170
Moment/Shear Due to Dead Load = 7.089 352.915
Moment/Shear Due to SIDL = 3.007 988.003
Removal of Construction Stage Live LL = 0 -1050.000
Moment/Shear Due to Carriage way LL = 158.151 4670.200
Wind Load unload = 0 896.000
Wind Load Loaded = 0 462.000
Moment Due to Foot path Live Load = 2.842 148.293
4818.493
10.3 Check For Ultimate Strength of Girder in Flexure

5.31 .Erection Stage


Properties of Girder Only
Thickness of Top Flange tf = 28 mm Width of Top Flange b = 550.000 mm
Thickness of Bottom Flange tf = 32 mm Width of Top Bottom Flange b = 850.000 mm
Thickess of Web tw = 16 mm Overall Depth D = 2818.000 mm
Sectional Area Aa = 97520 mm2 Moment of Inertia Izz = 1.21E+11 mm4
Efective Length kl = 4200 mm Moment of Inertia Iyy= 1.13E+09 mm4
Radius of Gyration ry = 107.5 mm Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 76115282 mm 3 Plastic Section Modulus Zpy = 9145250 mm3
Plastic Section Modulus Zpz = 98791877.78 mm 3

Elastic Modulus Es = 200000 N/mm2


Yeild Stress of Steel Plate thk>20 mm = 390 N/mm2 ԑ1 = 0.801
Yeild Stress of Steel Plate thk<20 mm = 410 N/mm 2 ԑ2 = 0.781
Partial Safety Factor for Material ϒm0
= 1.1
Type of Section Used = Welded
10.3.2 Classification of Sections
For outstanding Element of Compression Flange (As per Table 2 ,Clause 3.7.2 and 3.7.4 of IS 800-2007)
Coefficient for Plastic Section = 8.4
Coefficient for Compact Section = 9.4
Coefficient for Semi Compact = 13.6
For Web element of I,H and Box Section
Coefficient for Plastic Section = 84
Coefficient for Compact Section = 105

89 of 221
Coefficient for Semi Compact = 126

b/tf = 225/28 = 8.04 > 8.4ԑ = 6.73


> 9.4ԑ = 7.53
< 13.6ԑ = 10.9
Hence section is Semi Compact
d/tw = 2000/16 = 125 > 126ԑ = 98.4
Hence section is Selender
Hence a part of web section is efective for making the section is Semi-Compact .Efective Depth d= 1574 mm
This section is Semi-Compact
Hence ,the section is Semi -Compact for Shear and the section is Semi-compact for Bending

10.3.3 Check for resistance of the section against material due to the Bending :(Clause -509 of IRC :24-2010)

Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections


= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section

= Design Bending Compressive Stress

=Bending Stress reduction factor

αLT = Imperfection Parameter


= 0.21 for rolled steel section
= 0.49 for welded steel section

λLT =

KLY= KL 4200 = KLY/ ry = 27.42


= KLZ/ rz = 3.77

λy = = 0.39 pi()= 3.14


αLT = 0.49

λz = hf = 2784 m
= 0.05

Mcr = 1.759E+11 N-mm


Y direction Z direction
Now λLT = 0.14 0.468
ɸLT = 0.50 0.68
XLT= 1.0 0.9
fbd 355 N/mm 2
305 N/mm2
Hence Md = 941 kNm 23226 kNm
10.3.4 Long Term Effect
Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 125757333 mm3

Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections


= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section
Zpz = 103172691 mm3 Zpy = 161505758 mm3

90 of 221
XLT= 1.0 fy = 390
ϒm0 = 1.1
fbd = 355 N/mm 2

Mdy = 941 kNm Mdz = 44587 kNm

10.3.5 Short Term Effect


Elastic Section Modulus Zey = 2654057 mm3
Elastic Section Modulus Zez = 132977524 mm3

Where βb = 1 for Plastic and Compact Sections


= Ze/Zp for Semi-Compact Section
Zpz = 166441399 mm3 Zpy = 21754509 mm3

XLT= = fy = 390

fbd = 355 N/mm2 ϒm0 = 1.1


Mdy = 941 kNm Mdy = 47147 kNm

10.3.6 Check for Ultimate Capacity


Type of Mz Muz Mdz
Description ULS factor Ultimate Stress
Loading
Erection
DL +Cons LL 4948 1.35 6679.8 < 23226 87.759
Stage
Crash Barrier load 370 1.35 500 < 44587 3.972
Long Term SIDL 988 1.75 1729 < 13.749
Moment Cons LL -1050 1.35 -1418 < -11.272
Live Load +Snow Load 4670 1.5 7005 < 47147 52.678
Short Term Wind Load 462 0.9 416 < 3.127
Moment Foot path Live Load 148 1.5 222 < 1.669
My Factor Muy < Mdy 152

Erection
DL +Cons LL 0 1.35
Stage
Moment
SIDL 0 1.75

CONS LL 0 1.35
Long Term
Moment

Live Load 0 1.5


Short Term
Moment Wind Load 0 0.9

Combined Effect = Mz/Mdz +My/Mdy <1

=6680/12042+811/23538+7643/24473+0/1143+0/1143+0/1143 = 0.47 < 1 OK

10.3.7 Check for Ultimate Strength of Girder in Shear

Shear capacity shall be calculated as per shear buckling method as specified in 509.4.2.2(a) of IRC 24-2010
Vn =Vcr =Avꚍv Fyw = 410 N/mm2
Where Vn = Applied Shear Force
Type of Loading Description V Factor Vn
Erection Stage DL ,Con LL 1 1.35 1.35
Crash Barrier 7 1.35 9.45
Long Term Moment SIDL 3 1.75 5.25
Cons LL 0 1.35 0
Live LL+Snow
Short Term Load 158 1.5 237
Wind Load 0 0.9 0
Foot path LL 3 1.5 4.5

172 258

91 of 221
I) Resistance of Shear Buckling shall be verified as specified
d= Depth of effective Web = 1574 mm

tw = Thickness of Web = 16 mm
d/tw = 98.4 > 67ԑ = 53.64 For web without Stiffeners
> 67ԑw*SQRT(Kv/5.35)
Vcr = Shear Force correspond to web buckling
Av = Area of Web
λw = Non dimensional selenderness ratio of shear buckling stress
SQRT(FYW/SQRT(3) ꚍcr
ꚍcr = Elastic critical Shear stress of the web
Kv*pi^2*E/(12*(1-ɥ^2)*(d/tw)^2)
ɥ = Poision Ratio 0.3
E = Young's Modulus = 200000 Mpa
Kv = 5.35 for unstiffened Web
= 4+5.35/(c/d)^2 for c/d<1
5.35+4/(c/d)^2 for c/d>1
c= = 1800 mm c/d = 1.57
Kv = = 6.98
ꚍcr = 130
λw = = 1.35 > 0.8 and 1.2
ꚍv = Shear stress corresponding to web buckling
λw <0.8 ꚍv = fyw/sqrt(3) = 236.714 Mpa
0.8< λw <1.2 ꚍv =(1-0.8*(λw -0.8))*fyw/sqrt(3) 132.911 Mpa
λw >1.2 =fyw/sqrt(3)/λw ^2 = 130.242 Mpa
Vcr = Av ꚍv = 3280 kN

II) Tension Field Method As per Clause 8.4.2.2b of IRC 24-2010 Vn =Vtf
Vtf = [ Avtv+0.9wttwfysinɸ]<Vnp
ꚍv = 130.242 Mpa

Plastic Moment of the Flange Plate

Mtf = 0.25bftf2fyf[1-{Nf/bftffyf/ϒm0}^2]
bf = 550.000 mm tf = 28 mm fyf = 390.000 Mpa
Nf = Mu /d 2395911.047 N
Mtf = 36512718.23 N-mm 15733277

Inclination of tension field


ɸ= tan-1(d/c) = d= 1574 mm c= 1800 mm

ɸ= 41.1721 Degree

Anchorage Length of tension field in compression and tension flange


Sc = St 2/ Sin(ɸ )*(Mfr/(fytw)^0.5 <c = 148.8 mm
Wtf = dcos(ɸ)-(c-sc-st)sin(ɸ ) = 195.9 mm
Yield Strength of Tension Field
fv = {fyw2-3ꚍv2+ψ2)^0.5-ψ = 178.8 MPa
ψ= 1.5ꚍvsin(2ɸ) = 193.62 Mpa

The Shear Resitance Vt = 5314 kN > 257.550 OK

10.4 Check For Serviciblity case


10.4 .1 Permissible Stress in Outer Longitudinal Girder
(i) Permissible tensile and compressive bending stress As per Clause Annex-G of IRC 24-2010

92 of 221
C/s area of both flanges at the maximum BM zone A 1 = 0.0426 m2
C/s area of both flanges at the minimum BM zone A 2 = 0.027248 m2
Ratio of total area of both the flanges ,ψ = A 2/A1 = 0.64
Coefficient associated with ψ k1 = 0.98
[ Table G.6.of IRC 24-2010]
MOI of the compressive flange aboyt Y axis at Max BM zone ,I 1 = 3.88E-04 m4
MOI of the both the flange aboyt Y axis at Max BM zone ,I 2= 2.03E-03 m4
Ratio of the compression flange to the sum of MOI of each flange = β = 0.192
Coefficient associated with β k2 = -0.62 [ Table G.7.of IRC 24-2010]
Effective Length of compression flange L = 4.2 m
MOI of minor axis Iy = 1.13E-03 m4
Cross sectional area of steel girder A = 0.0975 m2
Radius of Gyration of Minor Axis ry = 0.1075 m
Selenderness ratio λ = 39.05 <300
Overall Depth of Beam D = 2.818 m
Mean thickness of compression flange T = 0.028 m
Coefficient y = 26.5x105/λ2 = 1737.6 N/mm2
Coefficient x = y[1+1/20*(λT/D)2]^(1/2) = 1744.1 N/mm2
Lesser distance of extreme fibre from NA C1 = 1.225 m
Greater distance of extreme fibre from NA C2 = 1.593 m
Thickness of Web tw = 0.016 m
Thickness of compression flange to web ratio T/tw = 1.75
Clear Depth of web d3 = 2.75 m
Clear depth of web to thickness ratio d3/tw = 171.875
Elastic critical stress fcb = 850 N/mm2
fcb = 1.2xk1[X+K2Y][C2/C1] If T/tw <2 and d3/tw <85
fcb=k1[X+K2Y][C2/C1]
Yeild stress of steel fy = 390 N/mm2
Permissible bending compressive stress
σbc =0.66xfcbxfy/[(fcb)1.4+(fy)1.4]^(1/1.4) σbc = 209.3 N/mm2
Maximum bending stress σb = 0.62fy = 241.8 N/mm2

Permissible bending compressive stress at erection stage 209.3 N/mm2


=

During service condition compression flange is fully restrained with deck slab by shear connector

Permissible bending tensile stress at erection stage 241.8 N/mm2


=

(i) Permissible shear stress in steel girder

Spacing of transvese stiffener near span c = 1.8 m

Clear spacing between flanges and horizontal siffener d 2.8 m


=

Thickness of Web t 0.016 m


=

Permissible average shear stress in un stiffend steel girder =0.35fy 136.5 N/mm2

Permissible average shear stress in stiffend steel girder 115.0 N/mm2


=

ꚍva =0.35fy[1.3- fy1/2c/t/4000{1+1/2(c/d)2}


if c<d

=0.35fy[1.3- fy d/t/4000{1+1/2(d/c)2}
1/2

if c>d

Hence permissible average shear stress in steel girder ꚍva = 115.0 N/mm2

Maximum shear stress 0.43fy= 167.7 N/mm2

OK

93 of 221
Permissible Concrete Stress as per CL No.604.3.1 of IRC:22-2008 = 1/3*fck = 13.33 N/mm2

Permissible bending compressive stress at erection stage 209.3 N/mm2


=

Permissible bending tensile stress at erection stage 241.8 N/mm2


=

Permissible steel bending stress at service stage (all sections) 241.8 N/mm2
=
Max Elastic Steel Stress at service condition as per Cl N0.604.3.1 of IRC
22-2008 =0.87fy 339.3 N/mm2
=

Long term modular ratio for permanent loading 15.0


=

Short term modular ratio for transient loading 7.5


=

10.4 2 Summary of Section Properties ( In equivalent of Steel )

Mid Span

Properties Unit Composite Composite


Only Girder Section Section
for DL Long term -Short term
SIDL for LL

A= m2 0.098 0.152 0.206

Iz = m4 0.1213 0.2352 0.2893

Yb = m 1.225 1.8705262 2.2

Zb = m3 0.099 0.126 0.133

Yts = m 1.297 0.99

Zts = m3 0.181 0.29

Ytg= m 1.593 0.947 0.64

Ztg = m3 0.076 0.248 0.45

10.4 3 Stress Check at Different cases

(i) Calculation of stress at different sections during erection stage

Moment of Moment of Stress for Stress for


Section Self Weight Moment ( kNm) Construction Deck Slab Stress for Construc Stress for Erection Check Permissible
Load ( kNm) ( kNm) Self Weight Load Dek Slab Stage Stress
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab

At
Top of
Mid 1024.56 1051.17 2872.48 13.46 13.81 37.74 65.009 < 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-10.35 -10.62 -29.02 -49.987 < -241.8
Girder

(ii) Calculation of stress after applied SIDL -Long term

Moment of Stress for Stress for Stress for


SIDL Moment Crash Removal of Crash Erection Total Permissible
Section Removal of Shutter ( kNm)
( kNm) Barrier load Shutter Stress SIDL Barrier Stage Stress Stress
( kNm) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab -0.386 0.363 0.136 0.113 13.33

At
Mid
Span
94 of 221
At
Top of
Mid -1050 988.003 370.19 -4.2 4.0 1.5 65.009 66.251 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
8.35 -7.86 -2.94 -49.987 -52.438 -241.8
Girder

(iii) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with wind load -short term Hence ok

Stress for
Moment Due to Live Load Moment Due to Wind Load x Stress for Stress for Differential Stress Total Permissible
Section
+Snow Load ( kNm) 0.6 (kNm) Live Load Wind Load Shrinkage After SIDL Stress Stress
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 2.20 0.13 -0.29 0.113 2.2 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 4818.493 277.2 10.69 0.62 30.92 66.251 108.5 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-36.24 -2.08 -7.18 -52.438 -97.94 -241.8
Girder

Hence ok

(iv) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with (+ ) Temperature

Stress for
Stress 0.6 x Temerature
Section Stress Live Load (Mpa) Differential Total Stress (Mpa) Check Permissible
(Mpa)
Shrinkage Stress After Stress
(Mpa) SIDL (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 2.20 0.342 -0.29 0.11 2.37 < 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 10.69 -13.35 30.92 66.25 94.51 < 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-36.24 24.41 -7.18 -52.44 -71.45 < -241.8
Girder

(iv) Calculation of stress at different section at Service condition with (-) Temperature Hence ok

Stress for
Stress 0.6 x Temerature Differential Permissible
Section Stress Live Load (Mpa) Total Stress (Mpa) Check
(Mpa) Shrinkage Stress After Stress
(Mpa) SIDL (Mpa) (Mpa)

Top of Slab 2.20 -0.240 -0.29 0.11 1.79 < 13.33

At
Top of
Mid 10.69 6.24 30.92 66.25 114.10 < 209.3
Girder
Span
Bottom of
-36.24 -3.923 -7.18 -52.44 -99.78 < -241.8
Girder

Hence ok

10.4 .4 Load combination for Rare Combination

1) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge

2) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+ wind load(lead) (unloaded structure)

3) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(lead)+wind load (accompany)

4) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(accompany)+wind load (lead)

5) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(lead)+Temperature(accompany)

6) Dead load +SIDL+Shrinakge+Live load(accompany)+Temperature(lead)

a) Load combination

95 of 221
Load Case 1 (a) 2 (a) 2 (b) 3 (a) 3 (b) 4 (a) 4 (b) 5 (a)

DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

SIDL 1.2 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2

Shrinkage 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Live load 1 1 0.75 0.75 1

Wind load-
Unloaded
1 1

Wind load-
Loaded
0.6 0.6 1 1

Temp (+ve) 0.6

Temp (-ve)

Load Case 5 (b) 5 (c) 5 (d) 6 (a) 6 (b) 6 (c) 6 (d)

DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

SIDL 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1

Shrinkage 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Live load 1 0.75 0.75 1 1 0.75 0.75

Wind load-
Unloaded

Wind load-
Loaded

Temp (+ve) 0.6 1 1

Temp (-ve) 0.6 0.6 1 1

10.4 .5 Check for Rare Combination (SL1)

Stress for Stress for Stress for Stress for Stress


Dead Load
Removal of Differential Stress Stress Live Wind load Wind load Temepera Stress
Section Stress
(Mpa) Stress for Construction Load Shuttering Shrinkage SIDL Load (Mpa) Unloaded Loaded ture (+) Temeperat
(Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) Mpa ure (-) Mpa
Top of
0.136 0.0 -0.386 -0.29 0.363 2.20 0.410 0.2112 0.570 -0.40
Slab

Top of
52.7 13.8 -4.229 30.92 3.979 10.69 1.988 1.0253 -22.252 10.40
Girder

Bottom
of -42.3 -10.6 8.349 -7.18 -7.856 -36.24 -6.738 -3.4743 40.679 -6.54
Girder

Stress for Different Load Cases

Section 1 2(a) 2(b) 3(a) 3(b) 4(a) 4(b) 5(a) 5(b)

96 of 221
Top of
0.282 0.7 0.619 2.61 2.539 2.15 2.073 2.8269 2.754
Slab

Top of
88.383 90.4 89.576 99.69 98.896 97.43 96.633 85.7258 84.930
Girder

Bottom
of -58.921 -65.7 -64.088 -97.24 -95.669 -89.57 -88.000 -70.7491 -69.178
Girder

Permissibl
Max Stress Min Stress
Section 5(c) 5(d) 6(a) 6(b) 6(c) 6(d) e Stress Check
(Mpa) (Mpa)
(Mpa)

Top of
2.5 2.431 2.24 2.172 1.53 1.461 2.8269 0.282 13.333 OK
Slab

Top of
74.2 73.356 105.32 104.524 106.81 106.012 106.8080 73.356 209.284 OK
Girder

Bottom
of -45.4 -43.847 -99.08 -97.508 -92.64 -91.064 -43.8475 -99.079 -241.800 OK
Girder

10.4 .6 Shear Stress Check for Rare Combination (SL1)

From STAAD and


Maximum Shear Force V = 173 kN
Combination

Depth of Web d = 1574 mm

Thickness of Web tw = 16 mm

Shear Stress V/dtw = 6.87 N/mm2 < 115.0

10. 5 Deflection Check for frequent combination (SL2)

Load Case SIDL Live Load Wind Load (Accompany)


Dead Load

Comb 1 1 0.6
1

DISPACEMENT OBTAINED FROM STAAD MODEL

Absolute
Absolute Absolute Absolute
Node No : Load Case x y z Displaceme
rotation x rotation y rotation Z
nt

116 1.Dead Load 0 -13 0 13 0 0


0

2.Dead Load 0 -35.123 0 35.123 0 0


0

3. Construction 0 -12.854 0 12.854 0 0


0

116 1. Dead Load 0 -2.085 0 2.085 0 0


0

2.SIDL 0 -5.243 0 5.243 0 0


0

3.CONS LL 0 5.608 0 5.608 0 0


0

97 of 221
116 3.FOOTPATH LIVE 0 0.64 0 0.64 0 0
0

4. WIND LOAD -UNLOADED 0 4.488 0 4.488 0 0


0

5.WIND LOAD LOADED 0 -2.336 0 2.336 0 0


0

116 Live Load 0 -19.252 0 19.252 -0.002 0


0

Total Deflection at service case = 82.71 mm > L/600 = 80.50

CAMBER REQUIRED

Deflection for Live Load Case Only = 19.252 mm < L/800 = 60.375

HENCE OK

10. 6 Fatigue Check

The girder is built-up welded .as per Table 19(b) of IRC 24-2010 detail category = 80 Mpa

Partial safety factor as per Cl 511.2.3 of IRC :24-2010

ϒfft = Partial safety factor for loads and other effects = 1

ϒmft = Partial safety factor for fatigue strength (Refer Table 18 of IRC :24-2010) =
1.15

Applying partial factor of safety ,allowable stress variation (f/(ϒfft*ϒmft)) = 69.6 Mpa

Correction factor ɥc for larger plate thickness than 25 mm thick = (25/tf)^0.25

For tf =32mm = 0.940

Hence Allowable fatigue strength f n = 65.40 Mpa

Actual Number of Stress Cycles = Nsc

Maximum Stress variation due to lIve load = 36.24 Mpa

Bending stress at the edge of stiffener = 34.87 Mpa

Clear Distance of Stiffener palte from Bottom Flane = 0.05 m

Thickness of Bottom Flange = 0.032 m

Shear Stress at the edge of stiffener = VAY/Ib

Shear Force V = 158.151 kN

=
A = 0.0013 m2
0.016*0.032+0.05*0.016

Y= 0.041 = 2.135 m

AY With Hole = 0.002801 m3

I= 0.011 = 0.0177899 m4

98 of 221
b = m
0.016

Shear Stress = 2.5168881 Mpa

Principal Shear Stress = ( Sigmax +sigmay)/2+((sigmax+sigmay)/2)^2+shear stress^2)^0.5 = 35.05 Mpa

Fatigue strength is not required for f <27/ϒmft or Nsc <5x10^6X(27/ϒmft/ϒfftxf)^3 = 23.48 Mpa

Design Life N= 100 Years N= 100 Years

Average number of stress fluctuation in a day A= 100

Total Number of Stress Cycle Nsc = 365NA = 3.65E+06 <5000000

Stress variation 36.24 Mpa

=5x10^6x(27/ϒmft /ϒfft
> f <27/ϒmft 23.48 Mpa Nsc <
xf)

f = fn *(5x10^6/Nsc)^(1/3) = 72.64 > 35.05

Hence OK

99 of 221
5.0 Calculation of Stresses for Girder LG2 = 1.100 m
5.1. Load calculation
5.1.1 Dead Load Moment & Shear for Precast girder only
Unit weight of concrete #REF! kN/m3
Cross-sectional area at span = 0.873 m2
Cross-sectional area at support = 1.806 m2
Unit Weight at span #REF! kN/m
Unit Weight at support #REF! kN/m
Thickness of intermediate Cross Girder = 0.30 m
Thickness of end Cross Girder = 0.60 m
1.250 1.750 1.250

0.475 0
0.1 0.063

2.75 2.750 2.650

0
0

0.175 0.175
0.65 2.350 0.65
Part of intermediate cross girder #REF! #REF! kN
Part of End cross girder #REF! #REF! kN
#REF! kN
#REF! kN
#REF! #REF!
#REF!
0.500 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.500

0.500 0.100 0.500


1.100
Support Reaction = #REF! kN
Table : Maximum BM & SF at critical sections
Section At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
Dist. for prop. Section(m) 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.038 0.050
Bending Moment (kNm) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Shear Force (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
5.1.2 Construction load and weight of shuttering & proping.
Assume, Construction Live load = 0.500 kN/m2
Assume, UDL for weight of shuttering = 5.000 kN/m
Efective width of deck slab for end girder = 3.000 m
Weight of shuttering & Conc. Live load = 6.500 kN/m
6.500

0.500 0.10 0.500


Support Reaction = 3.58 kN
Table : Maximum BM & SF at critical sections of outer girders
Section At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
Distance (m) 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.038 0.050
Bending Moment (kNm) -0.8 -0.8 -0.8 -0.8 -0.8
Shear Force (kN) 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0

5.1.3 Dead Load Moment & Shear for Deck slab & X-girder
Unit weight of concrete #REF! kN/m3
Thickness of deck slab = 0.250 m2
Thickness of deck slab at expansion joint = 0.400 m
Width of deck slab at support = 3.000 m
Width of deck slab at midspan = 3.000 m
Average width of deck slab = 3.000 m
Wt. of End X-girder #REF! #REF! kN
Wt of Inner X-girder #REF! #REF! kN
#REF! #REF! #REF!
0.55
#REF! #REF! kN/m

100 of 221
0.850 0.10 0.850
Support Reaction = #REF! kN

101 of 221
Table : Maximum BM & SF at critical sections
Section At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
Distance (m) 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.038 0.050
Bending Moment (kNm) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Shear Force (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

5.1.4 Summary of Bending Moment & Shear Force for inner girder
a) Bending Moment (kNm)
Description At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
Distance (m) 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.038 0.050
Precast girder only #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Construction load -0.8 -0.8 -0.8 -0.8 -0.8
Deck slab & X-girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total wt of deck slab = #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
SIDL from staad output -16.8 354.8 626.2 841.2 1033.9
Removal of shutter 3.3 -246.4 -424.6 -531.6 -585.8
Footpath live load -4.2 22.7 40.6 58.65 76.69
Live load incl. snow load -230.4 1642.6 2605.6 2903.4 2856.1
Total Live Load incl.snow load -234.6 1665.3 2646.2 2962.1 2932.8
Wind load (unloaded structure) 3.2 -240.7 -414.8 -519.35 -572.24
Wind load (loaded structure) -1.6 124.7 214.9 269.1 296.5
Construction load (1.5kN/m2) -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2
Total Live Load -234.6 1665.3 2646.2 2962.1 2932.8
b) Shear force (kN) For SIDL & Live load - Refer STAAD Output
Desription At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
Precast girder only #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Deck slab & X-girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total DL #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
SIDL from staad output 112.3 91.5 74.4 57.8 37.5
Footpath live load 0.2 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.4
Live load incl. snow load 618.7 506.4 358.2 209.0 329.9
Total Live Load incl.snow load 618.8 511.7 363.5 214.4 335.3
Wind load (unloaded structure) -84.1 -63.1 -42.1 -21.0 0.0
Wind load (loaded structure) 43.6 32.7 21.8 10.9 0.0
Construction load 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

5.1.5 Load Combination - Ultimate limit state


1) Dead load +SIDL+Live load
2) Dead load +SIDL+ wind load (unloaded structure)
3) Dead load +SIDL+Live load(lead) + wind load (accompany) (loaded structure)
4) Dead load +SIDL+Live load(accompany) + wind load(lead) (loaded structure)
5) Dead load +SIDL+construction Live load(leading) + wind load(accompany)
Load Case DL SIDL Live load Wind load
1 1.35 1.75 1.5
2 (a) 1.35 1.75 1.5
2 (b) 1 1 1.5
3 (a) 1.35 1.75 1.5 0.9
3 (b) 1 1 1.5 0.9
4 (a) 1.35 1.75 1.15 1.5
4 (b) 1 1 1.15 1.5
5 (a) 1.35 1.75 1.35 0.9
5 (b) 1 1 1.35 0.9
a) Moment At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
1 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
2 (a) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
2 (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3 (a) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3 (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
4 (a) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
4 (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
5 (a) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
5 (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Maximum #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
b) Shear At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
1 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
2 (a) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
2 (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3 (a) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3 (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
4 (a) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

102 of 221
4 (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
5 (a) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
5 (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Maximum #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

103 of 221
5.2 Cable Details
Maximum midspan Moment for outer girder =
Precast Girder Only = #REF! kN-m
Deck Slab & Cross Girder = #REF! kN-m
SIDL = 1033.87 kN-m
Wind load = 296.48 kN-m
Live Load = 2932.76 kN-m
Total Moment = #REF! kN-m
Sectional Properties Inner Composite Girder at Midspan :-
Area - A = 1.100 m2
Moment of Inertia - I = 0.969 m4
CG from bottom = 1.743 m
Z Bottom = 0.556 m3
Assume Nos. of Cable = N
Ultimate Force of each 19T13 strands P = #REF! kN
Applied Force = #REF! kN
CG From bottom = 0.237 m
"e" from CG of Girder = 1.506 m
Assum overall Loss = 30 %
Stress at bottom of Girder = NP/A+NP*e/ZBottom-M/Zbottom = 0
N = (M/ZBottom)/(P/A+P*e/ZBottom) = #REF!
Say, No of Cables Provided = 3.63

4.2.1 Calculation of Friction & Slip loss

1.275

4
0.375
X X X 3
2.75 0.375

2
4 0.180 0.375

1 3 2 0.180 1 0.350
0.125
0.17 0.310 0.17
0.65 0.65
Section at Midspan Section at Support
0.50 0.050
Y
4.50
1 2 X 0.155
0.155

0.15 0.550

Cable profile in Plan

0.15
1.28 4
0.375
3
0.375 Z
2
0.375 0.180
1 0.180
0.125
0.35 0.50 4.500 4.50 1.80 -10.750
.
Cable profile in Elevation

104 of 221
Vertical bending of Cable 1 =Tan-1{(0.35-0.125)/(0.5+4.5-0.15)} = 2.656 o

Vertical bending of Cable 2 =Tan-1{(0.35+0.375-0.125-0.18)/(0.5+4.5+4.5-0.15)} = 3.672 o

Vertical bending of Cable 3 =Tan-1{(0.35+0.375+0.375-0.125-0.18-0.18)/(0.5+4.5+4.5+1.8-0.15)}= 4.078 o

Vertical bending of Cable 4 =Tan-1{(0.35+0.375+0.375+0.375-0.125-0.18-0.18)/(0.5+4.500+4.5+1.8-0.15)}= 5.074 o

Radius for 1 to 3 = 20 m
Horizontal bending of Cable 1 2.536 o

Horizontal bending of Cable 2 2.536 o

Position of Cable
Cable Anchorage Location of vertical Bending
No. X Y Z X Y Z
1 0.000 0.000 0.350 4.850 0.000 0.125
2 0.000 0.000 0.725 9.350 -0.155 0.125
3 0.000 0.000 1.10 11.150 0.000 0.305
3 0.000 0.000 1.48 11.150 0.000 0.485

Cable Start of Horizontal Bending End of Horizontal Bending Midspan


No. X Y Z X Y Z X Y Z
1 4.850 0.000 0.125 9.350 0.155 0.125 0.400 0.155 0.125
2 4.850 0.000 0.414 9.350 -0.155 0.125 0.400 -0.155 0.125
3 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.400 0.000 0.305
3 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.400 0.000 0.485

C.G. of Cables from Bottom of girder at different Locations


Position Support L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2
Cable No 0.350 0.363 0.3750 0.388 0.400 Distance from
Cable 1 0.334 0.125 0.125 0.125 0.125 Anchorage End
Cable 2 0.703 0.702 0.701 0.125 0.125
Cable 3 1.075 1.074 1.073 1.072 0.305
Cable 4 1.444 1.443 1.442 1.441 0.485

Friction & Slip Loss


Type of Tendon = #REF!
Modulous of Elasticity (E) #REF! Gpa = #REF! kN/m2
Refer figure 6.3, clause no.7.9.2, table no. 18.4 of IRC 112-2011
Cross Sectional Area(A) = #REF! mm2
Ultimate Force of each 19T13 strands (Breaking load each strand =183.7 = #REF! kN
Applied Force -P(je) = (90% of 0.1% proof load = =0.9*0 = #REF! kN
Cofficient of Friction (m) = #REF! per radian
Wobble factor (k) = #REF! per meter
Slip (DL) = #REF! mm.
P(je)=P(x)e (mf+kl) or P(x)=P(je)/e (mf+kl)

Cable 1 19 T13
Force after Force after
Length (l) in Deflection Angle (f)
Node Link
meter Degree Radian e (mf+kl) friction loss slip loss
(kN) (kN)
1 #REF! #REF!
1-2 4.855 0.00 0.000 #REF!
2 #REF! #REF!
2-3 4.503 3.672 0.064 #REF!
3 #REF! #REF!
3-4 8.950 2.536 0.044 #REF!
4 #REF! 2585.89

4.855 4.503 8.950


#REF! #REF! #REF!
1 2 3 #REF!
= 4
= #REF! 2585.89
#REF!
#REF! #REF!
Force Diagram before & after Slip Loss
Assume Force of zero slip = 2585.892 kN
Point of Zero Slip from node 3 = #REF! m

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Area of Shaded Portion = ExAxDL = #REF! kN-m
Area of Shaded Portion = #REF! kN-m
Diferance of these two forces #REF! = #REF! kN-m #REF!
Length of Cable = 36.616 m
Extension of cable at each side = #REF! mm

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Cable 2 19 T13
Force after Force after
Length (l) in Deflection Angle (f)
Node Link e (mf+kl) friction loss slip loss
meter Degree Radian (kN) (kN)
1 #REF! #REF!
1-2 4.860 0.00 0.000 #REF!
2 #REF! #REF!
2-3 4.512 4.462 0.078 #REF!
3 #REF! #REF!
3-4 8.950 2.536 0.044 #REF!
4 #REF! 2594.76
4.860 4.512 8.950
#REF! #REF!
1 2 #REF! #REF!
= 3
= 2594.76 4
#REF! #REF!
#REF! #REF!
Force Diagram before & after Slip Loss
Assume Force of zero slip = 2594.76 kN
Point of Zero Slip from node 3 = #REF! m
Area of Shaded Portion = ExAxDL = #REF! kN-m
Area of Shaded Portion = #REF! kN-m
Diferance of these two forces #REF! = #REF! kN-m #REF!
Length of Cable = 36.644 m
Extension of cable = #REF! mm

Cable 3 19 T13
Force after Force after
Length (l) in Deflection Angle (f)
Node Link e (mf+kl) friction loss slip loss
meter Degree Radian (kN) (kN)
1 #REF! #REF!
1-2 11.178 0.00 0.000 #REF!
2 #REF! #REF!
2-3 -10.750 4.078 0.071 #REF!
3 #REF! 2597.84
11.178 -10.750
#REF! #REF!
1 2 #REF!
= 3
= 2597.84
#REF! #REF!
#REF!
Force Diagram before & after Slip Loss
Assume Force of zero slip = 2597.84 kN
Point of Zero Slip from node 1 = #REF! m
Area of Shaded Portion = ExAxDL = #REF! kN-m
Area of Shaded Portion = #REF! kN-m
Diferance of these two forces #REF! = #REF! kN-m #REF!
Length of Cable = (11.178+-10.75)x2 = 0.857 m
Extension of cable at each side = #REF! mm

Cable 4 12 T13
Force after Force after
Length (l) in Deflection Angle (f)
Node Link e (mf+kl) friction loss slip loss
meter Degree Radian (kN) (kN)
1 #REF! #REF!
1-2 11.194 0.00 0.000 #REF!
2 #REF! #REF!
2-3 -10.750 5.074 0.089 #REF!
3 #REF! 1644.87
11.194 -10.750
#REF! #REF!
1 2 #REF!

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= 3
= 1644.87
#REF! #REF!
#REF!
Force Diagram before & after Slip Loss
Assume Force of zero slip = 1644.8733 kN
Point of Zero Slip from node 1 = #REF! m
Area of Shaded Portion = ExAxDL = #REF! kN-m
Area of Shaded Portion = #REF! kN-m
Diferance of these two forces #REF! = #REF! kN-m #REF!
Length of Cable = (11.194+-10.75)x2 = 0.888 m
Extension of cable at each side = #REF! mm

4.2.2 Summary of Cable Forces after Friction & Slip at different Points
Position Support L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2
Cable No 0.350 0.363 0.375 0.388 0.400
Cable 1 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 2585.89
Vert. angle 2.656 2.656 2.656 0.000 0.000
Hor. angle 0.000 0.000 2.536 0.000 0.000
C.G. 0.334 0.125 0.125 0.125 0.125
Cable 2 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 2594.76
Vert. angle 3.672 3.672 3.672 0.000 0.000
Hor. angle 0.000 0.000 2.536 2.536 0.000
C. G. 0.703 0.702 0.701 0.125 0.125
Cable 4 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 1644.87
Vert. angle 5.074 5.074 5.074 5.074 0.000
Hor. angle 0.000 0.000 0.155 0.155 0.000
C.Total
G. cable 1.444 1.443 1.442 1.441 0.485
forces Normal
at first stage #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 6825.53
CG of Cable #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 0.212
Total cable
forces Per. #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 0.00
Cable 3 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 2597.84
Vert. angle 4.078 4.078 4.078 4.078 0.000
Hor. angle 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
C. G. 1.075 1.074 1.073 1.072 0.305
Total cable
forces Normal #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 2597.84
CG of Cable 1.075 1.074 1.073 1.072 0.305
Total cable
forces Per. #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 0.00
Overall CG
of Cable #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 0.237
% loss #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

4.2.3 Length of Cables and Extension at each End


Total Length Extension at each End
Cable No
(m) (mm)
Cable 1 36.616 #REF!
Cable 2 36.644 #REF!
Cable 3 0.857 #REF!
Cable 4 0.888 #REF!

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5.3 Stress Calculation of girder
After 5 days casting of Precast Girder, first stage Cables shall be stressed as per given force & elongation.
Second stage Cables shall be stressed after 28 days of casting of precast girder. After that all Precast Girders
shall be erected at bearing locations and Deck slab & X-Girder shall be cast erecting necessary shuttering from
precast girder at 60 days. After 30 days casting of Deck Slab i.e. after 90 days casting of Precast Girder,
all shuttering material shall be removed and SIDL shall be laid. In such case Precast Longitudinal Girder shall be
checked for DL of Precast Girder, wt of Deck slab, wt of X-girder at 60 days. But composite girder
(precast girder+RCC deck) shall be checked for SIDL & Live load cases.
5.3.1 Loss calculation
5.3.1.1 Loss due to Elastic Shortening
Refer clause no.6.4.2.2, Annexure A-2 of IRC 112-2011 Average loss in Cable Stress = 1/2 m fc
fcm (t) = bcc(t)fcm bcc(t) = exp{S[1-(28/(t/t1)0^0.5]}
fck = Grade of concrete = #REF!
fcm (t) = mean concrete compressive strength at age 't' days
fcm = mean concrete compressive strength at age '28' days = #REF! Mpa
t = Age of concrete in days = 5 days
t1 = 1 day S = 0.25
bcc(t) = 0.71 fcm (t) = #REF! Mpa
fck (t) = #REF! Mpa
corresponding Ecm = 22x(fcm/12.5)^0.3 = #REF! Gpa
Ep = #REF! Gpa m =Modular Ratio = Ec/E = #REF!
To calculate average stress fc at CG of Cables due to Prestress and
Depth of Girder = 2.750 m Assume, Elastic Shortening = 69.33 kN/Cable
26.35 %
Area of each Cable = #REF! mm2 Number of cables (cable 1 to 3) = 2.63 Nos
Sectional Properties of Precast Girder at Midspan = Sectional Properties of Precast Girder at Support =
Area = 0.873 m2 Area = 1.806 m2
I= 0.601 m4 I= 1.161 m4
CG = 1.448 m CG = 1.389 m
Sustained Stress of precast girder only at 5 days :-
Cable Force (kN) Cable CG Dead Load Dead Load Total Stress at
Section After fr. & After fr., slip from soffit Stress Moment Stress Stress cable CG
slip loss & ES loss (m) (Mpa) (kN-m) (kN/m2) (Mpa) (Mpa)
T #REF! #REF! #REF!
End #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #REF!
T #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #REF!
T #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #REF!
T #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #REF!
T -10.18 #REF! #REF!
L/2 6825.53 6643.07 0.212 #REF! #REF!
B 27.41 #REF! #REF!
Average stress fc = #REF! = #REF! Mpa
Average Loss of cable stress = 1/2 m fc = #REF! Mpa
Loss of each cable due to Elastic shortening = 1/2 m fc As = #REF! kN
-10.18 Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa
#REF! #REF!
Mpa
X X
+ = #REF! #REF!
Mpa
#REF!

27.41 Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa


Precast Stress due to 1st stage Stress due to DL of Girder Resultant Stress at 7
Girder stressing after loss days
Stress Diagram at Midspan of Precast Girder at 5 days of Casting of Girder

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Permissible Compressive stress 0.48xfcm(t) #REF! MPa
Permissible tensile stress 0.7xftmj #REF! MPa

5.3.1.2 Loss due to Relaxation of Steel (clause no. 6.3.6 of IRC 112-2011)
Total Relaxation Loss at service condition = 3 x (1000 hr. value)
Initial force after Friction, slip & ES loss #REF! #REF! kN
Percentage of Initial force = #VALUE! UTS
Relaxation Loss at 1000hr. for low relaxation steel = #VALUE! % of initial force
Relaxation Loss at 1000hr. for low relaxation steel #REF! #VALUE! kN/Cable

Immediate Loss i.e 1 hr. of stressing as per Table 6.2 of IRC 112-2011, = 37 % of Total Loss
5 - 28 days Loss 23 days 552 = 42.00 % of Total Loss
28 - 60 days Loss 32 days 768 = 21.00 % of Total Loss
60 - 90 days Loss 30 days = 0.00 % of Total Loss
90 - a days Loss = 200.0 % of Total Loss
i.e. 3 x (1000 hr. value)
Immediate Loss i.e 1 hr. of stressing = #VALUE! kN/Cable
5 - 28 days Loss = #VALUE! kN/Cable
28 - 60 days Loss = #VALUE! kN/Cable
60 - 90 days Loss = #VALUE! kN/Cable
90-a days Loss = #VALUE! kN/Cable
Total = #VALUE! kN/Cable
#VALUE! #VALUE! %

5.3.1.3 Computation of shrinkage strain (clause no. 6.4.2.6, IRC:112 - 2011)


Total shrinkage strain, ecs = ecd + ec a
Where, ecd is drying shrinkage strain and eca is autogenous shrinkage strain
Maximum Autogenous shrinkage strain eca #REF! (refer table 6.6 of IRC:112 - 2011)
The development of autogenous shrinkage with time ec a(t) = bas(t) x ec a
Where, bas(t) = 1-esp{-0.2sqrt(t)} where t is in days.
The development of dying shrinkage strain in time ecd(t) = bds(t,ts) * kh x ecd
Where, bds(t,ts) = (t-ts)/[(t-ts)+0.04sqrt(ho^3) End of curing of concrete ts = 5.00 day
kh is a coefficient depending on notional size ho
Grade of concrete #REF! Mean concrete strength fcm #REF! MPa
Precast Girder only
C/S area of girder at span Ac = 0.873 m2 Perimeter in contact with air u = 8.521 m
Nominal size of precast member h0=2Ac/u = 204.79 mm
Composite Girder
C/S area of comp. girder at span Ac = 1.100 m2 Perimeter in contact with air u = 8.341 m
Nominal size of member h0=2Ac/u = 263.76 mm
The drying shrinkage strain e cd,0 =0.85*((220+110*ads1)*EXP(-ads2*fcm/fcm,o))*bRH/10^6 #REF!
Coefficient ads1 (normal cement) = 4.0 Coefficient a ds2 (normal cement) = 0.12
The coefficient b RH = 1.55 x [1-RH/Rho]^3 = 1.02 fcmo = 12.50
Relative humidity of enviroment RH = 70.0 % RHo = 100 %
These are expected mean values, with a coefficient of variation of about 30 percent.
Loss of Prestress due to creep, shrinkage and relaxation as per Euro code
DPc+s+r = AP + DsPc+s+r = Ap * (ecs*EP+0.8*DPr+EP/Ecm*f(t,to)*scQP)
1+EP/Ecm*AP/Ac*(1+Ac/Ic*Zcp^2)*(1+0.8*f(t,to))
Development of shrinkage of concrete
Autogenous Nominal size of Drying
shrinkage factor member h0 shrinkage kh Shrinkage Loss due to
Days
strain shrinkage
bas(t) (mm) factor bas(t)

5 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 #REF! 0.00


28 0.653 205 0.164 0.845 #REF! #REF!
60 0.788 264 0.319 0.786 #REF! #REF!
90 0.850 264 0.420 0.786 #REF! #REF!
36500 1.000 264 0.997 0.786 #REF! #REF!
Total #REF! #REF! %

5.3.1.4 Computation of creep coefficients (clause no. 6.4.2.7, IRC:112 - 2011)


Grade of concrete #REF! Mean concrete strength fcm #REF! MPa
The creep coefficient f(t,to) = fo x bc(t,to) as per A2-14of IRC:112 - 2011
Where, fo = fRH x b(fcm) x b(to)
fRH = 1+(1-RH/100)/{0.1*(ho)^1/3} for fcm <= 45MPa
fRH = [1+(1-RH/100)/{0.1*(ho)^1/3} x a1] x a2 for fcm > 45MPa

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The coefficient a 1 =(43.75/fcm)^0.7 #REF!
The coefficient a 2 =(43.75/fcm)^0.2 #REF!
The coefficient b(fcm) = 18.78/sqrt(fcm) #REF!
The coefficient b (t0) = 1/(0.1+to^0.2) = 0.68
Where, age of concrete at first loading t0 =5 day
bc(t,to) =[(t-to)/(bH +t-to)]^0.3
bH = = 1.5 x [1+(0.012RH)^18] x ho + 250 <= 1500 for fcm <= 35MPa
= 1.5 x [1+(0.012RH)^18] x ho + 250a3 <= 1500a3 for fcm <= 35MPa
The coefficient a 3 =(43.75/fcm)^0.5 #REF!
For temperature greater than 40oC theby 10% in absence of accurate data coefficient may be increased by 10%
in absence of accurate data. This is valid for concrete using normal cement.
Development of creep
Loss due to
Creep
Days h0 (mm) f RH fo bH b c(t,to) creep of
coeff. fo concrete

5 0 0.00 #REF! 0.00 0.000 #REF! #REF!


28 205 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
60 264 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
90 264 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
36500 264 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total #REF! #REF! %
5.3.2 Sustained Stress of precast girder at 28 days after stressing of cable
Losses:- Shrinkage = #REF! kN/Cable
Relaxation = #VALUE! kN/Cable
Creep = 118.77 kN/Cable
Total = #REF! kN/Cable
Total Loss for 3 Cables = #REF! kN
fck for 28 days strength = #REF! Modulus of elasticity E #REF! MPa
m =Modular Ratio = Ecm/Ecj = #REF!
Stressing of cable no. 4
Elastic Shortening = 35.13 kN/Cable Nomber of cables #REF! Nos
Relaxation = #VALUE! kN/Cable Depth of Girder 2.75 m
Total = #VALUE! kN/Cable
Sectional Properties of Precast Girder at Midspan = Sectional Properties of Precast Girder at Support =
Area = 0.873 m2 Area = 1.806 m2
I= 0.601 m4 I= 1.161 m4
CG = 1.448 m CG = 1.389 m
Cable Force (kN)

Section Stress at 5 loss bet. 5 Cable CG Stress due Cable CG Total Stress at
days - 28 days from soffit to loss After fr. & After fr., slip from soffit Stress Stress cable CG
(kN/m2) (Tons) (m) (Mpa) slip loss & ES loss (m) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)
T #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
End #REF! #REF! #REF! #VALUE! 1.075 #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
T #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF! #VALUE! 1.074 #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
T #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
L/4 #REF! #REF! #REF! #VALUE! 1.073 #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
T #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
3L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF! #VALUE! 1.072 #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
T #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
L/2 #REF! 0.212 2597.84 #VALUE! 0.305 #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
Average stress s s at CG of cables for 28 days = #REF! #REF! Mpa
Loss of cable stress = m (fc-fc') #REF! Mpa
Loss of each cable due to Elastic shortening = m f c As #REF! kN

#REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #VALUE! Mpa #REF! Mpa


#REF! #REF!
Mpa
+ + =

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#REF! #REF!
Mpa
#REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #VALUE! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF!
Stress due to loss between 5 Stress due to stressing of Resultant Stress at 28
Resultant Stress at 5 days to28 days cables 3 days
Stress Diagram at Midspan of Precast Girder at 28 days of Casting of Girder

Permissible Compressive stress 0.5xfcm #REF! MPa


Permissible tensile stress 0.7xftmj #REF! MPa

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5.3.3. Sustained Stress of precast girder at 60 days after Casting of Deck with X-Girder
Losses for first 3 cables:- Losses for last 1 cable:-
Shrinkage = #REF! kN/Cable Shrinkage = #REF! kN/Cable
Relaxation = #VALUE! kN/Cable Relaxation = #VALUE! kN/Cable
Creep = 38.44 kN/Cable Creep = 38.44 kN/Cable
Total = #REF! kN/Cable Total = #REF! kN/Cable
actual time dependent losses = #REF! kN/Cable actual time dependent losses = #REF! kN/Cable
Total Loss of 4 Cables = #REF! kN Actual Loss of third Cables = #REF! kN
Depth of Precast Girder = 2.750 m
Sectional Properties of Precast Girder at Midspan = Sectional Properties of Precast Girder at Support =
Area = 0.873 m2 Area = 1.806 m2
I= 0.601 m4
I= 1.161 m4
CG = 1.448 m CG = 1.389 m
Stress at loss bet. 28 Cable CG Stress due Moment Stress Total Stress at
Section 28 days - 60 days from soffit to loss Total Stress due to slab due to Stress cable CG
(kN/m2) (kN) (m) (Mpa) (kN/m2) (kN-m) slab (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2 #REF! 0.237 #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Average stress s s at CG of cables for 60 days = #REF! = #REF! Mpa

#REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa


#REF! #REF!
Mpa

+ + =
#REF! #REF!
Mpa
#REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF!
Resultant Stress at 28 Stress due to loss between Stress due to DL of Slab & Resultant Stress at 60
days 28 to 60 days wt of shuttering days
Stress Diagram at Midspan of Precast Girder at 60 days of Casting of Girder

5.3.4 Sustained stress of composite girder at 90 days


After 30 days casting of Deck Slab i.e.after 90 days casting of Precast Girder, Shuttering to be removed and
Apply of SIDL shall be done.
fck for precast girder at 90 days of Concrete I.e. 100% of fc = #REF! Mpa
Ecj = #REF! Gpa Es = #REF! Gpa
m =Modular Ratio = Ec/Ecj = #REF!
Area of each Cable = #REF! mm2
Depth of Composite Girder = 3.100 m
Depth of Precast Girder = 2.750 m
Thickness of deck slab = 250 mm

Sectional Properties of Composite Girder at Midspan = Sectional Properties of Composite Girder at Support =
Area = 1.100 m2 Area = 2.034 m2
I= 0.969 m4 I= 1.608 m4
CG = 1.743 m CG = 1.555 m
Losses:- Shrinkage = #REF! kN/Cable
Relaxation = #VALUE! kN/Cable
Creep = 18.18 kN/Cable
Total = #REF! kN/Cable
Total Loss = #REF! kN/Cable
actual time dependent losses = #REF! kN

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Total Stress
Section Stress due Loss of CG of Cables Stress due Moment due due to Total Stress at
at 60 days Cables from soffit to loss to SIDL SIDL Stress cable CG
(Mpa) (kN) (m) (Mpa) (kN-m) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)
Top of slab 0.00 #REF! -0.01 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! -13.53 -0.01 #REF!
End #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! 0.01 #REF!
Top of slab 0.00 #REF! 0.15 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! 108.37 0.12 #REF!
L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! -0.19 #REF!
Top of slab 0.00 #REF! 0.28 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! 201.55 0.23 #REF!
L/4 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! -0.36 #REF!
Top of slab 0.00 #REF! 0.43 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! 309.62 0.35 #REF!
3L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! -0.56 #REF!
Top of slab 0.00 #REF! 0.63 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! 448.11 0.51 #REF!
L/2 #REF! 0.237 #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! -0.81 #REF!
Average stress at 90 days = #REF! = #REF! Mpa

0.00 Mpa #REF! 0.63 Mpa #REF! Mpa


#REF! #REF! Mpa 0.51 #REF! Mpa
Mpa Mpa

+ + =

#REF! #REF! Mpa -0.81 Mpa #REF! Mpa


Resultant Stress at 60 Loss of Cables between 60 to Resultant Stress at 90
Stress due to SIDL
days 90 days days
Stress Diagram at Midspan of Composite Girder at 90 days

5.3.5. Sustained Stress of composite girder at a days :-


Losses:- Shrinkage = #REF! kN/Cable
Relaxation = #VALUE! kN/Cable
Creep = 141.14 kN/Cable
Total = #REF! kN/Cable
Total Loss = #REF! kN/Cable
actual time dependent losses = #REF! kN
Total Stress
Section Total Stress Loss bet. 90 CG of Cables Stress due at a days Stress at
at 90 days days-a days from soffit to loss without live cable CG
(Mpa) (kN) (m) (Mpa) load (Mpa) (Mpa)
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF!
End #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2 #REF! 0.237 #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF!
Average stress at a days = #REF! = #REF! Mpa

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#REF! Mpa #REF! #REF! Mpa
#REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF! Mpa
Mpa #REF!

+ =

#REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF! Mpa


#REF!
Resultant Stress at 90 Loss of Cables inbet. 90 to
a days Resultant Stress at a days
days
Stress Diagram at Midspan of Composite Girder with SIDL without Live Load at a days

5.3.6. Stress of composite girder due to live load


Total Stress
Total Stress Total Live Stress due Stress due to at a days
Section without live Load Moment 0.6 x Wind load to Live Load wind Load with live load
load (Mpa) (kN-m) (kN-m) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)
Top of slab #REF! -0.23 0.00 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! -234.56 -0.99 -0.19 0.00 #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! 0.23 0.00 #REF!
Top of slab #REF! 2.33 0.10 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! 1665.32 74.83 1.90 0.09 #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! -2.99 -0.13 #REF!
Top of slab #REF! 3.70 0.18 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! 2646.19 128.96 3.02 0.15 #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! -4.76 -0.23 #REF!
Top of slab #REF! 4.15 0.23 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! 2962.06 161.45 3.38 0.18 #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! -5.33 -0.29 #REF!
Top of slab #REF! 4.10 0.25 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! 2932.76 177.89 3.35 0.20 #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! -5.27 -0.32 #REF!

#REF! Mpa 4.10 Mpa #REF! Mpa


#REF! Mpa 3.35 #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF! Mpa
Mpa #REF!

+ =

#REF! Mpa -5.27 Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF! Mpa


Resultant Stress at a #REF!
Stress due to Live Load Resultant Stress at a days
days
Stress Diagram at Midspan of Composite Girder with SIDL & Live Load at a days
Permissible compressive stress in concrete at service = 0.36 x fck #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF!
Permissible Tensile stress in concrete at service = #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF! #REF!

5.3.7 Summary of Stresses for Precast girder only


Sectional Properties of Precast Girder
Precast Girder Midspan Support Composite Girder Midspan Support
Area = 0.873 1.806 m2 Area = 1.100 2.034 m2
I= 0.601 1.161 m4 I= 0.969 1.608 m4
CG = 1.448 1.389 m CG = 1.743 1.555 m
Z Top of slab = 0.771 1.113 m3
Z Top = 0.461 0.853 m3 Z Top = 0.963 1.346 m3
Zbottom = 0.415 0.836 m3 Zbottom = 0.556 1.034 m3

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DL of girder+ deck slab Prestressing force & Loss SIDL
Section Prestress Loss of Stress
Moment Stress CG of cables Loss of pre. Moment Stress
comp. girder
(kN-m) (Mpa) (kN) (m) Girder (kN)
(kN) (Mpa) (kN-m) (Mpa)
Top of slab #REF! -0.02
Top of girder #REF! #REF! -0.01
End #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! -16.78
Bottom #REF! #REF! 0.02
Top of slab #REF! 0.46
Top of girder #REF! #REF! 0.37
L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 354.76
Bottom #REF! #REF! -0.64
Top of slab #REF! 0.81
Top of girder #REF! #REF! 0.65
L/4 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 626.20
Bottom #REF! #REF! -1.13
Top of slab #REF! 1.09
Top of girder #REF! #REF! 0.87
3L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 841.23
Bottom #REF! #REF! -1.51
Top of slab #REF! 1.34
Top of girder #REF! #REF! 1.07
L/2 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 1033.87
Bottom #REF! #REF! -1.86

Section Live load Wind load - loaded structure Temp (+ve) Temp (-ve)

Moment Stress Moment Stress Stress Stress


(kN-m) (Mpa) (kN-m) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)
Top of slab -0.21 0.00 #REF! #REF!
Top of girder -0.17 0.00 #REF! #REF!
End -234.56 -0.99
Bottom 0.23 0.00 #REF! #REF!
Top of slab 2.16 0.10 #REF! #REF!
Top of girder 1.73 0.08 #REF! #REF!
L/8 1665.32 74.83
Bottom -2.99 -0.13 #REF! #REF!
Top of slab 3.43 0.17 #REF! #REF!
Top of girder 2.75 0.13 #REF! #REF!
L/4 2646.19 128.96
Bottom -4.76 -0.23 #REF! #REF!
Top of slab 3.84 0.21 #REF! #REF!
Top of girder 3.08 0.17 #REF! #REF!
3L/8 2962.06 161.45
Bottom -5.33 -0.29 #REF! #REF!
Top of slab 3.80 0.23 #REF! #REF!
Top of girder 3.05 0.18 #REF! #REF!
L/2 2932.76 177.89
Bottom -5.27 -0.32 #REF! #REF!

5.3.8 Load Combination for Rare Combination (SL1)


1) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress
2) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+ wind load(lead) (unloaded structure)
3) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(lead)+wind load (accompany)
4) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(accompany)+wind load (lead)
5) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(lead)+Temperature(accompany)
6) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(accompany)+Temperature(lead)

a) Load combination
Load Case 1 (a) 1 (b) 2 (a) 2 (b) 3 (a) 3 (b) 4 (a) 4 (b) 5 (a)
DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SIDL 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2
Prestress 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
Live load 1 1 0.75 0.75 1
Wind load 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 1 1
Temp (+ve) 0.6
Temp (-ve)

Load Case 5 (b) 5 (c) 5 (d) 6 (a) 6 (b) 6 (c) 6 (d)


DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SIDL 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1
Prestress 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

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Live load 1 1 1 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75
Wind load
Temp (+ve) 0.6 1 1
Temp (-ve) 0.6 0.6 1 1

Load Case 7 (a) 7 (b) 8 (a) 8 (b) 9 (a) 9 (b) 10 (a) 10 (b) 11 (a)
DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SIDL 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2
Prestress 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
Live load 1 1 0.75 0.75 1
Wind load 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 1 1
Temp (+ve) 0.6
Temp (-ve)

Load Case 11 (b) 11 (c) 11 (d) 12 (a) 12 (b) 12 (c) 12 (d)


DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SIDL 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1
Prestress 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
Live load 1 1 1 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75
Wind load
Temp (+ve) 0.6 1 1
Temp (-ve) 0.6 0.6 1 1

b) Stresses of girder at different load casees


Section 1 (a) 1 (b) 2 (a) 2 (b) 3 (a) 3 (b) 4 (a) 4 (b) 5 (a)
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

Section 5 (b) 5 (c ) 5 (d) 6 (a) 6 (b) 6 (c) 6 (c) Max comp.Max Tension
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

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Section 7 (a) 7 (b) 8 (a) 8 (b) 9 (a) 9 (b) 10 (a) 10 (b) 11 (a)
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

Section 11 (b) 11 (c) 11 (d) 12 (a) 12 (b) 12 (c) 12 (d) Max comp.Max Tension
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Permissible compressive stress in concrete at service = 0.48 x fck #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF!
Permissible Tensile stress in concrete at service = #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF! #REF!
Stress with/without Live load at top of deck slab near support section only exceeds the permissible tensile stress i.e. 2.29Mpa.
Necessary reinforcement shall be provided to resist the tensile stress of deck slab.
Maximum tensile force = #REF! kN Permissible working stress = 240.00 MPa
Area of reinforcement required = #REF! mm2 Ast provided= 1021.02 mm2
Hence Provide 10 T @ 140 c/c + 10 T @ 140 c/c at top

5.3.9 Load Combination for frequent Combination (SL2) - for prestressing member
1) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress
2) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+ wind load(lead) (unloaded structure)
3) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(lead)+wind load (accompany)
4) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(accompany)+wind load (lead)
5) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(lead)+Temperature(accompany)
6) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(accompany)+Temperature(lead)
a) Load combination
Load Case 1 (a) 1 (b) 2 (a) 2 (b) 3 (a) 3 (b) 4 (a) 4 (b) 5 (a)
DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SIDL 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2
Prestress 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
Live load 0.75 0.75 0.2 0.2 0.75
Wind load 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6
Temp (+ve) 0.5
Temp (-ve)

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Load Case 5 (b) 5 (c) 5 (d) 6 (a) 6 (b) 6 (c) 6 (d)
DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SIDL 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1
Prestress 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
Live load 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Wind load
Temp (+ve) 0.5 0.6 0.6
Temp (-ve) 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6

Load Case 7 (a) 7 (b) 8 (a) 8 (b) 9 (a) 9 (b) 10 (a) 10 (b) 11 (a)
DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SIDL 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2
Prestress 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
Live load 0.75 0.75 0.2 0.2 0.75
Wind load 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6
Temp (+ve) 0.5
Temp (-ve)

Load Case 11 (b) 11 (c) 11 (d) 12 (a) 12 (b) 12 (c) 12 (d)


DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SIDL 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1
Prestress 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
Live load 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Wind load
Temp (+ve) 0.5 0.6 0.6
Temp (-ve) 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6
b) Stresses of girder at different load casees
Section 1 (a) 1 (b) 2 (a) 2 (b) 3 (a) 3 (b) 4 (a) 4 (b) 5 (a)
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

Section 5 (b) 5 (c ) 5 (d) 6 (a) 6 (b) 6 (c) 6 (c) Max comp.Max Tension
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

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Section 7 (a) 7 (b) 8 (a) 8 (b) 9 (a) 9 (b) 10 (a) 10 (b) 11 (a)
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

Section 11 (b) 11 (c) 11 (d) 12 (a) 12 (b) 12 (c) 12 (d) Max comp.Max Tension
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

Permissible compressive stress in concrete at service = 0.36 x fck #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF!
Permissible Tensile stress in concrete at service = 0.00 Mpa #REF! #REF! #REF!

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5.4 Check for ultimate strength of girder in Flexure :-
Grade of concrete #REF! Modulus of elasticity of concrete E #REF! MPa
Design yield strength fpd #REF! MPa Modulus of elasticity of steel #REF! Gpa
910 0.00350 #REF!
250 #REF!
197.28
NA NA
3000 300

#REF! 0 #REF! #REF!


Strain Diagram Stress Diagram
650
Top width of girder = 910 mm Thickness of compression flange = 250 mm
Width of web = 300 mm Distance of prestress CG from botto #REF! mm
Depth of girder = 3000 mm
Balanced neutral axis depth #REF! mm Actual neutral axis depth 197.28 mm
Total strain at the prestress CG #REF! #REF!
Total ultimate compressive force #REF! kN Total ultimate tensile force #REF! kN
Compressive force CG 82.07 mm Moment of resistance #REF! kNm
#REF! #REF! kNm #REF!
At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
Ultimate moment #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Horizontal prestress after all losses (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Pre-strain in the cables after all losses #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Distance of prestress CG from bottom (mm) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 237
Total width of web (mm) 650 300 300 300 300
Assumed neutral axis from top (mm) 197 197 197 197 197
Total strain at the prestress CG #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Average prestress at failure (MPa) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total compressive force by concrete (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total tensile force by prestressing steel (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Difference in forces #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Moment of resistance (kNm) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Effective lever arm between forces (m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Factor of Safety associated with failure #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

5.5 Design of Shear


Total loss after friction & Slip Loss
Description 1st stage stressing % Loss 2nd stage stressing % Loss
At 5 days
Elastic shortening 69.33 kN #VALUE!
Relaxation #VALUE! kN #VALUE!
At 28 days
Elastic shortening 35.13 kN #VALUE! 35.13 kN #VALUE!
Shrinkage #REF! kN #REF!
Relaxation #VALUE! kN #VALUE! #VALUE! kN #VALUE!
Creep 118.77 kN #VALUE!
At 60 days
Shrinkage #REF! kN #REF! #REF! kN #REF!
Relaxation #VALUE! kN #VALUE! #VALUE! kN #VALUE!
Creep 38.44 kN #VALUE! 38.44 kN #VALUE!
At 90 days
Shrinkage #REF! kN #REF! #REF! kN #REF!
Relaxation #VALUE! kN #VALUE! #VALUE! kN #VALUE!
Creep 18.18 kN #VALUE! 18.18 kN #VALUE!
At a days
Shrinkage #REF! kN #REF! #REF! kN #REF!
Relaxation #VALUE! kN #VALUE! #VALUE! kN #VALUE!
Creep 141.14 kN #VALUE! 141.14 kN #VALUE!
Total #REF! kN/cable #REF! #REF! kN #REF!
Total loss #REF! kN

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Vertical Component of Cable Force (kN)
Position Support L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2
Cable No #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Cable 1 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Vert. angle #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Cable 2 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Vert. angle #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Cable 3 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Vert. angle #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Cable 4 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Vert. angle #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total Ver.
Comp. of
cable1 to 4 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

Ultimate Shear at Sections :-


Shear #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Ultimate Load
Moment #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

5.5.1 Section not requiring design shear reinforcement


i) Shear Capacity of Cracked Section as per clause 10.3.2(2) of IRC 112-2010
VRD.C = [0.12*K(80*r1*fck)^0.33+0.15scp]*bw*d Subject to VRD.C MIN = {vmin + 0.15sCP)*bw*d
Where, K = 1+sqrt(200/d) <= 2 Where, d is in millimeters
r1 = Asl/(bw*d) <= 0.02 fck = #REF! Mpa
scp = NEd/Ac <= 0.2xfcd Where, NEd = axial compression, Ac = Area of section
vmin = 0.031*K^1.5*fck^0.5 fcd = acc*fck/gm where, acc =0.67 and gm = 1.5
Description Support L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2
Prestress Force after all losses (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Effective width of the web in mm 650 300 300 300 300
Effective Depth of precast Section (d) in #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Effective Depth of composite Section (d) #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
K #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Stress due to Prestress (scp) (Mpa) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Shear Resistance minimum (VRd,cmin) (kN) #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Reinforcement ratio considering Tendons, #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Shear resistance ( VRd,c) (kN) #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Design Shear resistance ( VRd,c) (kN) #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!

ii) Shear Capacity of Uncracked Section as per clause 10.3.2(2) of IRC 112-2010
The shear resistance of the beam section uncracked in flexure is given below:-
VRd,c = ( I * bwc )/ S x √ (fctd2 + k1 scp fctd)
Where, I = Moment of inertia bwc= Width of beam after deduction due to duct
S = First moment of area between cetroidal axis and extreme compression fibre about the centrodial axis.
fctd = design tensile strength of concrete = fctk/gm = #REF! Mpa
Description Support L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2
Prestress Force after all losses (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Effective width of the Web 650 300 300 300 300
Effective Depth of the Section (d) #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Stress due to Prestress (scp) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Design tensile strength of the Concrete
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
(fctd)
First moment of inertia about the CG (S) 3.11E+09 1.79E+09 1.79E+09 1.79E+09 1.79E+09
Transmission length factor, k1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Moment of Inertia (I) (mm4) 1.6E+12 9.7E+11 9.7E+11 9.7E+11 9.7E+11
Design Shear resistance ( VRd,c) (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

iii) Summary of the Shear resistance of the Beam when shear reinforcement isn't required :
The maximum shear capacity of the Beam as cl.10.3.2 (5) of IRC 112-2010
VEd ≤ 0.50 bw d n fcd where, n =0.60 [ 1 - fck/310]

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Description Support L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2
Distance from bearing in m 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.05
Distance modification factor b for Precast Beam 1.00 #VALUE! ### ### ###
Distance modification factor b for Composite### #VALUE! ### ### ###
Effective Shear for Precast Beam #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Effective Shear for Composite Section (kN 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Effective Shear due to prestressing force #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total Shear force for the Beam (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Precast member Area (m2) 1.81 0.87 0.87 0.87 0.87
Zb (m3) 0.84 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41
Composite member Area (m2) 2.03 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10
Zb (m3) 1.03 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56
Stress due to prestress at tensile fibre s bpt #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! ###
Section at Maximum Bending Moment #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! ###
Shear capacity of Beam Section (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! ###
Maximum shear capacity of the Section ( ### #VALUE! ### ### ###
Whether shear reinforcement required or #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! ###

iv) Calculation of Shear Resistance when Shear Reinforcement is Required ::


The design for the Vertical stirrups for resisting shear is calculated in the table below as per Cl. No. 10.3.3.2
The shear resistance with vertical stirrups is given by,
VRd,s = Asw / s. z. fywd cot q by Crushing of Compression strut
VRd,max = acw bw z v1 fcd / (cot q + tan q) by yielding of the Vertical reinforcement
Grade of reinforcement = #REF! Grade of concrete #REF!
Design Tensile stress in stirrups (fywd= 0.8fyk/ #REF! Mpa Concrete Strength (f #REF! Mpa
Minimum Shear reinf. ratio = 0.072sqrt(fc #REF! Coeff accounting stress in compression chord
Design of Vertical Transverse reinforcement (a = 90 ) o
#REF!

Description Support L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2


Shear demand of Beam (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Lever arm taken from flexural analysis z (m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Angle of compression strut q (degrees) 25.54 30.51 22.38 22.38 22.38
Dia of shear reinforcement provided (mm) 12+16 16 12 12 12
Number of legs provided 2 2 2 2 2
Spacing of stirrups provided (mm) 125 125 125 125 125
Minimum area of Shear reinf. reqd Asw/s (mm2/mm)
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Area of shear reinf provided Asw/s (mm2/mm) 5.027 3.217 1.810 1.810 1.810
Check #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Shear resistance provided by reinf VRD,s
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Coeff
(kN) accounting stress in comp chord
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
a cw
Shear capacity of compression strut
VRD,max (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Difference in shear resistance (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Shear capacity of the Section (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Factor of Safety associated with failure #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Increase in longitudinal tensile force DFtd (kN)
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total longitudinal tensile force (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Permissible longitudinal tensile force (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Check #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

5.6. Anchor Block


Check Bearing pressure
According to Manufacture's Catalog Size of anchor flange = #REF! mm Dia of Hole #REF! mm
fb = 0.48xfcjxSQRT(A2/A1) or 0.8xfcj Whichever is smaller
fcj = = #REF! N/mm2
A2 = #REF! = #REF! mm2
A1 = #REF! = #REF! mm2
fb = min (0.48fcjsqrt(A2/A1),0.8fcj) #REF! N/mm2
Now, Maximum Cable Force after immediate Losses = #REF! T
As per Manufacture's recommendation = 40% of above force to be taken by End Bearing
= 60% of above force to be taken by Anchorage
Cone and Concrete by friction
Bearing stress = N/A1 = #REF! N/mm2 #REF! #REF! N/mm2 #REF!

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Busting reinforcement in end block
2Yo = #REF! mm 2Ypo = #REF! mm
Ypo/Yo = #REF! As per Table 13.1 of IRC 112-2011 Fbst/Pk = 0.120
Fbst = #REF! #REF! kN
Area of Steel Required = Fbst/(0.87xfy) #REF! mm2
Hence Provide 12T- 4L -4Nos along Web and Normal to Web Ast = 1809.56 mm2

5.7. Interface Shear Design for Composite section


The shear stress that arises between the interfaces of concrete placed at different times is reffered to as interface
shear. The interface shear is resisted by friction at the interface and by reinforcement placed across the shear plane.
The interface shear stress, Vedi <= the resisting capacity at the section, VRdi
Vedi = b Ved/zbi
Where, b = The ratio of longitudinal force in the new concrete and total longitudinal force
Ved = The tranverse shear force
z = Lever arm
bi = the width of interface
VRdi = msn + rfyd[msina+cosa] <=0.5vfcd fck #REF!
m = friction for rough surface = 0.7 fyd #REF! Mpa
sn = the minimum co existing normal stress < 0.6fcd = 0.00 Mpa
r = As/Aj where As is the area of reinforcement, Aj is the interface area of the joint
n1 = Coeff accounting stress in compression chord = 0.60
a = the angle of the reinforcement to the interface = 90.00 degree
fcd = acc*fck/gm where, acc =0.67 and gm = 1.5 #REF! Mpa

Description Support L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2


Shear demand of Beam,VEd (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Ratio of Longitudinal forces (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Lever arm taken from flexural analysis z (m)#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Interface Width bi ( mm) 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250
Design value of Shear Stress vEdi ( MPa) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Roughness Co-efficient, m 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70
Stress caused by minimum external norma 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dia of shear reinforcement provided (mm) 10 10 10 10 10
Number of legs provided 4 4 4 4 4
Spacing of stirrups provided (mm) 150 150 150 150 150
Minimum reinf.=0.15% of area of interfac 1875 1875 1875 1875 1875
Area of Reinforcement at interface, As (mm2094.40 2094.40 2094.40 2094.40 2094.40
Area of the joint, Ai (mm2) 312500 312500 312500 312500 312500
Strength reduction factor (n) 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Design shear resistance at the Interface (v #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Status with respect to the Interface Shear #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
4.8. Untensioned Reinforcement of Precast Girder
Vertical reiforcement = 0.18 % of web
=0.18%x0x0 = 0 mm2 per meter
Hence provide 2L-12T @ 150 c/c Ast provide= 1506.6667 mm2 per meter

Longitudinal reinforcement = 0.15 % of web


Total Area of Precast Girder at midspan = 0 m2
=0.15%x0x1000000 = 0 mm2 per meter
Hence provide 7-16T at Bottomt top & 8-12T at Top Ast provide= 1909 mm2 per meter

Side Face Reinforcement


Side Face Reinforcement = 0.1 % of web Area
Area of steel required = 0 mm2
Minimum Reinf. at earth face (0.12%) = 648 mm2
Hence Provide 10 Nos. 12 f on Each Face
Ast provided = 2261.9467 mm2/m > 648 mm2/m
Hence O.K.

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5.9 Calculation for Deflection of Longitudinal girders
(i) Precast Girder - Prestress of cables 1, 2, 3 + wt of precast Girder at 5 days
Young Modulus = #REF! kN/m2
Section At support Near L/8 At L/4 At 3L/8 At L/2
Distance 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.038 0.050
CG of Precast girder from bottom , m 1.389 1.448 1.448 1.448 1.448
Moment of Inertia for Precast
1.161 0.601 0.601 0.601 0.601
girder only (I) m4
CG of cables 1 to 2 from bot.(m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Moment due to stressing after
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Momentlosses
due to(kN-m)
Wt of Precast
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total
Girder
moment
(kN-m)
due to
prestress+wt of precast Girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
(kN-m)
M/EI (1/m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

0.01 0.013 0.013 0.013


A B C D E
#REF! 2 #REF!
#REF! 4 3 #REF! #REF!
1

M/EI Diagram for Ist Stage Prestress after losses at 5 days


At Midspan
Average Moment of M/EI about
Section Marked Distance CG from A M/EI
M/EI A
A #REF!
B 4 0.013 0.006 #REF! #REF! #REF!
C 3 0.013 0.019 #REF! #REF! #REF!
D 2 0.013 0.031 #REF! #REF! #REF!
E 1 0.013 0.044 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total #REF!
So, Midspan deflection due to Prestress + wt of precast Girder = = #REF! mm
= - L/ #REF!
(ii) Precast Girder - Prestress of cables 4,5 + loss of Cables 1 to 3 at 28 days
Young Modulus = #REF! Mpa
Section At support Near L/8 At L/4 At 3L/8 At L/2
Distance 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.038 0.050
CG of cables 3 from bot.(m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Moment due to stressing after
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Moment duelosses (kN-m)
to loss of prestress
Total moment due to #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
(kN-m)
prestress+wt of precast Girder #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
(kN-m)
M/EI (1/m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

0.0 0.013 0.013 0.013


A B C D E
2
#REF! #REF!
#REF! 4 3 #REF! #REF!
1
M/EI Diagram for Ist Stage Prestress after losses at 28 days
At Midspan
Average Moment of M/EI about
Section Marked Distance CG from A M/EI
M/EI A
A #REF!
B 4 0.013 0.006 #REF! #REF! #REF!
C 3 0.013 0.019 #REF! #REF! #REF!
D 2 0.013 0.031 #REF! #REF! #REF!
E 1 0.013 0.044 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total #REF!
So, Midspan deflection due to Prestress +loss = = #REF! mm
So, Total Midspan deflection at 28 days = = #REF! mm = - L/ #REF!

(iii) Precast Girder - Prestress + wt of precast Girder +wt of deck slab at 60 days
Section At support Near L/8 At L/4 At 3L/8 At L/2
Distance 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.038 0.050
CG of all cables from bot.(m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Loss #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Moment due to prestressing
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
losses
Moment dueof to
cables
Wt of (kN-m)
Deck Slab
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
(kN-m) due to
Total moment #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
prestress+DL (kN-m)
M/EI (1/m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
0.0 0.013 0.013 0.013
A B C D E

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#REF! #REF! #REF!
4 #REF! #REF!
3 1
2
M/EI Diagram for Ist Stage Prestress after losses at 60 days

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At Midspan
Average Moment of M/EI about
Section Marked Distance CG from A M/EI Rotation
M/EI A
A #REF!
B 4 0.013 0.006 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
C 3 0.013 0.019 #REF! #REF! #REF!
D 2 0.013 0.031 #REF! #REF! #REF!
E 1 0.013 0.044 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total #REF!
So, Midspan deflection due to Prestress losses + DL = = #REF! mm
Total Deflection at 60 days #REF! = #REF! mm

(iv) Composite Girder - long term losses + SIDL+ Live load


Section At support Near L/8 At L/4 At 3L/8 At L/2
Distance 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.038 0.050
CG of Composite girder from bottom , m 1.555 1.743 1.743 1.743 1.743
CG of cables from bot.(m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Moment of Inertia for Composite
1.608 0.969 0.969 0.969 0.969
girder (I) m4
Loss #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Moment due to prestressing
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
losses of cables due
Total moment (kN-m)
to #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
prestress Loss+SIDL (kN-m)
M/EI (1/m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013
A B C D E
#REF! #REF! #REF!
4 #REF! #REF!
3 1
2
M/EI Diagram for Ist Stage Prestress after losses at a days
At Midspan
Average Moment of M/EI about
Section Marked Distance CG from A M/EI Rotation
M/EI A
A #REF!
B 4 0.013 0.006 #REF!#REF! #REF! #REF!
C 3 0.013 0.019 #REF!#REF! #REF!
D 2 0.013 0.031 #REF!#REF! #REF!
E 1 0.013 0.044 #REF!#REF! #REF!
Total #REF!
So, Midspan deflection due to Prestress losses = = #REF! mm
So, Midspan deflection due SIDL = = 2.980 mm 0.000345
So, Midspan deflection due Footpath Live load = = 0.211 mm 0.000024
So, Midspan deflection due Wind load = = 0.947 mm 0.000112
So, Midspan deflection due Live load = = 8.569 mm 0.001012
Total Deflection at mid span 1xDL+1.2xSIDL+1xLL+0.6xWL = #REF! mm L/ #REF!

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6.0 Calculation of Stresses for Girder LG2 = 1.100 m
6.1. Load calculation
6.1.1 Dead Load Moment & Shear for Precast girder only
Unit weight of concrete #REF! kN/m3
Cross-sectional area at span = 0.873 m2
Cross-sectional area at support = 1.806 m2
Unit Weight at span #REF! kN/m
Unit Weight at support #REF! kN/m
Thickness of intermediate Cross Girder = 0.30 m
Thickness of end Cross Girder = 0.60 m
1.250 1.750 1.250

0.475 0
0.1 0.063

2.75 2.750 2.650

0
0

0.175 0.175
0.65 2.350 0.65
Part of intermediate cross girder #REF! #REF! kN
Part of End cross girder #REF! #REF! kN
#REF! kN
#REF! kN
#REF! #REF!
#REF!
0.500 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.500

0.500 0.100 0.500


1.100
Support Reaction = #REF! kN
Table : Maximum BM & SF at critical sections
Section At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
Dist. for prop. Section(m) 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.038 0.050
Bending Moment (kNm) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Shear Force (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

6.1.2 Construction load and weight of shuttering & proping.


Assume, Construction Live load = 0.500 kN/m2
Assume, UDL for weight of shuttering = 5.000 kN/m
Efective width of deck slab for end girder = 3.000 m
Weight of shuttering & Conc. Live load = 6.500 kN/m
6.500

0.500 0.10 0.500


Support Reaction = 3.58 kN
Table : Maximum BM & SF at critical sections of outer girders
Section At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
Distance (m) 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.038 0.050
Bending Moment (kNm) -0.8 -0.8 -0.8 -0.8 -0.8
Shear Force (kN) 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0
6.1.3 Dead Load Moment & Shear for Deck slab & X-girder
Unit weight of concrete #REF! kN/m3
Thickness of deck slab = 0.250 m2
Thickness of deck slab at expansion joint = 0.400 m
Width of deck slab at support = 3.000 m
Width of deck slab at midspan = 3.000 m
Average width of deck slab = 3.000 m
Wt. of End X-girder #REF! #REF! kN
Wt of Inner X-girder #REF! #REF! kN
#REF! #REF! #REF!
0.55
#REF! #REF! kN/m

0.850 0.10 0.850


Support Reaction = #REF! kN

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Table : Maximum BM & SF at critical sections

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Section At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
Distance (m) 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.038 0.050
Bending Moment (kNm) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Shear Force (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

6.1.4 Summary of Bending Moment & Shear Force for inner girder
a) Bending Moment (kNm)
Description At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
Distance (m) 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.038 0.050
Precast girder only #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Construction load -0.8 -0.8 -0.8 -0.8 -0.8
Deck slab & X-girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total wt of deck slab = #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
SIDL from staad output -13.7 398.8 705.0 932.9 1085.0
Removal of shutter 3.3 -246.4 -424.6 -531.6 -567.2
Footpath live load -6.4 64.8 120.9 175.77 230.46
Live load incl. snow load -216.0 1585.6 2519.6 2818.0 2743.6
Total Live Load incl.snow load -222.4 1650.4 2640.4 2993.8 2974.0
Wind load (unloaded structure) 3.2 -240.7 -414.8 -519.35 -554.15
Wind load (loaded structure) -1.6 124.7 214.9 269.1 287.1
Construction load (1.5kN/m2) -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2
Total Live Load -222.4 1650.4 2640.4 2993.8 2974.0

b) Shear force (kN) For SIDL & Live load - Refer STAAD Output
Desription At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
Precast girder only #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Deck slab & X-girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total DL #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
SIDL from staad output 127.0 104.4 80.8 57.5 34.9
Footpath live load 0.5 17.0 16.6 16.5 16.5
Live load incl. snow load 594.5 486.1 343.8 201.6 307.8
Total Live Load incl.snow load 595.0 503.1 360.4 218.1 324.4
Wind load (unloaded structure) -84.1 -63.1 -42.1 -21.0 0.0
Wind load (loaded structure) 43.6 32.7 21.8 10.9 0.0
Construction load 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

6.1.5 Load Combination - Ultimate limit state


1) Dead load +SIDL+Live load
2) Dead load +SIDL+ wind load (unloaded structure)
3) Dead load +SIDL+Live load(lead) + wind load (accompany) (loaded structure)
4) Dead load +SIDL+Live load(accompany) + wind load(lead) (loaded structure)
5) Dead load +SIDL+construction Live load(leading) + wind load(accompany)
Load Case DL SIDL Live load Wind load
1 1.35 1.75 1.5
2 (a) 1.35 1.75 1.5
2 (b) 1 1 1.5
3 (a) 1.35 1.75 1.5 0.9
3 (b) 1 1 1.5 0.9
4 (a) 1.35 1.75 1.15 1.5
4 (b) 1 1 1.15 1.5
5 (a) 1.35 1.75 1.35 0.9
5 (b) 1 1 1.35 0.9

a) Moment At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2


1 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
2 (a) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
2 (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3 (a) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3 (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
4 (a) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
4 (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
5 (a) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
5 (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Maximum #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

b) Shear At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2


1 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
2 (a) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
2 (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3 (a) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3 (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
4 (a) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
4 (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
5 (a) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

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5 (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Maximum #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

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6.2 Cable Details
Maximum midspan Moment for outer girder =
Precast Girder Only = #REF! kN-m
Deck Slab & Cross Girder = #REF! kN-m
SIDL = 1085.03 kN-m
Wind load = 287.11 kN-m
Live Load = 2974.02 kN-m
Total Moment = #REF! kN-m
Sectional Properties Inner Composite Girder at Midspan :-
Area - A = 1.100 m2
Moment of Inertia - I = 0.969 m4
CG from bottom = 1.743 m
Z Bottom = 0.556 m3
Assume Nos. of Cable = N
Ultimate Force of each 19T13 strands P = #REF! kN
Applied Force = #REF! kN
CG From bottom = 0.237 m
"e" from CG of Girder = 1.506 m
Assum overall Loss = 30 %
Stress at bottom of Girder = NP/A+NP*e/ZBottom-M/Zbottom = 0
N = (M/ZBottom)/(P/A+P*e/ZBottom) = #REF!
Say, No of Cables Provided = 3.63
4.2.1 Calculation of Friction & Slip loss

1.275

4
0.375
X X X 3
2.75 0.375

2
4 0.180 0.375

1 3 2 0.180 1 0.350
0.125
0.17 0.310 0.17
0.65 0.65
Section at Midspan Section at Support
0.50 0.050
Y
4.50
1 2 X 0.155
0.155

0.15 0.550

Cable profile in Plan


0.15
1.28 4
0.375
3
0.375 Z
2
0.375 0.180
1 0.180
0.125
0.35 0.50 4.500 4.50 1.80 -10.750
.
Cable profile in Elevation

Vertical bending of Cable 1 =Tan-1{(0.35-0.125)/(0.5+4.5-0.15)} = 2.656 o

Vertical bending of Cable 2 =Tan-1{(0.35+0.375-0.125-0.18)/(0.5+4.5+4.5-0.15)} = 3.672 o

Vertical bending of Cable 3 =Tan-1{(0.35+0.375+0.375-0.125-0.18-0.18)/(0.5+4.5+4.5+1.8-0.15)}= 4.078 o

Vertical bending of Cable 4 =Tan-1{(0.35+0.375+0.375+0.375-0.125-0.18-0.18)/(0.5+4.500+4.5+1.8-0.15)}= 5.074 o

Radius for 1 to 3 = 20 m

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Horizontal bending of Cable 1 2.536 o

Horizontal bending of Cable 2 2.536 o

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Position of Cable
Cable Anchorage Location of vertical Bending
No. X Y Z X Y Z
1 0.000 0.000 0.350 4.850 0.000 0.125
2 0.000 0.000 0.725 9.350 -0.155 0.125
3 0.000 0.000 1.10 11.150 0.000 0.305
3 0.000 0.000 1.48 11.150 0.000 0.485

Cable Start of Horizontal Bending End of Horizontal Bending Midspan


No. X Y Z X Y Z X Y Z
1 4.850 0.000 0.125 9.350 0.155 0.125 0.400 0.155 0.125
2 4.850 0.000 0.414 9.350 -0.155 0.125 0.400 -0.155 0.125
3 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.400 0.000 0.305
3 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.400 0.000 0.485

C.G. of Cables from Bottom of girder at different Locations


Position Support L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2
Cable No 0.350 0.363 0.3750 0.388 0.400 Distance from
Cable 1 0.334 0.125 0.125 0.125 0.125 Anchorage End
Cable 2 0.703 0.702 0.701 0.125 0.125
Cable 3 1.075 1.074 1.073 1.072 0.305
Cable 4 1.444 1.443 1.442 1.441 0.485
Friction & Slip Loss
Type of Tendon = #REF!
Modulous of Elasticity (E) #REF! Gpa = #REF! kN/m2
Refer figure 6.3, clause no.7.9.2, table no. 18.4 of IRC 112-2011
Cross Sectional Area(A) = #REF! mm2
Ultimate Force of each 19T13 strands (Breaking load each strand =183.7 kN) = #REF! kN
Applied Force -P(je) = (90% of 0.1% proof load = =0.9*0.87*183.7) = #REF! kN
Cofficient of Friction (m) = #REF! per radian
Wobble factor (k) = #REF! per meter
Slip (DL) = #REF! mm.
P(je)=P(x)e (mf+kl) or P(x)=P(je)/e (mf+kl)

Cable 1 19 T13
Force after Force after
Length (l) in Deflection Angle (f)
Node Link
meter Degree Radian e (mf+kl) friction loss slip loss
(kN) (kN)
1 #REF! #REF!
1-2 4.855 0.00 0.000 #REF!
2 #REF! #REF!
2-3 4.503 3.672 0.064 #REF!
3 #REF! #REF!
3-4 8.950 2.536 0.044 #REF!
4 #REF! 2585.89

4.855 4.503 8.950


#REF! #REF! #REF!
1 2 3 #REF!
= 4
= #REF! 2585.89
#REF!
#REF! #REF!
Force Diagram before & after Slip Loss
Assume Force of zero slip = 2585.892 kN
Point of Zero Slip from node 3 = #REF! m
Area of Shaded Portion = ExAxDL = #REF! kN-m
Area of Shaded Portion = #REF! kN-m
Diferance of these two forces #REF! = #REF! kN-m #REF!
Length of Cable = 36.616 m
Extension of cable at each side = #REF! mm

Cable 2 19 T13
Force after Force after
Length (l) in Deflection Angle (f)
Node Link e (mf+kl) friction loss slip loss
meter Degree Radian (kN) (kN)
1 #REF! #REF!
1-2 4.860 0.00 0.000 #REF!
2 #REF! #REF!
2-3 4.512 4.462 0.078 #REF!
3 #REF! #REF!
3-4 8.950 2.536 0.044 #REF!

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4 #REF! 2594.76

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4.860 4.512 8.950
#REF! #REF!
1 2 #REF! #REF!
= 3
= 2594.76 4
#REF! #REF!
#REF! #REF!
Force Diagram before & after Slip Loss
Assume Force of zero slip = 2594.76 kN
Point of Zero Slip from node 3 = #REF! m
Area of Shaded Portion = ExAxDL = #REF! kN-m
Area of Shaded Portion = #REF! kN-m
Diferance of these two forces #REF! = #REF! kN-m #REF!
Length of Cable = 36.644 m
Extension of cable = #REF! mm

Cable 3 19 T13
Force after Force after
Length (l) in Deflection Angle (f)
Node Link e (mf+kl) friction loss slip loss
meter Degree Radian (kN) (kN)
1 #REF! #REF!
1-2 11.178 0.00 0.000 #REF!
2 #REF! #REF!
2-3 -10.750 4.078 0.071 #REF!
3 #REF! 2597.84
11.178 -10.750
#REF! #REF!
1 2 #REF!
= 3
= 2597.84
#REF! #REF!
#REF!
Force Diagram before & after Slip Loss
Assume Force of zero slip = 2597.835 kN
Point of Zero Slip from node 1 = #REF! m
Area of Shaded Portion = ExAxDL = #REF! kN-m
Area of Shaded Portion = #REF! kN-m
Diferance of these two forces #REF! = #REF! kN-m #REF!
Length of Cable = (11.178+-10.75)x2 = 0.857 m
Extension of cable at each side = #REF! mm

Cable 4 12 T13
Force after Force after
Length (l) in Deflection Angle (f)
Node Link e (mf+kl) friction loss slip loss
meter Degree Radian (kN) (kN)
1 #REF! #REF!
1-2 11.194 0.00 0.000 #REF!
2 #REF! #REF!
2-3 -10.750 5.074 0.089 #REF!
3 #REF! 1644.87
11.194 -10.750
#REF! #REF!
1 2 #REF!
= 3
= 1644.87
#REF! #REF!
#REF!
Force Diagram before & after Slip Loss
Assume Force of zero slip = 1644.8733 kN
Point of Zero Slip from node 1 = #REF! m
Area of Shaded Portion = ExAxDL = #REF! kN-m
Area of Shaded Portion = #REF! kN-m
Diferance of these two forces #REF! = #REF! kN-m #REF!
Length of Cable = (11.194+-10.75)x2 = 0.888 m
Extension of cable at each side = #REF! mm

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4.2.2 Summary of Cable Forces after Friction & Slip at different Points
Position Support L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2
Cable No 0.350 0.363 0.375 0.388 0.400
Cable 1 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 2585.89
Vert. angle 2.656 2.656 2.656 0.000 0.000
Hor. angle 0.000 0.000 2.536 0.000 0.000
C.G. 0.334 0.125 0.125 0.125 0.125
Cable 2 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 2594.76
Vert. angle 3.672 3.672 3.672 0.000 0.000
Hor. angle 0.000 0.000 2.536 2.536 0.000
C. G. 0.703 0.702 0.701 0.125 0.125
Cable 4 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 1644.87
Vert. angle 5.074 5.074 5.074 5.074 0.000
Hor. angle 0.000 0.000 0.155 0.155 0.000
C. G. 1.444 1.443 1.442 1.441 0.485
Total cable
forces Normal #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 6825.53
at first stage
CG of Cable #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 0.212
Total cable
forces Per. #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 0.00
Cable 3 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 2597.84
Vert. angle 4.078 4.078 4.078 4.078 0.000
Hor. angle 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
C. G. 1.075 1.074 1.073 1.072 0.305
Total cable
forces Normal #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 2597.84
CG of Cable 1.075 1.074 1.073 1.072 0.305
Total cable
forces Per. #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 0.00
Overall CG
of Cable
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 0.237
% loss #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

4.2.3 Length of Cables and Extension at each End


Total Length Extension at each End
Cable No
(m) (mm)
Cable 1 36.616 #REF!
Cable 2 36.644 #REF!
Cable 3 0.857 #REF!
Cable 4 0.888 #REF!

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6.3 Stress Calculation of girder
After 5 days casting of Precast Girder, first stage Cables shall be stressed as per given force & elongation.
Second stage Cables shall be stressed after 28 days of casting of precast girder. After that all Precast Girders
shall be erected at bearing locations and Deck slab & X-Girder shall be cast erecting necessary shuttering from
precast girder at 60 days. After 30 days casting of Deck Slab i.e. after 90 days casting of Precast Girder,
all shuttering material shall be removed and SIDL shall be laid. In such case Precast Longitudinal Girder shall be
checked for DL of Precast Girder, wt of Deck slab, wt of X-girder at 60 days. But composite girder
(precast girder+RCC deck) shall be checked for SIDL & Live load cases.
6.3.1 Loss calculation
6.3.1.1 Loss due to Elastic Shortening
Refer clause no.6.4.2.2, Annexure A-2 of IRC 112-2011 Average loss in Cable Stress = 1/2 m fc
fcm (t) = bcc(t)fcm bcc(t) = exp{S[1-(28/(t/t1)0^0.5]}
fck = Grade of concrete = #REF!
fcm (t) = mean concrete compressive strength at age 't' days
fcm = mean concrete compressive strength at age '28' days = #REF! Mpa
t = Age of concrete in days = 5 days
t1 = 1 day S = 0.25
bcc(t) = 0.71 fcm (t) = #REF! Mpa
fck (t) = #REF! Mpa
corresponding Ecm = 22x(fcm/12.5)^0.3 = #REF! Gpa
Ep = #REF! Gpa m =Modular Ratio = Ec/E = #REF!
To calculate average stress fc at CG of Cables due to Prestress and
Depth of Girder = 2.750 m Assume, Elastic Shortening = 69.33 kN/Cable
26.35 %
Area of each Cable = #REF! mm2 Number of cables (cable 1 to 3) = 2.63 Nos
Sectional Properties of Precast Girder at Midspan = Sectional Properties of Precast Girder at Support =
Area = 0.873 m2 Area = 1.806 m2
I= 0.601 m4 I= 1.161 m4
CG = 1.448 m CG = 1.389 m
Sustained Stress of precast girder only at 5 days :-
Cable Force (kN) Cable CG Dead Load Dead Load Total Stress at
Section After fr. & After fr., slip from soffit Stress Moment Stress Stress cable CG
slip loss & ES loss (m) (Mpa) (kN-m) (kN/m2) (Mpa) (Mpa)
T #REF! #REF! #REF!
End #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #REF!
T #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #REF!
T #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #REF!
T #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #REF!
T -10.18 #REF! #REF!
L/2 6825.53 6643.07 0.212 #REF! #REF!
B 27.41 #REF! #REF!
Average stress fc = #REF! = #REF! Mpa
Average Loss of cable stress = 1/2 m fc = #REF! Mpa
Loss of each cable due to Elastic shortening = 1/2 m fc As = #REF! kN
-10.18 Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa
#REF! #REF!
Mpa
X X
+ = #REF! #REF!
Mpa
#REF!

27.41 Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa


Precast Stress due to 1st stage Stress due to DL of Girder Resultant Stress at 7
Girder stressing after loss days
Stress Diagram at Midspan of Precast Girder at 5 days of Casting of Girder
Permissible Compressive stress 0.48xfcm(t) #REF! MPa
Permissible tensile stress 0.7xftmj #REF! MPa

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6.3.1.2 Loss due to Relaxation of Steel (clause no. 6.3.6 of IRC 112-2011)
Total Relaxation Loss at service condition = 3 x (1000 hr. value)
Initial force after Friction, slip & ES loss #REF! #REF! kN
Percentage of Initial force = #VALUE! UTS
Relaxation Loss at 1000hr. for low relaxation steel = #VALUE! % of initial force
Relaxation Loss at 1000hr. for low relaxation steel #REF! #VALUE! kN/Cable

Immediate Loss i.e 1 hr. of stressing as per Table 6.2 of IRC 112-2011, = 37 % of Total Loss
5 - 28 days Loss 23 days 552 = 42.00 % of Total Loss
28 - 60 days Loss 32 days 768 = 21.00 % of Total Loss
60 - 90 days Loss 30 days = 0.00 % of Total Loss
90 - a days Loss = 200.0 % of Total Loss
i.e. 3 x (1000 hr. value)
Immediate Loss i.e 1 hr. of stressing = #VALUE! kN/Cable
5 - 28 days Loss = #VALUE! kN/Cable
28 - 60 days Loss = #VALUE! kN/Cable
60 - 90 days Loss = #VALUE! kN/Cable
90-a days Loss = #VALUE! kN/Cable
Total = #VALUE! kN/Cable
#VALUE! #VALUE! %

6.3.1.3 Computation of shrinkage strain (clause no. 6.4.2.6, IRC:112 - 2011)


Total shrinkage strain, ecs = ecd + ec a
Where, ecd is drying shrinkage strain and eca is autogenous shrinkage strain
Maximum Autogenous shrinkage strain eca #REF! (refer table 6.6 of IRC:112 - 2011)
The development of autogenous shrinkage with time ec a(t) = bas(t) x ec a
Where, bas(t) = 1-esp{-0.2sqrt(t)} where t is in days.
The development of dying shrinkage strain in time ecd(t) = bds(t,ts) * kh x ecd
Where, bds(t,ts) = (t-ts)/[(t-ts)+0.04sqrt(ho^3) End of curing of concrete ts = 5.00 day
kh is a coefficient depending on notional size ho
Grade of concrete #REF! Mean concrete strength fcm #REF! MPa
Precast Girder only
C/S area of girder at span Ac = 0.873 m2 Perimeter in contact with air u = 8.521 m
Nominal size of precast member h0=2Ac/u = 204.79 mm
Composite Girder
C/S area of comp. girder at span Ac = 1.100 m2 Perimeter in contact with air u = 8.341 m
Nominal size of member h0=2Ac/u = 263.76 mm
The drying shrinkage strain e cd,0 =0.85*((220+110*ads1)*EXP(-ads2*fcm/fcm,o))*bRH/10^6 #REF!
Coefficient ads1 (normal cement) = 4.0 Coefficient a ds2 (normal cement) = 0.12
The coefficient b RH = 1.55 x [1-RH/Rho]^3 = 1.02 fcmo = 12.50
Relative humidity of enviroment RH = 70.0 % RHo = 100 %
These are expected mean values, with a coefficient of variation of about 30 percent.
Loss of Prestress due to creep, shrinkage and relaxation as per Euro code
DPc+s+r = AP + DsPc+s+r = Ap * (ecs*EP+0.8*DPr+EP/Ecm*f(t,to)*scQP)
1+EP/Ecm*AP/Ac*(1+Ac/Ic*Zcp^2)*(1+0.8*f(t,to))
Development of shrinkage of concrete
Autogenous Nominal size of Drying
shrinkage factor member h0 shrinkage kh Shrinkage Loss due to
Days
strain shrinkage
bas(t) (mm) factor bas(t)

5 0.000 0 0.000 0.000 #REF! 0.00


28 0.653 205 0.164 0.845 #REF! #REF!
60 0.788 264 0.319 0.786 #REF! #REF!
90 0.850 264 0.420 0.786 #REF! #REF!
36500 1.000 264 0.997 0.786 #REF! #REF!
Total #REF! #REF! %

6.3.1.4 Computation of creep coefficients (clause no. 6.4.2.7, IRC:112 - 2011)


Grade of concrete #REF! Mean concrete strength fcm #REF! MPa
The creep coefficient f(t,to) = fo x bc(t,to) as per A2-14of IRC:112 - 2011
Where, fo = fRH x b(fcm) x b(to)
fRH = 1+(1-RH/100)/{0.1*(ho)^1/3} for fcm <= 45MPa
fRH = [1+(1-RH/100)/{0.1*(ho)^1/3} x a1] x a2 for fcm > 45MPa
The coefficient a 1 =(43.75/fcm)^0.7 #REF!
The coefficient a 2 =(43.75/fcm)^0.2 #REF!
The coefficient b(fcm) = 18.78/sqrt(fcm) #REF!

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The coefficient b (t0) = 1/(0.1+to^0.2) = 0.68
Where, age of concrete at first loading t0 =5 day
bc(t,to) =[(t-to)/(bH +t-to)]^0.3
bH = = 1.5 x [1+(0.012RH)^18] x ho + 250 <= 1500 for fcm <= 35MPa
= 1.5 x [1+(0.012RH)^18] x ho + 250a3 <= 1500a3 for fcm <= 35MPa
The coefficient a 3 =(43.75/fcm)^0.5 #REF!
For temperature greater than 40 oC theby 10% in absence of accurate data coefficient may be increased by 10%
in absence of accurate data. This is valid for concrete using normal cement.
Development of creep
Loss due to
Creep
Days h0 (mm) f RH fo bH b c(t,to) creep of
coeff. fo concrete

5 0 0.00 #REF! 0.00 0.000 #REF! #REF!


28 205 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
60 264 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
90 264 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
36500 264 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total #REF! #REF! %
6.3.2 Sustained Stress of precast girder at 28 days after stressing of cable
Losses:- Shrinkage = #REF! kN/Cable
Relaxation = #VALUE! kN/Cable
Creep = 118.77 kN/Cable
Total = #REF! kN/Cable
Total Loss for 3 Cables = #REF! kN
fck for 28 days strength = #REF! Modulus of elasticity E #REF! MPa
m =Modular Ratio = Ecm/Ecj = #REF!
Stressing of cable no. 4
Elastic Shortening = 35.13 kN/Cable Nomber of cables #REF! Nos
Relaxation = #VALUE! kN/Cable Depth of Girder 2.75 m
Total = #VALUE! kN/Cable
Sectional Properties of Precast Girder at Midspan = Sectional Properties of Precast Girder at Support =
Area = 0.873 m2 Area = 1.806 m2
I= 0.601 m4 I= 1.161 m4
CG = 1.448 m CG = 1.389 m
Cable Force (kN)

Section Stress at 5 loss bet. 5 Cable CG Stress due Cable CG Total Stress at
days - 28 days from soffit to loss After fr. & After fr., slip from soffit Stress Stress cable CG
(kN/m2) (Tons) (m) (Mpa) slip loss & ES loss (m) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)
T #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
End #REF! #REF! #REF! #VALUE! 1.075 #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
T #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF! #VALUE! 1.074 #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
T #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
L/4 #REF! #REF! #REF! #VALUE! 1.073 #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
T #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
3L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF! #VALUE! 1.072 #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
T #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
L/2 #REF! 0.212 2597.84 #VALUE! 0.305 #REF!
B #REF! #REF! #VALUE! #REF!
Average stress s s at CG of cables for 28 days = #REF! #REF! Mpa
Loss of cable stress = m (fc-fc') #REF! Mpa
Loss of each cable due to Elastic shortening = m fc As #REF! kN

#REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #VALUE! Mpa #REF! Mpa


#REF! #REF!
Mpa
+ + =
#REF! #REF!
Mpa
#REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #VALUE! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF!
Stress due to loss between 5 Stress due to stressing of Resultant Stress at 28
Resultant Stress at 5 days to28 days cables 3 days
Stress Diagram at Midspan of Precast Girder at 28 days of Casting of Girder

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Permissible Compressive stress 0.5xfcm #REF! MPa
Permissible tensile stress 0.7xftmj #REF! MPa

6.3.3. Sustained Stress of precast girder at 60 days after Casting of Deck with X-Girder
Losses for first 3 cables:- Losses for last 1 cable:-
Shrinkage = #REF! kN/Cable Shrinkage = #REF! kN/Cable
Relaxation = #VALUE! kN/Cable Relaxation = #VALUE! kN/Cable
Creep = 38.44 kN/Cable Creep = 38.44 kN/Cable
Total = #REF! kN/Cable Total = #REF! kN/Cable
actual time dependent losses = #REF! kN/Cable actual time dependent losses = #REF! kN/Cable
Total Loss of 4 Cables = #REF! kN Actual Loss of third Cables = #REF! kN
Depth of Precast Girder = 2.750 m

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Sectional Properties of Precast Girder at Midspan = Sectional Properties of Precast Girder at Support =
Area = 0.873 m 2
Area = 1.806 m2
I= 0.601 m 4
I= 1.161 m4
CG = 1.448 m CG = 1.389 m
Stress at loss bet. 28 Cable CG Stress due Moment Stress Total Stress at
Section 28 days - 60 days from soffit to loss Total Stress due to slab due to Stress cable CG
(kN/m2) (kN) (m) (Mpa) (kN/m2) (kN-m) slab (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2 #REF! 0.237 #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Average stress s s at CG of cables for 60 days = #REF! = #REF! Mpa

#REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa


#REF! #REF!
Mpa

+ + =
#REF! #REF!
Mpa
#REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF!
Resultant Stress at 28 Stress due to loss between Stress due to DL of Slab & Resultant Stress at 60
days 28 to 60 days wt of shuttering days
Stress Diagram at Midspan of Precast Girder at 60 days of Casting of Girder

6.3.4 Sustained stress of composite girder at 90 days


After 30 days casting of Deck Slab i.e.after 90 days casting of Precast Girder, Shuttering to be removed and
Apply of SIDL shall be done.
fck for precast girder at 90 days of Concrete I.e. 100% of f c = #REF! Mpa
Ecj = #REF! Gpa Es = #REF! Gpa
m =Modular Ratio = Ec/Ecj = #REF!
Area of each Cable = #REF! mm2
Depth of Composite Girder = 3.100 m
Depth of Precast Girder = 2.750 m
Thickness of deck slab = 250 mm

Sectional Properties of Composite Girder at Midspan = Sectional Properties of Composite Girder at Support =
Area = 1.100 m 2
Area = 2.034 m2
I= 0.969 m 4
I= 1.608 m4
CG = 1.743 m CG = 1.555 m
Losses:- Shrinkage = #REF! kN/Cable
Relaxation = #VALUE! kN/Cable
Creep = 18.18 kN/Cable
Total = #REF! kN/Cable
Total Loss = #REF! kN/Cable
actual time dependent losses = #REF! kN

Total Stress
Section Stress due Loss of CG of Cables Stress due Moment due due to Total Stress at
at 60 days Cables from soffit to loss to SIDL SIDL Stress cable CG
(Mpa) (kN) (m) (Mpa) (kN-m) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)
Top of slab 0.00 #REF! -0.01 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! -10.42 -0.01 #REF!
End #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! 0.01 #REF!
Top of slab 0.00 #REF! 0.21 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! 152.44 0.17 #REF!
L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! -0.27 #REF!
Top of slab 0.00 #REF! 0.39 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! 280.34 0.32 #REF!

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L/4 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! -0.50 #REF!
Top of slab 0.00 #REF! 0.56 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! 401.28 0.46 #REF!
3L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! -0.72 #REF!
Top of slab 0.00 #REF! 0.72 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! 517.79 0.59 #REF!
L/2 #REF! 0.237 #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! -0.93 #REF!
Average stress at 90 days = #REF! = #REF! Mpa

0.00 Mpa #REF! 0.72 Mpa #REF! Mpa


#REF! #REF! Mpa 0.59 #REF! Mpa
Mpa Mpa

+ + =

#REF! #REF! Mpa -0.93 Mpa #REF! Mpa


Resultant Stress at 60 Loss of Cables between 60 to Resultant Stress at 90
Stress due to SIDL
days 90 days days
Stress Diagram at Midspan of Composite Girder at 90 days

6.3.5. Sustained Stress of composite girder at a days :-


Losses:- Shrinkage = #REF! kN/Cable
Relaxation = #VALUE! kN/Cable
Creep = 139.91 kN/Cable
Total = #REF! kN/Cable
Total Loss = #REF! kN/Cable
actual time dependent losses = #REF! kN
Total Stress
Section Total Stress Loss bet. 90 CG of Cables Stress due at a days Stress at
at 90 days days-a days from soffit to loss without live cable CG
(Mpa) (kN) (m) (Mpa) load (Mpa) (Mpa)
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF!
End #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2 #REF! 0.237 #REF!
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF!
Average stress at a days = #REF! = #REF! Mpa

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#REF! Mpa #REF! #REF! Mpa
#REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF! Mpa
Mpa #REF!

+ =

#REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF! Mpa


#REF!
Resultant Stress at 90 Loss of Cables inbet. 90 to
Resultant Stress at a days
days a days
Stress Diagram at Midspan of Composite Girder with SIDL without Live Load at a days
6.3.6. Stress of composite girder due to live load
Total Stress
Total Stress Total Live Stress due Stress due to at a days
Section without live Load Moment 0.6 x Wind load to Live Load wind Load with live load
load (Mpa) (kN-m) (kN-m) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)
Top of slab #REF! -0.21 0.00 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! -222.40 -0.99 -0.18 0.00 #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! 0.22 0.00 #REF!
Top of slab #REF! 2.31 0.10 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! 1650.40 74.83 1.88 0.09 #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! -2.97 -0.13 #REF!
Top of slab #REF! 3.70 0.18 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! 2640.45 128.96 3.01 0.15 #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! -4.75 -0.23 #REF!
Top of slab #REF! 4.19 0.23 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! 2993.81 161.45 3.42 0.18 #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! -5.38 -0.29 #REF!
Top of slab #REF! 4.16 0.24 #REF!
Top of girder #REF! 2974.02 172.27 3.40 0.20 #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! -5.35 -0.31 #REF!

#REF! Mpa 4.16 Mpa #REF! Mpa


#REF! Mpa 3.40 #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF! Mpa
Mpa #REF!

+ =

#REF! Mpa -5.35 Mpa #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF! Mpa


Resultant Stress at a #REF!
Stress due to Live Load Resultant Stress at a days
days
Stress Diagram at Midspan of Composite Girder with SIDL & Live Load at a days
Permissible compressive stress in concrete at service = 0.36 x fck #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF!
Permissible Tensile stress in concrete at service = #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF! #REF!

6.3.7 Summary of Stresses for Precast girder only


Sectional Properties of Precast Girder
Precast Girder Midspan Support Composite Girder Midspan Support
Area = 0.873 1.806 m2 Area = 1.100 2.034 m2
I= 0.601 1.161 m4 I= 0.969 1.608 m4
CG = 1.448 1.389 m CG = 1.743 1.555 m
Z Top of slab = 0.771 1.113 m3
Z Top = 0.461 0.853 m 3 Z Top = 0.963 1.346 m3
Zbottom = 0.415 0.836 m3 Zbottom = 0.556 1.034 m3

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DL of girder+ deck slab Prestressing force & Loss SIDL
Section Loss of
Moment Stress Prestress CG of cables Loss of pre.
comp. girder
Stress Moment Stress
(kN-m) (Mpa) (kN) (m) Girder (kN) (Mpa) (kN-m) (Mpa)
(kN)
Top of slab #REF! -0.01
Top of girder #REF! #REF! -0.01
End #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! -13.67
Bottom #REF! #REF! 0.01
Top of slab #REF! 0.52
Top of girder #REF! #REF! 0.41
L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 398.83
Bottom #REF! #REF! -0.72
Top of slab #REF! 0.91
Top of girder #REF! #REF! 0.73
L/4 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 704.98
Bottom #REF! #REF! -1.27
Top of slab #REF! 1.21
Top of girder #REF! #REF! 0.97
3L/8 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 932.90
Bottom #REF! #REF! -1.68
Top of slab #REF! 1.41
Top of girder #REF! #REF! 1.13
L/2 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 1085.03
Bottom #REF! #REF! -1.95

Section Live load Wind load - loaded structure Temp (+ve) Temp (-ve)

Moment Stress Moment Stress Stress Stress


(kN-m) (Mpa) (kN-m) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)
Top of slab -0.20 0.00 #REF! #REF!
Top of girder -0.17 0.00 #REF! #REF!
End -222.40 -0.99
Bottom 0.22 0.00 #REF! #REF!
Top of slab 2.14 0.10 #REF! #REF!
Top of girder 1.71 0.08 #REF! #REF!
L/8 1650.40 74.83
Bottom -2.97 -0.13 #REF! #REF!
Top of slab 3.42 0.17 #REF! #REF!
Top of girder 2.74 0.13 #REF! #REF!
L/4 2640.45 128.96
Bottom -4.75 -0.23 #REF! #REF!
Top of slab 3.88 0.21 #REF! #REF!
Top of girder 3.11 0.17 #REF! #REF!
3L/8 2993.81 161.45
Bottom -5.38 -0.29 #REF! #REF!
Top of slab 3.86 0.22 #REF! #REF!
Top of girder 3.09 0.18 #REF! #REF!
L/2 2974.02 172.27
Bottom -5.35 -0.31 #REF! #REF!

6.3.8 Load Combination for Rare Combination (SL1)


1) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress
2) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+ wind load(lead) (unloaded structure)
3) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(lead)+wind load (accompany)
4) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(accompany)+wind load (lead)
5) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(lead)+Temperature(accompany)
6) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(accompany)+Temperature(lead)

a) Load combination
Load Case 1 (a) 1 (b) 2 (a) 2 (b) 3 (a) 3 (b) 4 (a) 4 (b) 5 (a)
DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SIDL 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2
Prestress 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
Live load 1 1 0.75 0.75 1
Wind load 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 1 1
Temp (+ve) 0.6
Temp (-ve)

Load Case 5 (b) 5 (c) 5 (d) 6 (a) 6 (b) 6 (c) 6 (d)


DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SIDL 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1
Prestress 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
Live load 1 1 1 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75

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Wind load
Temp (+ve) 0.6 1 1
Temp (-ve) 0.6 0.6 1 1

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Load Case 7 (a) 7 (b) 8 (a) 8 (b) 9 (a) 9 (b) 10 (a) 10 (b) 11 (a)
DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SIDL 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2
Prestress 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
Live load 1 1 0.75 0.75 1
Wind load 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 1 1
Temp (+ve) 0.6
Temp (-ve)

Load Case 11 (b) 11 (c) 11 (d) 12 (a) 12 (b) 12 (c) 12 (d)


DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SIDL 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1
Prestress 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
Live load 1 1 1 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75
Wind load
Temp (+ve) 0.6 1 1
Temp (-ve) 0.6 0.6 1 1

b) Stresses of girder at different load casees


Section 1 (a) 1 (b) 2 (a) 2 (b) 3 (a) 3 (b) 4 (a) 4 (b) 5 (a)
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

Section 5 (b) 5 (c ) 5 (d) 6 (a) 6 (b) 6 (c) 6 (c) Max comp.Max Tension
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

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Section 7 (a) 7 (b) 8 (a) 8 (b) 9 (a) 9 (b) 10 (a) 10 (b) 11 (a)
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

Section 11 (b) 11 (c) 11 (d) 12 (a) 12 (b) 12 (c) 12 (d) Max comp.Max Tension
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Permissible compressive stress in concrete at service = 0.48 x fck #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF!
Permissible Tensile stress in concrete at service = #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF! #REF!
Stress with/without Live load at top of deck slab near support section only exceeds the permissible tensile stress i.e. 2.29Mpa.
Necessary reinforcement shall be provided to resist the tensile stress of deck slab.
Maximum tensile force = #REF! kN Permissible working stress = 240.00 MPa
Area of reinforcement required = #REF! mm2 Ast provided= 1021.02 mm2
Hence Provide 10 T @ 140 c/c + 10 T @ 140 c/c at top

6.3.9 Load Combination for frequent Combination (SL2) - for prestressing member
1) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress
2) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+ wind load(lead) (unloaded structure)
3) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(lead)+wind load (accompany)
4) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(accompany)+wind load (lead)
5) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(lead)+Temperature(accompany)
6) Dead load +SIDL+Prestress+Live load(accompany)+Temperature(lead)
a) Load combination
Load Case 1 (a) 1 (b) 2 (a) 2 (b) 3 (a) 3 (b) 4 (a) 4 (b) 5 (a)
DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SIDL 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2
Prestress 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
Live load 0.75 0.75 0.2 0.2 0.75
Wind load 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6
Temp (+ve) 0.5
Temp (-ve)

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Load Case 5 (b) 5 (c) 5 (d) 6 (a) 6 (b) 6 (c) 6 (d)
DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SIDL 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1
Prestress 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
Live load 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Wind load
Temp (+ve) 0.5 0.6 0.6
Temp (-ve) 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6

Load Case 7 (a) 7 (b) 8 (a) 8 (b) 9 (a) 9 (b) 10 (a) 10 (b) 11 (a)
DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SIDL 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2
Prestress 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
Live load 0.75 0.75 0.2 0.2 0.75
Wind load 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6
Temp (+ve) 0.5
Temp (-ve)

Load Case 11 (b) 11 (c) 11 (d) 12 (a) 12 (b) 12 (c) 12 (d)


DL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SIDL 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1.2 1
Prestress 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
Live load 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Wind load
Temp (+ve) 0.5 0.6 0.6
Temp (-ve) 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6
b) Stresses of girder at different load casees
Section 1 (a) 1 (b) 2 (a) 2 (b) 3 (a) 3 (b) 4 (a) 4 (b) 5 (a)
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

Section 5 (b) 5 (c ) 5 (d) 6 (a) 6 (b) 6 (c) 6 (c) Max comp.Max Tension
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

149 of 221
Section 7 (a) 7 (b) 8 (a) 8 (b) 9 (a) 9 (b) 10 (a) 10 (b) 11 (a)
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

Section 11 (b) 11 (c) 11 (d) 12 (a) 12 (b) 12 (c) 12 (d) Max comp.Max Tension
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
End
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/4
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
3L/8
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of slab #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Top of girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
L/2
Bottom #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

Permissible compressive stress in concrete at service = 0.36 x fck #REF! Mpa #REF! #REF!
Permissible Tensile stress in concrete at service = 0.00 Mpa #REF! #REF! #REF!

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6.4 Check for ultimate strength of girder in Flexure :-
Grade of concrete #REF! Modulus of elasticity of concrete E #REF! MPa
Design yield strength fpd #REF! MPa Modulus of elasticity of steel #REF! Gpa
910 0.00350 #REF!
250 #REF!
197.28
NA NA
3000 300

#REF! 0 #REF! #REF!


Strain Diagram Stress Diagram
650
Top width of girder = 910 mm Thickness of compression flange = 250 mm
Width of web = 300 mm Distance of prestress CG from botto #REF! mm
Depth of girder = 3000 mm
Balanced neutral axis depth #REF! mm Actual neutral axis depth 197.28 mm
Total strain at the prestress CG #REF! #REF!
Total ultimate compressive force #REF! kN Total ultimate tensile force #REF! kN
Compressive force CG 82.07 mm Moment of resistance #REF! kNm
#REF! #REF! kNm #REF!
At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
Ultimate moment #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Horizontal prestress after all losses (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Pre-strain in the cables after all losses #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Distance of prestress CG from bottom (mm) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! 237
Total width of web (mm) 650 300 300 300 300
Assumed neutral axis from top (mm) 197 197 197 197 197
Total strain at the prestress CG #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Average prestress at failure (MPa) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total compressive force by concrete (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total tensile force by prestressing steel (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Difference in forces #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Moment of resistance (kNm) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Effective lever arm between forces (m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Factor of Safety associated with failure #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

6.5 Design of Shear


Total loss after friction & Slip Loss
Description 1st stage stressing % Loss 2nd stage stressing % Loss
At 5 days
Elastic shortening 69.33 kN #VALUE!
Relaxation #VALUE! kN #VALUE!
At 28 days
Elastic shortening 35.13 kN #VALUE! 35.13 kN #VALUE!
Shrinkage #REF! kN #REF!
Relaxation #VALUE! kN #VALUE! #VALUE! kN #VALUE!
Creep 118.77 kN #VALUE!
At 60 days
Shrinkage #REF! kN #REF! #REF! kN #REF!
Relaxation #VALUE! kN #VALUE! #VALUE! kN #VALUE!
Creep 38.44 kN #VALUE! 38.44 kN #VALUE!
At 90 days
Shrinkage #REF! kN #REF! #REF! kN #REF!
Relaxation #VALUE! kN #VALUE! #VALUE! kN #VALUE!
Creep 18.18 kN #VALUE! 18.18 kN #VALUE!
At a days
Shrinkage #REF! kN #REF! #REF! kN #REF!
Relaxation #VALUE! kN #VALUE! #VALUE! kN #VALUE!
Creep 139.91 kN #VALUE! 139.91 kN #VALUE!
Total #REF! kN/cable #REF! #REF! kN #REF!
Total loss #REF! kN

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Vertical Component of Cable Force (kN)
Position Support L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2
Cable No #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Cable 1 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Vert. angle #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Cable 2 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Vert. angle #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Cable 3 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Vert. angle #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Cable 4 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Vert. angle #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total Ver.
Comp. of
cable1 to 4 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

Ultimate Shear at Sections :-


Shear #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Ultimate Load
Moment #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

6.5.1 Section not requiring design shear reinforcement


i) Shear Capacity of Cracked Section as per clause 10.3.2(2) of IRC 112-2010
VRD.C = [0.12*K(80*r1*fck)^0.33+0.15scp]*bw*d Subject to VRD.C MIN = {vmin + 0.15sCP)*bw*d
Where, K = 1+sqrt(200/d) <= 2 Where, d is in millimeters
r1 = Asl/(bw*d) <= 0.02 fck = #REF! Mpa
scp = NEd/Ac <= 0.2xfcd Where, NEd = axial compression, Ac = Area of section
vmin = 0.031*K^1.5*fck^0.5 fcd = acc*fck/gm where, acc =0.67 and gm = 1.5
Description Support L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2
Prestress Force after all losses (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Effective width of the web in mm 650 300 300 300 300
Effective Depth of precast Section (d) in #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Effective Depth of composite Section (d) #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
K #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Stress due to Prestress (scp) (Mpa) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Shear Resistance minimum (VRd,cmin) (kN) #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Reinforcement ratio considering Tendons, #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Shear resistance ( VRd,c) (kN) #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Design Shear resistance ( VRd,c) (kN) #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!

ii) Shear Capacity of Uncracked Section as per clause 10.3.2(2) of IRC 112-2010
The shear resistance of the beam section uncracked in flexure is given below:-
VRd,c = ( I * bwc )/ S x √ (fctd2 + k1 scp fctd)
Where, I = Moment of inertia bwc= Width of beam after deduction due to duct
S = First moment of area between cetroidal axis and extreme compression fibre about the centrodial axis.
fctd = design tensile strength of concrete = f ctk/gm = #REF! Mpa
Description Support L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2
Prestress Force after all losses (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Effective width of the Web 650 300 300 300 300
Effective Depth of the Section (d) #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Stress due to Prestress (scp) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Design tensile strength of the Concrete
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
(fctd)
First moment of inertia about the CG (S) 3.11E+09 1.79E+09 1.79E+09 1.79E+09 1.79E+09
Transmission length factor, k1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Moment of Inertia (I) (mm4) 1.6E+12 9.7E+11 9.7E+11 9.7E+11 9.7E+11
Design Shear resistance ( VRd,c) (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

iii) Summary of the Shear resistance of the Beam when shear reinforcement isn't required :
The maximum shear capacity of the Beam as cl.10.3.2 (5) of IRC 112-2010
VEd ≤ 0.50 bw d n fcd where, n =0.60 [ 1 - fck/310]

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Description Support L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2
Distance from bearing in m 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.05
Distance modification factor b for Precast Beam 1.00 #VALUE! ### ### ###
Distance modification factor b for Composite### #VALUE! ### ### ###
Effective Shear for Precast Beam #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Effective Shear for Composite Section (kN 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Effective Shear due to prestressing force #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total Shear force for the Beam (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Precast member Area (m2) 1.81 0.87 0.87 0.87 0.87
Zb (m3) 0.84 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41
Composite member Area (m2) 2.03 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10
Zb (m3) 1.03 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56
Stress due to prestress at tensile fibre s bpt #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! ###
Section at Maximum Bending Moment #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! ###
Shear capacity of Beam Section (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! ###
Maximum shear capacity of the Section ( ### #VALUE! ### ### ###
Whether shear reinforcement required or #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! ###

iv) Calculation of Shear Resistance when Shear Reinforcement is Required ::


The design for the Vertical stirrups for resisting shear is calculated in the table below as per Cl. No. 10.3.3.2
The shear resistance with vertical stirrups is given by,
VRd,s = Asw / s. z. fywd cot q by Crushing of Compression strut
VRd,max = acw bw z v1 fcd / (cot q + tan q) by yielding of the Vertical reinforcement
Grade of reinforcement = #REF! Grade of concrete #REF!
Design Tensile stress in stirrups (fywd= 0.8fyk/ #REF! Mpa Concrete Strength (f #REF! Mpa
Minimum Shear reinf. ratio = 0.072sqrt(fc #REF! Coeff accounting stress in compression chord
Design of Vertical Transverse reinforcement (a = 90 ) o
#REF!

Description Support L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2


Shear demand of Beam (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Lever arm taken from flexural analysis z (m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Angle of compression strut q (degrees) 25.54 30.51 22.38 22.38 22.38
Dia of shear reinforcement provided (mm 12+16 16 12 12 12
Number of legs provided 2 2 2 2 2
Spacing of stirrups provided (mm) 125 125 125 125 125
Minimum area of Shear reinf. reqd Asw/s (mm2/mm)
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Area of shear reinf provided Asw/s (mm2/mm) 5.027 3.217 1.810 1.810 1.810
Check #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Shear resistance provided by reinf VRD,s
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Coeff
(kN) accounting stress in comp chord
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
a cw
Shear capacity of compression strut
VRD,max (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Difference in shear resistance (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Shear capacity of the Section (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Factor of Safety associated with failure #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Increase in longitudinal tensile force DFtd (kN)
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total longitudinal tensile force (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Permissible longitudinal tensile force (kN #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Check #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

6.6. Anchor Block


Check Bearing pressure
According to Manufacture's Catalog Size of anchor flange = #REF! mm Dia of Hole #REF! mm
fb = 0.48xfcjxSQRT(A2/A1) or 0.8xfcj Whichever is smaller
fcj = = #REF! N/mm2
A2 = #REF! = #REF! mm2
A1 = #REF! = #REF! mm2
fb = min (0.48fcjsqrt(A2/A1),0.8fcj) #REF! N/mm2
Now, Maximum Cable Force after immediate Losses = #REF! T
As per Manufacture's recommendation = 40% of above force to be taken by End Bearing
= 60% of above force to be taken by Anchorage
Cone and Concrete by friction
Bearing stress = N/A1 = #REF! N/mm2 #REF! #REF! N/mm2 #REF!
Busting reinforcement in end block
2Yo = #REF! mm 2Ypo = #REF! mm

153 of 221
Ypo/Yo = #REF! As per Table 13.1 of IRC 112-2011 Fbst/Pk = 0.120
Fbst = #REF! #REF! kN
Area of Steel Required = Fbst/(0.87xfy) #REF! mm2
Hence Provide 12T- 4L -4Nos along Web and Normal to Web Ast = 1809.56 mm2

6.7. Interface Shear Design for Composite section


The shear stress that arises between the interfaces of concrete placed at different times is reffered to as interface
shear. The interface shear is resisted by friction at the interface and by reinforcement placed across the shear plane.
The interface shear stress, Vedi <= the resisting capacity at the section, VRdi
Vedi = b Ved/zbi
Where, b = The ratio of longitudinal force in the new concrete and total longitudinal force
Ved = The tranverse shear force
z = Lever arm
bi = the width of interface
VRdi = msn + rfyd[msina+cosa] <=0.5vfcd fck #REF!
m = friction for rough surface = 0.7 fyd #REF! Mpa
sn = the minimum co existing normal stress < 0.6fcd = 0.00 Mpa
A /A
r= s j where A s
is the area of reinforcement, Aj is the interface area of the joint
n1 = Coeff accounting stress in compression chord = 0.60
a = the angle of the reinforcement to the interface = 90.00 degree
fcd = acc*fck/gm where, acc =0.67 and gm = 1.5 #REF! Mpa

Description Support L/8 L/4 3L/8 L/2


Shear demand of Beam,VEd (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Ratio of Longitudinal forces (b) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Lever arm taken from flexural analysis z (m)
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Interface Width bi ( mm) 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250
Design value of Shear Stress vEdi ( MPa) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Roughness Co-efficient, m 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70
Stress caused by minimum external norma 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Dia of shear reinforcement provided (mm 10 10 10 10 10
Number of legs provided 4 4 4 4 4
Spacing of stirrups provided (mm) 150 150 150 150 150
Minimum reinf.=0.15% of area of interfac 1875 1875 1875 1875 1875
Area of Reinforcement at interface, As (mm2094.40 2094.40 2094.40 2094.40 2094.40
Area of the joint, Ai (mm2) 312500 312500 312500 312500 312500
Strength reduction factor (n) 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Design shear resistance at the Interface (v #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Status with respect to the Interface Shear #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
6.8. Untensioned Reinforcement of Precast Girder
Vertical reiforcement = 0.18 % of web
=0.18%x0x0 = 0 mm2 per meter
Hence provide 2L-12T @ 150 c/c Ast provide= 1506.6667 mm2 per meter

Longitudinal reinforcement = 0.15 % of web


Total Area of Precast Girder at midspan = 0 m2
=0.15%x0x1000000 = 0 mm2 per meter
Hence provide 7-16T at Bottomt top & 8-12T at Top Ast provide= 1909 mm2 per meter

Side Face Reinforcement


Side Face Reinforcement = 0.1 % of web Area
Area of steel required = 0 mm2
Minimum Reinf. at earth face (0.12%) = 648 mm2
Hence Provide 10 Nos. 12 f on Each Face
Ast provided = 2261.9467 mm /m
2
> 648 mm2/m
Hence O.K.

154 of 221
6.9 Calculation for Deflection of Longitudinal girders
(i) Precast Girder - Prestress of cables 1, 2, 3 + wt of precast Girder at 5 days
Young Modulus = #REF! kN/m2
Section At support Near L/8 At L/4 At 3L/8 At L/2
Distance 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.038 0.050
CG of Precast girder from bottom , m 1.389 1.448 1.448 1.448 1.448
Moment of Inertia for Precast
1.161 0.601 0.601 0.601 0.601
girder only (I) m4
CG of cables 1 to 2 from bot.(m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Moment due to stressing after
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Momentlosses
due to(kN-m)
Wt of Precast
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Girder (kN-m)
Total moment due to
prestress+wt of precast Girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
(kN-m)
M/EI (1/m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

0.01 0.013 0.013 0.013


A B C D E
#REF! 2 #REF!
#REF! 4 3 #REF! #REF!
1
M/EI Diagram for Ist Stage Prestress after losses at 5 days
At Midspan
Average Moment of M/EI about
Section Marked Distance CG from A M/EI
M/EI A
A #REF!
B 4 0.013 0.006 #REF! #REF! #REF!
C 3 0.013 0.019 #REF! #REF! #REF!
D 2 0.013 0.031 #REF! #REF! #REF!
E 1 0.013 0.044 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total #REF!
So, Midspan deflection due to Prestress + wt of precast Girder = = #REF! mm
= - L/ #REF!
(ii) Precast Girder - Prestress of cables 4,5 + loss of Cables 1 to 3 at 28 days
Young Modulus = #REF! Mpa
Section At support Near L/8 At L/4 At 3L/8 At L/2
Distance 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.038 0.050
CG of cables 3 from bot.(m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Moment due to stressing after
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
Moment duelosses (kN-m)
to loss of prestress
Total moment due to #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
(kN-m)
prestress+wt of precast Girder #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
(kN-m)
M/EI (1/m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

0.0 0.013 0.013 0.013


A B C D E
2
#REF! #REF!
#REF! 4 3 #REF! #REF!
1
M/EI Diagram for Ist Stage Prestress after losses at 28 days
At Midspan
Average Moment of M/EI about
Section Marked Distance CG from A M/EI
M/EI A
A #REF!
B 4 0.013 0.006 #REF! #REF! #REF!
C 3 0.013 0.019 #REF! #REF! #REF!
D 2 0.013 0.031 #REF! #REF! #REF!
E 1 0.013 0.044 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total #REF!
So, Midspan deflection due to Prestress +loss = = #REF! mm
So, Total Midspan deflection at 28 days = = #REF! mm = - L/ #REF!

(iii) Precast Girder - Prestress + wt of precast Girder +wt of deck slab at 60 days
Section At support Near L/8 At L/4 At 3L/8 At L/2
Distance 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.038 0.050
CG of all cables from bot.(m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Loss #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Moment due to prestressing
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Moment due to Wt of (kN-m)
losses of cables Deck Slab
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
(kN-m) due to
Total moment #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
prestress+DL (kN-m)
M/EI (1/m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
0.0 0.013 0.013 0.013
A B C D E
#REF! #REF! #REF!
4 #REF! #REF!
3 1
2
155 of 221
4
3 1
2
M/EI Diagram for Ist Stage Prestress after losses at 60 days

156 of 221
At Midspan
Average Moment of M/EI about
Section Marked Distance CG from A M/EI Rotation
M/EI A
A #REF!
B 4 0.013 0.006 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
C 3 0.013 0.019 #REF! #REF! #REF!
D 2 0.013 0.031 #REF! #REF! #REF!
E 1 0.013 0.044 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total #REF!
So, Midspan deflection due to Prestress losses + DL = = #REF! mm
Total Deflection at 60 days #REF! = #REF! mm

(iv) Composite Girder - long term losses + SIDL+ Live load


Section At support Near L/8 At L/4 At 3L/8 At L/2
Distance 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.038 0.050
CG of Composite girder from bottom , m 1.555 1.743 1.743 1.743 1.743
CG of cables from bot.(m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Moment of Inertia for Composite
1.608 0.969 0.969 0.969 0.969
girder (I) m4
Loss #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Moment due to prestressing
#REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
losses of cables due
Total moment (kN-m)
to #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
prestress Loss+SIDL (kN-m)
M/EI (1/m) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013
A B C D E
#REF! #REF! #REF!
4 #REF! #REF!
3 1
2
M/EI Diagram for Ist Stage Prestress after losses at a days
At Midspan
Average Moment of M/EI about
Section Marked Distance CG from A M/EI Rotation
M/EI A
A #REF!
B 4 0.013 0.006 #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
C 3 0.013 0.019 #REF! #REF! #REF!
D 2 0.013 0.031 #REF! #REF! #REF!
E 1 0.013 0.044 #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total #REF!
So, Midspan deflection due to Prestress losses = = #REF! mm
So, Midspan deflection due SIDL = = 3.297 mm 0.000383
So, Midspan deflection due FLL = = 0.624 mm 0.000070
So, Midspan deflection due Wind load = = 0.947 mm 0.000112
So, Midspan deflection due Live load = = 8.075 mm 0.000972
Total Deflection at mid span 1xDL+1.2xSIDL+1xLL+0.6xWL = #REF! mm L/ #REF!

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7.0 Calculation of Stresses for Girder LG2 = 1.100 m
7.1. Load calculation
7.1.1 Dead Load Moment & Shear for Precast girder only
Unit weight of concrete #REF! kN/m3
Cross-sectional area at span = 0.873 m2
Cross-sectional area at support = 1.806 m2
Unit Weight at span #REF! kN/m
Unit Weight at support #REF! kN/m
Thickness of intermediate Cross Girder = 0.30 m
Thickness of end Cross Girder = 0.60 m
1.250 1.750 1.250

0.475 0
0.1 0.063

2.75 2.750 2.650

0
0

0.175 0.175
0.65 2.350 0.65
Part of intermediate cross girder #REF! #REF! kN
Part of End cross girder #REF! #REF! kN
#REF! kN
#REF! kN
#REF! #REF!
#REF!
0.500 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.500

0.500 0.100 0.500


1.100
Support Reaction = #REF! kN
Table : Maximum BM & SF at critical sections
Section At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
Dist. for prop. Section(m) 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.037 0.050
Bending Moment (kNm) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Shear Force (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

7.1.2 Construction load and weight of shuttering & proping.


Assume, Construction Live load = 0.500 kN/m2
Assume, UDL for weight of shuttering = 5.000 kN/m
Efective width of deck slab for end girder = 3.000 m
Weight of shuttering & Conc. Live load = 6.500 kN/m
6.500

0.500 0.10 0.500


Support Reaction = 3.58 kN
Table : Maximum BM & SF at critical sections of outer girders
Section At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
Distance (m) 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.037 0.050
Bending Moment (kNm) -0.8 -0.8 -0.8 -0.8 -0.8
Shear Force (kN) 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0
7.1.3 Dead Load Moment & Shear for Deck slab & X-girder
Unit weight of concrete #REF! kN/m3
Thickness of deck slab = 0.250 m2
Thickness of deck slab at expansion joint = 0.400 m
Width of deck slab at support = 3.000 m
Width of deck slab at midspan = 3.000 m
Average width of deck slab = 3.000 m
Wt. of End X-girder #REF! #REF! kN
Wt of Inner X-girder #REF! #REF! kN
#REF! #REF! #REF!
0.55
#REF! #REF! kN/m

0.850 0.10 0.850


Support Reaction = #REF! kN

158 of 221
Table : Maximum BM & SF at critical sections

159 of 221
Section At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
Distance (m) 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.037 0.050
Bending Moment (kNm) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Shear Force (kN) #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

7.1.4 Summary of Bending Moment & Shear Force for inner girder
a) Bending Moment (kNm)
Description At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
Distance (m) 0.000 0.013 0.025 0.037 0.050
Precast girder only #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Construction load -0.8 -0.8 -0.8 -0.8 -0.8
Deck slab & X-girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total wt of deck slab = #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
SIDL from staad output -43.7 534.5 913.5 1092.1 1067.7
Removal of shutter -3.3 -246.4 -424.6 -531.6 -567.3
Footpath live load 30.8 147.9 264.2 318.05 307.05
Live load incl. snow load -50.4 968.2 1746.5 2355.2 2786.9
Total Live Load incl.snow load -19.6 1116.1 2010.7 2673.2 3093.9
Wind load (unloaded structure) 3.2 -240.7 -414.8 -519.33 -554.17
Wind load (loaded structure) -1.6 124.7 214.9 269.1 287.1
Construction load (1.5kN/m2) -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2
Total Live Load -19.6 1116.1 2010.7 2673.2 3093.9
b) Shear force (kN) For SIDL & Live load - Refer STAAD Output
Desription At support Near L/8 Near L/4 Near 3L/8 At L/2
Precast girder only #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Deck slab & X-girder #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
Total DL #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!
SIDL from staad output 205.7 145.6 85.1 23.8 38.3
Footpath live load 64.1 44.4 25.8 6.4 13.4
Live load incl. snow load 314.7 264.5 212.9 172.3 152.9
Total Live Load incl.snow load 378.9 308.9 238.7 178.7 166.3
Wind load (unloaded structure) -84.1 -63.1 -42.1 -21.0 0.0
Wind load (loaded structure) 43.6 32.7 21.8 10.9 0.0
Construction load 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF! #REF!

7.1.5 Load Combination - Ultimate limit state


1) Dead load +SIDL+Live load
2) Dead load +SIDL+ wind load (unloaded structure)
3) Dead load +SIDL+Live load(lead) + wind load (acco