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Review: Imperatives

In a previous English course you learned how to use


imperatives to give directions. Imperatives are also used to
give commands or make polite requests, in which case, they
are always used in combination with the word please:

Please, unlock the door

Please, get in the car

The simple form of the verb is used to form the imperative. The simple form is the infinitive
without the particle to:

Infinitive Simple form


to reach reach
to start start

to shift shift

Review: Imperatives

Also, with the imperative the understood subject of the sentence is always

This happens because the command or instruction is for the person the sp
talking to, and that person is you.

See how in the following sentences, the speaker is talking to you, you are t
of the command, instruction or request:

Start the engine!


Shift into reverse!

Imperative sentences are the only sentences in the active voice in English that do not require a subject (it is
understood).

Review: The imperative in negative form

Making imperative verbs negative is only a matter of adding don't :

Don't + simple form of the verb

Don't start the engine!

Don't shift into reverse!

Practice 3

Imagine you are a driving instructor. Complete the following set of instructions with a verb from the list. Pay s
attention to those sentences where a negative is indicated (-).Use each verb only once.
Possible answers :

put park shift go press release turn keep


Recommendations with should

The Modal verb should id used to give recommendations, that is, to indicate that it is a good idea or conveni
something.

When you give a recommendation, you normally start with I think...or I believe...or she thinks...or someon
believes... For example:

I think you should change the oil in your car.

I believe your brother should wash his car. It is really filthy!

The mechanic believes we should buy new tires for our van.

As it happens with all modal verbs, should is always followed by a main verb in s
form. Look at the following example:

Before you take the driving test, you should breathe deeply and relax.

modal verb simple form simple

To make negative sentences with should use shouldn't:


Should shouldn't + simple form

Ie. You shouldn't take the test if you haven't studied.

Practice 5

A. Review of final [s] and [iz] sounds

Pronunciation Practice: Final [s] sounds after the consonant sounds [f], [k], [p], [t]

( *NOTE: These 4 voiceless sounds can be easily remembered if you memorize "Frank Pritchett" which is a very c
name in English culture and contains the [f] and [k] as the first and final sounds in "Frank" and [p] and [t] as the firs
sounds in "Pritchett.")

LISTENING

Indicate the number of final [s] sounds

Practice 6

Listening

Final [iz] sounds after fricative sounds: ch, sh, s, z, tch, x, etc

Indicate the number of final [iz] sounds you hear.


UNIT 2

Modal Verbs of Advice

Modals of advice are used to give recommendations or make suggestions. Modals of advice include: should, ough
better. As with other modal verbs, plan are always followed by a main verb in simple form. Look at the following ex

a. We should plan our trip to Ireland


modal verb simple form

b. We ought to think about expenses!


modal verb simple form

c. You' d better hurry! The plane leaves in 5 minutes!


modal verb simple form

Note: had better and ought to are two-word verbs. These two words always go together. Both w
up the modal verb itself. The modal had better can be used in contracted form as follows:

You had better put your passport away before you lose it!

or

You'd better put your passport away before you lose it!

If you take a look to the sentences above (a, b and c) you will see that the sentences with should and ought to are
recommendations while the sentence with had better sounds like a warning of a bad consequence:

You'd better slow down! That car up ahead must only be going 15 miles an hour!

What this sentence implies is that if you don't slow down you will hit the car ahead of you. There is a sense of urge
request that makes it sound more like a warning than a simple recommendation.

Urgency of Modals of Advice


These 3 verbs are used with the same sentence structure (after a subject and followed by a main verb in simple fo
However, their meaning is very different because they express different degrees of urgency. Should expresses a
recommendation that you may or may not follow, while had better warns you to do or not to do something in order
bad Consequence. So, had better has a higher degree of urgency.

Practice 3

Select the right modal verb of advice to provide a solution for the following problems. Pay
special attention to the context and the urgency on each situation.
Negative Forms of Modal Verbs of Advice

This is how you make negative sentences with should and had better:

Note: ought to is not usually used in negative form.

Practice 4

Louisa is leaving on vacation in two days. She and her sister Sophie are making final arrangements to make sure

Choose one verb from the following list and use the modal verb of advice as indicated. The symbol - indicates that

Example:
You (should -) buy those expensive ticke

Resulting sentence: You shouldn't buy those expe

complete be argue be start m


UNIDAD 3

The Subjunctive

The subjunctive describes a situation or necessity that results from someone's desire or a condition in nature, like
weather. The subjunctive is formed as follows:

Introduced by an Simple form of Rest of


subject
expression like: verb sentence
warm clothes
It is necessary you wear
during winter

sunblock lotion
It is important people use
at the beach

headlights for
It is essential Your father turn on driving in the
that fog
boots and
It is advisable children wear
raincoats

It is
roads be Salted.
recommended
windows and
It is better we shut doors during a
hurricane.

Model sentences:

It is important that your father turn on the lights when driving in the fog.
(simple form)

It is essential that people shut windows and doors during a hurricane.


(simple form)

The Subjunctive in Negative Form

To make a negative sentence with the Subjunctive, simply add not before the verb in simple form:
When it is rainy, it is advisable that you use an umbrella.
(simple form)

When it is windy, it is advisable that you not use an umbrella.


(simple form)
UNIT 4

Comparative Adjectives

Adjectives modify nouns, they describe how things are (animate and inanimate). In the specific
context of mailing a letter or package, four kinds of adjectives come in handy. These are:

Adjectives Adjectives
Adjectives Adjectives
describing describing
describing size describing price
dimension weight

large deep Cheap light

bulky tall inexpensive heavy

oversized wide moderate

small reasonable

undersized expensive

Comparative Adjectives

When you make comparisons using these adjectives you must use their comparative forms. Let's review how

Short adjectives: add er

I.e. This package is larger than this other.

Note: in a setence, when the second term of the comparison (second object being compared) is included, yo
omparative Adjectives

Sometimes when you compare you use the word less.


This happens when the second object you are comparing has a given attribute in a lesser degree.
The word less is used for all adjectives, short and long, and when you use it, the adjective remains intact.

Look at the following examples:


UNIT 5

Go + gerund (ing form)

The combination Go + gerund (ing form) is used to refer to recreational activities, including hobbies and some s
people enjoy when they go on a short trip or vacation.

These activities are usually outdoor and entail some contact with nature.

Look at the following expressions, taken from the listening above:

went swimming
We nearly everyday
(past tense of go) + gerund

went hunting
We for seashells
(past tense of go) + gerund

Practice 3

Select the correct option.


Simple Past Tense

Regular Verbs

The simple past is created simply by adding -ED to regular verbs. Regular verbs have the same form for both, the

Simple form Simple Past Past Particip


Stay Stayed Stayed
Carry Carried Carried

Walk Walked Walked

(Click on the RED BOOK for a list of regular English verbs)

Some regular verbs, however, require additional changes to their ending. These is how they create their simple pa

Examples:

Verbs ending in e Add -d love loved

live lived
Examples:

Verbs ending in consonant+y Drop the y and add ied Carry carried

Copy copied

Verbs ending Clap clapped


Double the consonant before
in vowel +consonant (except
adding -ed
y/w) Hug hugged

Regular Verbs List


There are thousands of regular verbs in English. This is a list of 600 of the more common regular verbs. Note that

 accept  allow  applaud  attach


 add  amuse  appreciate  attack
 admire  analyse  approve  attempt
 admit  announce  argue  attend
 advise  annoy  arrange  attract
 afford  answer  arrest  avoid
 agree  apologise  arrive
 alert  appear  ask

 back  beg  boil  brake


 bake  behave  bolt  branch
 balance  belong  bomb  breathe
 ban  bleach  book  bruise
 bang  bless  bore  brush
 bare  blind  borrow  bubble
 bat  blink  bounce  bump
 bathe  blot  bow  burn
 battle  blush  box  bury
 beam  boast  brake  buzz

 calculate  choke  compare  cough


 call  chop  compete  count
 camp  claim  complain  cover
 care  clap  complete  crack
 carry  clean  concentrate  crash
 carve  clear  concern  crawl
 cause  clip  confess  cross
 challenge  close  confuse  crush
 change  coach  connect  cry
 charge  coil  consider  cure
 chase  collect  consist  curl
 cheat  colour  contain  curve
 check  comb  continue  cycle
 cheer  command  copy
 chew  communicate  correct

 dam  deliver  disapprove  dress


 damage  depend  disarm  drip
 dance  describe  discover  drop
 dare  desert  dislike  drown
 decay  deserve  divide  drum
 deceive  destroy  double  dry
 decide  detect  doubt  dust
 decorate  develop  drag
 delay  disagree  drain
 delight  disappear  dream

 earn  end  excite  explain


 educate  enjoy  excuse  explode
 embarrass  enter  exercise  extend
 employ  entertain  exist
 empty  escape  expand
 encourage  examine  expect

 face  fetch  flash  force


 fade  file  float  form
 fail  fill  flood  found
 fancy  film  flow  frame
 fasten  fire  flower  frighten
 fax  fit  fold  fry
 fear  fix  follow
 fence  flap  fool

 gather  grab  grin  guard


 gaze  grate  grip  guess
 glow  grease  groan  guide
 glue  greet  guarantee

 hammer  harm  heat  hug


 hand  hate  help  hum
 handle  haunt  hook  hunt
 hang  head  hop  hurry
 happen  heal  hope
 harass  heap  hover

 identify  increase  intend  invite


 ignore  influence  interest  irritate
 imagine  inform  interfere  itch
 impress  inject  interrupt
 improve  injure  introduce
 include  instruct  invent

 jail  jog  joke  juggle


 jam  join  judge  jump

 kick  kiss  knit  knot


 kill  kneel  knock

 label  learn  lighten  load


 land  level  like  lock
 last  license  list  long
 laugh  lick  listen  look
 launch  lie  live  love

 man  matter  milk  move


 manage  measure  mine  muddle
 march  meddle  miss  mug
 mark  melt  mix  multiply
 marry  memorise  moan  murder
 match  mend  moor
 mate  mess up  mourn

 nail  need  nod  notice


 name  nest  note  number

 obey  obtain  offer  overflow


 object  occur  open  owe
 observe  offend  order  own

 pack  permit  pop  prevent


 paddle  phone  possess  prick
 paint  pick  post  print
 park  pinch  pour  produce
 part  pine  practise  program
 pass  place  pray  promise
 paste  plan  preach  protect
 pat  plant  precede  provide
 pause  play  prefer  pull
 peck  please  prepare  pump
 pedal  plug  present  punch
 peel  point  preserve  puncture
 peep  poke  press  punish
 perform  polish  pretend  push

 question  queue

 race  refuse  remove  rhyme


 radiate  regret  repair  rinse
 rain  reign  repeat  risk
 raise  reject  replace  rob
 reach  rejoice  reply  rock
 realise  relax  report  roll
 receive  release  reproduce  rot
 recognise  rely  request  rub
 record  remain  rescue  ruin
 reduce  remember  retire  rule
 reflect  remind  return  rush

 sack  shiver  soothe  stop


 sail  shock  sound  store
 satisfy  shop  spare  strap
 save  shrug  spark  strengthen
 saw  sigh  sparkle  stretch
 scare  sign  spell  strip
 scatter  signal  spill  stroke
 scold  sin  spoil  stuff
 scorch  sip  spot  subtract
 scrape  ski  spray  succeed
 scratch  skip  sprout  suck
 scream  slap  squash  suffer
 screw  slip  squeak  suggest
 scribble  slow  squeal  suit
 scrub  smash  squeeze  supply
 seal  smell  stain  support
 search  smile  stamp  suppose
 separate  smoke  stare  surprise
 serve  snatch  start  surround
 settle  sneeze  stay  suspect
 shade  sniff  steer  suspend
 share  snore  step  switch
 shave  snow  stir
 shelter  soak  stitch

 talk  thaw  trace  trot


 tame  tick  trade  trouble
 tap  tickle  train  trust
 taste  tie  transport  try
 tease  time  trap  tug
 telephone  tip  travel  tumble
 tempt  tire  treat  turn
 terrify  touch  tremble  twist
 test  tour  trick  type
 thank  tow  trip

 undress  unite  unpack  use


 unfasten  unlock  untidy

 vanish  visit

 wail  waste  whirl  work


 wait  watch  whisper  worry
 walk  water  whistle  wrap
 wander  wave  wink  wreck
 want  weigh  wipe  wrestle
 warm  welcome  wish  wriggle
 warn  whine  wobble
 wash  whip  wonder

 x-ray

 yawn  yell

 zip  zoom
Irregular Verbs

Forming the past form of irregular verbs is not as easy as it is with regular verbs. What makes these verbs irregula

Simple form
Come
Go

Do

Of course, the most famous irregular verb in the English language is 'be'. This is how it forms its past tense:

Irregular Verbs List

This is a list of some irregular verbs in English. Of course, there are many others, but these are the more common

Base Form Past Simple Past Participle

awake awoke awoken

be was, were been

beat beat beaten

become became become

begin began begun

bend bent bent

bet bet bet

bid bid bid

bite bit bitten

blow blew blown


break broke broken

bring brought brought

broadcast broadcast broadcast

build built built

burn burned/burnt burned/burnt

buy bought bought

catch caught caught

choose chose chosen

come came come

cost cost cost

cut cut cut

dig dug dug

do did done

draw drew drawn

dream dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt

drive drove driven

drink drunk drunk

eat ate eaten

fall fell fallen

feel felt felt

fight fought fought

find found found

fly flew flown

forget forgot forgotten

forgive forgave forgiven

freeze froze frozen


get got gotten

give gave given

go went gone

grow grew grown

hang hung hung

have had had

hear heard heard

hide hid hidden

hit hit hit

hold held held

hurt hurt hurt

keep kept kept

know knew known

lay laid laid

lead led led

learn learned/learnt learned/learnt

leave left left

lend lent lent

let let let

lie lay lain

lose lost lost

make made made

mean meant meant

meet met met

pay paid paid

put put put


read read read

ride rode ridden

ring rang rung

rise rose risen

run ran run

say said said

see saw seen

sell sold sold

send sent sent

show showed showed/shown

shut shut shut

sing sang sung

sit sat sat

sleep slept slept

speak spoke spoken

spend spent spent

stand stood stood

swim swam swum

take took taken

teach taught taught

tear tore torn

tell told told

think thought thought

throw threw thrown

understand understood understood

wake woke woken


wear wore worn

win won won

write wrote written

Practice 4

Select the correct option

Practice 5

Write the correct past tense form of the following verbs:

Time Markers Used with Past Tense

The simple past tense is used to refer to events in the past. It is usually accompanied with some expressions that
indicatewhen things happened. These expressions are called time markers. Look at the following example:
The boy found some beautiful seashells at the beach last week

The expression last week is a time marker. Many other words are used following last to indicate when something o
the past:

+ day of the week: last Monday, last Saturday

Last + month last January, Last November

+ season or holiday last winter, last Halloween


+ night, week, year last night, last year

The boy found some beautiful seashells at the beach last summer

Or you can use words like: yesterday, the day/night before, the week before, a day of the week, month, year or da

The boy found some beautiful seashells at the beach on Friday

Or
The boy found some beautiful seashells at the beach in July

You can also use the word ago with to indicate the amount of time that has passed since something happened:

Two days ago Two days have passed


Two weeks ago Two weeks have passed

The boy found some beautiful seashells at the beach two weeks ago
UNIT 6

Negative Statements in Past Tense

In week 5 you learned about forming the simple past tense form of regular verbs. You also learned that irregular ve
different verb form for the simple past. In this week you will learn to make negative statements in the past tense.

Changing from an affirmative to a negative statement in the past tense is very simple, all you have to do is use the
auxiliarydid + not, or its contracted form, didn't + the simple form of your verb:

They broke the rules We didn't break the rules

This is true with all subjects, singular and plural, and all verbs, regular and irregular:

I had I didn't have I didn't have fun at the game

You came You didn't come You didn't come to the movies
She went She didn't go She didn't go dancing on Friday

We liked We didn't like We didn't like that restaurant

You went You didn't go You didn't go out for dinner


They stayed They didn't stay They didn't stay until the end

except the verb to be:

I was I wasn't I wasn't home on Saturday

You were You weren't


She/he/it was He wasn't He wasn't happy about the result

We were We weren't
You were You weren't
They were They weren't They weren't at the game on Sunday

Practice 3

Fill in the blanks to make the following sentences negative:


Yes/No questions in Past Tense

To make a yes / no question, start with did, then the subject, then the simple form of your verb:

Affirmative Yes/No question word order

Did + subject + simple form


Had Did you have? Did you have fun at the game?

Came Did you come? Did you come home late on Saturday?

Went Did you go? Did you go to the movies last weekend?
Stay Did you stay? Did you stay home on Friday night?

Was/were Was/were + subject Was she at home ?

No auxiliary is necessary Were you at the game?

Take the place of the auxiliary

(before the subject)

Sometimes, you also have to change the subject, to do this, what you normally do is use a different noun or prono

The team lost the game Did they lose the game?
I had fun at the game Did you have fun at the game?

Practice 4

Complete the following yes/no questions. Fill in the blanks with did + subject + simple form of the verb in parenth

Answering Yes / No questions

Let's take this question:

To answer, start with:

Yes, + affirmative

No, + negative
A short answer is also possible, and very common when speaking:

Wh- Questions in Simple Past

Wh- questions are also called information questions, and they are used to get information that you don't know. Wh

You can make a Wh- question to get information that is either in the subject or the predicate of your answer.

Let's take the following answer:

If you want to know who ta

But if you want to know wh

This is important because

Questions about the subject

To make a question about the subject, simply add who to the beginning of your y

Note: the subject becomes part of your answer. Look at the following example:

Questions about the predicate


To make a Wh- question about the predicate, simply add a wh- word (what, wh
how, how much, etc) to the beginning of your yes / no question.

Note: the rest of your yes / no question disappears and becomes part of your ans
at the following examples:

When did you go out to dinner?


Did you go out dinner?
I went to dinner yesterday.

Where were you on Saturday afternoon ?


Were you at the mall on Saturday afternoon?
I was at the mall.

Who talked to Gina in the garage?


Did Luis talk to Gina in the garage?
Luis talked to Gina in the garage

Practice 5

Complete these questions. Fill in the blanks with the auxiliary did + a verb in simple form or with the verb in simple
Practice 5

Complete these questions. Fill in the blanks with the auxiliary did + a verb in simple form or with the verb in simple
the answers carefully to get clues about what to ask.

Practice 6

Anna is talking to her friend Martha about what she did over the weekend. Fill in the blanks
with the verb in parenthesis in affirmative, negative or question form.

(-) indicates negative, ex. go (-) = didn't go.


UNIT 7 REVIEW

1. Modals of Advice

Select the right modal of advice according to the situation:

2. Modals of Advice

Complete the following sentences with a modal of advice and a verb from the list:
(-) indicates the modal verb is in negative form: shoudn't / 'd better not

wear lock hurry do stay be buy change


4. Subjunctive:

Select the right verb form for each subjunctive sentence:

5. Past Tense

Complete the following conversation. Use affirmative past tense verbs and questions with the auxiliary Did / did +
form of the verb: