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Efficiency of rubber material modelling and characterisation

H. Donner & L. Kanzenbach & J. Ihlemann


Professorship of Solid Mechanics
Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, Germany.

C. Naumann
Freudenberg Technology Innovation SE & Co. KG
Weinheim, Germany

ABSTRACT: Efficiency requirements concerning rubber material modelling and characterisation methods are
evolving because of high calculation efforts due to the complex behaviour of industrial rubber materials, large
elastic as well as inelastic strains and increasing precision requirements for industrial components.
Two main contributions to the improvement of efficiency are presented in this paper: A new specimen setup for
combined high precision tension-compression measurements with an extended strain range from a compression
strain of -45% up to a tension strain of 400% and an approach for a new rheological element with time-rescaling
invariance. This means a stress response invariance under uniform time-rescaling of the strain history.The ele-
ment consists of two coupled differential equations. It is qualitatively compared to a generalized Maxwell model
with constant loss modulus.
Moreover, a new, interesting and efficient approach for modelling complex inelastic material behaviour at large
strains based on rheological models is presented. The basic kinematic assumption is the additive decomposi-
tion of the deformation rate. The framework is implemented in Abaqus via the user interface UMAT using an
objective time stepping scheme. The approach is not at all limited to polymers.

1 INTRODUCTION components. Thus, in many situations phenomeno-


logical descriptions of the material behaviour together
Numerous technical applications of rubberlike mate- with appropriate characterisation methods are a good
rial lead to large deformations. Furthermore, inelas- choice. To this end, rheological models, i.e. nested
tic effects are often of great significance to the func- serial and parallel connections of simple elements,
tion of rubber containing structures. Experimental in- are a flexible and therefore adaptive and powerful
vestigation of filled rubber reveals several complex tool. However, to be successful, the basic elements
properties like hysteresis, permanent set and Mullins- have to cover all the basic properties of the mate-
effect. The latter is also associated with an induced rial to be modelled. This is why a new rheological
anisotropy. In the time-domain relaxation and creep element (with a time-rescaling invariant behaviour) is
are observed. These properties require highly effi- proposed within this contribution.
cient methods concerning experimental characterisa-
tion, modelling, parameter identification, numerics
and FE-implementation.
Furthermore, the efficiency requirements for in- 2 SPECIMEN SETUP FOR HIGH PRECISION
dustrial components are continuously increasing with TENSION-COMPRESSION TESTS
time. Related to that, the precision requirements for
simulation results and also the acceptance of higher
simulation costs are increasing, too. In this context, For the phenomenological understanding of rubber
also the efficiency requirements concerning rubber materials, a new specimen setup, which enables high
material modelling and rubber characterisation meth- precision tension-compression-tests, is presented. A
ods are evolving. homogeneous deformation with compression strains
The properties of rubber materials emerge in a up to -45% and tension strains up to 400% can be
complex manner from simple interactions of the basic achieved by a special mounting design.
2.1 Development of a special mounting geometry
In figure 1 the principal idea of the mounting algo-
rithm is presented. With a prestressed modal analysis

Figure 2: Stress-strain diagram for the new specimen


(cf. Kanzenbach et al. 2016 Kanzenbach et al. 2016)
Figure 1: Principal idea of the mounting algorithm

the eigenfrequencies ωj of a slender structure can be


calculated, see equation (1).
([KLu ] + [KNu L ] − ωj2 (u)[M ])[ϕj ] = [0] (1)
If the value of ω1 is zero, the stiffness matrices [KLu ]
and [KNu L ]get singular and the structure is endan-
gered by buckling. The value ω1 describes a measure
for the distance to instability, i.e. the first course of
eigenfrequencies gives information about the buck-
ling risk of a slender structure (Figure 1 right). Our
approach to develop new mounting geometries is to
prescribe a special course of eigenfrequencies and
calculate the corresponding mounting. This method
leads to an gradual contact with a homogeneous stress
state between the specimen and the mounting geome-
try. In comparison to the standard dumbbell (Alshuth Figure 3: Homogeneity of the new specimen
et al. 2007), no abrupt contact and no inhomogeneous
stress states occur. filled rubber and EPDM. First, the stability behaviour
of the new specimen setup was proved. In figure 4,
2.2 FE-Simulation and homogeneity investigations the results of a simple buckling test, which was con-
ducted with and without mounting geometry, can be
With the developed mounting geometry, the homo- seen. The value of stability κ is defined as the sum of
geneity behaviour of the new specimen can be in- the left and right deflection of the specimen, divided
vestigated in more detail. In figure 2 the stress-strain
curves for the new specimen (Kanzenbach et al. 2016)
and the standard dumbbell (Alshuth et al. 2007) can
be seen. There is only a small deviation between the
stress state of the new specimen setup and the ho-
mogeneous deformation state. The benefit in homo-
geneity and maximum achievable level of compres-
sion can be seen in figure 3. It demonstrates that the
new method is a powerful tool to design an optimised
specimen by taking into account its stability. The de-
picted measurement error ηT describes the relative
difference between the stress state of the specimen
T F E and the homogeneous stress state T H (εF E ).

2.3 Experimental investigations


Additionally, the new specimen setup was tested ex-
perimentally. The investigations were performed with Figure 4: Stability test with and without mounting geometry
by the initial radius. Furthermore, the same tests were
performed by FE-simulations with an inelastic mate-
rial model (Gelke and Ihlemann 2016) and a small
force disturbance. The good agreement between ex-
periment and simulation is also shown in figure 4. For
the strain measurement an optical measurement sys-
tem (greyscale correlation) was used. Figure 5 shows
the new specimen at the maximum achievable com-
pression. Even for such high compression no buck-
ling occurs and the strain field is nearly homogeneous
(Kanzenbach et al. 2016).

Figure 7: Stress-strain diagram in tension (filled NR)


(cf. Kanzenbach et al. 2016)

identification of model parameters (Gelke and Ihle-


mann 2016).

3 OBJECTIVE EULERIAN FRAMEWORK FOR


RHEOLOGICAL MODELS
Figure 5: Stability test with the new specimen setup
Rheological models, i.e. nested serial and parallel
Additionally to the stability tests, a multi-hysteresis connections of elements representing elasticity, vis-
test in compression and tension was performed. Fig- cosity and plasticity, are state of the art. They are of-
ures 6 and 7 show the corresponding stress-strain ten used to find phenomenological driven constitutive
curves, with a high repeatability for different speci- models for complicated material behaviour. A new
mens. The test sequence was designed in such a way approach combines advantages and avoids drawbacks
that all typical properties of rubber like hysteresis, of current approaches and is suitable for rubber-like
permanent set, softening and Mullins-effect can be materials, inelasticity and large strains.
detected easily. Currently the multiplicative split of the deforma-
tion gradient is the dominant basis for rheological
models. However, this approach is not unique con-
cerning rotations of the incompatible intermediate
configuration and it is not invariant under a permuta-
tion of the sequence of rheological elements within a
serial connection. Moreover, the handling is complex
due to the different stresses and strains on particular
configurations.
Instead, we follow the idea published by Palmow
(1984) to combine the advantages of the additive de-
composition of the deformation rate D with the con-
cept of hyperelasticity. The basic equations for D and
the Kirchhoff stresses τ for parallel and serial connec-
tions are straightforward.
parallel: D = D1 = D2 ; τ = τ 1 + τ 2 (2)
Figure 6: Stress-strain diagram in compression (filled EPDM) serial: D = D1 + D2 ; τ = τ 1 = τ 2 (3)

The new specimen setup has a large range of ap- Moreover, the balance of the stress power densities is
plications. Cyclic tension-compression tests as well very simple, too.
as relaxation and recovery tests in compression and D ·· τ = D1 ·· τ 1 + D2 ·· τ 2 (4)
tension can also be done. Consequently, there is no
longer a need for different types of specimens in ten- Thus, for each basic element we need constitutive
sion and compression. In addition to rubber charac- equations, which enables the computation of the el-
terisation, the new specimen setup can be used for the ements stress tensor as a function of the history of its
deformation rate. This simple context is very advan- The framework is implemented in Abaqus via
tageous for the integration of new elements (e.g. the the user subroutine UMAT (Donner and Ihlemann
rescaling invariant element described in section 4). (2017)).
The evolution of the deformation of element i is de- This approach combines thermodynamic consis-
fined by an differential equation for the left Cauchy- tency, strong objectivity, invariance under the change
Green tensor b, its isochoric part b and its Jaumann of reference configuration (Shutov and Ihlemann
∗ (2014)), exact inelastic incompressibility and invari-
rate b . ance under permutations of serial-connected elements
∗ with an efficient and robust FEM-implementaion and
b i = DDi · b i + b i · DDi (5) simple connection results, also in the case of complex
The specific, simple and well-known example of a rheological models. It is suitable for large strain anal-
Maxwell element (cf. section 4) demonstrates the al- ysis and avoids artificial and incompatible intermedi-
gorithm. For a given D the split into Del and Dvis has ate configurations and hypoelasticity.
to be determined.
4 TIME-RESCALING INVARIANCE OF
CONSTITUTIVE MODELS

Time-rescaling invariance means a new class of con-


stitutive descriptions. This class is characterised by
embracing characteristics which seemed to be exclu-
sive in the past for elastoplasticity or for viscoelastic-
ity. In the following, first results of ongoing research
are presented.
Figure 8: Connection scheme of the Maxwell element
4.1 Experimental results and state of the art
Kinematics: DD = Del + Dvis . (6) In the case of cyclic loading numerous industrial used
rubber materials show very low rate dependency over
Viscosity: τ vis = 2 η DDvis . (7) a wide frequency range. Often the amount of this de-
pendency is close to the experimental accuracy (see
The elastic deformation results from the ODE. From e.g. Ihlemann (2003)). Therefore, several material
this we conclude the elastic stresses (Neo-Hookean models have been designed partially or even in total
type). rate independent (e.g. the model proposed by Rabkin
∗ (Freund et al. 2011) or the M ORPH-model (Besdo and
b el = DDel · b el + b el · DDel ; τ el = G b Del (8) Ihlemann 2003)).
The (iterative) determination of Del and Dvis results But cyclic tests, especially with different periodic
from the stress equivalence (cf. equation (3)). variations of strain with time, give also contrary in-
dications. In the case of triangular strain signals, the
τ el = τ vis ( = τ D) (9) stress-strain-cycles always show sharp points at the
Finally, volumetric stresses have to be added. extremities. But with sinusoidal signals the extremi-
The basis of the numerics are the incremental kine- ties are rounded in a small but clearly detectable area
matics and the co-rotational framework proposed by
Rashid (1993) with the relative deformation gradient
∆F and its polar decomposition.
∆F = F (t + ∆t) · F 1 (t) = ∆V · ∆R (10)
This results in a time integration scheme which allows
an objective estimation of the deformation rate on the
basis of FEM input data:
 
ln ∆V
D= (11)
∆t
and objective solutions for the differential equations
of the elastic elements.
  Figure 9: Simple shear test with carbon black filled SBR; per-
b i (t + ∆t) = exp DDi ∆t · ∆R · b i (t) · formed by TARRC: Experimental steady state loops obtained
  (12) with sinusoidal (the loop with rounded extremities) or triangu-
· ∆RT · exp DDi ∆t lar variation of strain with time (Besdo et al. (2003)).
(see figure 9). However, in the case of perfect rate in- peated under uniform time-rescaling of the prescribed
dependency the cycles would be identical. strain history.
Even more pronounced deviations arise, if the sine
function is cubed (see figure 10). ε1 (t) = ε2 (αt) ∀ t with: α > 0 (14)
∧ Thus, all of the associated strain rates differ by the
ε(t) = ε sin3 (ωt) (13)
same factor α.
. .
ε1 (t) = α ε2 (αt) ∀ t (15)
σ[MPa]
Remarkably, the measured stress response shows the
same time-rescaling in high accuracy (cf. Ahmadi
et al. (2007)).
σ1 (t) = σ2 (αt) (16)

ε This means for instance, that a faster loading his-


tory results in a reduced relaxation time. This stress
response invariance under uniform time-rescaling of
the strain history is what we abbreviate with time-
rescaling invariance.
Somewhat similar formulations can be found in
the literature to define rate independency. Mielke
and Roubı́ček (2015) and already Truesdell and Noll
(1965) in the context of hypoelasticty stated that rate
Figure 10: Tension-compression test with carbon black filled
EPDM (cf. section 2); small deformations for approximate
independency means that any change of time-scale of
tension-compression symmetry: Experimental steady state loop the input leads to the same change of time-scale of
obtained with an input strain signal following a cubed sine func- the output. In contrast to this, in this paper we do not
tion (cf. the small diagram). consider arbitrary changes of time-scale with a vari-
able α (cf. equation (14)), but only a uniform rescal-
Beyond cyclic processes viscoelastic effects become ing with a constant α throughout the loading history.
obvious especially in creep and relaxation tests. It Thus, rate independency (elasticity, elastoplasticity)
should be noted that within this paper, the terms creep is a simple case of time-rescaling invariance. How-
and relaxation are used in a general manner. A relax- ever, we are mainly interested in more complex time-
ation/creep phase means a loading period with con- rescaling invariant models which show relaxation and
stant strain/stress only. Sometimes these terms are ad- creep, because this combination of characteristics is
ditionally associated with conditions for the forego- close to rubber materials. Up to now, those models
ing loading process or with the kind or response of could not be found in the literature.
the material. This is not implied in this paper.
To model such a material behaviour, often gener- 4.2 Modelling time-rescaling invariance
alised Maxwell models are used (for instance Land-
graf (2016) provides a detailed overview and a very In the case of a simple cyclic loading (for instance
fresh literature survey). Some problems, especially a triangular strain-signal with constant amplitude
with the considered frequency range, are discussed and constant frequency) of a time-rescaling invariant
by Diercks (2016). Calculation times for those mod- model which tends to a steady state in such a situ-
els are high because of the high number of differential ation, storage and loss modulus could be calculated
equation which have to be solved. Another approach and would be frequency independent because of the
is viscoelasticity with process-dependent viscosities invariance of the model. Thus, in that case, the phe-
(Haupt and Lion (2002), Haupt (2002)). nomenology would be the same as in the case of a
Ahmadi et al. (2007) showed some novel experi- rate independent model.
ments (primary stages in Ahmadi et al. 2005) which A constant loss modulus over an arbitrary fre-
allow new insights. These experiments consist of quency range is realisable with an appropriate ad-
cyclic phases with changes of amplitude and fre- justed generalised Maxwell model (cf. for instance
quency in between and additional phases of constant Landgraf (2016)). But those models necessarily show
strain (relaxation phases). The amplitude and fre- a significantly increasing storage modulus. Thus,
quency changes are made in such a way that the strain time-rescaling invariance is not achievable with gen-
rate is always continuous (cf. figure 11). The exper- eralised Maxwell models. However, Scheffler (2009)
iments were made with two different materials and showed that those models are capable to reproduce
with input signals of triangular as well as sinusoidal at least the time-rescaling invariant relaxation be-
variations of strain with time. Moreover and of partic- haviour within the measurements shown by Ahmadi
ular interest in this context, the experiments were re- et al. (2007). That is why only those generalised
Maxwell models with constant loss modulus will be (Haupt and Lion 2002). A simple and already known
used within this paper as a reference to evaluate time- solution is the so-called endochronic element (Krawi-
rescaling invariant models (section 4.3). etz (1986), Kießling et al. (2016)) with k as a material
The special experiments presented by Ahmadi et al. constant.
(2007) and described above as well as considera- . . . .
tions of artificial intrinsic time scales (Haupt and Lion β(t) = k |ε(t)| → σ = E ε − k |ε| σ (23)
(2002), Haupt (2002)) inspired Naumann to search for This model is rate independent and therefore also
a model with a rubber-like time-rescaling invariance time-rescaling invariant. Thus, equation (22) is vali-
(Naumann and Ihlemann (2014)). As an initial point dated. But the endochronic element is not the form
he chose the differential equation of a single Maxwell which is searched for in this context, because stresses
element, a serial connection of a spring and a dashpot. are constant during phases of constant strain. More
. . interesting models are accessible with a differential
σ =Eε−βσ (17) equation for an evolving β. The time-rescaling prop-
Naumann’s fundamental idea was to formulate an erties of the rate of β follow from differentiating equa-
inner evolution equation for β with respect to the tion (22).
strain history. He integrated such an approach into . .
a one-dimensional version of the M ORPH-model. Fi- β1 (t) = α β2 (αt) ⇒ β 1 (t) = α2 β 2 (αt) (24)
nally, he used a 3-d generalisation technique pro- .
posed by Freund et al. (2011) to implement an ad- Therefore, for β terms like ε2 , β 2 , or ε β come into
vanced M ORPH-model with a realistic relaxation be- consideration.
haviour into the finite element method (Naumann and Some early approaches of evolution equations for β
Ihlemann (2014)). Within this application the time- had problems with the requirement that small pertur-
rescaling invariance was only a special case. Slight bations of the input signal (for instance noise within
deviations from this idealisation were also possible. an experimental setup) should cause likewise small
On that basis a rheological element with time- deviations of the response signal. This requirement is
rescaling invariance is the objective of current re- also critical in the case of the endochronic element.
search in this field and of this paper. As a first step the To consider those effects, an input signal with three
theory is developed considering the one-dimensional phases is used (see figure 11). The first two phases
case and geometrically linear theory. have periodic triangular signals with different ampli-
First, the basic differential equation (17) with time tudes, but with the same absolute value of the strain
dependent variable β is specified for the two input sig- rate. The third phase is a phase of absolutely con-
nals in equation (14). stant strain. Note that the second phase with the much
smaller amplitude represents a phase of almost con-
. . stant strain. Thus, the behaviour in the second and in
σ 1 (t) = E ε1 (t) − β1 (t) σ1 (t)
. . (18) the third phase should be similar, at least in the case
σ 2 (αt) = E ε2 (αt) − β2 (αt) σ2 (αt) of a very small amplitude during the second phase.
. Figure 12 shows the desired behaviour using the
Let σ 1 (t) be a solution of the first differential equa-
tion. The question now arises which relationship be- example of a Maxwell element.
tween β1 (t) and β2 (αt) is needed to ensure that In contrast, the results for the endochronic element
σ2 (αt) = σ1 (t) (cf. equation (16)) is a solution of the (figure 13) show a kink between the second phase
second differential equation? with small cycles and the phase of absolutely con- .
Equation (16) implies: stant strain. This can be explained by the fact that |ε|
. .
σ2 (αt) = σ1 (t) ⇒ σ 1 (t) = α σ 2 (αt) . (19) ε
The σ1 -version of equation (18) then reads:
. .
α σ 2 (αt) = E ε1 (t) − β1 (t) σ1 (t) . (20)
Inserting equations (15) and (16) leads to:
. . t
α σ 2 (αt) = E α ε2 (αt) − β1 (t) σ2 (αt) . (21)
This equation is identical with the σ2 -version of (18)
and thus, time-rescaling invariance is achieved, if β
fulfils:
β1 (t) = α β2 (αt) . (22) Figure 11: Schematic plot of the input signals for figures 12 and
13. The signal is intended for investigating the influence of small
Beside this important condition for time-rescaling in- perturbations like noise within an experimental setup. During the
variance, thermodynamic consistency requires β > 0 cyclic phases the amount of the strain rate is constant.
σ Actually, these two variants coincide if equations
(14), (22) and (24) are applied. Thus, if β2 (t) is a solu-
tion of the second variant and if equations (14) is ful-
filled, then the function β1 (t) following equation (24)
solves the first variant and therefore time-rescaling in-
variance is fulfilled.
However, this model expressed by the two cou-
pled differential equations (25) is not rate indepen-
t dent. The model rather shows a distinct and at least
qualitatively rubber-typical relaxation behaviour (cf.
Figure 12: Stress response of a Maxwell element to a strain input figure14).
signal like the one in figure 11 with an amplitude ratio of 300.
The stress signal during the second (small amplitude) and third σ
(relaxation) phase is shown.

ε ε

t
t
Figure 13: Stress response of an endochronic element analogue
to figure 12.
Figure 14: Rubber-like prediction of the new material model
given in equation (25) obtained with a cyclic strain input signal
is constant during the first two phases because of the with relaxation phases (small diagram). For better comparisons
triangular input signal and the special adjustment of with rubber material behaviour and with other models the new
amplitudes and frequencies. Thus, during these two model is supplemented by a parallel spring.
phases equation (23) is equal to the evolution equa-
tion of a simple Maxwell element (cf. equation (17)). As a reminder, because of the time-rescaling invari-
This is why figures 12 and 13 are equal in the begin- ance of the model, the stress-strain curve given in fig-
ning. In contrast, throughout the third phase the en- ure 14 would remain completely unchanged, even if
dochronic element’s characteristic.(cf. equation (23)) the input signal as a whole would be multiplied or di-
is reduced to elasticity because of ε = 0. Thus, during vided by a positive, but otherwise arbitrary constant α
this phase of constant strain the stresses are constant, (cf. equation (16)).
too. The resulting kink would be just as striking, if the In the . simple case of a perfect relaxation phase
amplitude of the second phase is invisibly small. The .
(ε = 0) β is zero throughout the whole phase. Thus,
stress response of such a material would be strongly
β is constant and the model behaves exactly like a
influenced by low measurement noise. Such a mate-
Maxwell element (cf. equation. (17)) - with stress re- .
rial behaviour seems to be unthinkable.
laxation. In other situations (ε 6= 0) β tends to k |ε|
Our search for a time-rescaling invariant, but not
(cf. equation (25)). The velocity of this evolution is
rate independent model without those kinks led so far
controlled by parameter p.
to the following approach for an evolution equation of
Concerning input signals superimposed by noise,
β according to equation (24) with two material con-
again the simple testing signal shown in figure 11
stants p and k in combination with the evolution equa-
is suitable to understand the model behaviour. Up to
tion (17) for the stresses.
. the relaxation . phase with constant strain, the abso-
. . . . lute value |ε| of the strain rate is constant throughout.
σ = E ε − β σ with: β = p (k |ε| − β) |ε| (25)
Thus, after a transient phase.during the big cycles, β
This model is investigated below. First of all time- is approximately equal to k |ε|. From this moment on,
rescaling invariance should be proven. To this end, the new model behaves like a Maxwell element with
corresponding to equation (18), the just introduced the corresponding material constants. From the. mo-
evolution equation for β is specified for the two in- ment of the start of the relaxation phase with |ε| = 0
put signals in equation (14). the value of β will keep its momentary value and thus,
. . . the model will continue behaving like the correspond-
β 1 (t) = p (k |ε1 (t)| − β1 (t)) |ε1 (t)|
. (26) ing Maxwell element (cf. figure 12) with stress relax-
. . ation, but without a kink.
β 2 (αt) = p (k |ε2 (αt)| − β2 (αt)) |ε2 (αt)|
4.3 Rheological element of time-rescaling σ
invariance
The proposed model of two coupled differential equa-
tions (25) simulates a rate dependent material with
rubber-typical relaxation behaviour, which is per-
fectly time-rescaling invariant. Thus, with these two
differential equations the material behaviour is al-
ε
ready defined for all frequencies in that way, that stor-
age and loss modulus are constant.
In the following, this model is compared to a gen-
eralised Maxwell model with approximately constant
loss modulus over a suitable frequency range (see Figure 16: Steady state predictions of the new material model
also the beginning of section 4.2). The comparison given in equation (25) obtained with sinusoidal (the loop with
is purely qualitative (therefore no axis scaling within rounded extremities) or triangular variation of strain with time.
simulation plots). No parameter identification has
been done. The parameters of the two models have cle shown in figure 10. In general, there are a lot of
been adjusted to each other to be comparable in a periodic strain signals without qualitative differences
good manner. Also for this purpose the new model is in the stress responses of the two models.
supplemented by a parallel spring, because of the high A specific search for signals with remarkably dif-
storage modulus of the generalised Maxwell model. ferent reactions led to two exceptional signals com-
The same parallel connection was already used to pro- ing from distortions of harmonic functions. The first
duce figure 14. signal is the basis of figures 17, 18 and 19 and it is dis-
played in each of these figures. In the same way the
σ second signal is the strain input of figures 20, 21 and
22. To be actually able to realize those signals even
with high-end testing machines (e.g. Zwick/Roell) we
developed an external target value control (Kanzen-
bach et al. 2016). This technique has also been used
for the measurement shown in figure 10.
ε
σ

Figure 15: Steady state predictions of a generalized Maxwell


ε ε
model obtained with sinusoidal (the loop with rounded extremi-
ties) or triangular variation of strain with time.
t
First of all the stress responses to sinusoidal and
triangular strain signals with equal amplitudes and
frequencies are considered (figures 15 and 16). Due
to the adjustment of the parameter values of the two Figure 17: Steady state prediction of a generalized Maxwell
models, the stress responses to the triangular signals model obtained with the input strain signal given in the small
are similar. But the effects of the sinusoidal input sig- diagram (distorted harmonic function over time).
nal differ significantly. In the case of the generalised
Maxwell model the form of the stress-strain curve is With the first strain input signal, the generalised
almost elliptical and the hysteresis is increased (com- Maxwell model shows a remarkable asymmetry con-
pared to the triangular input signal). In contrast, the cerning the hysteresis area (figure 17) whereas the
relation of the two stress responses of the new model new model shows another asymmetry concerning
(figure 16) is close to the relation within the measure- mainly the slope of the cycle (figure 18). The experi-
ments shown in figure 9. The rounding of the extrem- ment (figure 19) shows its own effects, but similar to
ities is restricted to a small area and the hysteresis is the generalised Maxwell model, an asymmetry of the
almost unchanged. hysteresis area is clearly visible.
Note that in the case of a strain input signal in the The second strain signal combines small peaks in
form of a cubed sine signal (equation (13)) both mod- the one (the negative) direction and a spacious run of
els give stress-strain curves which are qualitatively the curve in the opposite direction. To this periodic
close to each other and moreover close to the ex- input signal the generalised Maxwell model responds
traordinary form of the corresponding measured cy- with a pronounced transient phase. In the steady state
σ differ with the same tendency. The measurements are
somewhere between the two models (figure 22). How-
ever, a vertical shift between the steady state cycles is
clearly visible.

ε ε σ
t

ε
ε
Figure 18: Simulation with the new material model given in t
equation (25) analogous to figure 17.

σ[MPa] Figure 21: Simulation with the new material model given in
equation (25) analogous to figure 20.

σ[MPa]
ε ε

ε
ε

t
Figure 19: Tension-compression test with carbon black filled
EPDM (cf. section 2); small deformations for approximate
tension-compression symmetry: Experimental steady state loop
obtained with the input strain signal given in the small diagram
(distorted harmonic function over time).

(cf. figure 20) the cycles are shifted so that the stresses Figure 22: Tension-compression test with carbon black filled
EPDM (cf. section 2); small deformations for approximate
during the small peaks are much higher than in the tension-compression symmetry: Experimental steady state loops
opposite direction. In contradiction to that, the stress- obtained with (thin line) a sinusoidal strain signal and (thick line)
strain curve of the new model is almost unchanged the input strain signal given in the small diagram (distorted har-
compared to the curve with a purely sinusoidal strain monic function over time).
signal (figure 21). With the response of the gener-
alised Maxwell model in mind, however, it is notice-
able, that also in the case of the new model the stresses
5 CONCLUSIONS
σ
Efficiency requirements concerning rubber material
modelling and characterisation methods are evolving
because of high calculation efforts due to the complex
behaviour of industrial rubber materials, large elastic
ε as well as inelastic strains and increasing precision re-
quirements for industrial components.
ε
Two main contributions to the improvement of ef-
t ficiency are presented in this paper: A new spec-
imen setup for combined high precision tension-
compression measurements and an approach for a
new rheological element with time-rescaling invari-
Figure 20: Steady state predictions of a generalized Maxwell ance. Moreover, a draft of a new framework for rhe-
model to two input strain variations with time. Thin line: sine ological models is presented, which is ideally suited
function, thick line: distorted harmonic function given in the for the FE-application of the new rheological element
small diagram. within complex parallel and serial connections with
other elements. However, the approach is not at all A. S. Khan, H.-Y. Yu, and S. Habib (Eds.), Plasticity
limited to polymers. in Conventional and Emerging Materials: Theory and
The new specimen setup provides new possibilities Applications, pp. 70–72. USA: Neat Press.
in the field of rubber characterisation. Several com- Freund, M., J. Ihlemann, & M. Rabkin (2011). Modelling
plex properties like hysteresis, permanent set, soften- of the Payne effect using a 3-d generalization technique
ing, Mullins- and Payne-effect can be investigated in for the finite element method. In S. Jerrams and N. Mur-
tension and compression. The range of strain ampli- phy (Eds.), Constitutive Models for Rubber VII, pp.
235–240. London: CRC Press.
tudes in compression is extended up to -45%, by a
Gelke, S. & J. Ihlemann (2016). Simulation of a chassis
nearly homogeneous deformation field. bushing with regard to strain induced softening of filled
Time-rescaling invariance means a stress response rubber. PAMM 16(1), 339–340.
invariance under uniform time-rescaling of the strain Haupt, P. (2002). Continuum Mechanics and Theory of Ma-
history. Thus, a stress-strain curve would remain com- terials. Berlin: Springer.
pletely unchanged, even if an input strain signal as a Haupt, P. & A. Lion (2002). On finite linear viscoelastic-
whole would be multiplied or divided by a positive, ity of incompressible isotropic materials. Acta Mechan-
but otherwise arbitrary constant. Rate independency ica 159(1), 87–124.
is a simple case of time-rescaling invariance. But the Ihlemann, J. (2003). Kontinuumsmechanische Nachbil-
material model presented here is far from that and dung hochbelasteter technischer Gummiwerkstoffe.
shows stress relaxation and creep. Düsseldorf: VDI.
Kanzenbach, L., C. Naumann, & J. Ihlemann (2016). Spec-
imen design for high precision tension-compression
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT tests. PAMM 16(1), 207–208.
Kanzenbach, L., M. Stockmann, & J. Ihlemann (2016).
Parts of this work comes from industry-financed Extension of the Testing Machine Control for High-
projects. The authors gratefully acknowledge finan- precision Uniaxial Tension Measurements. Materials
cial support from Vibracoustic GmbH, Freudenberg Today: Proceedings 3(4), 993–996.
Technology Innovation, ContiTech AG, Goodyear Kießling, R., R. Landgraf, R. Scherzer, & J. Ihlemann
S.A. and Mehler Engineered Products GmbH. More- (2016). Introducing the concept of directly connected
over, we thank Ralf Landgraf for extensive support, rheological elements by reviewing rheological models
at large strains. International Journal of Solids and
fruitful discussions and proofreading the article.
Structures 97–98, 650–667.
Krawietz, A. (1986). Materialtheorie: Mathematische
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