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Interior architecture is the balancing of the art and science

off designing an interior space taking into account all elements of the build.
... Interior design is a broad ranging professioFn taking into account all aspects of
planning and designing interior spaces in the built environment.

What is the difference between an interior designer and interior architect?

The primary difference between them centers on what they design. Architects
design buildings, while interior designers use furniture, fixtures and other
accessories to create a desired look and function for spaces inside a building.

o, what is interior architecture? There has been a debate raging for some time
around the terms architecture, interior architecture, interior design, and interior
decoration. The discussion centres on the blurring of the lines that define the role and
responsibilities of each profession: where does the interior design of a space end and
architecture begin, and vice versa?

There have been a number of factors over the last few decades that have increased the
ambiguity of these titles, including the improvement of interior design education. This
has in turn increased the scope of the profession and led many interior designers to
becoming more involved with architectural and technical aspects of interior design, and
less with the decorative, soft furnishings side.

1. Introduction to Architectural Interiors. Differentiate architectural interiors

from interior design.
Interior design is more of an art, whereas interior architecture can be considered a science.
... In a long term project, or a new building project, interior architects and interior
designers will often consult one another and work together to achieve the best final result for
the client.

Interior Architecture is the design of a building or shelter inside out, type home that can be fixed. It
can also be the initial design and plan for use, then later redesign to accommodate a changed purpose,
or a significantly revised design for adaptive reuse of the building shell. The latter is often part
of sustainable architecture practices, conserving resources through "recycling" a structure by adaptive
redesign. Generally referred to as the spatial art of environmental design, form and practice, interior
architecture is the process through which the interiors of buildings are designed, concerned with all
aspects of the human uses of structural spaces. Put simply, Interior Architecture is the design of an
interior in architectural terms.

Interior Architecture may refer to:

 The art and science of designing and erecting building and their interiors as a licensed architect
and related physical features.
 The practice of an interior architect, where architecture means to offer or render professional
services in connection with the design and construction of a building's interior that has as its
principal purpose human occupancy or use.
 A general term to describe building interiors and related physical features.
 A style or method of design and construction of building interiors and related physical features

Image courtesy of Free Land Buck

As a result, many interior design degree courses have been renamed as interior
architecture degrees to more accurately reflect what they cover. Courses like this have
also shot up in popularity, producing a growing number of architecturally savvy
designers, and in turn making it more difficult to differentiate between architecture and
interior design.

So what is interior architecture, and perhaps just as importantly, how does it differ from
architecture, interior design and interior decoration?

Below, we have attempted to explain the differing roles and responsibilities of all of
these professions.

What is Interior Architecture?

Image from Kengo Kuma licensed under CC BY – 2.0

Strictly speaking, interior architecture is a subject and not a profession. The designation
of the term ‘architect’ is protected (like doctor) and cannot be used by anyone who does
not have the specific qualifications and accreditation.
Interior architecture as a term has come into use due to the increasing scope and
responsibilities of interior designers in recent times due largely to improvements in
design technology (CAD) as well as improvements in interior design education. Many
degree courses now teach students about the structural technical elements of buildings,
which has begun to blur the line between architecture and interior design.

The role of any two different interior designers may differ drastically. Whereas one may
be more concerned with decor, soft furnishings and small scale projects, another may
be more concerned with larger projects involving technical as well as artistic and
aesthetic skills. The latter will be more likely to have studied interior architecture.

Image from March Studio

The practice of interior architecture requires designers to consider pretty much

everything to do with the building of an interior space that will affect human habitation,
including materials, finishes, electrical requirements, plumbing, lighting, ventilation,
ergonomics, and intelligent use of space. Interior designers with training in interior
architecture will usually be present at, and have an important say during all stages of
the construction process, from the initial plans right through to the finishing touches.

Image from Reynermedia licensed under CC BY – 2.0

The changing needs of modern society have made the role of the architecturally
aware interior designer increasingly prominent. In retail especially, a building is often
redesigned on the interior only with the original shell of the building remaining
unchanged. This kind of renovation project is the true realm of interior architecture.

In simple and broad terms, interior design is more to do with the art of the building and
interior architecture more concerned with the science.
What is Interior Decoration?

Image by Anthony Quintano licensed under CC BY – 2.0.

An interior decorator is solely concerned with the aesthetics of the building, including
colour schemes, furniture, and art work. They are involved with the art side of design,
and less with the science. Interior decorators will have no concern with the structural
design of the building and are not required to be as knowledgable about building
regulations. As in the image above of the Christmas decorations from the White house
in 2014, there is no involvement with any aspect of the space other than with décor, so
this project would require the services of an interior decoration contractor.

An interior decorator will not usually need to be involved from the beginning of the build
and will not need to have in-depth knowledge of technical elements such as CAD and
structural design. They must, however, be very artistic and have a fantastic eye for
interior design trends and aesthetic detail.
All interior designers, even those trained as interior architects, should be skilled in the
art of interior decoration in order to complete their job properly.

 Interior architecture is the balancing of the art and science of designing an interior space taking
into account all elements of the build. However, a designer with training in interior architecture
cannot call themselves as such unless they have the professional accreditation from an architectural

 Interior design is a broad ranging profession taking into account all aspects of planning and
designing interior spaces in the built environment. The role of any two interior designers can vary

 Interior decoration is concerned solely with the decoration or ‘art’ of a space including soft
furnishings and colour schemes.

The term ‘interior design’ is used very broadly and can take into account practitioners of
widely varying skill levels. This is often where the confusion comes from. However, a
variety of skill levels within a given profession is common to all disciplines, and the
argument of the difference between interior architecture and interior design is neither
significant or constructive.

2. Definition: Design in Architecture

Generally, design in Architecture is defined as the art behind the design of buildings and
structures. It describes the physical aspect of a building, the construction method and the
unifying aspects of a structure. The main purpose of architectural design is to bring different
components together into a whole functional building despite the given limitations.

The design in Architecture has four elements : (a) the concept that focuses on the components
or elements of a structure or system; (b) this concept is able to unify the components into a
coherent and functional whole, (c) according to a particular approach (d) in a design that achieves
the objectives of the project; (e) despite the given constraints or limitations to which the project
is exposed to.

Architectural design is considered one of the best ways or practices of planning and designing
different buildings following a specific style. An architect, in this case, implements different styles
or designs to match the needs of a client. It is a comprehensive process that involves thorough
planning, designing and construction of a building.

 Applied arts
 Architecture
 Automotive design
 Biological design
 Configuration design
 Communication design
 Design management
 Engineering design
 Experience design
 Fashion design
 Game design
 Graphic design
 Information architecture
 Information design
 Industrial design
 Instructional design
 Interaction design
 Interior design
 Landscape architecture
 Lighting design
 Modular design
 Motion graphic design
 Organization design
 Product design
 Process design
 Service design
 Social design
 Software design
 Sound design
 Spatial design
 Strategic design
 Systems architecture
 Systems design
 Systems modeling
 Urban design
 User experience design
 Web design

3. Fundamental tools of space planning, design and analysis:

*Anthropometrics, Proxemics and Ergonomics
Proxemics refers to the interrelated observations and theories of man's use of space as a
specialized elaboration of culture. Edward T Hall, anthropologist, coined the phrase in the 1960s,
and completed several studies associated with how people behave across distances. Proxemics is
the study of measurable distances between people as they interact. This has something to do
with the study of our use of space and how various differences in that use can make us feel more
relaxed or anxious. Proxemics is the study of space and how we use it, how it makes us feel more
or less comfortable, and how we arrange objects and ourselves in relation to space or how color
or odor makes one feel distracted.

There are four kinds of distances that people use in communication (the realm of personal

1. Public space --- approximately 12-25 feet ---- the distance there is when we face the public
as speaker;
2. Social space --- a little nearer --- the distance between a teacher in a room or a customer;
3. Personal space --- usually 1 – 4 feet – the distance when we speak to a member of a family
or friend;
4. Intimate space ---less than 1 foot --- the distance between intimate partners

Ergonomics is the science of designing environments and products to match the individuals who use
them. It is also known as human factors, describes the information about humans in working
situations. Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries, which can
develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. When designing your product you must be
aware of, it must fit the person it is designed for. For example adults and children come in different
shapes and sizes is there a way to make a chair which is suitable for both age groups, this is what we
need to think about as a group to decide. It takes account of the workers capabilities and limitations in
seeking to ensure that tasks, equipment, information and the environment suit each worker.

What should you consider?

Coming to design our product, we need to consider the shape, weight, height and width of our product.
Ergonomics and anthropometrics will help us with this as we have collected our date within our group
already. Looking also at research I think we also need to consider the environment, where our chair
will be used within the environment. So we need to think about light, smell, noise, moisture, and the
temperature of the environment which it will be used in. As we are making it from cardboard we need
to think about the conditions of the cardboard like what will happen if the chair is left out for a long
time, what will happen to the cardboard? Will it start to break or will the cardboard go wet or soggy ?
•Poor posture leads to degeneration and wear and tear of the spine, which can leave it vulnerable and
susceptible to injury.
•To maximize health benefits to avoid back pain, it is imperative to adopt good comfortable postures.
•Keep back straight don't slouch.

•Static and awkward postures
•Twisting and leaning to one side
•Leaning forward slouching and letting the lower back flatten
•Reaching with arms outstretched

Anthropometrics in architectural design. Anthropometrics is the comparative study of the

measurements and capabilities of the human body. ... The underlying principle of anthropometrics is
that building designs should adapt to suit the human body, rather than people having to adapt to suit
the buildings.
Anthropometric measurements are used to assess the size, shape and composition of the human
body. The common methods used to gather these measurements, are: BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, skin-
fold test and bioelectrical impedance.

Anthropometrics is the study of body measurements and statistical data concerning the sizes and
shapes of the population. Ergonomics is the relationship between a product and its users. ... User
group, posture, clearance, reach and strength are all important factors
in anthropometrics and ergonomics.

Anthropometrics is the measurement of the dimension of the body or any other physical characteristics. It
deals with information about human body size, shape and plays an important role in industrial design,
clothing design, ergonomics and architecture. Alarmed with the appliance of ergonomics to the human
form and are used to justify the user or target range for your product. Anthropometric data is presented
within a table design. It shows the average measurements of the human form
Sitting is the most frequent body posture: we sit at work, at school, in the car, on the bus, on the train, at
home in front of TV, to eat, to rest and so on. You are probably sitting down right now. A seat should take
the weight off your feet in order to lessen stress on your legs. It should provide some postural stability
while you work or relax. You should be able to relax your muscles that aren't doing anything. The seat
should also fit in with other furniture and equipment and not get in the way of what you are doing.

Types of seats
 Seats for working e.g. office chairs, school chairs, kneeling chairs, perching stools.
 Seats for leisure e.g. bar stools, dining chairs, easy chairs, cinema seats.
 Seats for travel e.g. car seats, aircraft seats.
 Specialized seats e.g. wheelchair seats, racing car seats.

What makes a seat comfortable?

Generally, seats should allow your body to be comfortable and not restricted. The seat design is critical
for this:

The seat height should not be so high so that your legs are left dangling! This would mean that there
would be pressure on the soft tissues under your thighs. This pressure interferes with the return of blood
from the lower limbs, which may cause tingling and numbness in the thighs due to pressure on blood
vessels and nerves.

The seat depth should allow clearance at the back of your knees in order to prevent pressure on the
network of blood vessels and nerves.

The seat back and angle should support the natural curves of your spine (in particular your lower back).

The main weight bearing should be taken by the ischial tuberosities (the bony parts of your bottom)
and the top half of the thighs.
In addition, a chair should enable you to change posture at intervals, ensuring that different groups of
muscles can be used for support, and that no particular group of muscles gets tired. The
consequences of poor seating are discomfort, fatigue and inefficiency in what you are doing.