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Evidencia 5: Summary “Export-import theory”

INSTRUCTOR

ANIBAL CHARRY QUINTERO

APRENDIZ

WILMAR OSORIO ARIZA

FICHA
1667928

Junio
2019
Actividad de aprendizaje 15

Evidencia 5: Summary “Export-import theory”

Contar con los conocimientos necesarios para realizar un proceso de exportación,


requiere no solo de manejar habilidades lectoras para apropiar las normas y pasos
a seguir, sino también comprender y extraer los aspectos más importantes de cada
texto. Existen gran cantidad de textos referentes exportación e importación en
inglés, por lo cual es necesario fortalecer las competencias en dicha lengua.

Para reforzar lo mencionado, realice las siguientes actividades:

1. Lea el siguiente texto:

Export-Import Theory1

Setting up the business

Whether it is a new or existing export-import business, the legal form, or


structure, will determine how the business is to be conducted, its tax liability,
and other important considerations. Each form of business organization has
its own advantages and disadvantages, and the entrepreneur has to select
the one that best fulfills the goals of the entrepreneur and the business.
Selection of an appropriate business organization is a task that requires
accounting and legal expertise and should be done with the advice of a
competent attorney or accountant.

Ownership structure

1
Belay, S. (2009). Export-Import Theory, Practices, and Procedures. (2a ed.). New York: Routledge.
In this section, we examine different forms of business organizations: sole
proprietorships, partnerships, corporations, and limited liability companies.

Sole proprietorships

A sole proprietorship is a firm owned and operated by one individual. No


separate legal entity exists. There is one principal in the business who has
total control over all export-import operations and who can make decisions
without consulting anyone. The major advantages of sole proprietorships are
as follows:

1. They are easy to organize and simple to control. Establishing an export-


import business as sole proprietorship is simple and inexpensive and requires
little or no government approval. At the state level, registration of the business
name is required, while at the federal level, sole proprietors need to keep
accurate accounting records and attach a profit or loss statement for the
business when filing individual tax returns (Schedule C, Internal Revenue
Service Form 1040). They must operate on a calendar year and can use the
cash or accrual method of accounting.

2. They are more flexible to manage than partnerships or corporations. The


owner makes all operational and management decisions concerning the
business. The owner can remove money or other assets of the business
without legal or tax consequences. He or she can also easily transfer or
terminate the business.

3. Sole proprietorships are subject to minimal government regulations versus


other business concerns.

4. The owner of a sole proprietorship is taxed as an individual, at a rate lower


than the corporate income tax rate. Losses from the export import business
can be applied by the owner to offset taxable income from other sources. Sole
proprietors are also allowed to establish tax exempt retirement accounts.
(Harper, 1991; Cheeseman, 2006a)
The major disadvantage of running an export-import concern as a sole
proprietorship is the risk of unlimited liability. The owner is personally liable
for the debts and other liabilities of the business. Insurance can be bought to
protect against these liabilities; however, if insurance protection is not
sufficient to cover legal liability for defective products or debts, judgment
creditors’ next recourse is the personal assets of the owner. Another
disadvantage is that the proprietor’s access to capital is limited to personal
funds plus any loans that can be obtained. In addition, very few individuals
have all the necessary skills to run an export-import business, and the owner
may lack certain skills. The business may also terminate upon the death or
disability of the owner.

Establishing an appropriate business organization: pointers

 Does the entrepreneur intend to be the sole owner of the export-import


business? If not, how many people have an ownership interest?

 Does the entrepreneur need additional capital and/or expertise?

 What legal form provides the greatest flexibility for management?

 What legal form affords the most advantageous tax treatment for the
business concern and individual entrepreneurs?

 Which legal structure is easy and less expensive to establish and subject
to a low degree of government regulation?
 How important is it to limit personal liability of owners?

o Which legal structure is the most appropriate in light of the goals and
objectives of the export-import business? (Belay, 2009).

2. Elabore una lista de vocabulario sobre el texto, mínimo de 15 palabras y


escriba su respectivo significado en inglés.

vocabulario significado
Advantages: Circumstance or situation that Ventajas: Circunstancia o situación que da
gives superiority in something. superioridad en alguna cosa.

Disadvantages: Circumstance of being worse Desventajas: Circunstancia de ser peor o


or being in a worse situation one thing with estar en peor situación una cosa respecto a
respect to others of the same nature with otras de la misma naturaleza con la que se
which it is compared. Less favorable situation compara. Situación menos favorable en que se
in which a person or thing is with respect to halla una persona o cosa respecto a otras con
others with which it is compared. las que se compara.
Attorney: Person legally authorized to advise Abogado: Persona legalmente autorizada para
and defend the rights and interests of another asesorar y defender los derechos e intereses
person in legal matters and represent it in a de otra persona en materia jurídica y
lawsuit. representarla en un pleito.
Without: Indica falta o carencia de alguna Sin: Indicates lack or lack of something
cosa material o inmaterial. material or immaterial.
Proprietorships: Property rights Propietarios: Derecho de propiedad, en el
In the right, the domain or property, is the derecho, el dominio o propiedad, es el poder
direct and immediate power over an object or directo e inmediato sobre un objeto o bien, por
good, by which is attributed to its owner the la que se atribuye a su titular la capacidad de
ability to dispose of it, without further disponer del mismo, sin más limitaciones que
limitations than those imposed by law. las que imponga la ley.
Returns: The return is the act of giving Devoluciones: La devolución es el acto de
something back to someone. It is a process entregar algo nuevamente a alguien. Es un
that is based on a right of possession of a proceso de se sustenta en un derecho de
certain person with respect to a certain good posesión de una determinada persona con
that was delivered with some type of specific respecto a un determinado bien que fue
objective. entregado con algún tipo de objetivo
específico.
Applied: That puts effort, interest and Aplicado: Que pone esfuerzo, interés y
perseverance in the accomplishment of a constancia en la realización de un trabajo o en
work or in the development of an activity, el desarrollo de una actividad, en especial en
especially in the study. el estudio.
Loans: A loan is an operation by which a Prestamos: Un préstamo es una operación por
financial institution puts at our disposal a la cual una entidad financiera pone a nuestra
certain amount of money through a contract. disposición una cantidad determinada de
dinero mediante un contrato.
Skills: The ability is the innate aptitude, talent, Habilidades: La habilidad es la aptitud innata,
skill or ability that a person holds to carry out talento, destreza o capacidad que ostenta una
and of course with success, certain activity, persona para llevar a cabo y por supuesto con
work éxito, determinada actividad, trabajo
Losses: Small amount of blood or discharge Pérdidas: Cantidad pequeña de sangre o flujo
from the womb that is abnormally expelled procedente de la matriz que se expulsa
outside of the menstrual period. anormalmente fuera del período menstrual.
Upon: Heritage prefix of Latin origin that Sobre: Prefijo patrimonial de origen latino que
enters the formation of names with the entra en la formación de nombres con el
meaning of 'above', 'besides'. significado de ‘por encima de’, ‘además de’.
Judgment: Faculty of understanding, by virtue Juicio: Facultad del entendimiento, por cuya
of which man can distinguish good from evil virtud el hombre puede distinguir el bien del
and true from false. mal y lo verdadero de lo falso.
Income: Amount of money earned or Ingresos: Cantidad de dinero ganada o
collected. recaudada.
Little: That has a smaller size than normal. Pequeño: Que tiene un tamaño menor de lo
normal.
Sole: It applies to one or several things of Único: Se aplica a una o varias cosas de las
which or of whose species there are no cuales o de cuya especie no hay otras.
others.

3. El texto sugerido al inicio de esta evidencia cuenta con varios párrafos, y al


interior de cada párrafo se encuentran varias ideas principales. Por favor, lea el
material complementario “Identifying the main idea” para conocer cómo se puede
encontrar la idea principal en un párrafo escrito en inglés.

MAIN IDEAS

• How to carry out a business

• There are different forms of commercial organizations

• The director controls all export and import operations

• The sole proprietors are simple and low in costs

• The owners are in charge of making all the decisions

• The individual companies are governmental


• The individual owners have a lower rate than the tax rate

• The owners are responsible for their business

4. Luego de analizar el material complementario, por favor escriba las ideas


principales de cada párrafo, en presente simple, en inglés. No haga transcripción
literal de los párrafos. A continuación, transforme la oración a presente
progresivo, también en inglés.

Simple Present Tense Present Progressive Tense


How to carries out a business How to caressing out a business

There's are different forms of There's are differencing forms of


commercial organizations commercial organizations
The director controls all export and The director is controlling all export
import operations and import operations
The sole proprietors are simple and The sole proprietors are simple and
lows in costs low in costing
The owners are in charges of make all The owners are in charging of making
the decisions all the decisions
The individual companies are The individual companying are
governmental governmental
The individual owners have a lower The individual owners is having a
rate than the tax rate lower rate than the tax rate
The owners are responsible for their The owners are responsibling for their
business business

5. Organice las ideas en un solo resumen, de manera que se conecten


coherentemente, en 15 líneas.

How to carry out an export and import business, in different forms of commercial
organizations since the director controls all export and import operations, where the
sole proprietors are simple and low in cost and make all the decisions in front of the
business. Individual companies are governmental and have a lower rate than the tax
rate, thus carrying the responsibility of the business

Knowing well that each legal form in which the company has its legal bases will apply
different processes why you should know what you should apply to have greater
knowledge and not have legal consequences in the environment even with a single
administrator or boss immediately co-author all the legal health and tax aspects for
a better export or import in order to provide the company with better quality and good
recognition at the international level and to conquer or reach large countries for its
advertising and industry growth.