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Lesson 2 Day 4- Identifying the context of Text Development

Intertextuality and Hypertext

A test is neither written nor read in a vacuum. Its meaning and interpretation are affected by a given set
of circumstances. Thus, context defined as a social, political, historical, and other related circumstances
that surround the text.

 When was the work written?


 What were the circumstances that produce it?
 What issues does it deal with?

INTERTEXTUALITY is the modelling of the text’s meaning by another text

 A dialogue among different text and interpretation of the writer, the audience, and the current
and earlier cultural context.

HYPERTEXT is a non-linear way of showing information.

 Connects topics on the screen related information, graphics, videos, and music- info is not
simply related to the text.
 This information about the topic, which in turn may have more links
 Opens up a reader a wider horizon of information or to a new direction

CRITICAL READING AS REASONING

Identifying assertions

Becoming a good critical reader means that you are able to logically evaluate the claims of the writer.
Any writer would want the reader to consider – and possibly agree with – the claims that he or she puts
forward. In expository writing, assertion become primary channel for a reader to assent a claim.

Assertion- are declarative sentences that claim something is true about something else. Simply put, it is
a sentence that is either true or false.

Activity #1 (Group by 3’s) Match the examples of assertion to its type.

A. The Sampaguita’s roots are used for medicinal purposes, such as anaesthetic and a sedative.
(FACT)
B. The Samapaguita belongs to the genus Jasminum of the family OLEACEAE. (CONVENTION)
C. The popularity of Samapaguita flowers is most evident in places of worship. (OPINION)
D. Sampaguitas are most beautiful and most fragrant of all flowers. (PREFERENCES)

TYPES of Assertion

1. Assertion of FACT- this is statement that can be proven objectively by direct experience,
testimonies of witness, verified observation, or the results of research.
- Can be double-checked for accuracy
- There is a general agreement about the truth they post.

2. Assertion of CONVENTION –convention is away in which something is done similar to tradition


and norms.
- It depends on historical precedent, laws, rules, usage, and customs
- Their truthfulness is verified by how commonly held definitions and beliefs are interpreted.
- They may sound factual due to being derived from customs
- Socially accepted ways of doing things
- They cannot verified objectively by measurement

3. Assertion of OPINION –opinions are based on facts but are difficult to objectively verify because
of the uncertainty of producing satisfactory proofs of soundness
- They are open to disputes
4. Assertion of PREFERENCES- Preference are based on personal choice;
- They are subjective and cannot objectively proven and logically attacked

Formulate Counterclaims

- Ability to analyse an argument is essential to understanding the text more deeply


- Counterclaims are claims to rebut a previous claims
- They provide a contrasting perspective to the main argument.

If you provide a counterclaims to an argument

- shows deep competence and familiarity with the writer topic


- Shows that you are examining different perspective and not just passively accepting the
writer’s claim
- Shows that you have thoroughly considered topic and willing to engage different vies points
- Helps you clarify your personal position to the topic.

The following questions will help formulate counterclaims

 What are the major points on which you and the author can disagree?
 What is the strongest argument?
 What did they say to defend their position?
 What are the merits of their view?
 What are the weakness or shortcomings in their argument?
 Are there any hidden assumptions?
 Which lines from the text support the counterclaim you have formulated?

Determining textual Evidence

You need to determine evidence from the text. This will allow you to validate the assertions of the
author and your own counterclaims as a response to reading. EVIDENCE is defined as the details given
by the author to support his/her claim. A judge relies on the evidence presented by a lawyer before it
makes a decision regarding a case.
Evidence can include the following

 Facts and statistics


 Opinion from experts (leading authorities on a topic
 Personal anecdote ( generalization, relevant and objectively considered)

The following are some questions to help you determine evidence from the text?

 What questions can you ask about the claims?


 Which details in the text answer your question?
 What are the most important details in the paragraphs
 What is each one’s relationship to the claim?
 How does the given detail reinforce the claim?
 What details do you find interesting?
 What are some claims that do not seem to have support
 What are some details that you find questionable? Why you do think so?
 Are some details outdated, inaccurate? Exaggerated or taken out of context?
 Are the sources reliable?

The following are the characteristics of good evidence:

 Unified
 Relevant to the central point
 Specific and concrete
 Accurate
 Representative or typical.