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Effect of drip irrigation regimes on growth, yield and quality of

mango hybrid Arka Anmol

Article  in  Indian Journal of Horticulture · December 2008


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3 authors, including:

Vikram Pandey Vishal Nath

Indian Council of Agricultural Research National Research Centre for Litchi


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Indian J. Hort. 65(4), December 2008: 409-412

Effect of drip irrigation regimes on growth, yield and quality of mango

hybrid Arka Anmol
Dinesh Kumar*, V. Pandey and Vishal Nath
Central Horticultural Experiment Station (IIHR), Bhubaneswar 751 019

A field experiment for drip irrigation scheduling in mango based upon the pan evaporation replenishment rate
in five to ten year old trees of Arka Anmol mango was conducted. Four levels of open pan evaporation based drip
irrigation schedules (25, 50, 75 and 100 % pan evaporation replenishment) and one rainfed plot to serve as control
with 5 replications were maintained under randomized block design. The long term experimental results revealed
that significantly maximum canopy volume, fruit number and yield were recorded due to daily drip irrigation at
75% pan evaporation replenishment. The fruit quality such as fruit dry weight, pulp weight, peel weight, stone
weight and TSS were observed to be improved due to drip irrigation but remained at par with rain fed (control).
Maximum fruit volume and soil moisture content was recorded due to daily drip irrigation at 100 % evaporation
Key words: Mango, growth, fruit yield, drip irrigation regimes, soil moisture.
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INTRODUCTION mango cultivation and role of drip irrigation in its

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production, an experiment was undertaken to

Mango is an important and commercial fruit crop

of tropical and sub-tropical regions of India. It ranks standardize the irrigation regimes for optimum growth
first in area (14.87 lakh ha)and production (105 lakh t) and fruit yield in mango hybrid Arka Anmol under east
with a productivity level of 7.1 t/ha in India. Whereas Indian conditons.
in Orissa, the area (0.96 lakh ha) and production (3.34 MATERIALS AND METHODS
lakh t) of mango is not encouraging. When it comes to
productivity, it is one of the lowest (3.6 t/ha) in the An experiment was conducted at Central
country (Anon.,1). Water stress during the critical Horticultural Experiment Station, Bhubaneswar during
stages of fruit growth and development is the main 2002-03 to 2006-07 to study the effect of drip irrigation
reason for low productivity in mango in area owing to regimes on growth, fruit yield, quality and soil moisture
sloppy land, light texture soil and poor water holding in mango hybrid Arka Anmol (Alphonso x Janardan
capacity. Majority of mango orchards in Orissa are rain Pasand) under eastern Indian conditions. The soil of
fed, low yielding and produce fruits of sub-standard the experimental site was red lateritic having poor
quality. In such situations, water management organic matter content and very low water holding
especially during the period between fruit set to capacity, which leads to poor plant growth. There were
maturity ( February to May ) plays an important role in five treatments viz., rain fed control, 25% pan
improving the yield. For efficient water management evaporation replenishment (PER), 50% PER, 75%
under such situation, drip irrigation is the best option PER and 100% PER with five replications under RBD.
for water economy and efficient utilization of irrigation The water requirement in respective treatment was
water for fruit production, which saves 25-30 % worked out on the basis of monthly mean pan
irrigation water. The scheduling of irrigation adopted evaporation and plants were irrigated daily through
in orchards influences the availability of soil moisture pressure compensated drippers @ 4 lph discharge.
to the plant and its distribution in the soil profile. For The four drippers were placed equidistant in east, west,
newly planted orchard, irrigation water is required for north and south directions at 50% distance of canopy
better establishment. In bearing tree, irrigation water radius. The water received through natural rain was
also reduces fruit drop and improves yield and quality. compensated in successive days in all irrigation
Although, the guidelines for irrigation in different crops treatment regimes but neglected in rainfed control
has been given by Doorenbos and Pruitt (5) but the plots. The water requirement determined by multiplying
actual requirement of water varies in different agro- the canopy area (m 2) x pan evaporation (mm) x
climatic conditions. Keeping in view the importance of evaporation replenishment (%). One square metre
canopy area with one millimetre evaporation
*Corresponding author’s E-mail: replenishment was equal to one litre of drip irrigation
Indian Journal of Horticulture, December 2008

water. The time of drip operation was determined by RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
the total quantity of water required in litre divided by The observations on canopy volume, fruit number,
total discharge rate. The observations on canopy fruit weight and yield were recorded for five
volume, fruit yield and yield attributing characters and consecutive years from 2003-2007 (Table 1). Drip
total soluble solids were recorded. Canopy volume of irrigation influenced the canopy volume of mango trees
tree was calculated using the formula devised by over the years. Significantly maximum canopy volume
Castle’s ( 2 ) : tree volume = 0.5238 x canopy height was recorded due to daily drip irrigation at 75% pan
(m) x [canopy diameter (m)] 2. For available soil evaporation replenishment over control during 2002-
moisture status, soil samples (0-30 cm depth) at 03. Drip irrigation treatment at 25 and 50% PER were
monthly intervals were collected from fruit set to at par. The canopy volume increased with increasing
harvest (February - May) under different treatments. age of the mango tree in successive years. Similar
The data on different attributes were tabulated in and increasing trends were found in subsequent years
Randomized complete block design and statistically due to drip irrigation at 75% PER. The number of fruits
analyzed for interpretation of results and drawing per tree at harvest and yield in mango were also
meaningful conclusion. influenced by drip irrigation. The number of fruits and

Table 1. Effect of drip irrigation regimes on growth and yield in mango.

Treatment Canopy volume (m3)
2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07
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25 % PER 14.21 17.69 31.28 38.71 42.45

50 % PER 15.41 20.03 33.74 41.74 45.56
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75 % PER 19.68 29.99 41.41 51.96 55.76

100 % PER 17.81 23.51 34.59 46.80 49.23

Control 12.07 14.85 26.16 32.74 36.79
CD at 5% 3.29 5.25 7.56 8.95 12.23
Number of fruits per tree
2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07
25 % PER 73.60 95.40 238.40 242.68 211.20
50 % PER 93.60 109.40 256.80 260.97 238.20
75 % PER 125.20 157.80 357.00 271.39 308.20
100 % PER 110.80 118.20 337.60 270.78 259.2
Control 61.60 89.80 216.40 201.82 208.40
CD at 5% 30.45 31.15 22.34 35.32 39.17
Fruit yield (kg/ tree)
2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07
25 % PER 12.50 21.24 43.35 39.80 43.70
50 % PER 17.10 21.91 46.01 42.80 59.10
75 % PER 23.50 38.77 66.62 45.00 65.72
100 % PER 17.30 23.88 62.50 43.90 61.02
Control 11.80 19.96 39.14 33.10 38.90
CD at 5% 2.75 4.24 5.26 6.95 6.55
Fruit weight (g)
2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07
25 % PER 169.83 204.34 182.35 164.00 206.91
50 % PER 182.69 212.64 183.85 164.00 213.23
75 % PER 187.69 222.47 186.55 165.81 235.41
100 % PER 189.13 245.69 187.94 166.12 248.11
Control 165.55 200.45 180.76 162.00 196.66

Effect of Drip Irrigation in Mango

yield per tree increased by 50. 79 and 49.78 % over The maximum fruit dry weight at maturity was
control due to drip irrigation at 75% PER during 2002- recorded due to drip irrigation at 75% PER (Table 2).
03. The trend in improvement in number and yield of The fresh pulp, peel and stone weight was also highest
fruits continued in similar trend in subsequent years in the same treatment. The fresh pulp weight under
with increasing age and canopy volume up to 2006- 75% PER was significantly superior over control. The
07 except during 2005-06. Finally during 2006-07, TSS was maximum due to drip irrigation at 25% PER
maximum fruit number and yield were recorded due and differences were non-significant among the
to daily drip irrigation at 75% PER which was at par treatments. Similar findings were reported by Dixit et
with 100% PER. The fruit weight also influenced by al. (4 ) in mango under Raipur conditions and Shirgure
different drip irrigation regimes. In general, the fruit et al. (10, 11) in citrus under Nagpur conditions. Fruit
weight increased with increasing drip irrigation regimes volume increased with increasing drip irrigation
and the maximum fruit weight was recorded due to regimes in mango in different stages of fruit growth.
daily drip irrigation at 100 % PER but the differences The maximum fruit volume was recorded with daily
between treatment were non-significant. The results drip irrigation at 100 % over all other treatments. The
are in conformity with the finding of Srinivas (8) while highest fruit volume was recorded in the month of April
working on mango under Bangalore conditions and (Fig. 1). Soil moisture increased with increasing the
Dixit et al. (4) in mango under Raipur conditions,
drip irrigation regimes (Fig. 2). The maximum available
Shirgure et al. (10,11) reported maximum canopy
soil moisture content was recorded with drip irrigation
volume and fruit yield with irrigation equivalent to 0.8
at 100% PER which was at par with 75% PER. Similar
of open pan evaporation in citrus under Nagpur
trends were observed during successive months also.
conditions. Drip irrigation provides a consistent
Minimum soil moisture content was recorded in control
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moisture regime in the soil due to which root remains

active throughout the season resulting in optimum (rain fed) tree basins. Similar findings were reported
by Shirgure et al. (9, 10).
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availability of nutrient and proper translocation of food

Relative humidity showed consistently higher

materials which accelerates the fruit growth and

development in mango. Pavel and Villers (7) observed negative correlation coefficient (-0.938) with pan
increase in number of fruits per tree in mango due to evaporation. This holds true that evaporation is
inversely related to relative humidity. The higher
drip irrigation. Coelho and Borges (3) also emphasized
the atmospheric humidity, the lower is the evaporation
the importance of drip irrigation in mango for better
(Figs. 3, 4). During evaporation process, the water
yield and quantity.

Table 2. Effect of drip irrigation regimes on fruit quality in Arka Anmol mango.
Treatment Fresh ripe fruit composition
Fruit dry wt. (%) Pulp (%) Peel (%) Stone (%) TSS (0Brix)
25 % PER 20.45 73.90 12.35 13.75 18.70
50 % PER 20.75 74.28 12.15 13.57 18.50
75 % PER 21.25 75.78 11.15 13.07 18.35
100 % PER 20.13 75.10 11.50 13.40 18.05
Control 21.05 71.45 12.95 15.60 18.45
CD at 5% NS 2.67 NS NS NS

Fig. 1. Effect of drip irrigation regimes on fruit volume at Fig. 2. Effect of drop irrigation regimes on soil moisture
different stages of growth in mango. content at different stages of fruit growth in mango.

Indian Journal of Horticulture, December 2008

1. Anony. 2001. Horticulture Production Yearbook-
2001. National Horticulture Board, Ministry of
Agriculture, Govt. of India, New Delhi.
2. Castles, W. 1983. Growth, yield and cold hardiness
of seven-year old ‘Bearss’ lemon on twenty seven
rootstocks. Proc. Flo. State Hort. Soc. 96: 23-25.
Fig. 3. Mean monthly pan evaporation from fruit set to 3. Coelho, E.F. and Borges, A.L. 2004. Irrigation and
maturity in mango. fertigation in mango. International Mango Symp.
Brazil, Feb-2004. Acta Hort. 646: 121-123.
4. Dixit, A., Sharma, D., Agrawal, N. and Dubey, P.
2003. Effect of drip irrigation and mulch on mango
yield and its fruit quality characters. Plant Archives,
3: 199-202.
5. Doorenbos, J. and Pruitt, W.O. 1977. Guidelines
for predicting crop water requirements. Irrigation
Fig. 4. Mean montly relative humidity during fruit growth to and Drainage Paper No. 24, FAO, Rome, 156 p.
maturity in mango.
Downloaded From IP - on dated 19-Oct-2015

6. Ojha, C.M., Singh, H.K. and Pathak, R.K. 2000.

Effect of drip irrigation on growth of aonla and
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guava plants under sodic soil. Prog. Hort., 32:

7. Pavel, E.W. and de Villiers, A.J. 2004. Response
of mango trees to reduced irrigation regimes.
International Symposium on Irrigation And Water
Relation in Grape Vine and Fruit Trees. Argentina,
January-2004. Acta Hort. 648.
8. Srinivas, K. 2005. Drip irrigation studies in mango
for growth and yield. Ann. Rep., I.I.H.R.,
Fig. 5. Mean maximum monthly temperature during fruit set Bangalore, pp. 20-21.
to maturity.
9. Shirgure, P.S., Marathe, R.A., Lallan Ram and
Singh, Shyam. 2000 . Irrigation scheduling in acid
molecules move from higher moisture to lower lime as affected by different soil moisture regimes.
moisture levels. The rate of the movement is governed
Indian J. Agric. Sci. 70: 168-70.
by the difference in moisture gradient of atmosphere.
Hence, if the air humidity is more, evaporation will be 10. Shirgure, P.S., Srivastava, A.K. Singh Shyam and
less and vice-versa. Maximum air temperature also Pimple, A.R. 2003. Drip irrigation scheduling,
showed consistently higher positive correlation (0.973) growth, yield and quality of acid lime (Citrus
with pan evaporation. This also holds true that aurantifolia Swingle). Indian J. Agric. Sci., 73:
evaporation is directly related to increase in air 209-11.
temperature (Fig. 5). The warmer the air, the stronger
is the temperature gradient and higher rate of 11. Shirgure, P.S., Srivastava, A.K. and Singh, Shyam,
evaporation. Due to this, the evaporation loss is 2004. Growth, yield and quality of acid lime under
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Received: November, 2007; Revised: July, 2008;
The authors are grateful to the Director, Indian Accepted : August, 2008
Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore for
providing necessary facilities during the course of this

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