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An engineering internship at Grid R&D, Banashankari

Stage II, Bengaluru, India.

Submitted by
Shehran Tariq

Registration Number

Under the guidance of

Prof. Swetha Shekarappa G

In partial fulfillment of the course- Industry Internship Programme- IIP in

semester VI of Bachelor of Technology (2016-2020)
Bachelor of Technology
Industry Internship Programme (IIP)


This is to declare that the report titled “Embedded Systems” has been
made for the partial fulfillment of the course- Industry Internship
Programme (IIP) in Semester VI by me at Grid R&D under the guidance of
Prof.Swetha Shekarappa G.
I confirm that this report truly represents my work undertaken as a part of
my Industry Internship Programme (IIP). This work is not a replication of
work done previously by any other person. I also confirm that the contents
of the report and the views contained therein have been discussed and
deliberated with the faculty guide.

Signature of the Student:

Name of the Student: Shehran Tariq
Registration Number: 16030141EEE023


This is to certify that Mr. Shehran Tariq, Registration Number:

16030141EEE023 has completed the internship titled Embedded Systems
under my guidance for the partial fulfillment of the course: Industry
Internship Programme (IIP) in Semester VI of Bachelor of Technology in
Electrical and Electronics Engineering during the year 2019-2020.

Ms. Swetha Shekarappa G Ms. Sheila

Assistant Professor, Head of Department,
Department of EEE, Department of EEE,
Alliance University Alliance University

I express my sincere gratitude and thanks to my training guide Mr. Prateek

Vijay and my project head Mr. Praveen for providing me with guidance and
facilities that I required for the project throughout my time as an Intern at
Grid R&D. I would also like to thank my project guide Professor Swetha
Shekarappa G for her unconditional support and guidance whenever

Embedded systems are increasingly becoming integral parts of almost

all technology-oriented applications. Embedded systems are the unsung
heroes of much of the technology we use today- video games, washing
machines, Auto Teller Machines, Security Cameras and much more.
The appliances using embedded systems are pre-programmed to
perform a dedicated or narrow range of functions as part of a large
system, usually with minimal user interaction and optimum performance.
Embedded systems are used in navigation tools like Global Positioning
Systems (GPS), Automated Teller Machines (ATM' s), networking
equipment such as Echo cancellation, Facsimile and others. The coming
together of embedded systems and the Internet, which made possible
the networking of several embedded systems to operate as part of a
large system across networks- be it a LAN, WAN, or the Internet. This
convergence of embedded systems with the Internet is going to transfer
the way we live. The Embedded systems are fast achieving ubiquity,
blurring the lines between science fiction and hard reality.







An embedded system combines mechanical, electrical, and chemical

components along with a computer, hidden inside, to perform a single
dedicated purpose. There are more computers on this planet than there
are people, and most of these computers are single-chip
microcontrollers that are the brains of an embedded system. Embedded
systems are a ubiquitous component of our everyday lives. We interact
with hundreds of tiny computers every day that are embedded into our
houses, our cars, our bridges, our toys, and our work. As our world has
become more complex, so have the capabilities of the microcontrollers
embedded into our devices. Therefore, the world needs a trained
workforce to develop and manage products based on embedded

Modern embedded systems are often based on microcontrollers (i.e.

CPUs with integrated memory or peripheral interfaces),[5] but ordinary
microprocessors (using external chips for memory and peripheral
interface circuits) are also common, especially in more complex
systems. In either case, the processor(s) used may be types ranging
from general purpose to those specialized in certain class of
computations, or even custom designed for the application at hand. A
common standard class of dedicated processors is the digital signal
processor (DSP).

Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, design

engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and
increase the reliability and performance. Some embedded systems are
mass-produced, benefiting from economies of scale.

Embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches

and MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights,
programmable logic controllers, and largely complex systems like hybrid
vehicles, MRI, and avionics. Complexity varies from low, with a single
microcontroller chip, to very high with multiple units, peripherals and
networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure.
One of the very first recognizably modern embedded systems was the
Apollo Guidance Computer, developed in1965 by Charles Stark Draper at
the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. At the project's inception, the Apollo
guidance computer was considered the riskiest item in the Apollo project as
it employed the then newly developed monolithic integrated circuits to
reduce the size and weight. An early mass-produced embedded system
was the Autonetics D-17 guidance computer for the Minuteman missile,
released in 1961. When the Minuteman II went into production in 1966, the
D-17 was replaced with a new computer that was the first high-volume use
of integrated circuits.

Since these early applications in the 1960s, embedded systems have come
down in price and there has been a dramatic rise in processing power and
functionality. An early microprocessor for example, the Intel 4004 (released
in 1971), was designed for calculators and other small systems but still
required external memory and support chips. In 1978 National Engineering
Manufacturers Association released a "standard" for programmable
microcontrollers, including almost any computer-based controllers, such as
single board computers, numerical, and event-based controllers.

As the cost of microprocessors and microcontrollers fell it became feasible

to replace expensive knob-based analog components such as
potentiometers and variable capacitors with up/down buttons or knobs read
out by a microprocessor even in consumer products. By the early 1980s,
memory, input and output system components had been integrated into the
same chip as the processor forming a microcontroller. Microcontrollers find
applications where a general-purpose computer would be too costly.

A comparatively low-cost microcontroller may be programmed to fulfill the

same role as a large number of separate components. Although in this
context an embedded system is usually more complex than a traditional
solution, most of the complexity is contained within the microcontroller
itself. Very few additional components may be needed and most of the
design effort is in the software. Software prototype and test can be quicker
compared with the design and construction of a new circuit not using an
embedded processor.
As embedded system is an application-specific system designed with a
combination of hardware and software to meet real-time constraints. The
key characteristics of embedded industrial systems include speed, security,
size, and power. The major trends in the embedded systems market
revolve around the improvement of these characteristics.

To give context into how large the embedded systems industry is, here are
a few statistics:

 The global market for the embedded systems industry was valued at
$68.9 billion in 2017 and is expected to rise to $105.7 billion by the
end of 2025.
 40% of the industrial share for embedded systems market is shared
by the top 10 vendors.
 In 2015, embedded hardware contributed to 93% of the market share
and it is expected to dominate the market over embedded software in
the upcoming years as well.
Future Trends of Embedded Systems Industry
The industry for embedded systems is growing and there are still several
barriers that must be overcome. Below are six notable trends of the
embedded systems market for 2019.

Improved Security for Embedded Devices

With the rise of the Internet of Things (IoT), the primary focus of developers
and manufacturers is on security. In 2019, advanced technologies for
embedded security will emerge as key generators for identifying devices in
an IoT network, and as microcontroller security solutions that isolate
security operations from normal operations.

Cloud Connectivity and Mesh Networking

Getting embedded industrial systems connected to the internet and cloud
can take weeks and months in the traditional development cycle.
Consequently, cloud connectivity tools will be an important future market
for embedded systems. These tools are designed to simplify the process of
connecting embedded systems with cloud-based services by reducing the
underlying hardware complexities.

A similar yet innovative market for low-energy IoT device developers is

Bluetooth mesh networks. These solutions can be used for seamless
connectivity of nearby devices while reducing energy consumption and

Reduced Energy Consumption

A key challenge for developers is the optimization of battery-powered
devices for low power consumption and maximum uptime. Several
solutions are under development for monitoring and reducing the energy
consumption of embedded devices that we can expect to see in 2019.
These include energy monitors and visualizations that can help developers
fine-tune their embedded systems, and advanced Bluetooth and Wi-Fi
modules that consume less power at the hardware layer.

Visualization Tools with Real Time Data

Developers currently lack tools for monitoring and visualizing their
embedded industrial systems in real time. The industry is working on real-
time visualization tools that will give software engineers the ability to review
embedded software execution. These tools will enable developers to keep
a check on key metrics such as raw or processed sensor data and event-
based context switches for tracking the performance of embedded

Deep Learning Applications

Deep learning represents a rich, yet unexplored embedded systems market
that has a range of applications from image processing to audio analysis.
Even though developers are primarily focused on security and cloud
connectivity right now, deep learning and artificial intelligence concepts will
soon emerge as a trend in embedded systems.

Embedded System Innovations

The industrial sector for embedded systems is undergoing numerous
transformations that will enable developers to build systems that are high-
performing, secure, and robust. As a developer and manufacturer in this
industry, it is important to stay updated with the latest technologies and
trends. For 2019, the embedded systems market is shaping up for
simplified cloud connectivity, improved security tools, real-time
visualizations, lower power consumption, and deep learning solutions.

Embedded hardware covered over 93% of the market share in 2015, and is
projected to dominate the market over the estimated period. Product
includes microcontrollers, Digital Signal Processors (DSP),
microprocessors and others. Embedded software includes middleware tool
and operating system (OS). Embedded systems have real-time restraints
since they are used for a variety of safety vital purposes. This has led to the
requirement for proficient software modified for the target purpose. This
sector is likely to rise at a CAGR of 6.36% from 2016 to 2021.

Key hardware components include microcontrollers, DSPs and

microprocessors etc. Key market players include NXP (Freescale
Semiconductor), Renesas Electronics, Intel Corporation, Xilinx, Altera,
Infineon Technologies, Microchip, Fujitsu Limited, STMicroelectronics,
Atmel and Texas Instruments, Inc. among others.

The worldwide market for Embedded Systems is expected to grow at a

CAGR of roughly 5.6% over the next five years, will reach 95400 million
US$ in 2024, from 68900 million US$ in 2019, according to a new study.
This report focuses on the Embedded Systems in global market, especially
in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East
and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers,
regions, type and application.
The rising adoption of embedded systems in the automotive industries is
likely to escalate the growth of the embedded system market worldwide.
Nowadays, electronics systems are largely replacing various mechanical
systems in the automotive sector. The major electronics systems used in
the automotive industry are embedded systems including Anti-lock Braking
System, Satellite Radio, Navigation Systems, Drive by Wire and many

In addition, rising consumer's interest in wearable devices and smart

appliances are anticipated to boost the growth of embedded system
market. Also, the embedded systems play a significant role in the smart
homes. Various smart homes application uses the embedded system as
they required real-time monitoring and control of home appliances.

However, the security related concern of an embedded system may

hamper the growth of the embedded system market. Moreover, rising
adoption of embed systems in the smart homes, smart cities, healthcare
equipment, and military applications is projected to create several
opportunities in embedded system market in upcoming years.
The companies that have been profited by embedded systems are
mentioned below.
 Infosys Ltd.
 Atmel Corporation
 HCL Technologies Limited
 Intel Corporation
 Microsoft Corporation
 NXP Semiconductors N.V.
 Infineon Technologies AG
 Freescale Semiconductor
 Renesas Electronics Corporation
 Texas Instruments

Strong demands for smarter and power-efficient electronic devices are

expected to be the major drivers for the global embedded system market.
Growing application of embedded systems in the automobile industry,
upward demand for embedded systems with multi-core technologies and
embedded graphics is expected to support the embedded systems market
growth in the near future. However, security concerns related to these
systems may curb the demand for embedded system within the forecast
period. Nonetheless, rising penetration of robotics are expected open new
avenues for the market growth over the next few years.

The embedded system market is segmented on the basis of different

products including embedded hardware and embedded software. In 2015,
an embedded hardware was the largest segment in embedded system
market and accounted for over 90% share of the total market. This
segment is expected to continue its dominance in global market throughout
the forecast period. Embedded software was another key outlet for
embedded system market in 2015. The embedded system market is
segmented on the basis of microcontroller such as small-scale embedded
systems, medium scale embedded systems and large-scale embedded
systems. The medium scale embedded systems segment dominated the
market with largest share of the total market in 2015.
A range of application segments of embedded system market include
healthcare, industrial, automotive, telecommunication, consumer
electronics, defense, aerospace and others. Automotive sector was leading
segment in embedded system market and it accounted for over 17%
market share of total market in 2015. Automotive sector followed by
consumer electronics and healthcare sector is also expected to show
strong growth in the coming years. Automotive segment expected to
continue its dominance in global market over the forecast period due to
increasing penetration of electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles
Geographically, the market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia-
Pacific, Latin America and Middle East and Africa. Demand for embedded
system was highest in North America due to the high demand for superior
quality embedded software. In terms of revenue, Asia Pacific acquired the
second largest share of the market globally in 2015. Asia Pacific expected
to be the fastest growing region due to the existence of fabrication plants in
this region.
Based on applications, embedded system covers the following.
 Healthcare
 Industrial
 Automotive
 Telecommunication
 Consumer Electronics
 Defense
 Aerospace
Based on Global Embedded Systems Market, the following regions use
embedded systems.
 US
 UK
 France
 Germany
 China
 Japan
 India
 Brazil
 United Arab Emirates
 Saudi Arabia
 Qatar
 Kuwait
 South Africa
 Egypt
 Russia