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‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎم ﭘﺮوردﮔﺎر ﻳﻜﺘﺎ‬

AIRPLANE DESIGN I

H. Alisadeghi
Fall 2016
References
1. Roskam J. , Airplane Design: Part I, to VIII
2. Raymer, Daniel P., Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach
3. Torenbeek, E., Synthesis of Subsonic Airplane Design: An
Introduction to the Preliminary Design of Subsonic General Aviation and
Transport Aircraft, with Emphasis on Layout, Aerodynamic Design, Propulsion
and Performance.
4. Stinton, D., The Design of the Aeroplane.
5. Sforza, Pasquale M., Commercial Airplane Design Principles
SOFTWARE:
Advanced Aircraft Analysis ( AAA )
Roskam Method

Part I: Preliminary Sizing of Airplanes (1985)

Part II: Preliminary Configuration Design and


Integration of the Propulsion System (1985)

Part III: Layout Design of Cockpit, Fuselage, Wing


and Empennage: Cutaways and Inboard Profiles
(1986)

Part IV: Layout of Landing Gear and Systems


(1986)
Dr. Jan Roskam
Roskam Method

Part V: Component Weight Estimation (1985)

Part VI: Preliminary Calculation of Aerodynamic,


Thrust and Power Characteristics (1987)

Part VII: Determination of Stability, Control and


Performance Characteristics: FAR and Military
Requirements (1986)

Part VIII: Airplane Cost Estimation: Design,


Development, Manufacturing and Operating
(1990)
‫‪Design‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﻪ و ﻃﺮح ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻴﻖ و ﺳﺮﻫﻢ ﻛﺮدن‬
‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻫﺎي ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫اﺟﺰاي ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ در ﻗﺎﻟﺐ‬
‫ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ و ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻘﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ اي واﺣﺪ ﺑﺎ‬
‫ﺟﺪاﮔﺎﻧﻪ و ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺄﻣﻮرﻳﺖ واﺣﺪ‬
‫‪Analysis‬‬ ‫‪Synthesis‬‬

‫‪Evaluation‬‬

‫ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ و ﺻﺤﺖ ﺳﻨﺠﻲ‬


‫ﻃﺮح در ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ اﻟﺰاﻣﺎت و‬
‫ﻧﻴﺎزﻣﻨﺪي ﻫﺎي ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ‬
1 • Conceptual Design

2 • Preliminary Design

3 • Detailed Design
(Requirement) (Regulation)
‫ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻨﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ اﺳﺖ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻨﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺘﻤﺎً ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺟﺮا ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

Regulation:
FAR: Federal Aviation Regulations      JAR : Joint Aviation Requirements

Regulation
Airworthiness

FAR JAR OP CAD


USA Europ Russia I.R.IRAN
‫‪ :FAA‬اداره ﻫﻮاﻧﻮردي ﻓﺪرال‪ ،‬داﻳﺮه اي از واﺣﺪ ﺗﺮاﺑﺮي و‬
‫ﺣﻤﻞ و ﻧﻘﻞ اﻳﺎﻻت ﻣﺘﺤﺪه آﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ اﺧﺘﻴﺎر ﻛﻨﺘﺮل‬
‫و ﺳﺮﭘﺮﺳﺘﻲ ﻫﻤﻪ اﻣﻮر ﻫﻮاﻧﻮردي ﻏﻴﺮ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻲ در آﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ را‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻬﺪه دارد‪ .‬اداره ﻫﻮاﻧﻮردي ﻓﺪرال اﺟﺎزه ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎي ﻣﻠﻲ‬
‫ﭘﺮواز را ﺻﺎدر ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
FAR
(FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS)
Conceptual Design Procedure

Product  Market 
Development Exploitation

Customer  New 
Requirements Technology
Initiation of 
the project

Initiation of 
the Project
Environmental

Market & 
Airworthiness
Mission
Payload
Range 
Speed
Field
Costs Requirements 
& Regulations

Initiation of  Initial Aircraft 
the Project Specification
Development Test

Research Evaluation

RDTE Cost

Return on  Manufactu
investment ring Cost

Cost 
Requirement

Life Cycle  Operation 
Cost Cost
Noise
Emission
Environmental Fuel Use
Compatibilities

Market & 
Airworthiness
Mission
Payload
Range 
Speed
Field
Costs Requirements 
& Regulations

Initiation of  Initial Aircraft 
the Project Specification
Environmental Considerations

Emission

Gas

Particels
Environmental Considerations

Noise

External

Internal

FAR Section A36.4

EPN: Effective perceived noise
Environmental Considerations

The Boeing 2707 was the first American supersonic transport (SST) project
Noise
Emission
Environmental Fuel Use
Compatibilities

Market & 
Airworthiness
Mission
Payload
Range 
Speed
Field
Costs Flight Envelop
Requirements  Handling & Control
& Regulations Structural Integrity
Systems Integrity
Serviceability

Initiation of  Initial Aircraft 
the Project Specification
Maintenance Considerations

Inspection
Access

Removal

Maintenance
Noise
Emission
Environmental Fuel Use
Compatibilities

Market & 
Airworthiness
Mission
Payload
Range 
Speed
Field
Costs Flight Envelop
Requirements  Handling & Control
& Regulations Structural Integrity
Systems Integrity
Serviceability

Initial Aircraft Specification

Initiation of  Initial Aircraft 
the Project Specification
Aircraft 
Concept

Selection of 
the Baseline 
Configuration

Engine 
Options

Aircraft Concept 
Initiation of  Initial Aircraft 
& Baseline 
the Project Specification Configuration
Payload / 
Range

Stability /  Mass / 
Control Balance

Baseline Design 
Evaluations

Performance  Structural 
Prediction Framework

Lift / Drag 
Estimation

Aircraft Concept  Baseline 
Initiation of  Initial Aircraft 
& Baseline  Design 
the Project Specification Configuration Evaluations
Market 
Evaluation

Competitors
Parametric  Cost 
Design Studies Analysis

Sensitivities

Aircraft Concept  Baseline 
Initiation of  Initial Aircraft  Parametric 
& Baseline  Design 
the Project Specification Configuration Design Studies
Evaluations
‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻓﺎز ‪ RDTE‬ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﻫﺎي اوﻟﻴﻪ ﻫﻮاﭘﻴﻤﺎ )‪ (Prototype‬ﻣﻲﮔﺮدد‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺪاد ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻴﺶ از ‪ 6‬اﻟﻲ ‪ 10‬ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﺮﺳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ اوﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮاﭘﻴﻤﺎ ‪ F‐102A‬ﺑﻪ ﺗﻌﺪاد ‪ 52‬ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ اوﻟﻴﻪ!!!(‬

‫‪Two Northrop/McDonnell Douglas YF‐23 Prototypes‬‬
‫در ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺗﺴﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺶ از ‪ 360‬ﻧﻮع ﺗﺴﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻴﺶ از ‪ 1000‬ﺑﺎر ﺗﻜﺮار ﺑﺮ روي ﻫﻮاﭘﻴﻤﺎ اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮد‪.‬‬
QUESTION?