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# Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

## BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Mesra, Ranchi – 835 215

## Assignment Sheet (Question Bank)

BE (EEE) 5th Semester EE 5207: Power System - I

MODULE - I

1. Trace the growth of H.V.A.C. transmission. What is the effect of system voltage on transmission
efficiency? Is it possible to increase the transmission voltage indefinitely? Why?
2. Derive a formula showing how the amount of conductor material required for power transmission
lines is dependent on the system voltage and power factor.
3. Give a comparison between D.C. and A.C. transmission of power and that between 1- phase and
3- phase A.C. systems.
4. Assuming the current is limited by temperature rise (i.e. the direct current equals the rms
alternating current), show that the power transmission capability of bipolar dc lines is same as
that of the 3- phase ac line.
5. Assuming equal power transmitted and equal losses in the line show that,

## Root of Conductor in D.C. Cos 2

Root of Conductor in A.C. 2
6. A 1 phase power P1 is transmitted by a pair of O/H conductors carried on similar insulators but
with one line at ground potential. If a third conductor of the same cross section is added and a 3
phase supply connected in place of the 1 phase one, calculate the increase in power transmitted
P2 for same losses.
7. A generating station has a maximum demand of 20 MW, a load factor of 60%, a p.c.f. of 48%
and p.u.f. of 80%. Find:
a) The daily energy produced
b) The reserve capacity of the plant
c) The maximum energy that could be produced as per operating schedule.
(288 MWhr 5 MW, 160 MWhr).
8. Mention the advantages of interconnection.

9. A generated station has a connected load of 600 MW. The maximum demand is 380 MW. The
number of units generated per annum is 2100  106. Calculate the demand factor and load factor.

10. A generating station has a maximum demand of 1000 MW. The annual load factor is 75% and
plant capacity factor is 60%. What is the reserve capacity?
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Mesra, Ranchi – 835 215

11. The daily load pattern on a plant is as follows: 50 MW for 3 hrs; 75 MW for 16 hrs; 100 MW for
2 hrs; No load for 3 hrs. What is the load factor?

## Maximum demand on Demand factor of

Type Diversity of group
station group
Domestic 20 MW 1.2 0.8
Commercial 40 MW 1.25 0.9
Industrial 75 MW 1.35 0.97

The diversity factor of the station is 1.5. Determine the (a) maximum demand on the station and (b)
the connected load on the station.

13. A 1000 MW station has a maximum demand 1000 MW. The number of units generated is 700 
107 kWh. There is a loss of 22% during transmission and distribution. The costs incurred are as
shown below.
Fixed component of Variable (%)
Item Cost in Rs  107
(%) component
Generation 100 90% 10%
Fuel 280 15% 85%
Transmission 35 82% 18%
Distribution 275 95% 5%
O&M 30 50% 50%

## Devise a two part tariff and a flat rate tariff.

14. In the above problem, if the tariffs are applied to an industrial consumer with a maximum
demand of 300 MW, with a load factor of 0.8, what is the annual bill.

15. What are the ideal conditions for cheap electric supply?

16. What is the difference between Load Curve and Load Duration Curve?
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Mesra, Ranchi – 835 215

## MODULE – II: Constants of Overhead Lines

1. What are ACSR conductors? Explain their advantages when used for overhead transmission
lines.
2. A conductor is composed of seven identical copper strands, each having a radius r. Find the self
GMD of the conductor. If the control stand is of steel and its effect neglected, find the self GMD.
3. The outside diameter of one layer of aluminum strand of an ACSR conductor is 5.04 cms. The
diameter of each strand is 1.68 cms. Neglecting the effect of the central steel strand, determine
the 50 Hz reactance at 1 m spacing.
4. Determine the induction of 1 phase transmission line having the following arrangement of
conductors. One circuit consists of three wires 2 mm diameter each and the other circuit two
wires of 4 mm dia each.

10m

2m 2m

2m

A B

5. A single phase 50 Hz power line is supported on a horizontal cross arm. The spacing between the
conductors is 3m. A telephone line kept symmetrically below the power as shown below
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Mesra, Ranchi – 835 215

3m
P1
P2
D2 D2 2m
D1 D1
0.8m
T1 T2

Find the mutual inductance between the two circuits and the voltage induced per km in the
telephone line if the current in the power line is 100A. Assume the telephone line current to be
zero.

6. What are bundled conductors? Discuss their advantages in overhead transmission of power.
7. Find the expression for inductance per phase of a double phase circuit 3 phase line.
8. Derive the formula for the internal inductance in H/m of a hollow conductor having inside radius
r1 and outside radius r2 and also determine the expression for the inductance in H/m of a single-
phase line consisting of the hollow conductors described above with conductors spaced a
distance D apart.
9. Calculate the 50 Hz inductive reactance at 1 m spacing in ohms/km of a cable consisting of 12
equal strands around a nonconducting core. The diameter of each strand is 0.25 cm and the
outside diameter of the cable is 1.25 cm.
10. A concentric cable consists of two-walled tubes of mean radii r and R respectively; derive an
expression for the inductance of the cable per unit length.
11. A Single-phase 50 Hz circuit comprises two single-core lead-sheathed cables laid side by side; if
the centres of the cable are 0.5 m apart and each sheath has a mean diameter of 7.5 cm, estimate
the longitudinal voltage induced per km of sheath when the circuit carries a current of 800 A.
12. Two long parallel conductors carry currents of + I and - I. What is the magnetic field intensity at
a point P, shown in Figure below?
a b

P
+I -I
2d d

Fig. P-2.5

13. Two three-phase lines connected in parallel have self-reactances of X1 and X2. If the mutual
reactance between them is X12, what is the effective reactance between the two ends of the line?
14. A single-phase 50 Hz power line is supported on a horizontal cross-arm. The spacing between
conductors is 2.5 m. A telephone line is also supported on a horizontal cross-arm in the same
horizontal plane as the power line. The conductors of the telephone line are of solid copper
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Mesra, Ranchi – 835 215

spaced 0.6 m between centres. The distance between the nearest conductors of the two lines is 20
m. Find the mutual inductance between the circuits and the voltage per kilometre induced in the
telephone line for 150 A current flowing over the power line.
15. A telephone line runs parallel to an untransposed three-phase transmission line, as shown in Fig.
The power line carries balance current of 400 A per phase. Find the mutual inductance
between the circuits and calculate the 50 Hz voltage induced in the telephone line per km.
a b c t1 t2

5m 5m 15m 1m
Fig. P-2.8

16. A 500 kV line has bundling arrangement of two conductors per phase as shown in Figure.

0.5m

30mm

15m 15m

Fig. P-2.9

Compute the reactance per phase of this line at 50 Hz. Each conductor carries 50% of the phase
current. Assume full transposition.

17. An overhead line 50 kms in length is to be constructed 2.56 cm in diameter, for single-phase
transmission. The line reactance must not exceed 31.4 ohms. Find the maximum permissible
spacing.
18. Figure below depicts two three-phase circuits on a steel tower; there is symmetry in both the
horizontal and vertical centre lines. Let each three-phase circuit be transposed by replacing a by
b and then by c, so that the reactance of the three phase are equal and the GMD method of
reactance calculations can be used. Each circuit remains on its own side of the tower. Let the self
GMD of a single conductor be 1 cm. Conductors a and a' and other corresponding phase
conductors are connected in parallel. Find the reactance per phase of the system.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Mesra, Ranchi – 835 215

a C’

7.5m
4m
b b’

10m
4m
7.5m

c a’
Fig. P-2.11

19. A double-circuit three-phase line is shown in Fig. The conductors a, a'; b, b' and c, c' belong to
the same phase respectively. The radius of each conductor is 1.5 cm. Find the inductance of the
double-circuit line in mH/km/phase.

a b c a’ b’ c’

1m 1m 1m 1m 1m

Fig. P-2.12

20. A three-phase line with equilateral spacing of 3 m is to be rebuilt with horizontal spacing (D13 =
D12 = D23). The conductors are to be fully transposed. Find the spacing between adjacent
conductors such that the new line has the same inductance as the original line.
21. Find the self GMD of two arrangements of bundled conductors N=2, N=4 in terms of the total
cross-sectional area A of conductors (same in each case) and the distance d between them where
N is no. of sub conductors in a conductor.
22. Do you get a constant team in the expression of capacitance as in the case of inductance? Give
reasons.
23. Calculate the capacitance to neutral per km of a single phase line conductor of no. 2 single strand
conductor (r = 0.328 cm) spaced 3 m apart and 7.5 m above ground.
Compare the result obtained by neglecting the effect of earth.
(0.0082  F / km,0.00817  F / km)
24. Determine the capacitance to neutral per km of the 500 KV 3-phase bundled conductor line
shown below: (0.0103 F / km)
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Mesra, Ranchi – 835 215

0.5
m
30mm

15m 15m

25. Calculate the maximum potential difference between two long parallel conductors of a 1 phase
system if the electric stress between them is not to exceed 25 KV/cm, r being 0.3 cm and D = 35
cm. (71.24 KV).
26. Derive the capacitance of a 3 phase line accounting for the presence of earth.
27. Explain the modified GMD method of calculating line capacitance in O/H transmission systems.
28. Derive an expression for the charge (complex) value per metre length conductor a of an
untransposed three-phase line shown in Fig. The applied voltage is balanced three-phase, 50 Hz.
Take the voltage of phase a as reference phasor. All conductors have the same radii. Also find
the charging current of phase a. Neglect the effect of ground.
a b c

D D

Fig. P-3.1

29. A three-phase double-circuit line is shown in Fig. The diameter of each conductor is 2.0 cm. The
line is transposed and carries balanced load. Find the capacitance per phase to neutral of the line.
a C’

2m

b b’

2m

c a’
6m

Fig. P-3.2
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Mesra, Ranchi – 835 215

30. A three-phase, 50 Hz overhead line has regularly transposed conductors equilaterally spaced 4 m
apart. The capacitance of such a line is 0.01µF/km. Recalculate the capacitance per kilometre to
neutral when the conductors are in the same horizontal plane with successive spacing of 4 m and
are regularly transposed.
31. Consider the 500 kV, three-phase bundled conductor line as shown in Figure for Problem-24.
Find the capacitive reactance to neutral in ohms/km at 50 Hz.
32. A three-phase transmission line has flat, horizontal spacing with 2 m between adjacent
conductors. The radius of each conductor is 0.25 cm. At a certain instant the change on the centre
conductor and on one of the outside conductors are identical and voltage drop between these
identically charged conductors is 775 V. Neglect the effect of ground, and find the value of the
identical charge in coulomb/km at the instant specified.
33. Find the 50 Hz susceptance to neutral per kilometre of a double-circuit three phase line with
transposition as shown in Fig. Given that D = 7 m and radius of each of the six conductors is
1.38 cm.

a b c a’ b’ c’

D D D D D

Fig. P-3.6

34. A single conductor power cable has a conductor of No. 2 solid copper (radius = 0.328 cm). Paper
insulation separating the conductor from the concentric lead sheath has a thickness of 2.5 mm
and a relative permittivity of 3.8. The thickness of the lead sheath 2 mm. Find the capacitive
reactance per kilometre between the inner conductor and the lead sheath.
35. Find the capacitance of phase to neutral per kilometre of a three-phase line having conductors of
2 cm diameter placed at the corners of a triangle with sides 5 m, 6 m and 7 m respectively.
Assume that the line is fully transposed and carries balanced load.
36. Derive an expression for the capacitance per metre length between two long parallel conductors,
each of radius, r, with axes separated by a distance D, where D >> r, the insulating medium being
air. Calculate the maximum potential difference permissible between the conductors, if the
electric field strength between them is not to exceed 25 kV/cm, r being 0.3 cm and D = 35 cm.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Mesra, Ranchi – 835 215

## MODULE – III : Insulators & Underground Cable

1. In a 5 insulator disc string the capacitance between each unit and earth is about 1/6 of the mutual
capacitance. Find the voltage distribution across each insulator in the string as percentage of the
voltage applied. Find also the string efficiency.
(11.5%, 13.1%, 17.1%, 23.85%, 34.85%, 58%)
2. Determine the maximum voltage that a string of 3 suspension insulators can withstand if the
maximum voltage per unit is 17.5 KV. Assume mutual capacitance to be 8 times the earth
capacitance.
(44.23 KV)
3. Each conductor of a 33 KV, 3 phase system is suspended by a string of three similar insulators,
the capacitance of each disc being nine times the capacitance of earth. Calculated the voltage
across each disc. Determine the string efficiency also.
(5.51, 6.13, 7.41 KV; 85.7%)
4. A string of 6 suspension insulators is to be graded to obtain uniform distribution of voltage across
the string. If the pin to each capacitances are all equal to C and the mutual capacitance of the top
insulator is 10C. Find the mutual capacitance of each unit in terms of C.
(11C, 13C, 16C, 20C, 25C)
5. A string of 8 suspension insulators is to be graded to obtain uniform distribution of voltage across
the string. If the capacitance of the unit is 10 times the capacitance to ground of each unit.
Determine the capacitances of the remaining 7 units.
(11C, 13C, 16C, 20C, 25C, 31C, 38C)
6. A string of 8 suspension insulators is to be fitted with a guard ring. If the pin to earth capacitance
is all equal to C, find the voltage of line to pin capacitance that would give a uniform voltage
distribution over the string.
(C/7, C/3, 3/5C, C, 5/3C and 7C)
7. A string of a 6 insulator units has mutual capacitance 10 times the capacitance to ground.
Determine the voltage across each unit as a fraction of the operating voltage. Also find the string
efficiency.
(0.099, 0.109, 0.13, 0.169, 0.213, 0.286, 58%)
8. Each of the three insulators forming string has a self capacitance of C. The shunting capacitance
of the connecting metal work of each insulator is 0.2C to earth and 0.1C to line. Calculate the
voltage across each insulator as a percentage of the line voltage to earth and also the string
efficiency of the arrangement.
(31%, 30%, 39%, 85.2%)
9. If a guard ring is provided in the previous problem increasing the capacitance to line of the metal
work of the lowest insulator to 0.3C, find the redistribution of voltage and the new string
efficiency.
(32.6%, 32%, 35%, 95.39%)
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Mesra, Ranchi – 835 215

10. Each of the insulators forming a string has a self-capacitance of C Farads. The capacitance of the
link pins to earth and the line are 20 C and 0.15 C respectively. Calculate the voltage across each
insulator as a percentage of the line voltage to earth and also the string efficiency of the
arrangement.
By how much does the string efficiency increases if a guard ring is provided increasing the
capacitance to the line of the bottom most insulators to 0.35 C? Also find the redistribution of
voltage caused by the guard ring. (36.9%, 29.83%, 33.18%, 40.25%, 33%, 31.6%, 35.4%,
100%)

11. Explain why the voltage does not divide equally across the units of a string insulator. Discuss the
various methods by which the voltages across the units can be equalized and which of these
methods is actually used in practice? Illustrate your answer by a string of 3-insulator units.
12. The potential across the 6 units of a string is equalized by using graded insulators. If the
capacitance of the top insulator is 10 C and that of pin to earth is C, calculate the capacitance of
the other units.
If instead of graded insulators, a guard ring is used to equalize the potential, calculate the
capacitance of each link to conductor. Assume that the insulators used in the string are similar to
that of the topmost unit.
13. Calculate the insulation resistance for 5km length of a 1 core cable. Resistivity of insulation
(impregnated paper) is 5  1014 Ω cm, insulation thickness is 1 cm and radius of conductor is
1.25 cm.
(93.2 M Ω)
14. Find the overall diameter of a 1 core cable and its most economical core diameter when working
on a 220 kV, 3-phase system. The maximum permissible stress in dielectric is 250 kv/cm.
(d = 1.43 cm, D = 3.88).
15. Show that in a capacitance graded cable the position of different layers is decided by the product
ErG where Er is the relative permittivity of the dielectric and G the dielectric strength.
If the different dielectrics are worked at the same maximum stress, then show that Er1r = Er2r1
= Er3r2 (say, for 3 dielectrics).
16. Consider the following numerical values for Ex-3 and show that, for the same core and sheath
dimensions, the graded cable can be operated at a higher voltage.
r = 1 cm, R = 25 cms, Er1, Er2, Er3 = 5,4,3 and gmax = 40 kV/cm.
(V = 36.6 KV, 50.17 kV).
17. A single core lead sheathed cable is graded using two dielectrics of relative permittivity 3.6 and
2.5, the thickness of each being 1 cm. The core diameter is 1 cm and system voltage 66 kV, 3
phase.
Determine the maximum stresses in the two dielectrics.
(58.76 kV/cm, 28.22 kV/cm).
18. A conductor of a 1 cm dia passes centrally through a porcelain cylinder of internal diameter 2
cms and external dia 7 cms. The cylinder is surrounded by a tightly fitting metal seath. The
permittivity of porcelain is 5.
Determine the maximum safe operating voltage if the peak potential gradient in air is not to
exceed 34 kV/cm.
(11.34 kV)
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Mesra, Ranchi – 835 215

19. A 66 kV cable with two intersheaths has a core diameter of 1.8 cm dielectric material 3.5 mm
thick constitute the three zones of insulation. Determine the maximum stress in each of the three
layers if 20 kV is maintained across each of the inner two.
20. A single core cable has a conductor dia of 2.5 cm and a sheath of inside dia 6 cm. If the system
voltage is 66 kV, 3 phase, calculate it maximum stress. (49.17 kV/cm).
If is desired to reduce the maximum stress by using two interseaths. Determine their best
positions, the peak voltages on each and the maximum stress.
(d1 = 3.35 cm, d2 = 4.49 cm, V1 = 40.77 kV, V2 = 23.34 kV, gmax = 39.06 kV/cm)
21. Estimate the charging current drawn by a cable with three cores and protected by a metallic
sheath when switched on to 11 kV, 50 Hz supply. The capacitance between two cores with the
third one connected to the sheath is measured to be 3.7/µϝ.
(14.77 amps).
22. A 3 core 3 phase metal sheathed cable on testing gave the following results:
(a) Capacitance between all cores bunched and sheath = 0.60/µϝ.
(b) Capacitance between two cores bunched with sheath and third core = 0.36/µϝ.
Calculate the capacitance to neutral and charging current per phase taken by the cable when
connected to 11 kV, 3 phase, 50 Hz system.
(0.44/µϝ, 0.88 Amp).
23. A 33 kV, three-phase 50 Hz underground feeder 4.5 km long, uses three single core cables. Each
cable has a conductor diameter of 2.0 cm and the radial thickness of insulation is 0.8 cm. The
relative permittivity of dielectric is 2.9. Calculate (i) capacitance of the cable per phase, (ii)
charging current per phase, (iii) total charging kVAR, (iv) dielectric loss per phase if power
factor of the unloaded cable is 0.025, (v) maximum stress in the cable.