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1. Introduction: Theory of Communication, Types and modes of Communication

2. Language of Communication:
Verbal and Non-verbal
(Spoken and Written)
Personal, Social and Business
Barriers and Strategies
Intra-personal, Inter-personal and Group communication

3. Speaking Skills:
Group Discussion
Effective Communication/ Mis- Communication
Public Speech

4. Reading and Understanding

Close Reading
Summary Paraphrasing
Analysis and Interpretation
Translation(from Indian language to English and vice-versa) Literary/Knowledge

5. Writing Skills
Report Writing
Making notes
Letter writing

Unit 1. Theory of Communication (2Qs x 5 Marks = 10 Marks)
Unit 2. Language of Communication – Short Notes (5Qs x 2 Marks = 10 Marks)
Unit 3. Speaking Skills – 3 Sub-topic to be tested = 20 Marks
Unit 4. (i) Unseen Reading Comprehension – 10 Marks
(ii) Summary/ Simple theory question on translation/ translation 5 sentences from English to
MIL – 5 Marks
Unit 5. Writing Skills – Report writing + Letter writing – 20 Marks
10 Marks – Class Test + 10 Marks – Class Work + 5 Marks – Attendance


1.1 What is communication?

The word ‘communication’ has been derived from Latin words ‘communis’ and
‘communicare’. The meaning of the first word suggests to make common and
‘communicare’ means to share or sharing.
Definition 1: It is the ability to speak, write or to express our ideas, feelings: clearly and
Definition 2: It is the process of sending and receiving messages for the purpose of
understanding, knowing, informing and in the broadest sense, improving the relation with
the world.
Definition 3 (Robert Anderson): Communication is the interchange of thoughts, opinions
or information by speech, writing or signs.
 Communication can also be symbolic because it is not limited to words or
language. It can always be done by the help of gestures and symbols or facial
expressions. The symbols can be present with and without language. Our ability
to symbolize and express makes the process of communication possible.
 Communication is the process of expressing one’s ideas, thoughts, feelings,
expressions, emotions, language, knowledge etc. The process may involve
transaction, exchange, and sharing.
 Communication can also be understood as an exchange of meaning and
 Meaning is central to communication, and the transmission of meaning is the
central objective of communication.
 Communication begins with the sender sending out message cues, which are
perceived by the receiver who assigns meaning to them and responds to them as
per the need. Communication can be complete unless the message sent by the
sender is properly decoded at the receiver’s end and comprehended. Moreover,
communication can be considered effective only when the receiver’s response is
matching with the meaning the sender wanted to convey.

A model of the communication process would most commonly look like this:

Encoding Decoding
Sender/ Receiver/
the the
Encoder Decoder
message message


Tools of Communication:

There are various tools that helps in the process of communication.

i) Language: The main function of each and every language is to communicate.

Each language has various forms. It is one of the foremost and important tool of
communication. It is the most clear and comfortable tool to use. Each and every
individual uses this tools in the process of communication.

ii) Script: This is a group of symbols used to express the language in the written

iii) Drawing/Painting/Sculpture/Visual art: These use creativity to communicate in

an artistic manner. A small piece of art can convey thousands of sentences by its
form, size, colour combination, shades etc.

iv) Body: Our body is one of the most important tools of communication. Whether
we are using language or not it is always present in the process of
communication. Without body cues our communication may be confusing. Our
words must be supported by proper actions reflected by the body. They may be in
the form of gestures, postures, eye contact, spacing etc. Every action or non-
action is part of the body. This type of tool is otherwise known as body language.

v) Silence: In particular situations silence can also act as an important tool for
communication. There are many instances where either we don’t use
language/words or we are not in a position to use those. In such situations silence
has the power to convey the message effectively.

1.2 Types and Modes of Communication

Types of Communication Based on Purpose and Style:

Based on style and purpose, there are two main categories of communication:

1. Formal Communication
2. Informal Communication

1. Formal Communication
In formal communication, certain rules, conventions and principles are followed while
communicating message. Formal communication occurs in formal and official style. Usually
professional settings, corporate meetings, conferences undergoes in formal pattern. In formal
communication, use of slang and foul language is avoided and correct pronunciation is
required. Authority lines are needed to be followed in formal communication.

Formal communication is otherwise known as official communication. In case of formal

communication we use formal language. Formal communication is used for serious or official
purposes. E.g. Debate, discussions, lectures, interview, seminars, speech, Group work,
meetings, presentations, public speaking, press briefing etc. Most times it is bereft of personal
feelings and emotions. That’s why critics categorize formal communication as artificial
communication. In formal communication, the same topic communicated at different places,
to different persons under different situations and environment can vary. The status and
position of the persons involved in the process also changes the form of formal

2. Informal Communication
Informal communication is done using channels that are in contrast with formal
communication channels. It can be a casual conversation. It is established for societal
affiliations of members in an organization and face-to-face discussions. It happens among
friends and family. In informal communication use of slang words, foul language is not
restricted. Usually informal communication is done orally and using gestures. Informal
communication, unlike formal communication, doesn’t follow authority lines. In an
organization, it helps in finding out staff grievances as people express more when talking
informally. Informal communication helps in building relationships.
Informal communication includes all the communication that we do either in a professional
set up or in social set up without any serious purpose attached to it. E.g. casual greetings or
private conversations, chatting, gossiping etc... Informal communication is natural and free
flowing communication without any rules, restrictions and formality. It reflects personal
touch, humility and emotions.
One must understand that there is a hair line difference between formal and informal
communication. Language used in both types of communication depends on the kind of
relationship plus in what context the communication is taking place. The environment has a
definite role in deciding the degree of formality in the process of communication.
Types of communication based on the communication channels used are:

1. Verbal Communication
2. Nonverbal Communication

1. Verbal Communication:
Verbal communication refers to the form of communication in which message is transmitted
verbally; communication is done by word of mouth and/or a piece of writing. Verbal
communication is any communication that uses language.
Verbal Communication is further divided into:
i. Oral Communication
ii. Written Communication

1) Oral Communication: In oral communication, spoken words are used. It includes face-
to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice
over internet. In oral communication, communication is influence by pitch, volume, speed
and clarity of speaking.
Advantages of Oral communication:
 It brings quick feedback.
 In a face-to-face conversation, by reading facial expression and body language
one can guess whether he/she should trust what’s being said or not.
Disadvantage of oral communication:
 In face-to-face discussion, user is unable to deeply think about what he is
delivering, so this can be counted as a

2) Written Communication:

 In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate.

A written message may be printed or hand written.

 In written communication message can be transmitted via email, letter, report,

memo etc. Message, in written communication, is influenced by the
vocabulary & grammar used, writing style, precision and clarity of the
language used.

 Written Communication is the most common form of communication being

used in business. So, it is considered core among business skills.Memos,
reports, bulletins, job descriptions, employee manuals, and electronic mail are
the types of written communication used for internal communication.

 For communicating with external environment in writing, electronic mail,

Internet Web sites, letters, proposals, telegrams, faxes, postcards, contracts,
advertisements, brochures, and news releases are used.

Advantages of written communication:

 Messages can be edited and revised many time before they are actually sent.Written
communication provides a record for every message sent and can be saved for later
 A written message enables the receiver to fully understand it and send appropriate

Disadvantages of written communication includes:

 Unlike oral communication, written communication doesn’t bring instant feedback.
 It take more time in composing a written message as compared to word-of-mouth and
a number of people struggle with writing ability.

Broadly, Written Communication can be divided into two types as per the use:
i. Professional (communication with respect to official communication) and
ii. Personal.

As per the method, style, composition, length and use these are 5 different categories of
written communication.
i. Documentation: Applications, letters, circulars, memos, telegrams, forms,
questionnaires, manuals, tenders etc.
ii. ii) Books: Novels, stories, poems, articles, essays, puzzles, travelogues etc.
iii. Research: Samples, projects, inventory, bibliography, surveys, journals reports,
thesis, dissertations, hypothesis etc.
iv. Meeting: Agenda, minutes, MOU, agreement, contract etc.
v. Print media: News, magazines, journals etc.

2. Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication is the sending or receiving of wordless messages. We can
say that communication other than oral and written, such as gesture, body language,
posture, tone of voice or facial expressions, is called nonverbal communication. Nonverbal
communication is all about the body language of speaker.
Nonverbal communication helps receiver in interpreting the message received. Often,
nonverbal signals reflects the situation more accurately than verbal messages. Sometimes
nonverbal response contradicts verbal communication and hence affect the effectiveness
of message.

Nonverbal communication have the following three elements:

Speaker: clothing, hairstyle, neatness, use of cosmetics
Surrounding: room size, lighting, decorations, furnishings
Body Language
facial expressions, gestures, postures
Voice Tone, Volume, Speech rate
Types of nonverbal communication:

vi. Conscious: Winking of an eye, traffic police gestures etc.

vii. Subliminal: It affects our mind without our knowledge. Police uniform,
Modelling, Military attire etc.
viii. Voluntary or involuntary messages: Communicators are unaware of their body
cues. Scratching the back of your head while telling a lie.


The space around us communicates in its own way and contributes to communication. This
aspect of communication is called proxemics, that is, the role of space in communication or
space language. The distance between the sender and the receiver is the space that displays
the relationship shared by them. The four distinct spatial zones in proxemics theory are:

1. Public Space
12 to 25 feet, or range of eyesight. This is formal space. It is possible that there is no
kind of personal relationship between the sender and the receiver. Communaication
often happens through the use of microphone. For example, the Prime Minister or the
President addressing the nation.

2. Social Space
4 to 12 feet. In this zone, relationships are more formal and official. People are more
cautious in their movements. For example, an interview.

3. Personal Space
18 inches to 4 feet. This zone is personal, relaxed and casual, so spontaneous,
informal, and unplanned communication is possible. One communicates with friends,
peers, colleagues etc. in this zone.

4. Intimate Space
Extends to 18 inches. One communicates with members of the family, lovers, spouses
etc. in this zone. Most communication in this zone is informal. For example, a pat on
the back or a hug.

Or Time language. This is the study of the use of time to communicate. In the
professional world, time is a valuable resource. When we are late for an appointment,
people respond negatively. If we arrive early, we are considered over-eager.
Therefore, it is important to be punctual. Punctuality is a tool in time language.

Or Touch Language. This indicates communication through touch. It includes the
way we communicate by our physical contact or by touching the other person. It
varies in acceptability across cultures. For example, a pat on the back, kissing,
slapping, shaking hands with someone are ways of communicating.


Paralanguage is the way meaning is conveyed by how we say things while speaking.
It is a kind of non-verbal communication. It involves speed, volume, pitch, whether
the spoken word is loud or inaudible, high-pitched or husky, fast or slow, the accent
while speaking etc. Word stress is also an important element in paralanguage. The
meaning of a sentence changes according to which word you choose to stress. So, for
example, all of the following four sentences have different meanings, according to
which word is stressed:
1. Have you read the new book?
2. Have you read the new book?
3. Have you read the new book?
4. Have you read the new book?
5. Have you read the new book?


2.1 Verbal and Non-verbal communication (oral and written)

- See above in ‘Types and Modes’

2.2 Personal, Social and Business Communication

(a) Personal Communication

Personal communication is the exchange of message or ideas between two
individuals. It can be formal or informal, oral or written. Personal
communication is often distinguished from business communication since it
does not have the kind of organizational formality that business
communication does. Any conversation between two individuals, verbal or
non-verbal, that does not involve a formal organisational setting is called
personal communication.

(b) Social Communication

Social communication is the exchange of message or ideas between an
individual and a group of individuals or between two groups of individuals.
Social communication, like personal communication, can be formal or
informal, oral or written, or verbal or non-verbal. Any conversation occurring
in a social (rather than personal/private) setting is considered social

(c) Business Communication

Business Communication is generally a formal type of communication. It is
done by professionals with a specific purpose for a specific audience. It is
dictated by rules, formal structures, and convention. It follows specific

directions and protocols. Business communication also uses technical, formal

language. It is the process of transmitting information about and within the
organization. An example of business communication is an email to
employees with a list of items to be discussed at the next meeting.

2.3 Barriers and Strategies

(i) Barriers to Communication

The objective of any communication is to have people understand what we are trying
to convey. When we talk to others, we assume that others understand what we are
saying because we know what we are saying. But this is not always the case. Usually
people bring their own attitude, perception, emotions, and thoughts about the topic,
which creates barriers to delivering the right meaning.
Recognizing barriers to effective communication is a first step in improving communication
style. Following are some of the more common barriers to communication:

Encoding Barriers. The process of selecting and organizing symbols to represent a

message requires skill and knowledge. Obstacles listed below can interfere with an
effective message.

1. Lack of Sensitivity to Receiver. A breakdown in communication may result when a

message is not adapted to its receiver. Recognizing the receiver’s needs, status, knowledge
of the subject, and language skills assists the sender in preparing a successful message. If a
customer is angry, for example, an effective response may be just to listen to the person
vent for a while.

2. Lack of Basic Communication Skills. The receiver is less likely to understand the
message if the sender has trouble choosing the precise words needed and arranging those
words in a grammatically-correct sentence.

3. Insufficient Knowledge of the Subject. If the sender lacks specific information about
something, the receiver will likely receive an unclear or mixed message. Have you
shopped for an item such as a computer, and experienced how some salespeople can
explain complicated terms and ideas in a simple way? Others cannot.

4. Information Overload. If you receive a message with too much information, you may
tend to put up a barrier because the amount of information is coming so fast that you may
have difficulty comfortably interpreting that information. If you are selling an item with
twenty-five terrific features, pick two or three important features to emphasize instead of
overwhelming your receiver (ho-hum) with an information avalanche.

5. Emotional Interference. An emotional individual may not be able to communicate

well. If someone is angry, hostile, resentful, joyful, or fearful, that person may be too

preoccupied with emotions to receive the intended message. If you don’t like someone, for
example, you may have trouble “hearing” them.

Transmitting Barriers: Things that get in the way of message transmission are sometimes
called “noise.” Communication may be difficult because of noise and some of these

1. Physical Distractions. A bad cellular phone line or a noisy restaurant can destroy
communication. If an E-mail message or letter is not formatted properly, or if it contains
grammatical and spelling errors, the receiver may not be able to concentrate on the message
because the physical appearance of the letter or E-mail is sloppy and unprofessional.

2. Conflicting Messages. Messages that cause a conflict in perception for the receiver may
result in incomplete communication. For example, if a person constantly uses jargon or
slang to communicate with someone from another country who has never heard such
expressions, mixed messages are sure to result. Another example of conflicting messages
might be if a supervisor requests a report immediately without giving the report writer
enough time to gather the proper information. Does the report writer emphasize speed in
writing the report, or accuracy in gathering the data?

3. Channel Barriers. If the sender chooses an inappropriate channel of communication,

communication may cease. Detailed instructions presented over the telephone, for
example, may be frustrating for both communicators. If you are on a computer
technical support help line discussing a problem, it would be helpful for you to be
sitting in front of a computer, as opposed to taking notes from the support staff and
then returning to your computer station.

4. Long Communication Chain. The longer the communication chain, the greater the
chance for error. If a message is passed through too many receivers, the message
often becomes distorted. If a person starts a message at one end of a communication
chain of ten people, for example, the message that eventually returns is usually
liberally altered.

Decoding Barriers. The communication cycle may break down at the receiving end for
some of these reasons:

1. Lack of Interest. If a message reaches a reader who is not interested in the message, the
reader may read the message hurriedly or listen to the message arelessly. Miscommunication
may result in both cases.

2. Lack of Knowledge. If a receiver is unable to understand a message filled with technical

information, communication will break down. Unless a computer user knows something
about the Windows environment, for example, the user may have difficulty organizing files if
given technical instructions.

3. Lack of Communication Skills. Those who have weak reading and listening skills make
ineffective receivers. On the other hand, those who have a good professional vocabulary and
who concentrate on listening, have less trouble hearing and interpreting good
communication. Many people tune out who is talking and mentally rehearse what they are
going to say in return.

4. Emotional Distractions. If emotions interfere with the creation and transmission of a

message, they can also disrupt reception. If you receive a report from your supervisor
regarding proposed changes in work procedures and you do not particularly like your
supervisor, you may have trouble even reading the report objectively. You may read, not
objectively, but to find fault. You may misinterpret words and read negative impressions
between the lines. Consequently, you are likely to misunderstand part or all of the report.

5. Physical Distractions. If a receiver of a communication works in an area with bright

lights, glare on computer screens, loud noises, excessively hot or cold work spaces, or
physical ailments, that receiver will probably experience communication breakdowns on a
regular basis.

Responding Barriers—The communication cycle may be broken if feedback is


1. No Provision for Feedback. Since communication is a two-way process, the sender

must search for a means of getting a response from the receiver. If a team leader does not
permit any interruptions nor questions while discussing projects, he may find that team
members may not completely understand what they are to do. Face-to-face oral
communication is considered the best type of communication since feedback can be both
verbal and nonverbal. When two communicators are separated, care must be taken to ask for
meaningful feedback.

2. Inadequate Feedback. Delayed or judgmental feedback can interfere with good

communication. If your supervisor gives you instructions in long, compound-complex
sentences without giving you a chance to speak, you may pretend to understand the
instructions just so you can leave the stress of the conversation. Because you may have not
fully understood the intended instructions, your performance may suffer.

2.4 Strategies for effective Communication

It is essential to deal and cope with these communication barriers so as to ensure smooth and
effective communication. Following are a few ways to overcome the barriers to

1. Eliminating differences in perception: Understanding how one’s message can be

misunderstood because of the kind of language used, or tone, or style is the first step
towards preventing miscommunication. Realizing that perspectives differ might help
one to anticipate and avoid any difference in the interpretation of message.
2. Use of Simple Language: Use of simple and clear words should be emphasized. Use
of ambiguous words and jargon should be avoided.
3. Reduction and elimination of noise levels: Noise is the main communication barrier
which must be overcome on priority basis. It is essential to identify the source of
noise and then eliminate that source.
4. Active Listening: Listen attentively and carefully. There is a difference between
“listening” and “hearing”. Active listening means hearing with proper understanding
of the message that is heard. By asking questions the speaker can ensure whether
his/her message is understood or not by the receiver in the same terms as intended by
the speaker.
5. Emotional State: During communication one should make effective use of body
language. He/she should not show their emotions while communication as the
receiver might misinterpret the message being delivered. For example, if the conveyer
of the message is in a bad mood then the receiver might think that the information
being delivered is not good.
6. Avoid Information Overload: One should know how to prioritize their work. They
should not overload themselves with the work. They should spend quality time with
their subordinates and should listen to their problems and feedbacks actively.
7. Give Constructive Feedback: Avoid giving negative feedback. The contents of the
feedback might be negative, but it should be delivered constructively. Constructive
feedback will lead to effective communication between the superior and subordinate.
8. Proper Media Selection: One should properly select the medium of communication.
Simple messages should be conveyed orally, like: face to face interaction or meetings.
Use of written means of communication should be encouraged for delivering complex
messages. For significant messages reminders can be given by using written means of
communication such as Memos, Notices etc.
9. Flexibility in meeting the targets: For effective communication in an organization
the managers should ensure that the individuals are meeting their targets timely
without skipping the formal channels of communication. There should not be much
pressure on employees to meet their targets.

2.4 Intra-personal, Inter-personal, and Group Communication

(a) Intra-personal communication

Intrapersonal communication takes place within a single person, often for the purpose of
clarifying ideas or analyzing a situation. Other times, intrapersonal communication is
undertaken in order to reflect upon or appreciate something. Talking to oneself, thinking etc.
can be included in this. Internal discourse involves thinking, concentration and analysis.
Psychologists include both daydreaming and nocturnal dreaming in this category. Solo vocal

communication includes speaking aloud to oneself. This may be done to clarify thinking, to
rehearse a message intended for others, or simply to let off steam. Example: Talking to
yourself as you complain about your boss. Solo written communication deals with writing
not intended for others. Example: An entry in a diary or personal journal.

(b) Inter-personal Communication

Interpersonal communication involves a direct face-to-face relationship between the sender

and receiver of a message, who are in an interdependent relationship. Any communication/
conversation between two or more people falls under this category. Interpersonal
communication involves not only the words used but also the various elements of nonverbal
• Public communication involves a large group with a primarily one-way monologue style
generating only minimal feedback. Information sharing, entertainment and persuasion are
common purposes of public communication. Example: Lecture in university class.

(c) Group Communication

Group communication involves three or more persons, though communication scholars are
inconsistent as to the top end of the number scale. The smaller the number in the group, the
more closely this mode resembles interpersonal communication.
It can also refer to an organisational communication, which means communication within an
organisation, or communication between different organisations.

(d) Extrapersonal Communication

In extra-personal communication, human beings interact with non-human entities. An
example would be communicating with one’s pets. Similarly, any communication with
inanimate objects can be termed so.

(e) Mass Communication

Mass communication is a more public form of communication between an entity and a large
and diverse audience, mediated by some form of technology. This may be either real time or
on a taped-delay basis, or it may be rooted in the usually recent past. Examples: Radio and
television, newspapers and magazines.


3.1 Monologue
A monologue is a lengthy speech by a single person. It can be of various types:

(i) Soliloquy:

A soliloquy is an act of speaking one's thoughts aloud when by oneself or regardless of any
hearers, especially by a character in a play. In drama, a special form of monologue, where no
other person is present on stage beside the speaker, is called soliloquy.

(ii) Interior Monologue

Internal monologue, also known as inner voice, internal speech, or verbal stream of
consciousness is thinking in words. It also refers to the semi-constant internal monologue one
has with oneself at a conscious or semi-conscious level. It is the expression of a character's
thoughts, feelings, and impressions in a narrative.
An interior monologue may be either direct or indirect:
 direct, in which the author seems not to exist and the interior self of the character is given
directly, as though the reader were overhearing an articulation of the stream of thought and
feeling flowing through the character's mind;
 indirect, in which the author serves as selector, presenter, guide, and commentator.

(iii) Dramatic Monologue

A poetic form in which a single character, addressing a silent auditor at
a critical moment, reveals himself or herself and the dramatic situation. A dramatic
monologue is a long excerpt in a play, poem or story that reveals a character's thoughts and
feelings. When we read a story, sometimes we can see what a character is thinking, but it isn't
always so clear. When a writer allows a character to speak in a monologue, we get to see
inside a character's head and then we better understand what motivates that character.

3.2 Dialogue
Dialogue is (1) a verbal exchange between two or more people, or (2) a conversation reported
in a drama or narrative. While writing a dialogue it is important to pay heed to the difference
in voice and register of the participants.

3.3 Effective Communication/ Miscommunication

Miscommunication occurs when the message is not adequately sent or received in

communication. When the receiver is unable to transmit meaning to the sender, or the sender
is unable to decode the meaning, miscommunication results. Miscommunication often occurs
when communication meets one of the barriers described above.

Effective Communication is communication where meaning is adequately sent as well as

received. To prevent any barriers to communication, and thereby to have effective
communication, one should pay heed to the strategies for effective communication described
above. See unit 2.3


4.1 Summary and Paraphrasing

Writing information in your own words is a highly acceptable way to include the ideas of
other people in your writing. There are two ways you can do this: paraphrasing and
summarising. It is very important, however, to paraphrase and summarise correctly because
there is a fine balance between acceptable and unacceptable paraphrasing and summarising

To paraphrase is to rewrite something using different words without changing the original
meaning. This is what is usually meant by the phrase ‘in your own words’. The paraphrase
should be clearer and more easily understood than the original and is often about the same
length. Paraphrases are a good alternative to using direct quotations. For example:

ORIGINAL TEXT (45 words)

Traditionally, in oral and written discourses, the masculine pronoun
'he' was used as a pronoun to refer to a person whose gender was
unknown or irrelevant to the context. Recently, this usage has come
under criticism for supporting gender-based stereotypes and is
increasingly considered inappropriate (Smith, 2010, p. 24).


If the gender of a person was not known or was unimportant to the
meaning of oral or written texts, it was customary to use the masculine
form of 'he' when a pronoun was required; however, there has been
growing concern about this practice in modern usage because it
appears to privilege stereotypes based on gender (Smith, 2010, p. 24).

Summaries of material may be used to give an overview of the work of one or more authors,
so they are much shorter than the original text. Because they are very brief outlines of
arguments made, they are very useful when you want to indicate the support given for and/or
against some position you are taking in your argument. It is generally shorter than the original
text, as it is meant to convey information in a concise, capsuled manner. For example:

ORIGINAL TEXT (103 words)

“For most people, writing is an extremely difficult task if they are trying to grapple in
their language with new ideas and new ways of looking at them. Sitting down to write
can be an agonising experience, which doesn't necessarily get easier with the passage
of time and the accumulation of experience. For this reason you need to reflect upon
and analyse your own reactions to the task of writing. That is to say, the task will
become more manageable if you learn how to cope with your own particular ways
avoiding putting off the moment when you must put pen to paper” (Taylor 1989, p. 3).


Inexperienced and even skilled writers can feel a great deal of anguish when faced
with writing tasks; however, this response can be managed by recognising and coping
with personal avoidance strategies (Taylor, 1989, p. 3).

4.2 Translation:
Societies have learned that no one lives in isolation, neither individuals nor whole
communities. At one time or another, it becomes necessary to communicate with a neighbor
or to retrieve information from the distant past. In both cases, if the two parties do not share a
language, the process of translation must be undertaken.
A translator is a person trained in the art and science of understanding two or more
languages in relationship to each other, and skilled in the ability to interpret one language for
a person or audience that does not understand that language. A translator has both a native
language and at least one non-native language in which he or she is fully fluent (in reading,
writing and speaking) at virtually the same level as a native speaker would be. Translators
also may have additional languages with which they are familiar, often with a listening or
reading fluency that allows them to understand the language but not necessarily writing or
speaking fluency.
A good translator obviously is bilingual, preferably multilingual. This can lead to
what is called natural translation, which means that translation is done informally by people
without specialized training, merely as a by-product of their bilingual abilities.
But translation involves more than simply knowing another language. It also involves
understanding another people, another culture, another place and often another time; it also
requires specialized training. Merely being bilingual does not guarantee that a speaker will
have the skill to translate effectively between languages.
Additionally, a translator must know the field in which he or she is working. For
example, a translator of biological texts must understand the field of biology. Finally, a
translator must be an effective writer and have the sensitivity of a diplomat. Translators do
more than merely substitute words one for the other in two different languages. They also
major judgments about the people who produced the original message, called the source text
or source language.
Those message producers had their own assumptions, worldviews and presuppositions
and their own social and cultural relationships. Translators first must understand the world
and mindset of the creators of the source text. Then they create its equivalent in the second
language, called the target text (target language).
Translation generally refers to written communication, and translators are people who
translate written language. However, there is a similarity to the interpretation process that is
part of speech communication, though the two have different training for essentially different
skills. Here are some aspects of speech interpretation:
- In consecutive translation, the person requiring the interpreter participates in
the communication directly. The speaker says something and pauses, the

interpreter translates it into a different language, the respondent answers and

pauses, the interpreter translates this response for the original speaker, and so
- Simultaneous translation is used for persons who are primarily listeners
rather than speakers. An interpreter listens to a speaker who presents a
message without pauses. The interpreter then translates the message into a
second language while the speaker continues on.
- Sight translation is a specialized area in which a person reads a document in
one language and recites it aloud in another.

To summarise, translation can be defined as:

- A communication (written or spoken) in a second language having the same meaning as a
communication in the first language.
- The process of changing a text from one language to another.
- A copy made in one language what has been written or spoken in another.
- Producing in a target language the closest natural equivalent of the source language,
focusing first on meaning and secondly on style.

Essentially there are two styles/ types of translation:

1) Literal
2) Semantic/ Idiomatic

1) Literal translations see the preservation of the original words as the highest priority, even
at the expense of clarity and naturalness. This approach focuses on the form of the original
language, often presenting more of a transliteration of words than a translation of meaning.
Literal translations also are called word-for-word translations or more accurately, formal
equivalence translations. However, the meaning of language rests not simply with individual
words but rather in the relationship of words and phrases and in their cultural and historical
2) The word semantic has to do with meaning. A semantic translation would be one where
the translator tried to come as close as possible to the meaning conveyed by the words.
Semantic translation takes relationships, contexts and literary style into account. It refers to
the process of presenting the original thought in the source text both accurately and naturally
in the second language or target text. This is sometimes referred to as a free translation or a
thought-for-thought translation, because the purpose of the translator is to preserve the
original meaning, even at the expense of specific words and phrases. For example, the French
phrase ‘j’ai faim’ is literally rendered into English as ‘I have hunger’, but a better translation
would be ‘I am hungry’, adopting the grammar, syntax and structure of the target text.
Semantic translations also are called functional equivalence translations. Often, a semantic
translation can be more accurate and meaningful than a literal translation. So the skilled
translator will ask both the meaning in the original language and whether the translation
means the same thing.

A google (machine) translation of any language will not always provide the true
meaning of the phrase or sentence translated. A semantic translation would change word
order and maybe word choice so that the true meaning is conveyed.
Understand that a translation is not the same as a paraphrase, which is a deliberate
restatement of the meaning of something in different and often fewer words. However, a
translator may occasionally use a cultural substitute by presenting a word or phrase in the
second language that, while not exactly the same as in the original, carries to the second-
language audience essentially the same meaning as the original.

Problems in Translation :

The process of translating from one language to another is full of difficulties. Here are some
of the recurring issues that linguists have to deal with.

-Words and phrases often have meaning primarily within a particular culture, and one
difficulty in translation is to account for the cultural context of individual words. Related to
this is the idiosyncratic use of clichés and sayings.
-Related to this is the linguistic proximity of the source and target languages. It is relatively
easy to translate between closely related language, such as Spanish and Portuguese. It is
much more difficult to navigate the greater dissimilarities between more culturally and
linguistically remote language such as Chinese and German, or English and Arabic.
-Some languages feature a certain ambiguity, such as the deliberate elimination of subjects or
verbs that would translate as only sentence fragments into another language.
- Another issue in translation is the reading ability of the audience. A text intended for well-
educated readers in Language A might not be understandable to readers of only average
ability in Language B.
-Translation also creates a problem when a word in one language carries a different
connotation or extended meaning in another. Consider, for example, the word no. To an
American, “no” or “no, thank you” is a definitive and final statement. To an Arab, however,
“no” is seldom taken as a final decision but rather as part of social interplay. A Japanese
person, meanwhile, might say “I’ll consider it” when he means emphatically “no,” which in
the Japanese culture would be too impolite to express so directly.
-Another difficulty is the syntax, the flow of sentences and the order or patterns within
sentences. One language, for example, might feature short sentences that in another language
would be considered choppy. Others languages have unique word patterns. Arabic, for
example, generally follows a Verb-Subject-Object pattern, while English uses Subject-Verb-
Object. Japanese, meanwhile, uses Subject-Object-Verb.
-Finally, translation deals with the problem of neologisms, new words. Sometimes a word is
adopted into a language more-or-less intact. Coke is Coke the world over. A place to buy
food to eat is a restaurant in French and English, a restaurante in Spanish, a ristorante in
Italian, and a resutoran in Japanese. Japanese is comfortable in picking up a foreign word,
usually English, and pronouncing it phonetically with perhaps a Japanese twist, so Diet Pepsi
becomes something like di-et-oh peh-puh-shi; train tickets are called both kippu (the
traditional Japanese word) and ticketo (an obvious English import).

Translators generally make decisions on the appropriate approach to their work by analyzing
several factors: • The type of source text being translated and the subject matter (for example,
the difference between poetry and a maintenance manual). • The intended audience for the
target text, its level of linguistic awareness, and its presumed use for the text. • The
translator’s ability to understand both the source language and the target language, and the
culture of each.

-A representation of the characters in an alphabetic script with the characters of another
script, allowing the representation of the original writing in a second language.
-A systematic way of converting letters in one alphabet or phonetic system into another
-The letter-for-letter or sound-for-sound presentation of a word into another language.
-The substitution of one alphabetic system for another.

The process of adapting a message from one language to another, while maintaining its
intent, style, tone and theme. The phrase has historically been used by advertising and
marketing professionals looking to transfer the meaning of a message into a new language
without losing intended meaning.
The aim of a transcreated message is to successfully evoke the same emotions and contextual
relevance in the new language as the original or source language. This includes words,
graphics, video, audio, and cultural nuances.


There are four main types of writing: expository, persuasive, narrative, and descriptive.
 Expository – Writing in which author’s purpose is to inform or explain the subject to the
 Persuasive – Writing that states the opinion of the writer and attempts to influence the
 Narrative – Writing in which the author tells a story. The story could be fact or fiction.
 Descriptive – A type of expository writing that uses the five senses to paint a picture for
the reader. This writing incorporates imagery and specific details.


The word kinesics comes from the root word kinesis, which means “movement,” and refers to
the study of hand, arm, body, and face movements. Specifically, this section will outline the
use of gestures, head movements and posture, eye contact, and facial expressions as
nonverbal communication.

1. Gestures

There are three main types of gestures: adaptors, emblems, and illustrators.

Adaptors are touching behaviors and movements that indicate internal states typically
related to arousal or anxiety. Adaptors can be targeted toward the self, objects, or others. In
regular social situations, adaptors result from uneasiness, anxiety, or a general sense that we
are not in control of our surroundings. Many of us subconsciously click pens, shake our legs,
or engage in other adaptors during classes, meetings, or while waiting as a way to do
something with our excess energy. Common self-touching behaviors like scratching, twirling
hair, or fidgeting with fingers or hands are considered self-adaptors. Some self-adaptors
manifest internally, as coughs or throat-clearing sounds.

Emblems are gestures that have a specific agreed-on meaning. A hitchhiker’s raised
thumb, the “OK” sign with thumb and index finger connected in a circle with the other three
fingers sticking up, and the raised middle finger are all examples of emblems that have an
agreed-on meaning or meanings with a culture. Emblems can be still or in motion; for
example, circling the index finger around at the side of your head says “He or she is crazy,”
or rolling your hands over and over in front of you says “Move on.” Emblems are gestures
that have a specific meaning. In the United States, a thumbs-up can mean “I need a ride” or

Illustrators are the most common type of gesture and are used to illustrate the verbal
message they accompany. For example, you might use hand gestures to indicate the size or
shape of an object. Unlike emblems, illustrators do not typically have meaning on their own
and are used more subconsciously than emblems. These largely involuntary and seemingly
natural gestures flow from us as we speak but vary in terms of intensity and frequency based
on context. Although we are never explicitly taught how to use illustrative gestures, we do it
automatically. Think about how you still gesture when having an animated conversation on
the phone even though the other person can’t see you.

2. Head Movements and Posture

In terms of head movements, a head nod is a universal sign of acknowledgement in cultures

where the formal bow is no longer used as a greeting. In these cases, the head nod essentially
serves as an abbreviated bow. An innate and universal head movement is the headshake back
and forth to signal “no.” This nonverbal signal begins at birth, even before a baby has the
ability to know that it has a corresponding meaning. Babies shake their head from side to side

to reject their mother’s breast and later shake their head to reject attempts to spoon-feed. This
biologically based movement then sticks with us to be a recognizable signal for “no.”

There are four general human postures: standing, sitting, squatting, and lying down.
Most of our communication occurs while we are standing or sitting. One interesting standing
posture involves putting our hands on our hips and is a nonverbal cue that we use
subconsciously to make us look bigger and show assertiveness. When the elbows are pointed
out, this prevents others from getting past us as easily and is a sign of attempted dominance
or a gesture that says we’re ready for action. In terms of sitting, leaning back shows
informality and indifference, straddling a chair is a sign of dominance (but also some
insecurity because the person is protecting the vulnerable front part of his or her body), and
leaning forward shows interest and attentiveness.

3. Eye Contact

We also communicate through eye behaviors, primarily eye contact. While eye behaviors are
often studied under the category of kinesics, they have their own branch of nonverbal studies
called oculesics, which comes from the Latin word oculus, meaning “eye.”

The face and eyes are the main point of focus during communication, and along with our ears
our eyes take in most of the communicative information around us. Certain eye behaviors
have become tied to personality traits or emotional states, as illustrated in phrases like
“hungry eyes,” “evil eyes,” and “bedroom eyes.” Eye contact serves several communicative
functions ranging from regulating interaction to monitoring interaction, to conveying
information, to establishing interpersonal connections. In terms of regulating communication,
we use eye contact to signal to others that we are ready to speak or we use it to cue others to
speak. Aside from regulating conversations, eye contact is also used to monitor interaction by
taking in feedback and other nonverbal cues and to send information. A speaker can use his
or her eye contact to determine if an audience is engaged, confused, or bored and then adapt
his or her message accordingly. Our eyes also send information to others. People know not to
interrupt when we are in deep thought because we naturally look away from others when we
are processing information. Making eye contact with others also communicates that we are
paying attention and are interested in what another person is saying.

4. Facial Expressions

Our faces are the most expressive part of our bodies. Think of how photos are often intended
to capture a particular expression “in a flash” to preserve for later viewing. Even though a
photo is a snapshot in time, we can still interpret much meaning from a human face caught in
a moment of expression, and basic facial expressions are recognizable by humans all over the
world. Smiles are powerful communicative signals and, as you’ll recall, are a key immediacy
behavior. Although facial expressions are typically viewed as innate and several are
universally recognizable, they are not always connected to an emotional or internal biological
stimulus; they can actually serve a more social purpose.


Communication can be characterized as vertical, horizontal, or diagonal.

1. Vertical Communication: Vertical communication occurs between hierarchically

positioned persons and can involve both downward and upward communication flows.
Downward communication is more prevalent than upward communication. Larkin and Larkin
(1994) suggest that downward communication is most effective if top managers communicate
directly with immediate supervisors and immediate supervisors communicate with their staff.
A wealth of evidence shows that increasing the power of immediate supervisors increases
both satisfaction and performance among employees.

 Downward Communication: In downward communication, the information flows

from the superiors to the subordinates, in terms of instructions, advice, orders and so
 Upward Communication: In upward communication, the subordinates communicate
with the superiors in the form of reports, findings, explanation sought,
recommendations and so on.

2. Lateral/Horizontal Communication: Lateral communication involves communication

among persons who do not stand in hierarchical relation to one another. When the
administrative head of an institution communicates with the head of Finance of the same
institution, then it is an example of Horizontal or Lateral communication.

3. Diagonal Communication: Diagonal communication refers to communication between

managers and workers located in different functional divisions. Communication flows in all
directions and it cuts across organization’s hierarchy.

Seven C’s of Effective Communication:

There are 7 C’s of effective communication which are applicable to both written as well as
oral communication. These are as follows:

1. Completeness - The communication must be complete. It should convey all facts

required by the audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration the
receiver’s mind set and convey the message accordingly. A complete communication
has following features:
 Complete communication develops and enhances reputation of an
 Moreover, they are cost saving as no crucial information is missing and no
additional cost is incurred in conveying extra message if the communication is

 A complete communication always gives additional information wherever

required. It leaves no questions in the mind of receiver.
 Complete communication helps in better decision-making by the
audience/readers/receivers of message as they get all desired and crucial
 It persuades the audience.
2. Conciseness - Conciseness means wordiness, i.e, communicating what you want to
convey in least possible words without forgoing the other C’s of communication.
Conciseness is a necessity for effective communication. Concise communication has
following features:
 It is both time-saving as well as cost-saving.
 It underlines and highlights the main message as it avoids using excessive and
needless words.
 Concise communication provides short and essential message in limited words
to the audience.
 Concise message is more appealing and comprehensible to the audience.
 Concise message is non-repetitive in nature.
3. Consideration - Consideration implies “stepping into the shoes of others”. Effective
communication must take the audience into consideration, i.e, the audience’s view
points, background, mind-set, education level, etc. Make an attempt to envisage your
audience, their requirements, emotions as well as problems. Ensure that the self-
respect of the audience is maintained and their emotions are not at harm. Modify your
words in message to suit the audience’s needs while making your message complete.
Features of considerate communication are as follows:
 Emphasize on “you” approach.
 Empathize with the audience and exhibit interest in the audience. This will
stimulate a positive reaction from the audience.
 Show optimism towards your audience. Emphasize on “what is possible”
rather than “what is impossible”. Lay stress on positive words such as jovial,
committed, thanks, warm, healthy, help, etc.
4. Clarity - Clarity implies emphasizing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather
than trying to achieve too much at once. Clarity in communication has following
 It makes understanding easier.
 Complete clarity of thoughts and ideas enhances the meaning of message.
 Clear message makes use of exact, appropriate and concrete words.
5. Concreteness - Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather
than fuzzy and general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence. Concrete message
has following features:
 It is supported with specific facts and figures.
 It makes use of words that are clear and that build the reputation.
 Concrete messages are not misinterpreted.
6. Courtesy - Courtesy in message implies the message should show the sender’s
expression as well as should respect the receiver. The sender of the message should be

sincerely polite, judicious, reflective and enthusiastic. Courteous message has

following features:
 Courtesy implies taking into consideration both viewpoints as well as feelings
of the receiver of the message.
 Courteous message is positive and focused at the audience.
 It makes use of terms showing respect for the receiver of message.
 It is not at all biased.
7. Correctness - Correctness in communication implies that there are no grammatical
errors in communication. Correct communication has following features:
 The message is exact, correct and well-timed.
 If the communication is correct, it boosts up the confidence level.
 Correct message has greater impact on the audience/readers.
 It checks for the precision and accurateness of facts and figures used in the
 It makes use of appropriate and correct language in the message.

Awareness of these 7 C’s of communication makes you an effective communicator.


The formal patterns or networks in communication can be categorized into five divisions:

The wheel network, a two-level hierarchy, is the most structured and centralized of
the patterns because each member can communicate with only one other person.
For example, a superintendent of schools and those who are his immediate subordinates
(assistant superintendent for business, instruction, personnel, and assistant to the
superintendent), probably form a wheel network. The superintendent is A, and his assistant
superintendents are B, C, D, and E, respectively. The four subordinates send information to
the superintendent, and the superintendent sends that information back to them, usually in the
form of decisions. The chain network ranks next highest in centralization. Only two people
communicate with one another, and they in turn have only one person to whom they
communicate. Information is generally sent through such a network in relay fashion.


A typical chain network would be one in which a teacher (B) reports to the
department head (C), who in turn reports to the principal (A), who reports to the
superintendent (D). Another example is the grapevine through which information passes
throughout a school building or district between different departments and organizational


The Y network is similar to the chain except that two members fall outside the chain.
In the Y network, for example, members A and B can send information to C, but they can
receive information from no one. C and D can exchange information; E can receive
information from D but cannot send any information. For example, two assistant principals,
(A and B) report to the principal (C). The principal, in turn, reports to the assistant
superintendent (D), who reports to the superintendent (E).


The circle network, a three-level hierarchy, is very different from the wheel, chain,
and Y networks. It is symbolic of horizontal and decentralized communication. The circle
gives every member equal communication opportunities. Each member can communicate
with persons to their right and left. Members have identical restrictions, but the circle is a less
restricted condition than the wheel, chain, or Y networks. For example, the circle network has
more two-way channels open for problem solving (i.e., five) than the four channels of the
aforementioned networks. In the circle network, everyone becomes a decision maker.


The all-channel or star network is an extension of the circle network. By connecting

everyone in the circle network, the result is a star, or all-channel network. The star network
permits each member to communicate freely with all other persons. The star network has no
central position, and no communication restrictions are placed on any member. A committee
in which no member either formally or informally assumes a leadership position is a good
example of a star network.




Grapevine is an informal, unofficial and personal communication channel or system

that takes place within the organization as a result of rumor and gossip. It is a complex web
of oral information flow linking all the members of the organization.

Patterns or Types of Grapevine:

The grapevine does not have any definite pattern or direction, though it is largely horizontal
in nature. It can be effective horizontally, vertically and even diagonally. Prof. Keith Davis,
who has done some research work on the nature of grapevine, has classified it into four basic

 Single Strand Chain: The single strand chain involves the passing of information
through a line of persons to the ultimate recipient. In the figure, the person A tells B,
who tells C, who tells D, and so on, till the information has reached most of the persons
involved or concerned.

 Gossip Chain: In the gossip chain, one person seeks and tells the information to
everyone. This chain is just like the wheel where one person stays at the centre and the
information passes along the spokes of the wheel to others stationed on the rim. In the
following figure, A is at the center and passes the information to others staying on the
rim of the wheel.


 Probability Chain: The probability chain is a random process in which someone

transmits the information to others in accordance with the laws of probability and then
these others tell still others in a similar way. This chain may also be called random

process. The probability chain is shown below-

 Cluster Chain: In the cluster chain, a person tells the information to the selected
persons who may in turn relay (pass) the information to other selected persons. Most of
the information communication follows this chain. Cluster chain is shown in the
following figure-


According to H. Paul Grice, when people are involved in a dialogue, there has to be a
direction to the whole conversation. Respecting certain rules according to Grice will make
conversation more effective. He therefore proposed four maxims or rules of conversation:

1. The maxim of quantity, where one tries to be as informative as one possibly can, and
gives as much information as is needed, and no more.
2. The maxim of quality, where one tries to be truthful, and does not give information
that is false or that is not supported by evidence.
3. The maxim of relation, where one tries to be relevant, and says things that are
pertinent to the discussion.
4. The maxim of manner, when one tries to be as clear, as brief, and as orderly as one
can in what one says, and where one avoids obscurity and ambiguity.



 Both involve one person talking to a group of people. The people listening are sitting
down, facing the speaker, and passively listening. The person speaking is working
hard to say something to the listeners, and has probably worked hard to prepare her
thoughts and materials.
 The first difference is that we don’t see visuals in a speech. The speaker strives to
paint a picture in the mind of the audience, but he’s doing it with words, not with
images on a screen.
 The next difference is the degree of formality. Speeches are more formal than
presentations. They are about (or should be) about big ideas, values, and concerns.
 Presentations are more informal than speeches. We associate them with more
technical, mundane circumstances. They have their roots in education, the military,
and the practical trades, such as building and engineering. They tend to be about facts
and figures.
 Speeches are given to larger crowds, and therefore must to appeal to the
emotions. The larger the crowd, the less complex the material should be.
 Presentations are generally given to smaller groups, and therefore can be more detail-
oriented. The smaller group should always be given a chance to discuss the material,
ask questions, and engage with the speaker. This is not possible when thousands are
listening to a speech.
 Speeches require broad vision, whereas presentations often require a deep, narrow
 Speeches can be made to persuade or entertain, but not to inform. Presentations can
do all three — inform, persuade, and entertain. Occasionally, someone gives a
presentation that accomplishes all those goals simultaneously.


Narrative: Narrative writing tells a story. Though it’s most commonly used when in personal
essays, this type of writing can also be used for fictional stories, plays or even a plot
summary of a story your child has read or intends to write. This is likely the most frequently
used of the four most common types of writing. Narrative writing is frequently, but not
always, in the first person, and is organized sequentially, with a beginning, middle and end.

Descriptive: Descriptive writing is used to create a vivid picture of an idea, place or person.
It is much like painting with words. It focuses on one subject and uses specific detail to
describe that upon which your child is focused. For example, if you are asked to write about
his favourite ride at an amusement park, this type of writing will not only tell the name of the
ride and what it looks like but also describe the sensation of being on it and what that
experience reminds you of using figurative and metaphorical language. Descriptive writing is
used in descriptions of fictional and non-fictional characters, poetry parts of book reports, and
various kinds of observational writing.

Expository: Expository writing is to-the-point and factual. This category of writing includes
definitions, instructions, directions and other basic comparisons and clarifications. Expository
writing is devoid of descriptive detail and opinion. Expository writing is crucial for students
to get comfortable with since it will be needed in many potential careers that aren't primarily

Persuasive: Persuasive writing is a more sophisticated type of writing to which your child
will be introduced around fourth grade. It can be thought of as a debate in writing. The idea is
to express an opinion or to take a stance about something and then to support that opinion in a
way that convinces the reader to see it the same way. Persuasive writing contains an
explanation of the other point of view and uses facts and/or statistics to disprove that view
and support the writer's position. Some examples of persuasive writing include essays, debate
position papers, editorial pieces such as letters to the editor and book or concert reviews.

Resume is a French word meaning "summary". A resume is ideally a summary of one's
education, skills and employment when applying for a new job. A resume does not list out all
details of a profile, but only some specific skills customized to the target job profile. It thus,
is usually 1 or at the max 2 pages long. A resume is usually written in the third person to give
it an objective and formal tone.
Structure: A good resume would start with a Brief Profile of the candidate, Summary of
Qualifications, followed by Industry Expertise and then Professional Experience in reverse
chronological order. Focus is on the most recent experiences (with responsibilities and
accomplishments), and previous experiences are only presented as a summary. This would be
followed by Education details and/or Professional Affiliations and/or Voluntary Initiatives.


Curriculum Vitae is a Latin word meaning "course of life". It is more detailed than a resume,
generally 2 to 3 pages, or even longer as per the requirement. A C.V. lists out every skill, all
the jobs and positions held, degrees, professional affiliations the applicant has acquired, and
in chronological order. A C.V. is used to highlight the general talent of the candidate rather
than specific skills for a specific position.

Bio Data is the short form for Biographical Data and is an archaic terminology for Resume or
C.V. In a bio data, the focus is on personal particulars like date of birth, gender, religion,
race, nationality, residence, marital status, and the like. A chronological listing of education
and experience comes after that.


A report is a formal, structured piece of writing that usually presents the findings of some
research, an enquiry, or an information gathering process.

Reports are often thought of as being mainly scientific and technical, but they can be
produced in any subject area, for example, to give the results of a survey in the social
sciences, or to describe a review of the literature in an arts topic.

Think of it like this:

"This is what I did, and this is what I found"

How to structure a report:

As general guidance, reports are usually arranged in sections, each with a clear heading. A
simple report is likely to include at least the following:

 Introduction, including aims and objectives

 Methodology (Methods applied)
 Findings/results
 Discussion
 Conclusions and recommendations
 References