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Saint Jerome Integrated School of Cabuyao, Inc.





ALMONTE, Patricia Mikaela S.

CUERDO, Karl Freiderich F.
INGUA, Sheenah Kaye Josh T.
SALIGAN, Aleena Cornell L.
SEGUERRA, Jon Andrew M.

Ms. Jannela Marie P. Cornista




This chapter begins by introducing the broad overall topic and providing basic background

information. It provides the purpose and focus of the paper and sets up the justification for the



Good teaching is a very personal manner. Effective teaching is concerned with the student

as a person and with his general development. The teacher must recognize individual differences

among his or her students and adjust instructions that best suit to the learners. When students are

motivated, then learning will easily take place. It requires a variety of teaching styles or techniques

just to capture students’ interests. Above all, the teacher must have an adequate knowledge in

teaching skills and how to keep students interested. Some students seem naturally enthusiastic

about learning but may need or expect their instructors or teachers to inspire, challenge, or

stimulate them.

Facilitators promote self-learning and help students develop critical thinking skills and

retain knowledge that leads to self-actualization. Different teaching strategies train students to

develop skills to find answers and solutions; it is ideal for teaching science and similar subjects

(Gill, E., 2013). Some common teaching strategies include visualization by means of visual and

practical experiences and cooperative learning which encourage students to work together by

means of small group or whole class activities. Solving mathematical puzzles and conducting

experiments are also part of strategies (Sarah, 2018).

Student interest and motivation in STEM subjects has dropped significantly throughout

secondary education, for which student-student interactions are named as a central reason. It

investigated whether a teacher’s professional development improved students’ learning motivation

and interest development over the course of a school year (Kiemer, Katharina, et al., 2015).

The chief responsibility of schooling is to encourage students’ intellectual and personal

development, other than to certify or to pick the best and brightest. Learning is a developmental

process rather than only a question of acquisition (Tian, T., 2017).

The objective of this study is to improve students’ learning abilities by means of different

teaching strategies practiced in Mathematics and Science to make these subjects more useful in

the future. It is also to evaluate effectiveness of teaching methods and tools by teachers by how

students view it.

The purpose of this study is to identify perceptions of Grade 11 STEM students to different

teaching strategies, whether these would bring effectiveness to students. The form of this study is

research in the humanities which involves human experiences and perceptions. It will be conducted

in Saint Jerome Integrated School of Cabuyao for a more convenient data gathering and to save

time while doing the study. It is also wherein both teachers and students can be interviewed and

provide data easily.

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this basic interpretative study is to identify the perceptions of Grade 11

STEM students on the different teaching strategies in Math and Science at Saint Jerome Integrated
School of Cabuyao. At this stage in the research, the teaching strategies will be generally defined

as principles and methods used by teachers to enable students’ learning.

Specific Problems

Central Question:

How do students view their teachers’ teaching strategies in Mathematics and Science?


 What are the teaching strategies used by the teachers?

 How do the teaching strategies of the teachers affect the learning environment?

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The study will assess the perceptions of the selected Grade 11-STEM students about the

teaching strategies being applied in Mathematics and Science in Saint Jerome Integrated School

of Cabuyao.

The students’ perceptions will be based on what they perceive about the strategies being

used in the school. Some of the indicators would be their teachers and the instructional materials

and equipment that are used when teaching.

A survey questionnaire and an interview will serve as the main instrument of the study.

These will be used to gather information and to verify answers from the students.
Significance of the Study

The findings of the study may provide deeper insights on how teaching can be more

effective among students. The study determined the significant role of teaching strategies on the

performance of the students in the Subjects Mathematics and Science.

To the students, the results may serve as an inspiration for them to continuously improve

their skills with those strategies. It will be a major help for success especially in the upcoming

years. It will inspire them to do better in academics, especially for the development of their


To the teachers, the results may serve as an eye opener for those who needs improvement

in their skills and knowledge. The findings of this study may encourage students to participate in

a discussion by applying appropriate strategies. Learning new ways of teaching can be a great help

in students.

To the future researchers, this research can be a source of another study. It can be in

another locale or setting. The results will be a possible research study for their own study.

Validation of the study is recommended for them to sustain the results of this research.


The Chapter II: Theoretical Framework aims to provide the basis of the research. The main

variables are being discussed.

The Theoretical Framework consists of Relevant Theories, Review of Related Literature,

Review of Related Studies, Conceptual Framework/Research Paradigm, and Definition of Terms.

Relevant Theories

Several theories have been proposed to better understand the students’ perception towards

different teaching strategies being used in Mathematics and Science.

“Attribution Theory” by Bernard Weiner suggests that individuals behave according to

their perception and understandings. Students’ attributions of their educational experiences

influence their academic performance.

A certain teaching strategy can help a student focus more in studying. An educator is also

in charge of their different behaviors and how to control them. When a student has a great interest

in listening to a discussion, particularly in Math and Science, the strategy being taught is effective.

The student will be able to learn more.

In B.F. Skinner’s theory about Behaviorism, knowledge exists independently and outside

of people. They view the learner as a blank slate who must be provided the experience.

Behaviorists believe that learning actually occurs when new behaviors or changes in behaviors are
acquired through associations between stimuli and responses. Thus, association leads to a change

in behavior. Consequences that reinforce the desired behavior are arranged to follow the desired

behavior (e.g. study for a test and get a good grade). The new behavioral pattern can be repeated

so it becomes automatic. The change in behavior of the learner signifies that learning has occurred.

Teachers use Behaviorism when they reward or punish student behaviors.

When a teacher has a good relationship with students, it will result to a pleasant atmosphere

especially when he/she is teaching inside the room. A good interaction or association leads to a

good behavior in students.

Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Learning Theory states that learning occurs through internal

processing of information. The cognitive approach to learning theory pays more attention to what

goes on inside the learner’s head and focuses on mental processes rather than observable behavior.

Changes in behavior are observed and used as indicators as to what is happening inside the

learner’s mind.

Learning involves the reorganization of experiences, either by attaining new insights or

changing old ones. Thus, learning is a change in knowledge which is stored in memory, and not

just a change in behavior.

The way students remember and are knowledgeable about what is taught in a certain lesson

reflects on how a teacher’s certain strategy is effective for them.

Review of Related Literature

The purpose of this literature review is to describe the perceptions of Grade 11 STEM

students about different teaching strategies applied in Mathematics and Science. They are the

chosen respondents because they are in the STEM strand. This will be conducted in Saint Jerome

Integrated School of Cabuyao to save up time and energy and to be more convenient when it comes

to gathering data. It could be how they will view these techniques. This study includes existing

literature relative to the students’ perceptions in strategies used by teachers. It further serves to

improve one’s abilities or strengths in relation to how a teacher interacts to his or her student.

According to Stronge, J.H. (2018), teachers have a powerful, long-lasting influence on their

students. They directly affect how students learn, what they learn, and how much they learn, and

the ways in which they interact with one another and the world around them. It is important to

understand to understand what teachers should do to promote positive results in the lives of student

- with regard to school achievement, positive attitude towards school, interest in learning, and other

desirable outcomes.

An effective teaching is beneficial to students’ learning. It improves their critical rhinking

skills and enhances their mental ability. It is the result of effective strategies usd by teachers.

Fully prepared teachers with background knowledge about a topic they are teaching are

better able to recognize individual student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2016). Prepared

teachers have a better understanding of what and how to teach because they understand how

students learn.

For instance, research finds that students taught by highly effective teachers are more likely

to attend college, live in better neighborhoods, and save more for retirement (Chetty, Friedman,
and Rockoff, 2014). Teaching strategies that are employed in Mathematics and Science subject in

Senior High School will have a positive impact towards student learning.

According to Muijs et al. (2014), specific characteristics and ways on how to teach students

matter in teaching. Students will engage more positively in the class if a certain strategy is effective

for them.

Students with high abilities can also be at risk of school failure. Likewise, students at risk

of school failure can also possess exceptional abilities. Teachers of students must take into account

the unique needs and characteristics of their students (Va-Tassel Baska & Hubbard, 2016).

At-risk students present pressing instructional and behavioral problems for teachers but are

in most need of quality instruction to be successful learners and rise above their situation (Sagor

& Cox, 2013).

However, if a teacher is less experienced, less prepared, and less qualified to teach, it will

result to a poor performance of students. Students will less participate in teaching if a strategy is

not effective for them.

Stronge, J.H. (2018) also mentioned that at-risk students never have effective, dedicated,

and well-qualified teachers. Beacons of light do shine in the form of teachers who help students

achieve academically and who tap into children’s curiosity and motivation to learn. These beacons

of light persist under difficult circumstances, providing stability for students for whom school may

be the most stable part of their lives (Qualities of effective Teachers, 2018, p. 8).

Siegle, Rubenstein, and Mitchell (2014) state that effective teachers encourage students’

growth and self-efficacy, as they make the content meaningful and challenging for their students,
and as they shape students’ perception of support in their environment by building positive

relationships and being knowledgeable about the content.

Unfortunately, according to Little (2012), access to highly effective teachers in programs

that serve high-ability students is inconsistent at best. Students, parents, teachers, and various

researchers report that school experiences for gifted learners frequently do not provide sufficient

challenge to promote learning. This inconsistency leads to some students excelling while some fail

to develop their potentials.

Even though there are cases wherein a teaching strategy is not applicable to some students,

both the teacher and students require understanding in one another. Teaching strategies must be

enhanced for them to be able to fit to different characteristics of students.

As cited by Morris-Rothschild & Brassard (2006); Shin & Myung-Sook, (2007), studies

shows that there is a relationship between teachers’ behavior management practices and teacher-

student interactions. The attitudes and beliefs of the teachers becomes the focus of these studies

and considers the classroom environment and the interactions between teachers and students.

Similarly, in weighing the effect of teacher-student interactions, the value must be placed on

students’ perceptions of these interactions. It is the students’ own perception of the interactions

that affects student outcomes such as motivation and achievement (Ryan and Patrick, 2001).

Brok, et al. (2005) state that, “It can be assumed that learning and motivation are

determined to a large degree by the students’ perceptions”. The interaction between the lecturer

and the student is a factor on the satisfaction of a student in the education provided by the school.
Review of Related Studies

As cited in the journal entitled “The Determinants of Students’ Perceived Learning

Outcomes and Satisfaction in University Online Education: An Empirical Investigation” by Eom,

Sean, H Joseph, & Wen,Nicholas Ashill (2006), the relationship of this study to the current study

is the satisfaction of students on their lectures in their school which is one of the necessity of this

study for the lecturers are the foundation of students’ learning.

Based on Stronge’s (2018) “Qualities of Effective Teachers”, students with abilities in

some area need access to a teacher who recognizes the students’ unique abilities and works with

these students in enhancing their talents in multitude ways. It is important that a student’s ability

must be improved and one way to do this is by using a teaching strategy.

Some widely accepted learning models are objectivism, constructivism, collaborativism,

cognitive information processing, and socio-culturalism (Leidner & Jarvenpaa, 1995). Traditional

face-to-face classes using primarily the lecture method, use the objectivist model of learning whose

goal is transfer of knowledge from instructor to students.

According to Lazarides, R. and Watt, HMG (2015) in their journal “Contemporary

Educational Psychology”, the relationship of students and math classrooms are being examined.

Teacher beliefs, class environments and expectancies/values impact math career plans. Classroom

goals functioned differently at student- and class-levels.

In the journal “Nurse Education Today”, creative teaching methods promote meaningful

learning, student engagement, and peer interaction. Creative teaching methods improve problem

solving and reflective skills. Non-traditional ways of learning are viewed as more motivating and
inspiring. The facilitator encouraged students to feel empowered/confident in forming new ideas

(Rankin, J. & Brown, V., 2016).

The poor teaching strategy is reflected in the less improvement of Senior High students.

Some students who finish education do not possess mastery of basic competencies due to the lack

of cooperation. The level of satisfaction of the students with regards to participating in a discussion

will be greatly affected by the learnings they get from the way their teachers teach.
Research Paradigm


Central Question:
1. How do students
view their teachers’
teaching strategies
in Mathematics and

Sub-Questions:  Semi- 1. Identification of

structured effective teaching

1. What are the strategies
teaching strategies
 Semi- 2. Positive outcomes
used by the
structured in the learning
interviews environment
2. How do the
teaching strategies
of the teachers
affect the learning


Figure 1. The Paradigm of the Study

The researchers will gather information regarding the perceptions of Grade 11-STEM

students regarding different teaching strategies used in Mathematics and Science in Saint Jerome

Integrated School of Cabuyao for the School Year 2018-2019 through questionnaires and an

interview. The researchers will analyze the necessary data gathered to come up with the

preparations of the needed data. In this research paradigm, Input-Process-Output (IPO) Model is


Figure 1 shows the paradigm of the study. The Input of the study includes variables that cause

the problem, phenomenon, or transformation within the study. It also includes the central question

of the study: How do students view their teachers’ teaching strategies in Mathematics and

Science? and sub-questions: 1. What are the teaching strategies used by the teachers? 2. How do

the teaching strategies of the teachers affect the learning environment?

The approach that the researchers will use to gather the important data needed in the study is

by providing a semi-structured questionnaire and interview to the selected Grade 11-STEM


The outcome is that researchers will be able to provide answers for the central and sub-

questions of the study. They will also provide concrete evidences to support the result of this study

through the conducted survey and interview. In this part, the researchers are expected to gather all

the data needed in the study.



This chapter identifies the research design used in the study, the participants, and the

instruments of the study. This section of the research study explains the certain method. This

includes the description of any concept and the researchers’ rationale.

Research Design

The researcher decided to use a qualitative research design. It focuses on gaining insights on

and an understanding of an individual’s perception of events. The type of qualitative research

design that is chosen by researchers is basic interpretative qualitative research. This design

identifies how individuals give meaning to a situation through descriptions provided by subjects

or respondents on how they perceive different teaching strategies used in Math and Science. The

goal is to describe the meaning that experiences hold for each subject.

This type of design is selected because it focuses on the descriptions of the participants’

perceptions about different teaching strategies practiced in subjects of Mathematics and Science.

Cristobal (2017) stated that the goal of this study is to describe, and not to generalize a population.

Participants and Locale of the Study

The school that is used in the study is in Saint Jerome Integrated School of Cabuyao to save

time and to be more convenient. The participants in the study are selected Grade 11-STEM
students. The researchers will choose 10 students as the desired sample size with the use of quota

sampling. Using this sampling, criteria is not needed for choosing participants. Students who are

approached by the researcher would then be asked to participate in the survey.

Instruments of the Study

The researchers will use semi-structured questionnaires and interviews for the participants.

Follow up questions are possible in case of further explanations. Through this process, the

researchers can gather additional data from a respondent that may add depth and significance to

the findings. This will be validated by the research adviser.


The type of validity that will be used is a content validity. It is determined by studying and

analyzing the questions to see if the necessary information is stated. It is any information that

enables one to know if the results correspond to what the researcher expects. This will be validated

by the research adviser.

Ethical Considerations

Creswell (2009) argued that ethical considerations must be an integral aspect of any study.

These codes and policies were observed when conducting the research. Saunders et al. (2009) add

that gaining permission and consent to collect data is a very important aspect of any study. All data

collection instruments were therefore made to contain informed consent form. Personal
information of respondents will remain confidential. Their personal data will not be collected.

Participants will remain anonymous throughout the study. Their names will not be placed in the

gathered data. The interview is not forced. It also allows participants to volunteer or willingly

participate when the researchers ask them for answering questionnaires. The research will remain

objective. The data that will be gathered will be based on facts.

Research Questionnaires:

1. How do you identify teaching strategies?

2. What are your insights about teaching strategies that are used in Math and Science?

3. According to you, what is an effective teaching strategy to use?

4. What is your basis in terms of effective teaching strategies of your teachers?