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SALT ANALYSIS

SCHEME OF ANALYSIS
EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE
PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS :

1) Noted the colour Colourless Absence of


Cu2+,Fe2+,Fe3+,Mn2+,Co2+,Ni2+
Blue Pre. of Cu2+
Brown Pre. of Fe3+
Green Pre. of Ni2+
Pale pink Pre. of Mn2+
Pink Pre. of Co2+
2) Noted the solubility
a) In water a) Soluble and no a) Pre. of NH4+
b) In dil.HCl ppt with Na2CO3
b) Insoluble b) Pre. of Pb2+
3) Flame Test : a) Blue surrounded a) Pre. of Cu2+
A little of the salt is made into by green
paste with conc.HCl. A glass rod b) Brick red b) Pre. of Ca2+
is dipped in it and introduced c) Crimson red c) Pre. of Sr2+
into the flame. d) Bluish white d) Pre. of Pb2+
e) Grassy green on e) Pre. of Ba2+
prolonged
heating
4) Ash Test : a) Green ash a) Pre. of Zn2+
A little of the salt is heated with b) Blue tinted ash b) Pre. of Al3+
con.HNO3 and cobalt nitrate c) Pale pink ash c) Pre. of Mg2+
solution. A filter paper is
dipped in it and burnt.

SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF ANIONS :

1) Dil.H2SO4 test : a) Evolution of a) Pre. of carbonates


To the salt add dil.H2SO4, warm Colourless,
if required. odourless gas
with brisk
effervescence,
turns limewater
milky.
b) Smell of vinegar b) Pre. of acetate
2) Conc.H2SO4 test : a) Colourless gas a) Pre. of Cl-1
Treat a small quantity of the with pungent
salt with Conc.H2SO4, warm if smell, give dense
necessary. white fumes
when a glass rod
dipped in NH4OH
is shown.
b) Brown gas with b) Pre. of Br-1
pungent smell
c) Violet vapours c) Pre. of I -1
with pungent
smell
d) Light brown gas d) Pre. of NO 3-1
with pungent
smell on strong
heating.
e) Smell of vinegar e) Pre. of CH3COO-1
3) Paper ball test : Brown fumes Pre. of NO 3-1
Heat a little of the salt with
Conc.H2SO4 and introduce a
paper ball to it.
4) Test for sulphates : White ppt insoluble in Pre. of sulphate
Heat a little of the salt solution Conc.HCl
with dil.HCl and add BaCl2
solution.
5) Test for phosphates : Yellow ppt Pre. of phosphate
Add Conc.HNO 3 to the salt
solution and boil. Add exess of
ammonium molybdate solution
and boil again.

CONFIRMATORY TEST FOR ANIONS :

1) Carbonates : White ppt Pre. of carbonates confirmed


Magnesium sulphate test :
To the salt solution add MgSO 4
solution.
2) Chlorides :
a) MnO2 test : a) Greenish yellow Pre. of chloride confirmed
Heat a small quantity of salt gas with pungent
with Conc.H2SO4 and MnO2 smell

.
b) Chromyl chloride test : b) Reddish brown
Salt is heated with vapours
conc.sulphuric acid and
pot.dichromate.
The vapours are collected Yellow solution
and passed through NaOH Pre. of chloride confirmed
solution.
Add lead acetate solution to Yellow ppt
this.
c) Silver nitrate test : c) White curdy ppt Pre. of chloride confirmed
Acidify the salt solution with soluble in excess
dil.nitric acid and add silver of NH4OH
nitrate solution.
3) Acetates :
a) Oxalic acid test :
Make a paste of the salt a) Smell of vinegar Pre. of acetate
with oxalic acid. Rub the
paste and smell.
b) Ester test :
To the salt add conc.H2SO4 b) Pleasant fruity Pre. of acetate confirmed
and heat. Add alcohol. smell
Shake. Pour the contents
into a beaker containing
water.
c) Ferric chloride test :
To the salt solution add c) Reddish coloured
neutral ferric chloride ppt
solution. Filter. Divide the
filtrate into two portions : Pre. of acetate confirmed
I. To one add dil.HCl. I. Reddish colour
II. To the second, add disappears
water and boil II. Reddish ppt
4) Sulphate :
a) To the salt solution add White ppt insoluble in Pre. of sulphate confirmed
dil.HCl and barium chloride HCl
solution.
b) To the salt solution add White ppt soluble in hot Pre. of sulphate confirmed
acetic acid and lead acetate ammonium acetate
solution.
5) Phosphate :
a) Ammonium molybdate test : a) Yellow ppt Pre. of phosphate
To salt solution add
conc.HNO3 and boil. Add
ammonium molybdate and
heat again.
b) Magnesia mixture test : b) White ppt Pre. of phosphate confirmed.
To the salt solution add
magnesia mixture and allow
to stand.
6) Bromide :
a) To salt add conc.H2SO4 and a) Dense brown Pre. of bromide confirmed
MnO2 fumes
b) To salt add dil.HCl and AgCl b) Pale yellow ppt Pre. of bromide confirmed
partially soluble
inNH4OH
7) Nitrate :
a) To a little salt add a) Brown vapours Pre. of nitrate confirmed
conc.H2SO4 and add cu and green
turnings and heat. solution
b) To salt solution add fresh b) Brown ring at the Pre. of nitrate confirmed
FeSO4 and cool. Add junction between
conc.H2SO4 two layer.
ANALYSIS OF CATIONS:

1) To the salt solution add sodium No ppt Pre. of zero group


carbonate solution (Ammonium)
2) To the solution add dil. HCl White ppt Pre. of group 1
(Pb2+)
3) To the solution add dil. HCl and Black ppt Pre. of group 2
pass H2S (Cu2+)
4) To the solution add solid White gelatinous ppt Pre. of group 3
ammonium chloride and excess (Al3+)
of ammonium hydroxide
5) To the solution add solid White ppt Pre. of group 4
ammonium chloride and excess (Zn2+)
of ammonium hydroxide. Pass
H2S
6) To the solution add solid White ppt Pre. of group 5
ammonium chloride and excess (Ba2+,Sr2+,Ca2+)
of ammonium hydroxide. Add
ammonium carbonate solution
7) To the solution add solid White ppt Pre. of group 6
ammonium chloride and excess (Mg2+)
of ammonium hydroxide. Add
sodium hydrogen phosphate
ANALYSIS OF GROUP 0(AMMONIUM)

1) To the salt solution add NaOH Smell of ammonia. Pre. of ammonium confirmed
solution. Warm Gives white dense
fumes when a glass rod
dipped in HCl is
introduced.
2) To the salt solution add NaOH Brown ppt Pre. of ammonium confirmed
solution. Warm. Add Nesslers
reagent
ANALYSIS OF GROUP 1(LEAD)

1) Potassium iodide test : Yellow ppt Pre. of lead confirmed


To the salt solution add KI
solution

2) Potassium chromate Yellow ppt Pre. of lead confirmed


test :
To the salt solution add
k2CrO4 solution
ANALYSIS OF GROUP 2(Copper)

1) To the salt solution add few Chocolate coloured Pre. of Cu2+ confirmed
drops of potassium precipitate
ferrocyanide solution and
acetic acid.
2) To the salt solution add acetic White ppt Pre. of Cu2+ confirmed
acid and potassium iodide
solution.
3) To the salt solution add NH4OH Deep blue colour Pre. of Cu2+ confirmed
solution.
ANALYSIS OF GROUP 3(Aluminium)

1) The white ppt obtained is Blue ppt floating in Pre. of aluminium confirmed
dissolved in dil.HCl colourless solution
Add 2 drops of blue litmus
solution. Then add ammonium
hydroxide dropwise till blue
colour develops.
2) Add excess of NaOH to the salt White ppt soluble in Pre. of aluminium confirmed
solution excess of NaOH
3) Ash test is conducted with the Blue ash Pre. of aluminium confirmed
group ppt
ANALYSIS OF GROUP 4(Zn2+)

1) The white ppt obtained in gp.4


is dissolved in dil.HCl
And divided into two a) White ppt soluble Pre. of Zn2+ confirmed
a) To one part add NaOH in in excess of NaOH
drops b) White/bluish Pre. of Zn2+ confirmed
b) To the second part add white ppt
pot.ferrocyanide solution
2) Ash test is conducted with the Green ash Pre. of Zn2+ confirmed
group ppt
ANALYSIS OF GROUP 5(Ba2+,Sr2+,Ca2+)

Test for Ba :
Potassium chromate test :
1) To the salt solution add K2CrO4 1) Yellow ppt Pre. of Ba confirmed
solution.
2) Flame test is conducted with 2) Grassy green Pre. of Ba confirmed
the group ppt. flame
Test for Sr :
1) Add ammonium sulphate to the 1) White ppt Pre. of Sr confirmed
salt solution.
2) Flame test is conducted with 2) Crimson red Pre. of Sr confirmed
the group ppt. flame
Test for Ca :
1) To the salt solution add 1) White ppt Pre. of Ca confirmed
ammonium oxalate solution.
2) Flame test is conducted with 2) Brick red flame Pre. of Ca confirmed
the group ppt.
ANALYSIS OF GROUP 6(Mg2+)

Test for Mg2+ :


1) To the salt solution add 1) White ppt Pre. of magnesium confirmed
ammonium phosphate
solution. 2) Pale pink ash Pre. of magnesium confirmed
2) Ash test is conducted with
group ppt