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Construction as a proportion of gross domestic product varies widely in industrialized

countries. It is about 4% of GDP in USA, 6.5% in Germany and 17% in Japan. In most
construction firms, employers have relatively few full time employees working on
construction projects. A large number of construction workers are unskilled labors.
Construction workers include 5 to 10% of workforce in industrialized countries. It is
difficult to identify workers and inform them of their right and responsibilities under
pertinent health and safety or any other legislation or regulations.
Construction workers as well as general public living in the surroundings of workplace
are exposed to a variety of health hazards on the job which can lead to serious injuries.
Many employers are still unaware of their duty of care to employees, visitors and even
those not directly related to their activities. Exposure to hazards differs from trade to
trade, from job to job, by the day even by the hours. Exposure to any one hazard is
typically intermittent and of short duration but is likely to reoccur. A worker may not only
encounter the primary hazards of his own job but may also be exposed to hazards
produced by those who work nearby. The severity of each hazard depends on the
concentration and duration of exposure for the particular job.
This report focuses on the health and safety of workers employed, general public living
in the surroundings of workplace and consequences of heavy machinery engaged to
complete the project efficiently and vehicles passing through the site of Orange line
Metro Project. It is 27.1 Km long project which is currently under construction in Lahore
which is capital city of Punjab, province of Pakistan. This line is divided in to two parts
that is elevated part consisting of piers and transoms and underground part consisting
of trenches and tunnels. Length of elevated portion is 25.4 Km and 1.7 Km that of
underground portion. There will be 27 stations and 250000 commentators are expected
to be enjoying the facility daily. The architecture, construction and operation of the
orange line has been entrusted to the Chinese government and estimated completion
cost of project is $ 1.6 Billion. The corridor will be capable of accommodating two trains
running both up and down.
An Executive Summary:
Hazards in the field of construction are divided in to four categories which are chemical
hazards, physical hazards, biological hazards and social hazards.
Chemical hazards are usually in gaseous form in air due to which exposure usually
occur by inhalation or may affect skin. Chemicals might be ingested with food or water.
Cancer of lungs and respiratory tree have been found among asbestos insulation
workers, roofers, welders and wood workers.
Physical hazards are present in any construction project. These hazards include noise,
heat and cold, vibrations and barometric pressure. Heat stress from wearing full body
protective suits observed in hazardous waste cleanup workers. Raynand’s syndrome
appears among jackhammer operators and other workers who use vibrating machinery.
Construction work is often done in extreme heat and cold, windy and rainy, snowy and
foggy weather. Strain and sprains are among the most common injuries among the
people affected by construction. Many chronically disabling musculoskeletal disorders
occur as a result of either injury, repetitive forceful movements, awkward postures or
over exertion. Falls due to unstable footing, unguarded holes and slips off scaffolding
and ladders are also common.
Biological hazards occur due to exposure to infectious micro-organisms to toxic
substances of biological origin or poisonous animal attacks. Excavation works can
develop histoplasmosis which is an infection of lungs caused by a common soil fungus.
Individual workers come in contact with other workers and may cause infected with
contagious diseases.
Employment is irregular and constantly changing. Workers have to work with different
teams and working environments are different at different projects. Control over many
aspects of employment is limited because construction activity is dependent on many
factors over which construction workers have no control. Many projects require living in
work camps away from home and family. Usually workers have to live in unhygienic
camps lacking basic necessities for healthy living. They don’t have resources to improve
their temporary living places. It is least concern of employers to facilitate the workers.
They have to work for longer durations to be more productive in order to compete with
their fallows. Construction workers usually lack social networks because of nature of
their field and social support is rarely available.
In order to reduce the risk of constructional hazards occurring at workplaces, exposure
to the hazards may be evaluated, hazards for individual tasks should be evaluate i.e.
hazards included in welding, plumbing, cutting (wood and steel) and planning. As
knowledge of task based hazards will be clear it would be easily to control the
occurrence of hazards. It is possible to reduce the chances of hazards by reducing the
duration and frequency of tasks. An efficient way to protect workers and general public
is to change the primary sources of hazards with alternative materials which are less
harmful yet fulfilling the construction requirements. For example non respirable synthetic
vitreous fibers can be replaced with Asbestos, non-silica abrasives can be replaced with
abrasive blasting, impact hammers can be replaced with pneumatic hammers which
produce less noise and vibrations and punching or shear pressing can be done where
harmful dust and noise id generated by sawing and drilling. Due to advancement in
technology, risks of musculoskeletal and other health problems can be reduced i.e. two
handed screwdriver with longer handle increases the torque on the object and reduces
stress on wrists.
Impact of construction on environment can be controlled by using environmental control
techniques. Local ventilation techniques may be used at a particular job i.e. ventilation
ducts and hoods to capture the fumes or dust. Ventilators should be portable so that
they could be shifted near workplaces where risk of fumes and dust is higher. Other
environmental factors including extreme winter and summer seasons may be catered
for by adjusting the working hours accordingly. In summer work must be stopped during
afternoon and working at night times and vice versa in winter season. Proper shelter
from rain must be provided if working in rainy weather is very important.
Effect of physical hazards i.e. radiation and noise can be reduced by reducing the
exposure to such hazards by proper shielding against such hazards Plywood sheets
may provide shields against radiations. Sound absorbers and ear muffs or ear plugs can
be used to reduce the effect f noise pollution.
If exposure control techniques does not provide sufficient protection to workers,
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) must be used. PPEs be regularly inspected and
maintained and should be in proper fitting to worker wearing them. For PPEs to be
effective, workers must be trained properly about the benefits and limitations of their
use. For instance, gloves are used to handle paint strippers but they provide protection
for up to two hours after that they have to be replaced.
Exposure to toxic substances increases, if eating and sanitary facilities are not provided.
If worker cannot wash hands before meals and have to eat in work zones, he may
swallow toxic substances from their hands. The need for heavy manual labor can be
reduced by employing machinery keeping in view the hazards of machinery.
Main findings of report
1. Written work health and safety management plan for the construction project was
not prepared prior to commencement of work.(Violation of Work Health and
Safety Regulation 2011 s. 309)
2. Workers carrying out construction work on the project had not been made aware
of the content of the Work Health and Safety management plan. (Violation of
Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011 s. 310 & s. 311)
3. Workers carrying out construction work have not received the general
construction induction training.(Violation of Work Health and Safety
Regulation 2011 s. 316)
4. Sufficient Personal protective equipment have not been provided t worker where
it was prescribed as a control measure.(Violation of Work Health and Safety
Regulation 2011 s. 44)
5. Coordination with other duty holders on site has not been carried out in
accordance to the work health and safety management plan.(Violation of Work
Health and Safety Regulation 2011 s. 309 and Work Health and Safety Act
2011 s. 46)
6. Sufficient health and safety representatives had not been involved in
consultation.(Violation of Work Health and Safety Act 2011 s. 48)
7. No safe work method statement had been prepared for each high risk
construction work that was underway or about to commence.(Violation of Work
Health and Safety Regulation 2011 s. 299(1))
8. Work area were not clearly identified and separated as necessary so that work
can be undertaken safely.(Violation of Work Health and Safety Regulation
2011 s. 40)
9. Lighting at the workplace was not sufficient to allow each worker to carry out
work without risk to health and safety, people to move within the workplace
without risk to health and safety, safe evacuation in an emergency.(Violation of
Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011 s.40 and Managing the Work
Environment and Facilities Code of Practice 2011, 2.6 Lighting)
10. Workers carrying out work in extremes of heat or cold were not provided with
basic necessities near work place. (Possible breach of Work Health and
Safety Regulation 2011 s.40 and Managing the Work Environment and
Facilities Code of Practice 2011, 2.8 Heat and cold)
11. Outdoor workers have been provided with protection against adverse weather
conditions and solar ultraviolet exposure.(Violation of Work Health and Safety
Regulation 2011 s.40)
12. Contractor had not managed the risks to health and safety associated with the
storage, movement, and disposal of construction materials.(Possible breach of
Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011 s.315)
13. Adequate facilities had not been provided for workers, including toilets, drinking
water, washing facilities, and eating facilities.(Violation of Work Health and
Safety Regulation 2011 s.41 and Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011
s.315A and Schedule 5A, Part 2 Toilets)
14. Sufficient first aid equipment had not been provided for the workplace and is
accessible to each worker.(Violation of Work Health and Safety Regulation
2011 s.42)
15. There was no preventive measure taken to stop unauthorized access of children
and staff where workplace was located near schools or similar
facilities.(Violation of Work Health and Safety regulation 2011 s.298)
16. While work was being carried out in a confined space, workers carrying out work
in the confined space had not been provided with air supplied respiratory
equipment.(Violation of Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011s.71)
17. Edge protection had not been fixed at various work places and workers working
at height were exposed to the danger of falling and getting injured. They had not
been used as per manufacturer’s instructions where they had been provided. No
fall protection cover and fall arrest harness had been provided(Possible
breaching of Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011 s.306E, s.306F and
18. Proper designed ladders were not used. Each single or extension ladder was not
secured at the top or the bottom to prevent it moving.(Possible breach of Work
Health and Safety Regulation 2011 s.306L)
19. A scaffold plan was not available for each scaffold and not complying with
Scaffolding Code of Practice 2009, 3. Planning for scaffold work.
Unauthorized access to the scaffold was not prevented while the scaffold was
incomplete or unattended. Scaffolding had not been erected by appropriately
licensed workers.(Violation of Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011 s.81,
s.225 and schedule 3)
20. The risk of falling objects had not been controlled in accordance with the
regulation Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011 s.315H.
21. Workers were exposed to welding fumes. Proper non-flammable screens or
partitions had not been installed. Sufficient Sign boards to warn workers that
welding is occurring had not been fixed which could restrict the entry into the
work area unless PPE is worn.(Violation of Work Health and Safety
Regulation 2011 s.49, s.19(1), Welding processes Code of Practice 2013, 3.1
Airborne contaminants and 3.2 Radiation)
22. Work was not conducted in a way that is electrically safe. Leads and tools are not
used in damp or wet conditions unless they have been specifically designed to
do so. Electrical leads are arranged to avoid damage. Electrical work is carried
out by an appropriately licensed individual. The appropriate exclusion zones
have been established and are enforced.(Violation of Electrical Safety Act
2002 s.30 and s.55, Electrical Safety Regulation 2013 s.102 and Electrical
Safety Regulations 2002, Schedule 2 Exclusion zones for electrical parts)
23. Risks associated with plant overturning, things falling on the operator, the plant
colliding with any person or thing, mechanical failure of pressurized elements of
the plant that may release fluids that pose a risk to health and safety had not
been managed.(Possible violation of Work Health and Safety Act 2011 s.21,
Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011 s.214)

Observations Control Measures Timescale

Hazards and Consequences Immediate and Long term

1- Workplace was not Immediate Actions 1 hour
barricaded properly Barricade the area properly
Hazards: Poor barication before starting any activity.
Consequences: Incidents Long Term Actions 1 Weeks
may occur causing broken Workplaces must be
bones and other injuries barricaded properly with the
which may be fatal help of warning tapes and
sign boards must be erected
so that pedestrians could be
2- Due to lack of proper Immediate Actions 1 day
maintenance of Reduce the working hours
machinery and using Short Term Actions: Job 1 week
vibrating tools rotation and isolation
continuously for long Long term Actions: 3 week
duration, workers had to Equipment design must me
face hand arm vibration properly engineered to full fill
syndrome the needs of particular
Hazards: Vibration machinery, frequent
Consequences: maintenance
Raynaud’s syndrome,
Numbness, muscles
3- Workers had to go into Immediate Actions: Oxygen
tunnels or below grade cylinders should be provided
working zones where which could be used in case
sufficient oxygen was of emergency
not available and they Short Term Actions:
had to face suffocation Portable local exhaust
and breathlessness. ventilators should be
Hazards: Improper provided.
ventilation Long Term Actions:
Consequences: Job rotation, Reduce
respiratory problem, exposure time, provide
unconsciousness due to information, instruction and
suffocation, Lung cancer training
4- During extreme weather Immediate actions:
conditions, workers were Eliminate or minimize the
not provided with basic work in open areas
necessities to maintain Short Term: Job rotation
favorable working Long term: Thermal comfort
conditions in summers by providing proper clothes,
and winters. meals tea breaks in cold
Hazards: Extreme weather, adjusting the
weather working hours as per climatic
Consequences: conditions
Dehydration, skin burn,
skin cancer, heat stroke,
frost bite, freeze burns

5- There was no schedule Immediate actions:

of training, seminars, management take notice of
meetings to aware the the drawbacks due to lack of
manpower about safety awareness among workers
and health hazards Short term: Supervisors
during working hours keep an eye on workers and
Hazards: accidents, do periodic counseling of
poor workman ship worker
Consequences: health Long term: Seminars,
issues, construction meeting and training
requirements not being sessions must be announced
fulfilled, poor well before time by
performance, moral management, sessions
issues should be separately
organized for Engineers,
supervisors and workers
6- Workers working in Immediate actions:
tough situations were Management should make
not facilitated with basic plans and take suggestions
necessities to refresh from worker
and boost their moral to Short term actions: Route
work in hard conditions for approval of plans should
Hazards: Poor welfare be shortest to finalize the
facilities decisions at earliest
Consequences: Health Long Term actions:
and physiological issues Drinking water, quality
meals, hygienic toilets,
change rooms and
transportation facilities from
workplace to rest place
7- Sign boards were not Immediate actions:
provided for heavy Individual work places be
machinery working, near secured by warning tapes
store rooms, working at Short term actions:
height, vehicle Warning tapes should be
diversions and installed outside the
pedestrians. boundaries of project, sign
Hazard: No proper sign board should be installed at
boards the starting boundary of the
Consequences: project
accidents, life and Long term actions: Safety
financial loss and officer should be hired,
wastage of time Individual sign boards for
each work zones should be
secured erected, and Sign
boards at the project
boundaries should be
8- Waste materials were Immediate actions: control
not being disposed of measures must be outlines
properly. to reduce the generation of
Hazards: Hazardous waste materials
waste material Short term actions:
Consequences: Supervisors must be set
Contaminated water responsible to dispose off
causing mosquitoes and the hazardous material after
bacteria to grow causing completion of their particular
diarrhea, malaria and activity, Water browser must
typhoid, wasted sand be deputed at work zones in
and soil was causing order to sprinkle water settle
respiratory problems down the dust
Long term actions:
Disposal of hazardous
material must me carried out
as per international rules and
national or private
companies may be hired to
take care of the hazardous
materials in work zones.
9- Flammable materials Immediate actions:
were exposed to open Eliminate the flammable
air near working areas materials from working areas
and oxidized and Short term actions:
flammable materials Oxidized and flammable
were stored at a materials should be stored
common place separately
Hazards: Flammable Long term actions:
material Barricade the area properly
Consequences: fire, where flammable material
loss of life, smoke, slip are stored, separate store
trips, skin burn to rooms must be made for
workers near flammable oxidized and flammable
materials material
10- There was irregular Immediate actions: Sign
flooring and poor boards installed near work
housekeeping at site. zones so that people could
Hazards: Foot torsion, be careful while walking,
slip trips warning tapes should be
Consequences: twisted installed
ankle, twisted knee, Short term actions: grader
dislocated joints, broken should run over irregular
bones walk ways
Long term actions: Walk
ways must be planned
before commencement of
work in work zones
11- Speed limits were not Immediate action: Drivers
being followed by be strictly ordered and
dumpers and other monitored
heavy machinery while Short term actions: Speed
moving between limit displayed
workplaces. Long term actions: Training
Hazards: Over speeding of drivers, hiring of licensed
vehicles, heavy drivers
accidents, damage of
vehicles, damage to
human beings, death,
financial loss
12- Sufficient lumens were Immediate actions: stop
not maintained as per working
requirement of Short term actions: arrange
workplaces for the light source as per
Hazards: Insufficient site requirements
light Long term actions: Proper
Consequences: lighting sets must be
invisible vision, prepared along with
weakness of eyes, independent generators
difficulty in working
13- Underground services Immediate actions: Stop
were endangered during working
excavation for Short term actions: use
foundations construction manual digging in spite of
Hazards: Underground using machinery
working Long term actions: All
Consequences: stakeholders managing the
damaged electricity underground services must
lines, damaged be taken onboard before
sewerage pipe lines, starting activity, underground
damaged water lines, services route maps must be
broken telephone lines collected from respected

14- Workers had to work in Immediate actions: Worker

trenches, tunnels, should stop the activity and
drainage or operate ask team leader to provide
heavy machines lonely. helper
Hazards: Lone working Short term actions: depute
Consequences: death teams on any activity
due to electric shock and Long term actions:
suffocation, wounds, Provision of remote
danger of poisonous supervision through CCTV
animals and theft cameras and communication
equipments for lone workers
15- Trained persons were Immediate action: worker
not deputed to operate must be supervised
tools and machinery Short term actions:
Hazards: Mishandling of Authorized persons should
tools be allowed to operate the
Consequences: machinery or tools
damage to machinery, Long term actions: Proper
tools and workers training for operations of
tools and machinery,
workers must be informed
about the penalties in case
of damage to the tools and
16- Behavior of supervisors Immediate actions:
was not friendly with feedback from workers about
worker their senior behavior with
Hazards: Bullying them
Consequences: stress Short term actions:
to works, psychological Buddy environment must be
problems, poor encouraged
performance Long term actions:
Counseling of supervisors
and worker to work as a
team and appreciate each
other efforts for successful
completion of job
17- There was no first aid Immediate actions: First aid
facility at workplace kit should be provided
Hazard: Poor first aid Short term actions: first aid
facility team must be deputed at site
Consequences: lack of Long term actions:
first aid treatment Seminars and trainings must
increasing the chances be carried out after regular
of death intervals
18- Workers were carrying Immediate actions: Avoid
out their activity at height or minimize working at height
without taking any Short term actions: Use
precautionary measures safety nets, fixing of ladders
Hazards: Work at height properly
Consequences: falling Long term actions: Using
tools, foot slipping and tool bags and safety belts
broken bones, injuries
and death

Recommendations Likely resource implications Priority Timescale

Workplaces must Warning tapes, Sign boards, High
be barricaded barriers, Fence, GI sheets
properly with the
help of warning
tapes and sign
boards must be
erected so that
pedestrians could
be warned
(observation 1)
Proper lighting sets Lights, poles, generators High
must be prepared
along with
(observation 12)
Portable local Exhaust ventilators Medium
exhaust ventilators
should be provided
for proper
(observation 3)
Job rotation, Training fee and increased Medium
Reduce exposure wedges for job rotation
time, provide
instruction and
(observation 3)
Thermal comfort by Jackets, frequent tea breaks, High
providing proper fans, rain coats
clothes, meals tea
breaks in cold
weather, adjusting
the working hours
as per climatic
(observation 4)
Drinking water, Water purification plants, High
quality meals, vehicles, lock closets
hygienic toilets,
change rooms and
facilities from
workplace to rest
(observation 6)
Disposal of Vehicles, waste material High
hazardous material processing plants, man power
must be carried out
as per international
rules and national
or private
companies may be
hired to take care of
the hazardous
materials in work
(observation 8)
Provision of remote CCTV cameras, wireless sets High
supervision through
CCTV cameras and
equipments for lone
(observation 14)
Use safety nets, Safety nets, ladders that has High
fixing of ladders fixing or ripping mechanism
properly, Using tool
bags and safety
belts while working
at height
(observation 18)
first aid team must First aid kit, medical reps Medium
be deputed at site
(observation 17)
Proper training for Expenditures for organizing Medium
operations of tools training sessions
and machinery,
workers must be
informed about the
penalties in case of
damage to the tools
and machinery
(observation 15)