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Electrical Installations

5. Components of LT Switchgear:
5.1 Miniature Circuit Breaker
The MCB has some advantages compared to fuse.
1. It automatically switches off the electrical circuit during abnormal condition of the network
means in over load condition as well as faulty condition. The fuse does not sense but
miniature circuit breaker does it in more reliable way. MCB is much more sensitive to over
current than fuse.
2. Another advantage is, as the switch operating knob comes at its off position during tripping,
the faulty zone of the electrical circuit can easily be identified. But in case of fuse, fuse wire
should be checked by opening fuse grip or cutout from fuse base, for confirming the blow of
fuse wire.
3. Quick restoration of supply can not be possible in case of fuse as because fuses have to be
rewirable or replaced for restoring the supply. But in the case of MCB, quick restoration is
possible by just switching on operation.
4. Handling MCB is more electrically safe than fuse. Because of to many advantages of MCB
over fuse units, in modern low voltage electrical network, miniature circuit breaker is mostly
used instead of backdated fuse unit. Only one disadvantage of MCB over fuse is that this
system is more costlier than fuse unit system.

Working Principle Miniature Circuit Breaker

There are two arrangement of operation of miniature circuit breaker. One due to thermal effect of
over current and other due to electromagnetic effect of over current. The thermal operation of
miniature circuit breaker is achieved with a bimetallic strip whenever continuous over current
flows through MCB, the bimetallic strip is heated and deflects by bending. This deflection of
bimetallic strip releases mechanical latch. As this mechanical latch is attached with operating
mechanism, it causes to open the miniature circuit breaker contacts.
But during short circuit condition, sudden rising of current, causes electromechanical
displacement of plunger associated with tripping coil or solenoid of MCB. The plunger strikes
the trip lever causing immediate release of latch mechanism consequently open the circuit
breaker contacts. This was a simple explanation of miniature circuit breaker working principle.
Miniature Circuit Breaker Construction
Miniature circuit breaker construction is very simple, robust and maintenance free. Generally a
MCB is not repaired or maintained, it just replaced by new one when required. A miniature
circuit breaker has normally three main constructional parts. These are:
Frame of Miniature Circuit Breaker
The frame of miniature circuit breaker is a molded case. This is a rigid, strong, insulated housing
in which the other components are mounted.
Operating Mechanism of Miniature Circuit Breaker
The operating mechanism of miniature circuit breaker provides the means of manual opening
and closing operation of miniature circuit breaker. It has three-positions "ON," "OFF," and
"TRIPPED". The external switching latch can be in the "TRIPPED" position, if the MCB is
tripped due to over-current. When manually switch off the MCB, the switching latch will be in
"OFF" position. In close condition of MCB, the switch is positioned at "ON". By observing the
positions of the switching latch one can determine the condition of MCB whether it is closed,
tripped or manually switched off.
Trip Unit of Miniature Circuit Breaker
The trip unit is the main part, responsible for proper working of miniature circuit breaker. Two
main types of trip mechanism are provided in MCB. A bimetal provides protection against over
load current and an electromagnet provides protection against short-circuit current.
Operation of Miniature Circuit Breaker
There are three mechanisms provided in a single miniature circuit breaker to make it switched
off. If we carefully observe the picture beside, we will find there are mainly one bi - metallic
strip, one trip coil and one hand operated on-off lever. Electric current carrying path of a
miniature circuit breaker shown in the picture is like follows. First left hand side power terminal
- then bimetallic strip - then current coil or trip coil - then moving contact - then fixed contact
and - lastly right had side power terminal. All are arranged in series.

If circuit is overloaded for long time, the bi - metallic strip becomes over heated and
deformed. This deformation of bi metallic strip causes, displacement of latch point. The moving
contact of the MCB is so arranged by means of spring pressure, with this latch point, that a little
displacement of latch causes, release of spring and makes the moving contact to move for
opening the MCB. The current coil or trip coil is placed such a manner, that during short circuit
fault the mmf of that coil causes its plunger to hit the same latch point and make the latch to be
displaced. Hence the MCB will open in same manner.
Again when operating lever of the miniature circuit breaker is operated by hand, that
means when we make the MCB at off position manually, the same latch point is displaced as a
result moving contact separated from fixed contact in same manner. So, whatever may be the
operating mechanism, that means, may be due to deformation of bi - metallic strip, due to
increased mmf of trip coil or may due to manual operation, actually the same latch point is
displaced and same deformed spring is released, which ultimately responsible for movement of
the moving contact. When the the moving contact separated from fixed contact, there may be a
high chance of arc. This arc then goes up through the arc runner and enters into arc splitters and
is finally quenched. When we switch on an MCB, we actually reset the displaced operating latch
to its previous on position and make the MCB ready for another switch off or trip operation.

5.2 Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker or ELCB

If any current leaks from any electrical installation, there must-be any insulation failure in the
electrical circuit, it must be properly detected and prevented otherwise there may be a high
chance of electrical shock if-anyone touches the installation. An earth leakage circuit breaker
does it efficiently. Means it detects the earth leakage current and makes the power supply off by
opening the associated circuit breaker. There are two types of earth leakage circuit breaker, one
is voltage ELCB and other is current ELCB.
Voltage Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker
The working principle of voltage ELCB is quite simple. One terminal of the relay coil is
connected to the metal body of the equipment to be protected against earth leakage and other
terminal is connected to the earth directly.
If any insulation failure occurs or live phase wire touches the metal body, of the equipment, there
must be a voltage difference appears across the terminal of the coil connected to the equipment
body and earth. This voltage difference produces a current to flow the relay coil.

If the voltage difference crosses, a predetermined limit, the current through the relay
becomes sufficient to actuate the relay for tripping the associated circuit breaker to disconnect
the power supply to the equipment. The typicality of this device is, it can detect and protect only
that equipment or installation with which it is attached. It cannot detect any leakage of insulation
in other installation of the system.

Current ELCB or RCCB or Residual Current Circuit Breaker

The working principle of current earth leakage circuit breaker or RCCB is also very
simple as voltage operated ELCB but the theory is entirely different and residual current circuit
breaker is more sensitive than ELCB.
Actually, ELCBs are of two kinds, but it is general practice to refer voltage based ELCB as
simple ELCB. And current based ELCB is referred as RCD or RCCB. Here one CT core is
energized from both phase wise and neutral wire.

Single Phase Residual Current ELCB. The polarity of the phase winding and neutral
winding on the core is so chosen that, in normal condition mmf of one winding opposes that of
another. As it is assumed that, in normal operating conditions the current goes through the phase
wire will be returned via neutral wire if there's no leakage in between. As both currents are same,
the resultant mmf produced by these two currents is also zero-ideally. The relay coil is connected
with another third winding wound on the CT core as secondary. The terminals of this winding
are connected to a relay system.
In normal operating condition there would not be any current circulating in the third
winding as here is no flux in the core due to equal phase and neutral current. When any earth
leakage occurs in the equipment, there may be part of phase current passes to the earth, through
the leakage path instead of returning via mental wire. Hence the magnitude of the neutral current
passing through the RCCB is not equal to phase current passing through it.

Three Phase Residual Current Circuit Breaker or Current ELCB. When this difference
crosses a predetermined value, the current in the third secondary winding of the core becomes
sufficiently high to actuate the electromagnetic relay attached to it. This relay causes tripping of
the associated circuit breaker to disconnect the power supply to the equipment under protection.
Residual current circuit breaker is sometimes also referred as residual current device (RCD)
when we consider the device by disassociating the circuit breaker attached to RCCB. That
means, the entire parts of RCCB except circuit breaker are referred as RCD.


Definition – MCCB is a switching device which is used in LT electrical system. It provides
protection against overload & short circuit. Fault sensing arrangements are installed inside
MCCBs & shunt release is provided for remote tripping of MCCB. It is available between 100A
& 630Acurrent.
Working Principle – MCCB provides protection against over load through thermal mechanism. It
has bimetallic contacts which expand & contract on temperature changes. Under normal
condition these contacts allow normal current to flow but when current exceeds its trip limit, the
bimetallic contacts start heating up & expand until the circuit is isolated/tripped. When MCCB is
tripped, faulty circuit is isolated from circuit & the temperature of bimetallic contacts starts
getting normal & MCCB again is ready for next operation.
Secondly, protection against short circuit – if current is very high, fault current should be
interrupted immediately. This is achieved by electromagnetic induction. Whenever fault occurs,
the high current induces a magnetic field in a solenoid coil located inside the breaker, this
magnetic induction trips a contact & current is interrupted. In the tripping process, arc is
produced & that is dissipated by taking suitable measures inside the breaker. These breakers can
be manually switched off or on also which is required during maintenance or other purpose.

MCCBs are available with protection range from 50% to 100% of rated MCCB.
Ex –200A, TP MCCB can be used from 100A load to 200A in steps of 10% e.g. 110A, 120A,
130A, 140A, 150A, 160A, 170A, 180A, 190A & 200A. On every stage MCCB will provide
overload & short circuit protection.
Selection of MCCB –
 It should be capable to carry the rated current of load, (Note: Rating of MCCB should not
be much higher than rated/full load current otherwise MCCB will not trip on fault).
 Check number of poles – TP, TPN & 4P where
TP (for 3 phase load) = TP stands for Triple pole which means three phases (R,Y,B) & these
phases will be part of MCCB & neutral is not required for load. These 3 phases are opened &
closed with the operation of MCCB.
TPN (for 3-phase load) = TPN stands for Triple pole with neutral where three phases will be part
of MCCB & will be closed or opened with the operation of MCCB but neutral will be connected
directly with load & neutral will remain connected with load ,
4P (for 3-phase load) = 4P means Fore pole which means 3 phases & a neutral and all will be
part of MCCB. In this case, 3-phases &neutral will be part of MCCB &opened & closed with
MCCB operation.
 Type of protection–According to Time Curve protection.
 Fault current rating which should be in kA (thousand amperes) which means that a
MCCB can withstand the fault current of short circuit,
 With operating Handle or without handle
Ex – 200A TP MCCB with 35kA fault current& operating handle.
A typical range of Three phase MCCB – 100A, 125A, 150A, 200A, 250A, 315A, 400A, 630A,
(Note: MCCBs are available with 25-50KA fault level.)


Different types of battery with various configurations are available. With the inventions
of various new consumer electronic devices, electric vehicles, renewable energy storage needs,
space and military applications, battery power nowadays is consumed as food. If we look around
us, we find a bunch of batteries hiding inside almost every device we have, wall clocks, mobile
phones, laptops, watches, calculators, inverters, hair dryer, trimmers, toys and many more.
Batteries make devices portable by separating them from the utility supply. Today’s batteries live
long and have high energy storage capacities. Portable power banks for long trips have become
indispensable choices. Batteries come in various sizes and shapes, like button, flat, round and
prismatic configurations.
The batteries are both non-rechargeable called primary batteries and rechargeable types
called secondary batteries. While the primary ones cannot be recharged once decayed, the
secondary batteries can be recharged again and again. Nevertheless, primary batteries are cheap,
compact, easy to use and have a longer life than the secondary batteries. Since batteries come in
various sizes, chemicals used and shapes, these have been provided with certain nomenclature by
IEC and ANSI institutions to understand their specifications according to our needs. For
example, consider an AA 1.5V type battery as shown below.

As we can see it says AA LR6 1.5V. Now let us understand what does this name or code means.
 LR6 here is IEC size code as L stands for electrochemical series system i.e. for
alkaline/MnO2 battery and R6 stands for physical dimensions. An R6 configuration
means R-round battery with a maximum overall height of 50.5 mm and a maximum
diameter of 14.5mm.
 AA is an ANSI designation for LR6 configuration batteries.
Consider another example of a button cell as shown below
It says CR2025. It is the IEC code in which C stands for Lithium system R for round-cylindrical
20 means 20mm diameter of battery and 25 represents the height of 2.5mm. For more
information refer to the ANSI and IEC codes for batteries.
5.4.1 Primary Cells or Primary Batteries
These cannot be recharged once decayed. The advantages of primary cells are compact
size and availability in various shapes like cylindrical, button, rectangular and prismatic, and
these have high power-density, long shelf life, low level of discharging and portability. Its
countless number of applications include watches, clocks, medical devices, radio and other
communication devices, nano applications, memory chips and many more.

If the primary cell does not contain liquid electrolyte then it is known as ‘dry cell’. A dry cell
contains moisten paste electrolyte. The figure above shows the cross-section of a Zinc Carbon
Some of the different types of primary batteries and their applications have been discussed
Zinc-Carbon/Alkaline/MnO2 Cell or Battery
One of the earliest forms of dry cell i.e. Zinc-carbon or Leclanche cell had been in use for almost
a century. But its now outdated with the commercial use of new primary batteries such as having
alkaline/MnO2 as a cathode which has higher capacity and higher energy density and longer
shelf life.
Mercuric Oxide Batteries
The usage of mercuric oxide batteries is very limited due to the hazardous implications of the
mercury to the environment. These batteries come as Zinc/cadmium anodes with mercuric oxide
as a cathode. It comes in cylindrical, small flat button forms. It finds applications as low power
sources in calculators, portable radios, watches, camera etc.
Zinc Silver Oxide Batteries
These are similar in design to mercuric batteries but have higher energy density. It works better
at low temperatures. Used mainly as button cell batteries and finds applications in photographic
equipment, electronic watches, hearing aids etc.
Zinc Air Batteries
Metal-air batteries have got attention in the battery industry due to its high energy density. Also,
no active cathode is required. However, its poor shelf life and sensitivity to external factors like
temperature, humidity etc limits its use. Its uses are in electronics, signalling and navigational
Lithium Batteries
The advantages of lithium batteries are the highest energy density, long shelf life and can be
operated over a wide temperature range. Its applications include cameras, watches, clocks,
calculators and other low power applications.
5.4.2 Secondary Batteries
These batteries are recharged again and again electrically once discharged. For example charging
of mobile or laptop batteries. Today secondary or rechargeable batteries are omnipresent. These
used as a standby power sources as in UPS, inverters and stationary energy sources on one hand,
and as a primary source for countless consumer applications like mobile, laptop, flashlight,
emergency lamps etc. Some of the types of rechargeable batteries and their applications can be
discussed below: Lead Acid Batteries
These are the batteries commonly used in inverters, electric vehicles, engine ignition, emergency
power, and solar battery applications. It constitutes about 40-45% of the battery sale all over the
world. Given below are some of the types of lead-acid batteries based on the construction and
applications: Starting Batteries
These are used to start engines, as they provide large impulse currents for a short period of time.
These have slow discharge rates. Applications are in aircraft, ships, diesel engine vehicles, etc. Deep Cycle Batteries
Contrary to stationary batteries which have very low discharged, the deep cycle batteries go for
deep discharging up to 80% before recharging. There are three types of deep cycle batteries
namely flooded type, gelled electrolyte type and absorbed gas mat (AGM) type. Its applications
are in industrial trucks, golf carts, electric vehicles, mine cars, etc. Submarine Batteries
Used in submarines. Its discharging fall between starting and deep cycle batteries, about 50%. Stationary Batteries
It includes energy storage type batteries used in UPS, inverters, load levelling, and solar
Batteries, etc. Nickel/Cadmium(Ni-Cd) Batteries

The chief advantage of nickel-cadmium batteries is reliability and long life. These are used as
spare batteries, as industrial starters, solar photovoltaic applications etc. Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) Batteries
The capacity of NiMH battery is higher than the Ni-Cd type and is close to the Li-ion batteries. Lithium-Ion Batteries
These batteries have dominated the modern portable electronics industry chiefly laptops and
mobiles as the major power source due to its high charging rate, high energy density, long shelf
life, low self-discharging rate compactness and low cost. Its applications include laptops, radios,
mobile phones, aircraft applications, solar battery applications, electric vehicles, mine detectors
etc. Reserve Batteries
These batteries are mostly used in military application to provide a high power supply for a short
period of time for example missiles, torpedoes, launch-pads etc. These are kept in inactive or
reserve conditions for a very long period of time and under harsh environmental conditions. For
long-term storage, its self-discharge is prevented. Based on their activation mechanism, these are
of mainly four types such as water-activated, heat-activated, electrolyte activated and gas
activated. Fuel Cell
It is a galvanic device that converts chemical energy into electrical. Unlike battery cells, the fuel
or active material is supplied continuously when in need of electrical power. The electrodes of a
fuel cell are not consumed but have catalytic properties to affect the chemical process. The anode
materials are gas or liquid fuels like hydrogen, hydrocarbon, natural gas etc. As these are fuels
used in engines, hence the term fuel cell. While oxygen is used as a cathode. Applications
include portable power systems(25W-5kW) in military applications, in consumer applications as
in cordless phones, computers, recreational vehicles, boats, forklifts, material handling systems
etc. Fuel cells are categorised on the basis of the type of electrolyte used as follows :
1. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells.
2. Alkaline Fuel Cells.
3. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells.
4. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.
5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

5.4.3 Types of Batteries

1) Primary Batteries:
As the name indicates these batteries are meant for single usage. Once these batteries are
used they cannot be recharged as the devices are not easily reversible and active materials may
not return to their original forms. Battery manufacturers recommend against recharge of primary
Some of the examples for the disposable batteries are the normal AA, AAA batteries which we
use in wall clocks, television remote etc. Other name for these batteries is disposable batteries.
2) Secondary Batteries:
Secondary batteries are also called as rechargeable batteries. These batteries can be used
and recharges simultaneously. They are usually assembled with active materials with active in
the discharged state. Rechargeable batteries are recharged by applying electric current, which
reverses the chemical reactions that occur during discharge. Chargers are devices which supply
the required current.
Some examples for these rechargeable batteries are the batteries used in mobile phones, MP3
players etc. Devices such as hearing aids and wristwatches use miniature cells and in places such
as telephone exchanges or computer data centre’s, larger batteries are used.
Types of Secondary (rechargeable) Batteries:
SMF, Lead Acid, Li and Nicd Lithium (Li) Battery:
We all use it in portable devices such as cell phone, a laptop computer or a power tool. The
lithium battery has been one of the greatest achievements in portable power in the last decade;
with use of lithium batteries we have been able to shift from black and white mobile to color
mobiles with additional features like GPS, email alerts etc. These are the high energy density
potential devices for higher capacities. And relatively low self-discharge batteries. Also Special
cells can provide very high current to applications such as power tools. Nickel Cadmium (Nicd) Battery:
The Nickel Cadmium batteries have the advantage of being recharged many times and possess a
relatively constant potential during discharge and have more electrical and physical withstanding
capacity. This battery uses nickel oxide for cathode, a cadmium compound for anode and
potassium hydroxide solution as its electrolyte.
When the battery is charged, the chemical composition of the cathode is transformed and the
nickel hydroxide changes to NIOOH. In the anode, formation of Cadmium ions take place from
Cadmium Hydroxide. When battery is discharged, the cadmium reacts with NiOOH to form back
nickel hydroxide and Cadmium Hydroxide.
Cd + 2H2O + 2NiOOH —> 2Ni(OH)2 + Cd(OH)2 Lead Acid Battery:
Lead Acid batteries are widely used in automobiles, inverters, backup power systems etc. Unlike
tubular and maintenance free batteries, Lead Acid batteries require proper care and maintenance
to prolong its life. The Lead Acid battery consists of a series of plates kept immersed in sulphuric
acid solution. The plates have grids on which the active material is attached. The plates are
divided into positive and negative plates. The positive plates hold pure lead as the active material
while lead oxide is attached on the negative plates.
Lead Acid Battery
A completely charged battery can discharge its current when connected to a load. During
the process of discharge, the sulphuric acid combines with the active materials on the positive
and negative plates resulting in the formation of Lead sulphate. Water is the single most
important step in maintaining a Lead Acid battery. The frequency of water depends on usage,
charge method and operating temperature. During process, the hydrogen atoms from the
sulphuric acid react with oxygen to form water.
This results in the release of electrons from the positive plates which will be accepted by
the negative plates. This leads to the formation of an electric potential across the battery. The
electrolyte in the Lead Acid battery is a mixture of Sulphuric acid and water which has a specific
gravity. Specific gravity is the weight of the acid-water mixture compared to equal volume of
water. The specific gravity of pure ions free water is 1.
The lead-acid batteries provide the best value for power and energy per kilowatt-hour;
have the longest life cycle and a large environmental advantage in that they are recycled at an
extraordinarily high rate. No other chemistry can touch the infrastructure that exists for
collecting, transporting and recycling lead-acid batteries.
Along with this article, Lithium ion battery is discussed with its advantages and disadvantages.
Working of Lithium – Ion Battery
Lithium –Ion batteries are now popular in majority of electronic portable devices like
Mobile phone, Laptop, Digital Camera, etc due to their long lasting power efficiency. These are
the most popular rechargeable batteries with advantages like best energy density, negligible
charge loss and no memory effect. Li-Ion battery uses Lithium ions as the charge carriers which
move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when
charging. During charging, the external current from the charger applies an over voltage than that
in the battery. This forces the current to pass in the reverse direction from the positive to the
negative electrode where the lithium ions get embedded in the porous electrode material through
a process called Intercalation. The Li- Ions pass through the non aqueous electrolyte and a
separator diaphragm. The electrode material is intercalated lithium compound.
The negative electrode of the Li-Ion battery is made up of carbon and the positive
electrode is a metal oxide. The most commonly used material in the negative electrode is
Graphite while that in the positive electrode may be Lithium cobalt oxide, Lithium ion phosphate
or Lithium manganese oxide. Lithium salt in an organic solvent is used as the electrolyte. The
electrolyte is typically a mixture of organic carbonates like Ethylene carbonate or Diethyl
carbonate containing lithium ions. The electrolyte uses anion salts like Lithium hexa fluoro
phosphate, Lithium hexa fluoro arsenate monohydrate, Lithium per chlorate, Lithium hexa fluoro
borate etc. Depending upon the salt used, the voltage, capacity and life of the battery varies. Pure
lithium reacts with water vigorously to form lithium hydroxide and hydrogen ions. So the
electrolyte used is non aqueous organic solvent. The electrochemical role of the electrodes
charge between anode and cathode depends on the direction of current flow.
Li Ion Battery Reaction
In the Li-Ion battery, both the electrodes can accept and release lithium ions. During the
Intercalation process, the lithium ions move into the electrode. During the reverse process called
de intercalation, the lithium ions move back. During discharging, the positive lithium ions will
be extracted from the negative electrodes and inserted into the positive electrode. During the
charging process, the reverse movement of lithium ions takes place.
Advantages of Lithium – Ion Battery:
Lithium Ion batteries outperform NiCd batteries and other secondary batteries. Some of the
advantages are
 Light weight compared to other batteries of similar size
 Available in different shape including Flat shape
 High open circuit voltage that increases the power transfer at low current
 Lack of memory effect.
 Very low self discharge rate of 5-10% per month. Self discharge is around 30% in NiCd
and NiMh batteries.
 Eco-friendly battery without any free lithium metal
But along with the advantages, like other batteries, Li-Ion battery also suffers from some
Disadvantages of Li-Ion Battery:
 The deposits inside the electrolyte over time will inhibit the flow of charge. This
increases the internal resistance of the battery and the cell’s capacity to deliver current
gradually decreases.
 High charging and high temperature may leads to capacity loss
 When overheated, Li-Ion battery may suffer thermal run away and cell rupture.
 Deep discharge may short circuit the Li-Ion battery. So to prevent this, some makes have
internal shut down circuitry that shut down the battery when its voltage is above the safe
level of 3 to 4.2 volts. In this case, when the battery is not using for long time, the
internal circuitry will consume power and drain the battery below its shut down voltage.
So to charge such batteries normal chargers are not useful.
Important characteristics of batteries:
The main battery chemistries are lead, nickel and lithium. They all need a specific designated
charger, this is why charging these batteries on a different charger from their own might cause an
incorrect charge, despite it may seem to work at first. This happens because of the different
regulatory requirement of each chemistry.
A battery features a nominal voltage. Along with the amount of cells connected in series,
chemistry provides the open circuit voltage (OCV), which is about 5-7% higher on a fully
charged battery. It is important to check the correct nominal voltage of a battery before
connecting it.
The capacity of a battery indicates the specific energy in ampere-hours (Ah), which represents
the discharge current that a battery is able to issue over the course of time.
Installing a battery that has a higher Ah than indicated offers a longer runtime, just as a smaller
Ah provides a shorter runtime. Moreover, charging a larger battery will take more time than
charging a smaller one, but the Ah divergence must not surpass 25%.
Cold Cranking Amps (Cca)
Every starter battery is marked with cold cranking amps, also abbreviated CCA. The number
denotes the amount of amps that the battery is able to provide at -18°C.
Specific Energy and Energy Density
Specific energy expresses the capacity of a battery in weight (Wh/kg), and it can also be called
gravimetric energy density. Energy density, also called volumetric energy density, describes
volume in liters (Wh/l). Those products that need a long runtime at moderate load are optimized
for high specific energy.
Specific Power
Loading capability is designated by specific power, also called gravimetric power density.
Power tools need a battery made for high specific power that features a lowered specific energy
C-rates indicate how much time a battery takes to charge or discharge. If the battery is at 1C, it
charges and discharges at a current that is equal to the marked Ah rating; at 0,5C, the time is
doubled and the current is half; at 0,1C the time is 10-fold and the current is one-tenth.
Load describes the current drawn from a battery. The voltage drops under load because of the
internal battery resistance and the state of charge (SoC), causing the end of discharge.
Power is measured in watts (W) and it represents the current provided; energy is the physical
work over the course of time and it is indicated in watt-hours (Wh).
Watts And Volt-Amps (Va)
Watts and Volt-amps (VA) represent, respectively, the real power metered and the apparent
power influenced by a reactive load.
Watt and VA readings are equal if measured on a resistive load. A reactive load triggers a phase
shift between voltage and current, causing the lowering of the power factor (pf) and the ideal one
(1) to 0,7 or less. The dimensioning of electrical wiring and circuit breakers has to be based on
VA power.

5.5 UPS Configurations

The arrangement of rectifier, inverter, battery and other components can be carried out in
different ways. Each arrangement has advantages and disadvantages. Normally the more robust
the configuration, the more expensive the UPS.
UPS are classified in two basic ways - standby and on-line.
In a standby UPS, power is normally supplied directly from the mains and the inverter only
switched in if the mains fails. This can have the advantages of cheaper cost and higher
efficiencies. On-line UPS always supply the load via the inverter. These are more expensive,
but because the inverter is always used they can resolve many power quality issues.
5.5.1 Standby UPS
In a standby UPS, the static (electronic) transfer switch supplies the load directly with mains
power. In the event of power failure, the static transfer switch immediately changes over to
power from the inverter.

Static transfer switches when switching from mains to inverter power, will typically do this in
less than 5 mS. The battery is always kept at full charge by the rectifier and immediately
available for supplying power. Often a filter provides some power conditioning when supply
mains power to the load. A surge arrestor protects the UPS and loads from over voltage
5.5.2 On-line (Double Conversion) UPS
In on-line mode, the load is always supplied via the inverter. The inverter normally takes it's
input from the mains, but will switch to the battery when the mains supply goes out of
tolerance. The static bypass will supply power directly from the mains in the event the inverter
is turned off or develops a fault.
A big advantage of on-line UPS is that the load is always supplied by the inverter and many
power quality issues on the mains are eliminated.

Single phase

The single phase requires two wires for completing the circuit, i.e., the conductor and the neutral.
The conductor carries the current and the neutral is the return path of the current. The single
phase supplies the voltage up to 230 volts. It is mostly used for running the small appliances like
a fan, cooler, grinder, heater, etc.

Three Phase
The three phase system consist four wires, three conductors and one neutral. The conductors are
out of phase and space 120º apart from each other. The three phase system is also used as a
single phase system. For the low load, one phase and neutral can be taken from the three phase
The three phase supply is continuous and never completely drops to zero. In three phase system
power can be drawn either in a star or delta configuration. The star connection is used for long
distance transmission because it has neutral for the fault current.

The delta connection consists three phase wires and no neutral.

Key Differences Between Single Phase and Three Phase

1. In single phase supply, the power flows through one conductor whereas the three phase
supply consists three conductors for power supply.
2. The single phase supply requires two wires (one phase and one neutral) for completing
the circuit. The three phase requires three phase wires and one neutral wire for
completing the circuit.
3. The single phase supplies the voltage up to 230V whereas the three phase supply carries
the voltage up to 415V.
4. The maximum power is transferred through three phases as compared to single phase
5. The single phase has two wire which makes the network simple whereas the three phase
network is complicated as it consists four wires.
6. The single phase system has only one phase wire, and if the fault occurs on the network,
then the power supply completely fails. But in three phase system the network has three
phases, and if the fault occurs on any one of the phases, the other two will continuously
supply the power.
7. The efficiency of the single phase supply is less as compared to three phase supply.
Because the three phase supply requires less conductor as compared to single phase
supply for the equivalent circuit.
8. The single phase supply requires more maintenance and become costly as compared to
three phase supply.
9. The single phase supply is mostly used in the house and for running the small loads. The
three phase supply is used in large industries and for running the heavy loads.

The star connection of the three phase allows the use of two different voltages (i.e., the 230 volts
and the 415 volts). The 230V is supplied by using the one phase and one neutral wire, and the
three phase is supply between any two phases.

Phase sequence:

It is the order in which the phase voltages will attain their maximum values. From the fig it is
seen that the voltage in A phase will attain maximum value first and followed by B and C
phases. Hence three phase sequence is ABC. This is also evident from phasor diagram in which
the phasors with its +ve direction of anti-clockwise rotation passes a fixed point is the order
ABC, ABC and so on. The phase sequence depends on the direction of rotation of the coils in the
magnetic field. If the coils rotate in the opposite direction then the phase voltages attains
maximum value in the order ACB. The phase sequence gets reversed with direction of rotation.
Then the voltage for this sequence can be represented as
Star connection:

the finishing ends or starting ends of the three phase windings are connected to a common point
as shown in. A’, B’, C’ are connected to a common point called neutral point. The other ends A,
B, C are called line terminals and the common terminal neutral are brought outside. Then it is
called a 3 phase 4 wire star connected systems. If neutral point is not available, then it is called 3
phase, 3 wire star connection.

Delta connection:
in this form of interconnection the dissimilar ends of the three coils i.e A and B’, B and C’, and
C and A’ are connected to form a closed Δ circuit (starting end of one phase is connected to
finishing end of the next phase). The three junction are brought outside as line terminal A, B, C.
the three phase windings are connected in series and form a closed path. The sum of the voltages
in the closed path for balanced system of voltages at any instant will be zero fig.

The main advantage of star connection is that we can have two different 3phase voltages. The
voltage that was the line terminals between A & B, B&C, and C & A are called line voltages and
form a balanced three phase voltage. Another voltage is between the terminals A & N, B& N,
and C &N are called phase voltage and form another balanced three phase voltage (line to neutral
voltage or wye voltage).

Relation between line and phase voltage and currents in balanced systems:

Star Connection

Phase current (Iph) = Line currents (IL)

Line voltage = √3 phase voltage

Delta Connection

IL = √3 Iph

Phase voltage (Vph) = Line voltage (VL)

House Wiring:

Home wiring started when electric lights and telephone were first installed in homes
towards the end of the 19th century. By the end of the 20th century an increased variety of
systems were available for installation in homes. Therefore, Electrical service is considered
essential in modern homes.

The Figure 7.1 shows the typical electrical distribution to home at the service end.

Figure 7.1 Electrical Distribution (Home)

Service Entrance: That portion of a home’s electrical system from the utility pole to the home’s
main electrical disconnect. The main electrical service disconnect is the circuit breaker that turns
all of the house’s electrical power off at one point.

Mast Head: The upper part of the metal conduit pipe, at the outside of the house, above the
electric meter, where the electrical service wires from the street attach to the house.

Neutral: The return conductor (white wire) of a circuit connected ultimately to the earth to
receive flow “back” from a light or appliance. Contact with neutral wire should not give you a

Drip Loop (at the service entrance): Slack in the overhead electrical entrance wires (at the
masthead) which prevents water from running down the service entrance wires and into the
electrical panel.
Conduit: A metal or plastic pipe through which electrical wires are run. Conduit protects wires
from damage and are usually used in exposed locations, such as along the outer surface of a
exterior house wall.

Busbar: A piece of rigid metal found in an electrical panel. A busbar distributes electricity from
the service entry cable to the various circuits by means of their connection to the busbar.

Breaker or Circuit Breaker: An automatic safety device that shuts off the electrical power
when the current (or amount of electricity or heat) becomes a greater volume of electricity
than the breaker is designed to handle.

Grounding: The process of connecting all home electrical devices, appliances and wiring,
whether intentional or accidental, so that they are connected to the earth, at the outside of the
house. This interconnected grid means that excess electrical current will seek and be absorbed by
the ground.

Distribution board

It is a safe system designed for house or building that included protective devices, isolator
switches, circuit breaker and fuses to connect safely the cables and wires to the sub circuits and
final sub circuits including their associated Live (Phase) Neutral and Earth conductors.
Distribution board is also known as “Fuse Board“, “Panel Board” or “Consumer Unit“. following
are the types of Distribution boards.

Types of Distribution Boards

Main Distribution Board (MDB)

Sub Distribution Board (SDB)

Final Distribution Board (FDB)

MDB = Main Distribution Board

A distribution board unit installed in the buildings which firstly receive the incoming single
phase electric supply (AC low voltage (LV) (230V AC or 120V AC in US) from transformer
secondary through electric pole and energy meter or the distribution company’s electric service
provider outlets is known as Main Distribution Board.

SDB = Sub Distribution Board

The Distribution Board which is used to distribute electrical wiring and circuits within a selected
area in a building or house, i.e. floor in a multi storey building. The Sub distribution board is
connected and supplied from the Main Distribution Board through different wires and cables
rated according to the load requirement.
FDB = Final Distribution Board

The Distribution Board which provide electric supply to the Final and Sub Final Circuits is
known as Final Distribution Board. FDB (Final Distribution Board) directly connected through
SDB (Sub Distribution Board) and the final switches are used to control the connected electrical
devices and appliances such as light, air-conditioner, fan etc.

Staircase Wiring Circuit Diagram Connection

Below is old-school staircase wiring circuit diagram. Here we can control a bulb from two
different places by using two 2-way switches.
Working & Operation of Staircase Wiring – 2-Way Light Switching

Consider the above 2-way switch wiring diagram which has been used to control a bulb in
staircase. The schematic shows that circuit is completed and bulb is ON. Suppose you want to
OFF the bulb from the upper switch at top of stair ( (upper portion of staircase) ) simply Switch
OFF the switch then circuit will break and the bulb will be OFF. To switch ON the bulb again,
just switch ON the same switch at upper portion of staircase. In other words you can OFF and
ON bulb from upper switch at the top of stair. Obviously; you can perform the same operation
from the bottom switches installed in staircase.

Now, let’s see how we can do that from the other switch installed at the bottom of stair.Staircase
wiring diagram - How to control a lamp from two different places by two 2 way switches

For this purpose, consider the figure given above. In this case, you can see that circuit is
complete and bulb is ON. Suppose you want to OFF the bulb from the lower switch at bottom of
stair. Simply OFF the switch, then again circuit will break and the bulb will be OFF. You can
switch ON the bulb again to switch ON the same switch installed at the bottom or downstairs as
shown in the fig.

To get the switching position in ON condition for light bulb, the above operation is same as the
Exclusive-NOR (EX-NOR) logic gate truth table which is given below.

Switch 1 Switch 2 Lamp Position

0 = OFF 0 = OFF 1 = ON

0 = OFF 1 = ON 0 = OFF

1 = ON 0 = OFF 0 = OFF

1 = ON 1 = ON 1 = ON

Flurocent light wiring

How Fluorescent Light's works:

The starter is like a key of fluorescent light because it is used to light up the tube. When we
connect the AC supply voltage to the circuit, then the starter act like short circuited and current
flow through those filament (located at the first and second end of the tube light) and the
filament generate heat and it ionized the gas (mercury vapor) in the fluorescent tube lamp. So the
gas becomes electrically conductive medium. At the same time when the starter opened the
circuit path of two filaments from series connected, then the ballast release its stored voltage.
And it makes the fluorescent tube fully lighten. Now the starter has no job in the circuit, if you
open it from the circuit the fluorescent tube light will be still lighten, until you release the main

Tube light is not connected in the supply main directly. Although it operates at 230 V, 50 Hz,
some auxiliary electrical components are used to insert in this installation to support the tube
light operational principle. The total electrical components for single tube light installation are
Main parts of Fluorescent Tube Light:

1.Fluorescent Tube



4.Holder, wire etc.

We need tube light, ballast, starter and fluorescent light holders to make wiring connection. The
fluorescent tube has two filaments with four terminals the starter is connected between two
filaments, the ballast is connected between main Ac supply and one filament in tube light.

Here another terminal in tube light is directly connected to the AC supply, to ionize the mercury
atoms in the tube light starter element is used, after the ionization operation of starter is does not
need for fluorescent lamp. the ballast employed to convert the AC supply frequency to high
frequency and the ballast regulates the supply given to the tube light.

Wiring Diagram of Single Tube Light Installation with Electromagnetic Ballast

 From the junction box the neutral wire is not taken out to the switch board, rather it is
taken out from the junction box and carried out to the port 2 of the tube light, as per
figure above. A wire already connects port 2 and pin 1 of the terminal 2. So the neutral
wire is continued from port 2 to pin 1 of terminal 2.
 The live wire or phase is taken from the junction box to the switch board. The live wire is
connected to the one terminal of the switch. From another terminal of the switch the wire
is carried out up to tube light set up and connected to port 1.
 One terminal of choke or ballast is connected to port 1 and another terminal is connected
to pin 1 of terminal 1.
 One end of a starter is connected to pin 2 of terminal 1 and another end of the starter is
connected to the pin 2 of terminal 2.

Simple Wiring diagram of ceiling fan

This is a simple illustrated circuit diagram of ceiling fan. To be noted that the wiring diagram is
for AC 220V single phase line with single phase ceiling fan motor. Here a simple SPST switch is
used to supply power or not to the fan motor and a Regulator is used to controlling the fan speed.
Though it is very simple, but one thing to be noted that Switch and Regulator should be
connected with the phase line of main power, not neutral.

Capacitor connection diagram of ceiling fan

Ceiling fan has a “capacitor start motor” in its inside. AC single phase capacitor start motor has
two winding; one is starting winding and another is running winding.

Fig-2: Ceiling fan capacitor connection diagram

As it is a capacitor start-capacitor run type motor; there a capacitor is used in series with
Starting Winding, It defines the direction of rotation. It is an electrolytic capacitor.