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Thermal Analysis of Hot Wall Condenser for Domestic Refrigerator

Article  in  International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) · July 2014

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International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358

Thermal Analysis of Hot Wall Condenser for


Domestic Refrigerator
Akash D. Raiyani1, N. R. Sheth2, Niraj C. Mehta3
1
ME Student, Department of Mechanical, GEC Valsad, College campus-396001, India
2
Department of Mechanical, GEC Valsad, College campus-396001, India
3
Head of Department, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Noble Engineering College,
PARTH VATIKA, Bheshan Road, Junagadh-, India

Abstract: The Condenser is a heat transferring device. It is used to remove heat from hot refrigerant vapour. Using air cooling method
condenser changes the vapour to a liquid. Convection mode of heat transfer plays very important deciding factor transferring heat from
condenser tube to atmosphere. This paper presents simulation results of hot-wall condensers that are commonly used in vapour
compression cycle based domestic refrigerators. This work is done on the real refrigerator, in present configuration of tube-plate
configuration is point contact. Geometrical parameter affect the condenser performance so in this work change in design the condenser
by changing the point contact between tube and plate by line contact with wrapping the plate on tube. The analysis is done in ANSYS 14
for existing configuration and result for the temperature distribution is validating by experimentally. After that analysis have been done
by increasing the contact angle between tube and plate with same boundary condition. Compare the result of existing configuration and
by changing the contact angle for the temperature distribution, heat flux and thermal gradient. From the result with the increase in
contact angle heat flux and thermal gradient is increase.

Keywords: about Hot wall condenser, Thermal, Heat transfer, Domestic refrigerator, ANSYS

1. Introduction as a shield to prevent heat transfer into the refrigerating


compartment. Since the condenser tubing is installed in a
A domestic refrigerator uses a condenser as a heat exchanger refrigerator wall, which is usually hot, it is called ‘‘hot-wall
to reject heat to the surroundings. A conventional condenser’’. There are five panels namely the left, right,
refrigerator uses a wire-and-tube condenser, which is back, cross rail and base panel. The refrigerant flows from
attached to the back of the refrigerator. However, this the back panel to the base panel, then to the right-hand side
condenser is prone to be damaged and dirt tends to panel and through the cross rail to the left-hand side panel.
accumulate and form a scale layer on the hot surface. This
increases the fouling resistance and reduces the heat transfer Since condensers are relatively inexpensive, they have been
significantly from the condenser. Due to these factors, a new widely applied in household refrigerators and freezers –
condenser design, called the ‘‘hot-wall condenser’’ was appliances that consume a considerable amount of energy
introduced in recent years to replace the wire-and-tube since hundreds of millions are currently in use, and dozens
condenser. The hot-wall condenser, also known as wrapper of millions are coming onto the market every year [4].
type condenser, consists of steel tubing (coated with copper),
which is installed by direct contact on the inner surface of 2. Literature review
the outer iron plate of side walls of a refrigerator as shown in
Figure 1. Alessandro Rebora [1] evaluates the heat transfer rates inside
the wall of the hot-wall refrigerator by means of a parametric
finite element model; in particular, a chest freezer for
domestic applications was considered. A thermodynamic
approach was employed to assess the relative heat transfer
merits of the apparatus from the point of view both of the
thermodynamic performance and of capacity. The sensitivity
analysis of the design parameters affecting the performance
was developed for fixed working temperatures with
reference to the thickness of the metallic plates, the thickness
of the insulating foam, the evaporator and condenser tube
diameters and pitches, and the thermal contact resistance
between the tubes and the plates.

Bansal and Chin [2] developed a simulation model for the


Figure 1:.Cross section of a hot-wall condenser on hot-wall condenser for the refrigerant R134a in
refrigerator’s wall [2] FORTRAN90 language. This study paper presents the
experimental and modeling results of hot-wall condensers
The adhesive aluminum foil holds the tube in place and acts that are commonly used in domestic vapour compression

Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2014


www.ijsr.net
Paper ID: 05071403 622
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358
based refrigerators. Experiments were carried out on a real conduction between wall and tube and by convection from
refrigerator using R134a as the refrigerant to obtain the the wall to the atmosphere. All the analysis has been done
condenser capacity, pressure loss and degree of sub cooling with the same boundary condition. By the taking data for
at different operating conditions. A simulation model was boundary condition.
developed to analyses the heat transfer characteristics of the
condenser.  Temperature of the refrigerant inside the tube = 430C
 Film coefficient = 7.892 W/m2K
J.K. Gupta and M. Ram Gopal [3] was developed a  Bulk temperature = 34 0C
mathematical model of hot-wall condensers that are
commonly used in domestic refrigerators is presented. The
4. Analysis of Existing Tube plate
model predicts the heat transfer characteristics of condenser
and the effects of various design and operating parameters Configuration
on condenser tube length and capacity. In this model
condenser tube is divided into elemental units, with each 4.1 Temperature distribution
element consisting of adhesive aluminum tape, refrigerant
tube and outer metal sheet. The heat transfer characteristics
of the condensers are then analyzed by considering the heat
transfer through the tube wall, aluminum tape and the outer
sheet. Variations in inner heat transfer coefficient and
pressure drop are considered depending on temperature,
fluid phase, type of flow and orientation of tube. In this
study shows the aluminum tape used to stick the condensing
tube to the outer sheet plays a significant role in heat transfer
from condenser to environment.

Vinícius Brandani Labigalini and André Luiz Seixlack [4]


develops a mathematical model of hot-wall condensers,
commonly used in domestic refrigerators. The model
predicts the heat transfer characteristics of the condenser and
the geometric and operating parameters affecting the Figure 2: Temperature distribution of the present tube wall
condenser tube length and capacity. The condenser tube of configuration.
this model is divided into elemental units consisting of
control volume, which contains the refrigeration fluid, the The maximum temperature is 430C which is inside the
wall of the tube, and a bi-dimensional plate in contact with condenser tube and minimum temperature is 36 0C is wall
the atmospheric air. The heat transfer characteristics of the temperature is experimentally validated by multi
condensers are analyzed by considering the conduction heat thermometer as shown in Figure 3 and 4
transfer between the tube and the wall.

3. Analysis Of Hot Wall Condenser


3.1 Detail of Analysis

The wall is act as a fin. The wall is made of steel and it is


provided for increase in contact area in convective heat
transfer. By the using of fins the contact area of tube to air is
increased therefore the heat transfers rate increase.

3.2 Preprocessing Detail

 Element type- PLANE 55 2-D Thermal Solid


 Analysis Type- Thermal Figure 3: Temperature inside the tube
 Thermal Conductivity= 50 watt/mºC
 Density= 7.85 Kg/m3
 Specific Heat= 450 J/Kg.K

3.3 Boundary Conditions for Natural Convection

Conduction and convection will occurred in tube plate


configuration during heat transfer. Heat transfer process
starts when hot refrigerant is passing from the tube. And heat
is dissipated from the hot refrigerant to the atmosphere by

Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2014


www.ijsr.net
Paper ID: 05071403 623
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358
5. Analysis of Tube plate Configuration with
contact angle 90ᵒ
5.1 Temperature distribution

Figure 4: Temperature measurement of wall

4.2 Heat flux

Figure 7 Temperature distribution of the 90 degree contact


angle
5.2 Heat flux

Figure 5: Heat flux of the existing tube plate configuration

The result of heat flux is almost same through-out whole


tube plate configuration. The value of average heat flux is 43
W/m2 which is within the range of 42.5 to 68.5 W/m2 as per
reference paper[2]

4.3 Thermal gradient

Figure 8 Heat flux of the 90 degree contact angle


5.3 Thermal gradient

Figure6: Thermal gradient of the existing tube plate


configuration

Figure 9 Thermal gradient of the 90 degree contact angle

Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2014


www.ijsr.net
Paper ID: 05071403 624
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358
6. Analysis of Tube plate Configuration with 7. Comparison of the Analysis Result
contact angle 180ᵒ
Table 1: Comparison of the existing tube wall configuration,
6.1 Temperature distribution contact angle 90 degree and contact angle 180 degree
Existing 90 Degree 180 Degree
Configurat Contact Contact
ion Angle Angle
Tempera min 35.97 36.75 36.95
ture max 42.98 42.98 42.95
Heat min 43.83 47.32 48.37
flux max 272317 14760.9 18221.3
Thermal min 0.8767 0.9494 0.9693
gradient max 5446.34 295.217 285.528

8. Conclusion

Geometrical parameter affects the heat transfer characteristic


of the condenser. So the thermal analysis has been done in
the ANSYS 14 for the present configuration and with
contact angle 90 degree and 180 degree. From the analysis
Figure 10 Temperature distribution of the 180 degree result of the ANSYS I have found out that if we increase the
contact angle contact angle between tube and wall heat flux is increase and
also thermal gradient is increase.
6.2 Heat flux
9. Future Scope
The same analysis can be done with better meshing using
hyper mesh kind of software. Optimum contact angle can be
found out by using Genetic Algorithm kind of advanced
method. More number of cases can be studied. Experimental
investigation can be done for further research work.
References
[1] Alessandro Rebora1, Luca A. Tagliafico (1997). Thermal
performance analysis for hot-wall condenser and
evaporator configurations in refrigeration appliances,
Elsevier Science Ltd, PII: S0140-7007(97)00077-7
[2] P.K. Bansal, T.C. Chin (2002). Design and modelling of
hot-wall condensers in domestic refrigerators, Applied
Thermal Engineering 22 (2002) 1601–1617
Figure 11 Heat flux of the 180 degree contact angle [3] J.K. Guptaa, M. Ram Gopal (2008) Modeling of hot-wall
condensers for domestic refrigerators, i n t e r n a t i onal
6.3 Thermal gradient journal o f refrigeration 3 1 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 9 7 9 - 9 8 8
[4] Cla´udio Melo, Christian J.L. Hermes(2009), A heat
transfer correlation for natural draft wire-and-tube
condensers, international Journal of refrigeration 3 2 ( 2
009)546–555
[5] Vinícius Brandani Labigalini, André Luiz Seixlack
(2013) Modelling of a hot-wall condenser used in
domestic refrigerators, 22nd International Congress of
Mechanical Engineering (COBEM 2013)

Author Profile
Prof. Niraj C Mehta has more than 7 years of
experience in the field of Teaching, Research &
Industry. He has published more than 10 Research
Papers and Review Papers in the area of Heat
Transfer, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Finite
Element Method, Turbo Machinery, Automation, etc. in
Figure 12: Thermal gradient of the 180 degree contact angle International referred Journals and presented/published in

Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2014


www.ijsr.net
Paper ID: 05071403 625
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Impact Factor (2012): 3.358
International Conferences/Proceedings. He is a Reviewer and
Editor of international referred journals in the field of Mechanical
Engineering, Thermal Engineering, Computer Aided
Manufacturing, etc. He is actively involved in Consultancy,
Research and Testing in the area of Mechanical Engineering. His
research interests include Computational Heat Transfer,
Engineering Optimization, Finite Difference Method, etc. He has
guided many PG Dissertations and UG Projects.

Akasd D. Raiyani received the B. E. degree in


Mechanical Engineering from Government
Engineering College, Surat in 2011. During 2012 he
will work with Tube product corporate.

Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2014


www.ijsr.net
Paper ID: 05071403 626
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
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