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IEEE1818 - 2017
Guide for the Design of Low
Voltage AC and DC Auxiliary
Systems for Substations
Sponsored by the IEEE Substations Committee
Presented By Joe Gravelle
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Organization of the Guide


1. Scope / Purpose
2. Normative References
3. Definitions
4. AC System Design
5. DC System Design
Annex A – Bibliography
Annex B - Conductor Sizing examples
Annex C – Battery Sizing Examples
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Organization of the Guide


1. Scope / Purpose
2. Normative References
3. Definitions
4. AC System Design
5. DC System Design
Annex A – Bibliography
Annex B - Conductor Sizing examples
Annex C – Battery Sizing Examples
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1.1 Scope
• This guide provides guidelines for the design of
the ac and dc systems.
• This guide covers the low voltage auxiliary
systems from the source(s) to the distribution
point(s).
• Reliability requirements and load characteristics
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1.2 Purpose
• The low-voltage ac and dc auxiliary systems comprise
very important parts of the substation equipment.
• Design of the ac and dc auxiliary systems
• reliability,
• load requirements,
• system configuration,
• personnel safety,
• safe and reliable operation
• protection
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2.0 Normative References


• IEEE 485, IEEE 525

3.0 Definitions
• Definitions are provided for technical terms used
in the guide.
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Organization of the Guide


1. Scope / Purpose
2. Normative References
3. Definitions
4. AC System Design
5. DC System Design
Annex A – Bibliography
Annex B - AC examples
Annex C – DC Examples
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4.0 AC System Design


• Design Criteria
• Source Requirements
• Load Analysis
• Conductor Selection
• Transformer(s)
• Transfer Switch
• Bus Layout
• Panels
• Protection
• Equipment Specifications
• Operations and Maintenance
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4.1 Introduction
• Design Criteria
• Source Requirements
• Number of sources
• 1 phase or 3 phase
• Load Requirements

These sections define the AC


system for the substation
Application.
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4.2 Design Criteria


• AC system loads
• 1 or 3 phase
• System stability
• Protection
• Voltage

This section defines the AC


system design.
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4.3 AC sources
• Transformer tertiary
• Substation bus
• Distribution line
• Generators
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4.4 AC Load Analysis


• Identification
• Amps/Volts/kW
• Equipment rating
• Demand factors
• Load calculations
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4.5 Conductor Selection


• Conductor Type
• Insulation
• Temperature Rating
• Size – Ampacity
• Voltage Drop
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4.6 Station Auxiliary Transformer


• Transformer Type
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4.6 Station Auxiliary Transformer


• Number of transformers
• Single/Three phase
• Transformer Ratings
• Transformer Connections
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4.6 Station Auxiliary Transformer


• Transformer Ratings
• KVA
• Voltage
• Short Circuit
• Impedance
• BIL
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4.6 AC System Design


• Transformer Connections Single Phase
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4.6 AC System Design


• Transformer Connections Three Phase
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4.7 Transfer Switch


• Manual / Automatic
• Considerations:
• Break before Make
• Switching Neutrals
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4.8 Bus Layout - Distribution Configuration


• Essential / Non-Essential Loads
• Simple Radial System
• Expanded Radial System
• Primary / Secondary Selective systems
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4.8 Bus Layout


and Distribution
Circuit
Configuration
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4.9 AC Distribution
Panelboards
• Application
• Ratings
• Short Circuit ratings
• Standards
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4.10 AC Auxiliary System Protection


• Panelboard or Switchboard
• Circuit Breaker Selection
• Fuse Selection
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4.11 Equipment Specifications


• General considerations
• Standards
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4.12 Operation - Maintenance Consideration


• Accessible Disconnects
• Indoor/Outdoor Design
• Adequate Working Space
• Standby or Backup AC System
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Organization of the Guide


1. Scope / Purpose
2. Normative References
3. Definitions
4. AC System Design
5. DC System Design
Annex A – Bibliography
Annex B - AC examples
Annex C – DC Examples
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DC System Design
• Design Criteria
• DC Equipment
• One Line Diagram
• Batteries
• Chargers
• Panels
• Design Considerations
• Maintenance Provisions
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Battery System
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Battery System
Single cell battery with acid
containment on a two step rack
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5.1 DC System Design Criteria


• Reliability
• Redundancy
• Environment
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5.2 Equipment Served by the DC System


• System Protection Equipment
• Motor Operators
• Breakers
• SCADA
• Fire Protection
• Security
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5.3 One Line Diagram


• Power System One Line
• System protection
• DC System One Line
• DC Load Calculations
• DC Connections
• Number of Batteries
• Load Transfer
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Operating sequence:
Substation One Line 12D3 is normally closed,
no generation on feeder circuits
Operating time for MOS 10 seconds

Transformer T1 differential:
Trip 69CB1, 69CB3, 12CB1
Open 69DT1

Breaker Failure on 12CB1:


Open 12CB2, Open 12D3, Reclose 12CB2
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DC System

Battery To DC Cab.

Panel

Maint Charger & Battery

Battery
Charger
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DC System
distribution
cabinet(s)
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5.4 DC Batteries
➢ Battery System
➢ Battery Charger(s)
➢ Battery Disconnect(s)
➢ DC Panel(s)
➢ Maintenance Connections
➢ DC Loads
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5.4 DC Batteries
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5.4 DC Battery Types


➢ Vented Lead Acid (VLA)
➢ Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA)
➢ Nickel Cadmium (NiCad)

• For substation use, vented lead-acid cells are the most


common
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5.4 DC Battery
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5.4 DC Battery
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5.4 DC Battery
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Battery Sizing
➢Sizing the battery using IEEE 485 (Vented Lead Acid Batteries)

➢Defining the Duty Cycle (loading on battery based on time duration)

▪ Continuous Load
▪ Momentary Load
▪ Worst Case Tripping
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Continuous Loads
➢ Indicating lamps,
➢ Microprocessor Relays,
➢ Electronic Meters,
➢ SCADA Systems,
➢ Annunciators,
➢ Communication Equipment

o For loads that are non-linear such as power supplies, the current
increases as voltage declines.
o The watt rating is typically used to determine current at end of
battery cycle discharge voltage
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Momentary Loads
➢Lock Out Relay (LOR)
➢Breaker tripping
➢Motor Operators
➢ Breaker Fail operation
❑ Considerations:

o Worst Case Tripping Scenarios


o MOD use Locked Rotor rating
o Breaker Fail use SOE not sum of all currents select highest
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Operating sequence:
Worst Case Tripping 12D3 is normally closed,
no generation on feeder circuits
Operating time for MOS 10 seconds

Transformer T1 differential:
Trip 69CB1, 69CB3, 12CB1
Open 69DT1

Breaker Failure on 12CB1:


Open 12CB2, Open 12D3, Reclose 12CB2

Timing:
T=0cy (0 sec)
Trip 69CB1, 69CB3, 12CB1, open 69DT1
Current=12+12+8+60=92A

T=12cy (0.2sec) (12CB1 breaker failure timer)


Trip 12CB2, Re-Trip 12CB1 open 12D3
Current=20+8+8+60=96A

T=600cy (10sec)
Reclose 12CB2
Current=6A

From the above, the worst case tripping load is 96A for the 12CB1
breaker failure.
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Duty Cycle Duration


1. Charger fails – Initiates Alarm to SCADA
2. Dispatcher notices Alarm
3. Dispatch contacts Substation Personal
4. Substation Personal Drive to Substation
5. Investigate Alarm
6. Determines Charger Failed – contacts dispatch requesting maintenance
7. Dispatch contacts Maintenance
8. Maintenance Technician Drives to Substation
9. Maintenance attempts to repair charger (unsuccessful)
10. Maintenance Supervisor locates spare charger
11. Maintenance Supervisor contacts additional resources
12. Resources drive to service center PU spare charger and drive to substation
13. Replace failed Charger
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Duty Cycle Example


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Battery Chargers
➢Sizing battery Chargers
➢Charger Connections
➢Charger Circuit Protection
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Battery Chargers
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Battery Charger size


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DC Panels
❑ Considerations
➢Critical Loads vs non-Critical Loads
➢Circuit size
➢Number of circuits
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DC Panels
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DC Panels
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Design Considerations
• Battery location
• Maintenance considerations
• Working clearances
• Method for removing
battery cells
• An eyewash station
• Spill containment
systems
• Terminal Covers
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Battery Terminal
Covers
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Design Considerations

• Battery area temperature


• Specifications published for sizing
• Heat and Cold impact battery performance
• Reference IEEE485 for effect on Battery Size
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Design Considerations
• Acid spill containment
• Spill Pans
• Acid-resistant paint on the floor
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Design Considerations
• Battery racks
• Three types—step, tier, or
stepped tier
• Height variations between cells
can cause cell temperature
differences within the same
battery system
• acid-resistant coating applied to
the structural frame
• seismic zone
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Design Considerations
• Battery rack
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Design Considerations
Circuit considerations
• Grounded and ungrounded systems
• Ungrounded –Substation Control - SCADA
• Grounded ((+) grounded) – Communications
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Design Considerations -
Circuit considerations
• Isolation of Main DC cables
• Recommendations - IEEE 1375
• Battery fuse
• Battery circuit breaker
• Battery disconnect switch
• Mid-point battery fuse
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Circuit considerations
• Isolation of main dc cables - Separate the pos and neg cables
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Design Considerations
Circuit considerations
• Coordination of overcurrent protection
• Short-circuit levels
• Fuses
• Breakers
• Equipment voltage ratings
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Maintenance Provisions
• Isolation switches
• Equipment accessibility
• Back-up supplies
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Maintenance Provisions
• Testing Provisions
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DC System

Battery To DC Cab.

Panel

Maint Charger
& Battery

Battery
Charger
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Annex
Annex A – Bibliography
Annex B - Conductor Sizing Example
Annex C – Battery Sizing Example
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Questions?