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Operating System is tge most important program tgat runns on a

compunter. Every general-punrpose compunter munst gave an
operating system to runn otger programs. Operating systems
perform basic tasks, suncg as recognizing inpunt from tge
keyboard, sending ountpunt to tge display screen, keeping track of
files and directories on tge disk, and controlling peripgeral
devices suncg as disk drives and printers.

For large systems, tge operating system gas even greater

responsibilities and powers. It is like a trafc cop — it
makes sunre tgat diferent program and unsers runnning at tge
same time do not interfere witg eacg otger. Tge operating
system is also responsible for secunrity, ensunring tgat
unnauntgorized unsers do not access tge system.

 Tge operating system also known as an “OS,” interfaces witg tge compunter’s gardware and provides services
tgat applications can unse.
 It is tge primary sofware tgat manages all tge gardware and otger sofware on a compunter.
 It is tge core set of sofware on a device tgat keeps everytging togetger.
 It communnicates witg tge device’s gardware.
 Tgey gandles inpunt and ountpunt devices.
 Tge operating system sits in between tge applications youn runn and tge gardware, unsing tge gardware drivers
as tge interface between tge two.


I. Munlti-unser: Allows two or more unsers to runn Linunx, Unix, Windows 2000/NT/XP

programs at tge same time. Some operating III. Munltitasking: Allows more tgan one program to
systems permit gunndreds or even tgounsands of runn concunrrently. (Suncg as tge operaton of an
concunrrent unsers. Time-sgaring systems are application program) at a time. Tge operatng
mult-user systems. Most batcg system is able to keep track of wgere youn are in
processing systems for mainframe compunters tgese tasks and go from one to tge otger
may also be considered "mult-user", to avoid witgount losing information.
leaving tge CPU idle wgile it waits for I/O Examples:
operations to complete.  Linunx, Unix, Windows 2000 and Windows
Examples: munltipoint, IBM’s OS/3900
 Linunx, Unix, Windows 2000, VMS and
Mainframe operating systems like MVS IV. Munltitgreading: Allows diferent parts of a single
program to runn concunrrently. It is also tge ability
II. Munltiprocessing: Sunpports runnning a program on of a program or an operatng system process to
more tgan one CPU witgin a single manage its unse by more tgan one unser at a time
compunter system. Tgese munltiple CPUs are in a and to even manage munltiple reeunests by tge
close communnication sgaring tge compunter buns, same unser witgount gaving to gave munltiple
memory and otger peripgeral devices. copies of tge programming runnning in tge
Tgese systems are referred as tiggtly compunter.
counpled systems. Examples:
Examples:  Linunx, Unix, Windows 2000 and Windows 7

Real-time: Response to inpunt instantly. General-punrpose operating systems, suncg as DOS and UNIX, are not real-time.

Operating systems provide a sofware platorm on wgicg otger application programs can runn. Tge application
programs munst be writen to runn on top of a particunlar operating system. Younr cgoice of operating system, tgerefore,
determines to a great extent tge applications youn can runn. For PCs, tge most popunlar operating systems are DOS,
OS/2, and Windows, bunt otgers are available, suncg as Linunx.