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Thermal Physics
solid expansion

∆ℓ = αℓ0∆T

∆A = 2αA0∆T

∆V = 3αV0∆T

Liquid Expansion

∆V = βV0∆T

Sensible Heat

Q = mc∆T

Latent Heat

Q = mL

Ideal Gas Law

PV = nRT

molecular constants

nR =Nk

Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution
mv2
− 2kT
4v2⎛m ⎞3/2
p(v) = e
vp ⎝2kT⎠

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molecular Kinetic Energy

3
⟨K⟩ = kT
2

Molecular Speeds

2kT 8kT 3kT


vp = √ ⟨v⟩ = v vrms = √
m πm m

Heat Flow Rate

∆Q
Φ̅ =
∆t

dQ
Φ=
dt

Thermal Conduction

kA∆T
Φ=

Stefan-Boltzmann Law

Φ = εσA(T4 − T04)

Wien Displacement Law

b
max =
T

Internal Energy

∆U = 3⁄2nR∆T

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Thermodynamic Work

W = − P dV

1st law of Thermo.

∆U = Q + W

Entropy

∆Q
∆S =
T

S = k log w

Efficiency

QC
ℰreal = 1 −
QH

TC
ℰideal = 1 −
TH

C.O.P

QC
COPreal =
QH − QC

TC
COPideal =
TH − TC

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