Sie sind auf Seite 1von 23

Power supplies

There are two main sources of supply or biasing electronic devices. These are:
1. Dry cell or
2. By design AC/DC converter at appropriate level.
(1) Dry cell or Batteries
a. Are portable
b. Ripple free
c. Low voltage level
d. Frequent replacement
e. At long run, they are expensive
(1) Ac to DC converter
a. Not very portable
b. Have ripple content
c. Variable voltage can be retained
d. No need of replacement
e. Cheap
Components/process are:
(i) Step down components (transformer or other components)
(ii) Rectification (rectifier)
(iii) Filtration (filter)
(iv) Regulation (regulator)
(v) Voltage divider (potentiometer, IC, etc.)

(1) Transformer main function is to:


i. Step-down the voltage
ii. Provides isolation from mains.

1
(2) Rectifiers: Main function is to: convert AC into pulsating DC voltage.
(3) Filter: Main function is to remove the pulsating (function) present in the output
of rectification.
(4) Voltage Regulator: keep the terminal voltage of the DC supply constant even
when there is variation in the input AC voltage to the transformer or variation of
load current.
(5) Voltage Divider: main function is to provide DC voltage at variable levels.

Rectifiers
1. 1 – Φ half ware rectification
2. 1 – Φ full – wave rectification
3. 1 – Φ Bridge rectifier
4. 3 – Φ half ware rectification
5. 3 – Φ full – wave rectification
6. 3 – Φ Bridge rectifier
7. 6 – Φ half – wave

2
1 Single – Phase Half Wave Rectifier
Single phase half wave rectifier consists of one diode only

(A) During positive half cycle.


1) A is more positive then B.
2) So diode D is forward bias
3) Current passes from A through D to E through the load R L to F back to B to
the transformer source.
(B) During negative half cycle
i. B is more positive than A
ii. Therefore diode D is reverse bias
iii. Current start to more from B to F to E but diode D block it from reaching A
so the loop is not complete so no flow of current IL = 0
iv. Power is not delivered to the load RL. (Is just like connecting the terminal
without negative.

Mathematical Analysis
Vsm = Maximum Secondary voltage if transfer
Vrms = RMS value of Secondary Voltage
Vrmax = Vsm - Diode drop – secondary resistance drop = max load voltage
Vlms = RMS of load voltage
3
Ilrms = RMS of load current.
Vars = Average value of load voltage
Iarg = Average value of load current.
ILmax = Average value of load current
RL = Load resistance
Rs = Transformer Secondary Resistance
rd is diode resistance
Therefore:
Ro = Rs + rd

Efficiency

Ripple Factor
Is the amount of ac components inside the dc voltage. It is defined as

4
𝑟𝑚𝑠 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑐 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑉𝑟𝑚𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑐
Ripple = =𝑉
𝑑𝑐 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑎𝑣𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑐

Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV)


It is the maximum voltage that occurs across the rectifier diode in the reverse
direction. For half-wave rectifier diode, the maximum voltage applied across it
equal to the maximum secondary voltage Vmax.
a) Transformer Utilization factor (TUF) : when designing power supply, it is
necessary to determine the rating of the transformer. It can be done provided TUF
is known TUF helps to design or choose a transformer, such that it can
continuously deliver power to the load without overloading.
𝑑𝑐 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑃𝑑𝑐 𝑃𝑑𝑐
TUF= =𝑃 =𝑃
𝑎𝑐 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑦 𝑎𝑐 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎𝑐 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔

𝑃𝑑𝑐
=𝑃
𝑎𝑐 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔

𝑉𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑉𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑉2 𝑉2
For half wave, Pdc = VLavg . ILavg = . = 𝑅 = 𝜋𝑅𝐿
𝜋 𝑅𝐿 𝐿

If R0 is negligible
𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝐼𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝐼𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑉2
Pac rating = . = . = 2 𝑚𝑎𝑥
√2 √2 √2 2𝑅𝐿 2𝑅
√ 𝐿

2√2
TUF = = 0.287 TUF =0.2 due to saturation effect
𝜋
Example

5
Find i) VLmax ii)VL(rms) iii) ILmax iv)IL(RMS) v) Pdc vi)PIV of the
diode v)rms of ripple voltage assume that rd = 0, RS =0
Solution
𝑁 1
K=𝑁2 = 10
1

V(max primary) = 220×√2 = 310V


1
V(max secondary) =KV(max primary) = × 310 = 31𝑉
10

i)VLmax = 31V
𝑉𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 31
ii)VL(RMS) = = =15.5V
2 2
𝑉𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 31
iii)ILmax = = = = 0.31 A
𝑅𝐿 100
𝐼𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 0.31
iv)IL(rms) = = = 0.155 A
2 2

v) PL = VL(rms) ×IL(rms) = 15.5 ×0.155 = 2.4w


vi)PIV = 2Vmax = 2×31 = 62V
2 𝑉𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥
vii)Vrms =√𝑉𝐿𝑟𝑚𝑠−𝑉 2 VL(rms) = 15.5 V, VL(avg) = =9.86V
𝐿𝑎𝑣𝑔 𝜋

=√15.52 − 9.862 =√14.03 = 11.9V

Example
A half-wave rectifier using silicon diode has a secondary EMF OF 14.14 v(rms)
with a resistance of 0.2 ohm. The diode has a forward resistance of 0.05 ohm and a
threshold voltage of 0.7V. If load resistance is 10 ohm, determine:
ILavg, Vavg, Voltage regulator and efficiency

6
Solution

Vmax = √2 𝑉𝑟𝑚𝑠 = 14.14×√2 = 20V


R0 = rd +Rs = 0.05 +0.2 = 0.25 ohm
𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥−𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 20−0.7
1)ILmax = = =1.88 A
𝑅0+𝑅𝐿 0.25+10
𝐼𝐿𝑚𝑎𝑥 1.88
ILavg = = = 0.6A
𝜋 𝜋

ii) VLavg = Iavg ×RL =0.6 ×10 =6V


𝑉𝑁𝐿 −𝑉𝐹𝐿
iii)VR = ×100
𝑉𝐹𝐿
𝑅𝐿
at a full load, VFL = VNL × (VOLTAGE DIVIDER)
𝑅0+𝑅𝐿

subsitituting VFL we have


𝑅0 0.25
VR = = = 0.025 or 2.5%
𝑅𝐿 10
40.6
iv) Efficiency = 𝑅0 = 39.6%
1+𝑅𝐿

7
2 Bridge Rectifier Circuit
This has four diodes connected

Operation: During the positive half cycle


i)M is more positive than N
ii) Current passes from M to E (through D1) to A through the load R L to B to C
through D3 to F back to source.
E and A are positive (high potential during positive cycle). So D4 and D2 block the
conduction after delivery power to load

Negative half-cycle
i-N is more positive than M
ii-Current passes from N to F to A through D2 to the load to B and C To E
through D4 back to the source.
iii-C and F are at high potential in negative half cycle so D1 and D3 block the
conduction after delivering power to the load.

8
3 Single-Phase Full Wave Rectifier

Operation
Positive Half-cycle
i)M is more positive than N
ii)Current passes from M to L through D1, through the load RL and then back to
B(centre tap)
Negative Half-cycle
i)N is more Positive than M
ii)Current passes from N to L through D2 to the load and then back to B (Centre
tap)
𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 2𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥
A)Vlrms = = 0.707Vmax, Vavg = = 0.636 Vmax
√2 𝜋
4𝐼2 𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑃𝑑𝑐 (𝑅𝐿) 0.812 81.2 %
𝜋2
B)Efficiency = = 1𝐼2𝑚𝑎𝑥 (𝑅0+𝑅2)
= 𝑅0 = 𝑅0
𝑃𝑖𝑛 1+ 1+
2 𝑅𝐿 𝑅𝐿

𝑉𝑟(𝑟𝑚𝑠)
C) Ripple Factor = = 0.482
𝑉𝐿(𝑟𝑚𝑠)

D) PIV= 2Vmax
E)TUF= 0.693

9
Three Phase Half-wave Rectifier
Operation
1-During period of t1 to t2 R phase is more positive than other so, D1 conducts and
power is delivered to load RL
2-During period t2 to t3 yellow-phase is more positive than others so, D2 conducts
and power is delivered to the load RL
3-During period t3 to t4 blue-phase is more positive therefore D3 conducts and
power is delivered to the load RL. The process repeat itself continuously.
Three-Phase Full wave rectifier
Depending on which of the diode has the maximum obsolute magnitude either
positive 0r half cycle so it conducts
Three phase full wave rectifier circuit is preffered for high powers because
1-Each secondary carries current for one-third of a cycle
2-Each primary carries current for two-third of a cycle
3-Copper loss on the transformer windings is comparatively lower

Three-Phase Bridge Rectifier

Operation:
1-When Red phase is—

10
more positive than the rest, D1 conducts and power is delivered to RL and returns
through D5 and D6
2-When yellow phase is more positive than the rest, D2 conducts power is
delivered to RL and returns through D4 and D6
3-When blue phase is more positive than the rest. D3 conducts power is delivered
to RL and returns through D4 and D5.
Iavg=0.95 Imax, Vavg= 2.34Vrms
Assignment: Read about six-Phase half-wave rectifier

FILTER
The main function of a filter in dc power supply is to reduce the ripple content
(pulsating) of a rectifier output voltage in dc supply the following filters are
commonly available.
1-Shunt Capacitor filter
2-Series Inductor Filter
3-L-C Filter
4-R-C Filter
5-C-L-C Filter
Shunt Capacitor

11
Discharging time = CRL
Discharging time is 100 times more than the charging time.
Capacitor charges between a to b at time t1
Capacitor discharges between b to c at time t2
Increasing the capacitor size will reduces the magnitude of ripple, reduce the time
flow of current pulse through the diode and increase the peak current in the diode.

12
Shunt Capacitor Filter design

The voltage across the load with capacitor filter will appear like the figure above.
𝛼𝑄 𝐼𝑑𝑐 𝑇𝑟 𝑉𝑑𝑐
Vr(p-p) = = =
𝐶 𝐶 𝑓𝑟𝐶𝑅𝐿
𝑉𝑟(𝑟𝑚𝑠) 1
= =ripple factor ________Half Wave
𝑉𝑑𝑐 2√3 𝑓𝑟𝐶𝑅𝐿
1
=ripple factor _______________ Full-wave
4√3 𝑓𝑟𝐶𝑅𝐿

Example: A half wave rectifier has Vrms = 12.2V @ 50Hz


R1= 100 ohm find 1) C at 1% ripple factor ii)VRL

SERIES INDUCTOR FILTER

The fourier series of the rectifier output is

13
2 4 4
Vi = Vip( - cos2wt - cos4wt …………….)
𝜋 3𝜋 15𝜋
2𝑉𝑖𝑝
Thus, Vdc = no inductance resistance
𝜋
2𝑣𝑖𝑝 𝑅𝐿
Vdc = × RL= Load resistance, RC = Choke Resistance
𝜋 𝑅𝐶+𝑅𝐿
𝑅
Ripple factor =
3𝑤𝐿√2

L-C FILTER

The combination of L and C as a filter components makes the ripple factor to be


independent of RL
If the resistance of the inductor is neglected, then dc voltage across the load (RL) is
given as the value of the first harmonic.
2𝑉𝑖𝑝
Vdc = VRL = the ac drop across RL is the same as across C, XC << RL,
𝜋
4𝑉𝑖𝑝
RL//XC = XC. The second harmonic voltage( )cos2wt can be assumed to drop
3𝜋

over the L-C Series combination because RL is effectively no there.


4𝑉𝑖𝑝 𝑋𝐶
Max drop across C is ( × )
3𝜋 𝑋𝐿+𝑋𝐶

4𝑉𝑖𝑝 𝑋𝐶 4𝑉𝑖𝑝 𝑋𝐶
Vmax = ( × ), Vrms = ×
3𝜋 𝑋𝐿+𝑋𝐶 √2 ×3𝜋 𝑋𝐿+𝑋𝐶

𝑉𝑎𝑐 4𝑉𝑖𝑝 𝑋𝐶 𝜋 √2𝑋𝐶


Ripple factor = = × × = XC <<XL
𝑉𝑑𝑐 √2 ×3𝜋 𝑋𝐿+𝑋𝐶 2𝑉𝑖𝑝 3𝑋𝐿
1.19
Ripple = C=uf and L in Henry
𝐿𝐶

14
The minimum value of choke inductance essential for proper working of the filter
is reduced when
Idc = I2h , Idc = average current
I2h = harmonic current
2𝑉𝑖𝑝 4𝑉𝑖𝑝
Idc = , I2h=
𝜋𝑅𝐿 3𝜋×2𝑤𝑙
2𝑉𝑖𝑝 4𝑉𝑖𝑝 𝑅𝐿 𝑅𝐿
= L= at 50 Hz L=
𝜋𝑅𝐿 6𝜋𝑤𝑙 3𝑊𝐿 940

R-C-Filter

1 4𝑉𝑖𝑝 𝑋𝐶 4𝑉𝑖𝑝
Vrms = × × =
√2 3𝜋 √𝑅 2 +𝑋𝐶 2
√2 ×3𝜋√1+ 𝑅22
𝑋𝐶

𝑅
𝑉𝑟𝑚𝑠 (1+𝑅 𝑅2
𝐿
Ripple = = if >> 1
𝑉𝑑𝑐 3√2 𝑤𝐶𝑅 𝑋𝐶 2

The C-L-C Filter

𝑋𝐶1 𝑋𝐶2 √2 5700


Ripple = √2 = = when f- 50 Hz
𝑅𝐿𝑋𝐿 8𝑤 3 𝐶1𝐶2𝐿𝑅𝐿 𝐿𝐶1𝐶2𝑅𝐿

When C1 and C2 are in µF, L in Henry and RL in ohms


REGULATORS
15
The function of the regulator is to maintain the output voltage constant irrespective
of the load and the variation in the input voltage.
𝑉max −𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑉NL −𝑉𝐹𝐿
% Regulation = or
𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑉𝐹𝐿

Types of Regulators
1-Zener Diode Shunt Regulator
2-Transistor series voltage Regulator
3-Transistor Shunt Voltage Regulator
4-IC Regulator
Zener Diode Shunt Regulator

I1 = IZ + IL
VL = VZ
PZ = VZIZ
𝑉𝑖𝑛−𝑉𝑍
R
𝑖1

Example : Assuming that VZ = 6.8V @ IZ = 50Ma AND rZ = 2Ω @ IZ =50Ma


What will be the load voltage when the load current varies from 10Ma TO 120 Ma.
Calculate % regulation.
Solution
IL = 120mA Iin = IZ +IL
IZmax = 150
IZ = 150-120 = 30mA

16
Deviation from 50Mh =30-50 = -20mA
Forward drop across zener = IZrZ = -20mA×2=-40mV
VL = VZ +IZRZ = 6.8 + (-40×10-3) =6.76V
ii)IL = 10mA
IZ = 150-10 =140mA
Deviation from 50Ma=140-50=90
Forward drop = IZrz = 6.8+(-40×10-3) = 6.76V
II)IL= 10mA
Deviation from 50Ma=140-50 =90mA
Forward drop =IZVZ = 90×10-3 ×2=0.18
VL=VZ+IZRZ =6.8 +0.18 =6.98V

Transistor series voltage regulator

I1 =IC + IR
IR =IB +IZ
IC= IL
IC=βIb
VL +VBE –VZ =0
VBE = VZ –VL

17
When VDE the level of conduction of the transistor will increase thereby IC =IL, IB
is a function of conduction of the transistor.

Transistor Shunt voltage Regulator

I1 = IB +IC+IL
IC=βIC
Loop A to B
VL-VZ-VBE =0
VBE = VL –VZ(fixed)
Since Vz=fixed, any increase in VL will increase VBE
Vin = VR+VL in logic

Example

Find VL, VCE and power delivered by the transistor, VBE =0.7 silicon
i)VL =Vout =VZ-VBE =9-0.7 =8.3V
ii)VCE =Vin –Vout =12-8.3 =3.7V
18
𝑉𝐿 8.3
iii)IE=IL, = = 83mA
𝑅𝐿 100

iv)Power delivered by transistor =VCEIE =3.7 ×83mA=310mW


IC Regulators

Regulators are available in IC form


I-Fixed Positive IC Regulator
c1=0.33µF, c2=0.01µF
Min input voltage = XX +2V
Max input voltage =35V
Variable Positive IC Regulator

𝑉𝑓𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑
Vout =Vfixed +( + IQ)R2
𝑅1

Example: R1=R2=1K, IQ=5mA, IC=7805


5
Vout = 5+( + 5𝑚𝐴) × 1𝐾 = 15𝑉
1𝐾

19
Vout min =5V when R2=0

Fixed Negative IC Voltage Regulator


The 7900 series is typical of three terminal IC regulator that provide a fixed
negative output voltage.

The minimum input voltage should be –XX-2 e.g for 7905-7V


The maximum input for all is -35V
Variable negative IC regulator
The same 79XX can be made variable by putting so external components as shown
below:

𝑅1+𝑅2)
Vout = Vfixed ( ) , c3=25µF
𝑅2
Recommended value of R2 are 300 ohm for 7905
20
750 ohm for 7912
1K for 7915
Other Adjustable IC Regulators
Other IC Regulators are LM317 & LM 723. LM 317 is regulators whose output
voltage can be adjusted over a range of 1.2V to 37V @10Ma. While LM can be
adjusted from 20 to 37V @150mA

𝑅
Vout =Vref(1+ 2) +Iadj×R2
𝑅1

Iadj typical value = 100µA


R1=220, Vref=1.2V
Adjustable Negative output linear voltage regulation
An adjustable negative IC regulator also exist in many varieties. A good example
is LM 337.

𝑅
Vout =Vref(1+ 2) +Iadj×R2
𝑅1

Current Boasting in fixed IC’s Regulator


21
A combination of fixed IC and a transformer give as the required current.

0.7𝑉
Rext = ,
𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑥

Pext = Iext[Vin-Vout]
Imax = max. Value of current that the voltage regulator is to handle
internally.
Pext = Iext[Vin-Vout]
Protection of transistor against over current

22
0.7𝑉
Rext = –Silicon
𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑥

PT1 = It(Vin-Vout)
𝑉𝑓𝑖𝑥𝑒𝑑
Vout = Vfixed +( + 𝐼𝑄 )𝑅2
𝑅1

7800 Series
7800_________1A
Current Varying

23