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ABATTOIR

PRACFTICES
AND WOOL
SCIENCE
Sanjay kumar A P
SOURCES OF FOOD ANIMALS

 Food animals are all animals that are used for human consumption.
 They may be mainly herbivorous animals.
 Food animals are generally of two types viz., Conventional food animals(cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and pigs) and non-
conventional food animals (musk oxen, yak, deer, reindeer, horses, camels, alpaca, llama and vicuna).
 The animals suitable for the food of man should have cloven footed hoof and chew the cud.
 In addition, poultry (chicken, ducks, geese, turkey, pigeons, emu, etc) have become major meat producing species.
 Food animals are kept primarily for the production of meat but they often yield additional products of sufficient value to
influence the economics of the total process.
 The carcass yield or dressing percentage is expressed as a percentage of the live weight of the animals.
Dressing percentage = ((Live weight of the animal - dressed weight)
/ live weight ) x 100

Kind of animals Carcass yield (%)

Cattle 50 to 54

Sheep and Goat 35 to 50

Veal 63

Pig 65 - 70

MEAT CONSUMPTION HABITS IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE WORLD

 In Europe (Denmark, Belgium Holland and France) horseflesh forms an important item of human diet but in many other
parts of world it is not so common.
 People of Korea and some parts of North-Eastern India consume the flesh of dogs.
 In Italy and Germany dogs were used in the past.
 In the south and south East of Asia, south and south west of Europe and in India, buffaloes are used. Deer, wild boar, etc.
are used as dainties.
 Consumption of rabbit meat is rapidly increasing because of their quick turnover and better feed conversion ratio.
 Swine especially, the exotic variety are increasingly used nowadays in India.
 Some tribal people of Africa consume flesh of hippopotamus, rhinoceros and elephants.
 Diet of the Eskimos constitutes flesh of seal and polar bears.
 In some remote areas of Africa, human flesh (Cannibalism) may also be consumed. Whale is used in Norway and Japan.
 Fish, snakes, crabs, prawns, lobsters, frogs, molluscs, etc., form the aquatic source of meat in different parts of the globe.
 Frogs are consumed in China, Japan and U. S. A.
 Non-domestic ones – deer, wild boars, antelopes, wild cats, etc., are consumed as game animals in different parts of the
world.
 Flesh of kangaroos is consumed in Australia.
 In Africa and Russia, elands are being domesticated, as well as antelopes in Russia.
 In South America large rodents, capybara, which is a semi-aquatic vegetarian, is being used as a source of meat, although
it is not especially palatable.

CLASSIFICATION OF FOOD ANIMALS

 Macro Livestock / Large stock: Includes cattle, buffaloes, camels, etc.


 Medium stock: Includes pigs.
 Micro Livestock / Small stock: Includes calves, sheep, goats etc.
 According to the physical condition, food animals are sometimes referred as lean stock and fat stock.
DESCRIPTION OF FOOD ANIMALS

Cattle

 In India, cattle are reared mainly for milk production and draught purpose.
 Slaughter of cow is banned by law in most of the states of India except in Kerala and West Bengal. Slaughter of bullocks
does take place at most of the places. Carcass yield varies from 50 to 54% depending upon the condition of the animal.
Buffalo

 Indian buffaloes are primarily reared for milk production and slaughtered after their productive period.
 There is a good demand for buffalo meat among the Middle East countries and Malaysia.
 Male buffalo calves with proper feeding and management offer vast potential for good quality and better-priced meat for
export. A dressing percentage of 50% is obtained from well-maintained male buffalo calves of less than 3 months of
age. The average dressing percentage of Indian buffaloes varies from 50 to 55%.
Sheep

 In arid, semi-arid and mountainous areas of our country which are not suitable for crop farming, sheep are primarily
reared both for wool and meat.
 Sometimes milk is also obtained from sheep.
 Sheep and goat skins are fairly valuable and about 90% are recovered from slaughter.
 Almost 5% of total meat is derived from this species by slaughter of 33% sheep population every year.
 India stands third in sheep population in the world with vast genetic resource of as many as 40 breeds.
 In general, an average Indian sheep weighs between 13 to 16 kg at 6 months of age except for Deccani and Magra (both
are dual purpose breed for mutton and carpet wool), which weigh about 20 kg.
 At 12 months of age the average weight varies from 18 to 22 kg except for Muzaffarnagri (dual purpose) and Magra ,
which weigh 25 and 28 kg, respectively.
 The dressing percentage of sheep is about 45 to 48%, which may go up to 50% in a well-bred stock.
Goats

 India ranks second largest in the world goat population.


 Since 90 % of goat population is found in Asian countries it is referred as Asian Animal.
 It is also regarded as the poor man’s cow and it has got the distinction of being the most important meat animal of India.
 It forms the choicest of all meats fetching the maximum retail price in the Indian market.
 The preslaughter weight of goats varies from 12 –to 20 kg depending on the size of the breeds.
 Most of the Indian breeds are medium sized.
 The dressing percentage also varies from 43 to 50%
 Tellichery due to its compact body and short stature has a dressing yield of 48-50%.
 Black Bengal and Barbari breeds produce good quality meat and skin.
 Sirohi and Marwari breeds have a meaty conformation.
Pigs

 Pigs should be slaughtered at 6-7 months of age.


 The dressing percentage varies from 65 to 70% in case of desi pigs and 70 to 75% in case of crossbred pigs.
Rabbit

 Rabbit is gaining importance among the Indian consumers of the hilly tracks as an alternate source of meat.
 Rabbits are highly prolific, grow rapidly and produce meat from cheap roughages.
 The average live weight ranges from 1.2 to 1.5 kg at 8 weeks and nearly 2 kg at 12 weeks.
 The carcass yield varies from 52 to 58% in different grades.
 Rabbit carcass contains 82% lean meat, which is white in colour and soft in consistency.
 It is comparatively low in sodium and rich in potassium and phosphorus.
 The saturated fatty acids account for more than 60% of the total fatty acids whereas free cholesterol is also relatively low.
Poultry

 Indian poultry industry has made a phenomenal progress in the last few decades.
 It has transformed into a sophisticated industry quite rapidly after the establishment of several franchise hatcheries in
1970s.
 The broilers have a dressing percentage of 65-70%.
 Broiler meat is a true delicacy while it is available at comparatively lower price than chevon or mutton.
Japanese Quails

 This is another species of poultry, which is gaining importance and growing fast.
 It gains a weight of about 125 Gms at 5 weeks of age. The dressing percentage is about 60

SOME EXOTIC BREEDS OF FOOD ANIMALS

Cattle Aberdeen Angus, Divan, Hereford, Sussex, Galloway, West Highland

Sheep Cheviot, Welsh Mountain, Southdown, Dorset Down, Merino

Pigs Middle White, Berkshire, Large White, Essex, Large Black, Welsh, Landrace, Lincoln

Goats British Alpine, Somali, Nubian, Criolla, MaTou, Toggenburg

Rabbits New Zealand White, Californian, Dutch, Flemish Giant, Beveren, White giant

Poultry

Chicken White Cornish, White Rock, New Hampshire

Ducks Aylesbury, White Table Duck, Pekin

Pigeon White Kings and Silver Kings

Turkey Broad-Breasted, Bronze, Beltsville, Small White.

SOME INDIAN BREEDS OF FOOD ANIMALS

Pigs Gangroo

Sheep Mandya, Bandur, Madras Red, Mecheri, Nellore, Muzaffarnagari, Hassan,


Trichy Black, Lohi (mutton breeds)

Goats Black Bengal, Ganjam, Sangamneri, Sirohi, Tellicheri, Zalawadi (meat breeds),
Barbari, Beetal, Jamnapari, Jakhrana, Osmanabadi, Surti (dual purpose)

MEAT HYGIENE
 The term meat hygiene is used to denote a wider field than meat inspection.
 The consumer expects his meat to be derived from animals that are healthy at the time of slaughter, to be slaughtered in
a humane method and the handling of meat and meat products in a hygienic manner.
 The subject deals with the care and transport of dressed carcasses from the slaughterhouse to the wholesale market and
then to the consumer in addition to the Meat Inspectioncarried out in the methodical way within the slaughterhouse.
 In contrast to the olden day practice, meat is sold not only as fresh meat but also as preserved and prepared forms such as
chilled, frozen, canned, smoked meats, sausage, ham-burger, etc.
 Meat hygiene is not luxury, it starts at the site of production and ends at the table of the consumer i.e., from farm to fork.
 The consumer as a member of the modern society is entitled for the supply of wholesome meat obtained after paying due
regard to all recognized principles of meat hygiene.
 These principles should be uniform throughout the country to have the total confidence of the consumers

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITES OF THE MEAT HYGIENIST

 Duties and Responsibilities of the meat hygienists are as follows


 To pay particular attention to ensure quality, wholesome, hygienic and safe meat production.
 To see that there is no adulteration of the meat during the handling and processing with truthful labelling and
transportation.
 To identify and eliminate carcasses affected with zoonotic diseases from food chain.
 It is also important to identify certain carcasses during ante-mortem examination where antemortem
manifestations of certain diseases are more pathognomonic than that of postmortem findings like Anthrax,
Rabies, Locked jaw, etc.,
 It is also not uncommon for a meat inspector to identify certain diseases for the first time in the lairage and
thereto tracing back the disease at the site of production where proper prophylactic measures could be advocated

COVERAGE OF MEAT HYGIENE PROGRAMME

 Meat hygiene programme has a multi dimensional approach dealing with farmers, traders, handlers, processors and
finally consumers. In some way it covers academicians and policy makers to have better distinction on public health
improvement programmes.
 The production of sound, vigorous livestock and poultry in an economic manner.
 Thoughtful attention for the supply of safe and wholesome meat i.e., the food should be produced in clean environment
and free from contamination.
 Protection against economic frauds such as adulteration, inaccurate labeling or substitution.
 The maintenance of good health of the public is entrusted to the meat hygienist and he must maintain and safeguard the
trust and confidence of the public as well as the trade.
 Meat hygiene protects the meat supply and safeguards the Nation’s Livestock economy.
ELEMENTS OF MEAT HYGIENE

 Ante–mortem inspection.
 Post-mortem inspection.
 Re-inspection
 Sanitation.
 Condemnation and destruction of unfit materials.
 Adulteration – prevention of adulteration and fraudulent practices.
 Misrepresentation – prevention of false labeling.

DEFINITION

 Slaughter of food animals is done either in public slaughterhouses called Abattoirs, usually the property of local
government authorities or in private slaughterhouses owned by individual or retail butchers.
 The latter must be registered and should hold a license.
EXISTING CONDITIONS

 There are 3600 registered slaughterhouses in India besides, a number of slaughter booths where mostly clandestine
slaughter takes place.
 Most of the slaughterhouses are lack in proper facilities of lairage, inspection, water, light, electricity, collection of edible
and inedible offal and disposal of slaughter effluents.
 Mostly they are very old and dilapidated due to lack of planning and funds as the planners fail to understand the necessity
of slaughterhouses over the public health and meat consumption.
 The expenditure involved may be low in comparison with the advantages, which could accrue in construction of
slaughterhouses. The person involved in the slaughter process are ill trained and often go with the practices not at all
encouraging for hygienic and wholesome meat production.
 There are no proper avenues in the slaughterhouses to utilize the slaughterhouse byproducts, In some places - the heads,
feet and other offal are given to poor women in return for help during slaughtering by flaying, washing and doing similar
types of work, who often succumb to number of health hazards.
 The elements of meat hygiene were seldomly be practiced, bad habits and unhygienic meat handling practices, such as
the chopping up or soaking of meat in water before sale are in vogue.
 No restriction in the movement of unauthorized persons and entry of the stray dogs at the site of slaughter in the
abattoirs.
ATTITUDE AND OUTLOOK OF BUTCHERS

 The butchers, livestock, meat and hide traders generally are not ready to accept for any improvement in relation to
slaughter process, slaughterhouse and related matters.
 They constitute a conservative hostile group to anything new which they consider to be a nuisance. They also intended to
think that such tightening control over their industry may check their income or increase their losses if they accept
centralized slaughter and to work according to strict hygienic measures.
 In such conditions new slaughterhouses and a tightening up of hygienic control may be resented
STEPS TO IMPROVE ABATTOIRS

 Construction of modern, improved slaughterhouses with facilities of all the elements of hygienic slaughter.
 Butchers and consumers have to be educated to the idea of proper standards set up for their benefit.
 An appreciation of hygiene and civil consciousness have to be developed to encourage healthy meat trade and discourage
clandestine slaughter in the wake of little legislation.
 Licences have to be enforced in regard to slaughter and other related factors with enforcement of illegal entry of
unauthorised persons within the slaughter premises.
 Proper disposal of slaughterhouse effluents and use of byproducts must be ensured.
 The transportation of meat with adequate health coverage should be done for possible contamination or infestation of the
meat.
 Entry of stray dogs / birds to the site of slaughter must be restricted.
 Personnel hygiene of the butchers, cleanliness of the appliances, knives and use of phytochemicals must be ensured to
uplift total hygienic standard of the concerned area and persons.
 Improved abattoirs, staffed by skilled personnel, may lead to loss of employment by the groups of slaughterers, assistant
slaughterers and sub-assistant slaughterers who carry out the actual slaughtering operations for the owner of the animals
or for the butcher - for many butchers do not themselves perform this work.
 The co-operation of the local authorities required to effect changes from obsolete to improved slaughtering system have
to be ensured.
 The advantages that is achieved through changes have to be demonstrated periodically to the butchers, consumers and
stakeholders in terms their respective profits.
USEFULNESS OF PUBLIC SLAUGHTERHOUSES

 Centralised slaughter is helpful for achieving hygienic wholesome meat with less environmental pollution and with
optimum collection of byproducts.
 Better and efficient antemortem inspection and postmortem examination can be performed.
 Slaughtering and dressing of animals is performed under sanitary conditions.
 Identification of diseases of zoonotic importance.
 Prevention of fraudulent substitution.
 Implementation of slaughter operation procedures, rules, regulations and acts will be easier.
 Meat of assured wholesomeness only will be made available for public consumption.
 Ensures economic handling of the by-products including hides, offals, glands, blood and condemned material leading to
reduction on overheads on buildings, equipment and labour.
STEPS IN PLANNING AN ABATTOIR

 To ascertain the ultimate maximum daily kill of each class of animal


 Proposal for proper disposal and treatment of the edible and inedible by-products.
 The actual system of operation - be determined, bearing in mind the local conditions.
 To decide whether it is a complete meat plant including full processing operations in one or more floors or an abattoir
adapted solely for slaughter and dressing.
 The factory abattoir requires regular full-time skilled slaughtermen to deal with all kinds of livestock.
 The abattoir should be constructed considering the livestock population, type of livestock, marketing facilities and socio-
economic conditions of the local area.

LOCATION

 The essential considerations to be borne in mind while selecting a site for the construction of a slaughterhouse are
 Available of sufficient land for expansion
 Accessibility by road and rail transport
 Water facility
 Supply of electricity and
 Facility for sewage disposal
 Proximity for supply of labour
 Proximity to regular supply of resource animals
 Social and religious background of the local habitants
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT (EA)

 EA - considers the outputs to the environment, during the construction phase and from the plant in normal operation but.
In the case of meat plant the following are considered
 Effect of increased traffic movements in the locality
 Noise and dust during construction phase
 Operational noise
 Odour
 Emission of combustion gases
 Waste water disposal.
 EA must be carried out before commissioning the project

Environmental statement (ES)

ENVIRONMENT STATEMENT (ES)

 Used in determining the suitability or otherwise of the proposed plant in the particular location.
 Planning authorities will often require the production of an ES.
 A substantial document to be accompanied by a non-technical summary for use by laypersons.
 Available to all interested parties.
 Used by the planning authority in determining a planning application and by review bodies in the event of any appeal or
public enquiry.
The elements of ES

 Justification of the need for the development.


 Description of site and processes. Identification of outputs to the environment.
 Report of established baseline data (ambient air quality levels, traffic flows, etc.).
 Anticipated environment impacts at both construction and operational stages.
 Proposed measures to mitigate impacts.
SUBMISSION OF PLANS

 Two sets of drawings and four sets of specifications submitted to responsible authority for approval.
The specifications must include

 details of proposed throughput and capacity,


 number of employees - category wise
 building construction,
 water supply,
 refrigeration capacity,
 lighting,
 ventilation,
 equipment and operations,
 details for pest control - fly screening,
 the methods to be used for steam and vapour removal - proposed flow lines for product, equipment, personnel and
packaging.
Guidance notes for prospective applicants and their consulting architects and engineers are normally available from government
departments and these should be carefully studied beforehand.

The site plan (scale 1:500)

 The site plan show the complete premises and the location in relation to roads, railways, waterways and adjoining
properties and their function, catch basins, water and sewer lines, storage tanks, etc.,
The floor plan (scale: 1:50 or 1:100)

 Relates to layout of walls, doorways, windows, partitions, rail systems, equipment, benches, platforms, toilets, chutes,
conveyors, staircases, hot and cold- water connections, ventilation fans, work positions of operatives, etc.
 The position of drainage gutters and floor gradients must also be included.
The plumbing plan

 Details of the drainage system, ensuring that toilet and floor soil lines are separated until outside the building and that the
former do not connect with grease traps.
 Specialized knowledge is required to design and construct a meat plant.
 Competent architects, veterinarians and engineers with greater experience are employed along with reputable
contractors.
 Plan should compliance with hygiene, health and safety, EC regulations, good building standards and practices,
precaution against fire.
SELECTION OF SITE

The site to be selected should

 Be located outside the city or town, in a place, which will not soon become an abode of habitation. The rural site
generally outweigh those of the other sites, hence it is recommended that a rural location be chosen where possible,
 Be of such size as to allow for future expansion,
 Be on an elevated plane to facilitate better natural drainage and prevent water stagnation. A stock-proof fence to keep
slaughter stock in and other animals out should surround the abattoir,
 Be in a direction in which wind passes out from dwellings; neither to the leeward nor windward of the town. If the
prevailing winds are north/south, the abattoir should be built to the east or west of the town. The land could be
landscaped and planted with trees, to provide windbreaks, shade and shelter, if not to make the building more attractive,
 Be accessible from all parts of the city or town,
 Be provided with rail tracks for receipt of animals by railways,
 Be within reach of the highway,
 Have permeable soil and suitable for good foundations including piling. Arable farmland should not be chosen, as it may
be a waste of productive land for the cultivation of crops may be subject to drift of crop spraying chemicals.
 Have ample water supply for washing, etc., at an estimated requirement of 150 gallons per animal slaughtered or 10,000
litres/tonne of dressed carcass weight,
 Enjoy unhindered ventilation and light,
 Ability to separate ‘clean’ and ‘dirty’ areas and access,
 Proximity to supply of varied labour,
 Good availability of stock nearby, and
 Mains electricity and sewerage.
 The actual site need not be a flat one.
 Indeed, slopes can provide suitable loading bays for stock and product and are of value when two or more floors are
contemplated.
 In general, therefore, urban sites should be avoided; rural and nominated sites are preferred
AREA SIZE

 The size of the site should be given a careful consideration with allowance for the various buildings and traffic
circulation.
 Modern livestock and meat transport vehicles have very large turning circles: 14 m for a vehicle 15 m long.
 Completely separate routes for stock and meat vehicles should be provided.
 Approach roads should be at least 6 m wide.
 When all the various buildings are considered, it will be realized that a large area is necessary.
Area requirement

 Generally for a small abattoir (up to 30,000 units*/year) the area required will be about 1-2 acres.
 For a medium plant (50,000+ units*/year) about 2-4 acres will be required.
 A large abattoir handling over 100,000 units* annually will require about 4-6 acres of land.
*One livesotock unit is equivalent to ONE adult bovine or TWO pigs, THREE calves or FIVE shee

ABATTOIR FACILITIES

 The facilities required in a abattoir are


 Water
 Electricity
 Drainage
 Lighting
 Ventilation
 Floor and wall finishes
 Doors
 Equipment design
 Pest control

WATER

 Mains water supply should provide an ample supply of potable water.


 Water should be distributed to all parts of the plant under adequate pressure, which in the mains pipeline should be at
least 20 psi. The hot water supply should have a temperature of 82°C.
 Water storage tanks must hold at least one day’s water requirement. The recommended water requirement is
 454 litres/day per pigs,
 272 liters/day per bovine and
 45 litres/day per sheep or goat.
 plus 25% at a reasonable pressure of 15 psi
 If non-potable water is used for steam production, refrigeration or fire control, it must be carried in separate lines and
identified as such.
 Bacon factories and manufacturing operations require special assessment.

ELECTRICITY

 Industrial three phase electricity supply should be provided besides a stand-by generator must be installed in the
slaughterhouse for uninterrupted power supply.
 Provision of central steam boilers may be fuelled with oil or gas for supply of hot water and steam to different units in the
abattoir.
DRAINAGE

 The floors in wet areas should slope uniformly to drains with a gradient of 1:50. One drain is for each 40 m2 of floor area.
The internal drainage should be in the form of open concrete channels leading to open gullies, situated immediately
outside and connected to closed drains.
 Low places where water and blood could collect are to be guarded against. Where blood tends to collect, e.g. under
dressing rails, special provision must be made to supply drainage valleys at a gradient of at least 1:25. The valleys
themselves should be 60 cm wide and should continue under dressing lines for the collection of all blood and bone dust.
 Catch Basins - Catch basins must be provided on drains for grease recovery.
 Traps and Vents - Traps and vents must also be provided on drains, properly sealed and easily cleanable and the latter to
be effectively vented to outside the building.
 Special arrangements have to be made for dealing with stomach and intestinal contents, the drains for bovine material to
be at least 20 cm in diameter and for the smaller species 15 cm.
 All drains in the slaughter hall be trapped with 4 mm screens, to prevent the possibility of contamination of the effluent.
 Grids covering drains should be made of cast iron or other approved material.
LIGHTING

 Adequate natural or artificial lighting must be provided throughout the meat plant.
 The type of lighting should not distort colours. It is generally recommended that the overall intensity should not be less
than
 540 lux (50 foot-candles) at all inspection points
 220 lux (20 foot-candles) in workrooms
 110 lux (10 foot-candles) in other areas
 These intensities of light are usually taken at levels of 0.9 m from the floor, except in inspection areas where the height is
1.5 m.
 Protective shields must be fitted to lights in areas where fresh meat and offal are exposed to prevent contamination from
shattered glass
VENTILATION

 Adequate ventilation should be provided to prevent excessive heat, steam and condensation.
 Ventilation prevents the accumulation of odours, dust, etc., but it should not excessive, that may cause draughts and thus
problems for staff.
 Openings of the ventilators and windows should be screened and sills sloped
FLOOR AND WALL FURNISHES

 All parts of the meat plants must be able to clean easily and the floors and walls should be non-toxic and non-absorbent.
The floors should be non slippery.
 It is recommended that walls should be coated with a smooth, durable, impervious material to a height of not less than 3
m from the floor.
 Surface materials should be capable of withstanding impact, doors should be wide enough to allow easy passage of
personnel.
 Good ventilation, insulation and easily cleaned surfaces will minimize the disruption of routine works.
 Abattoir operations entail wet floors on which are usually present quantities of fat and blood. While floor finishes should
be easily cleaned, they should also non-slip.
 Walls and floors may be made of concrete or tiles. Wall sheets are often used in the form of plastic laminates, aluminum,
polished asbestos, PVC-faced rust less metal or stainless

DOORS

 These should be wide enough to allow passage of product without contact with the doorway.
 A width of 1.37 m (4.5 ft) is usually adequate.
 Doors must be constructed of rust-resistant material. If made of wood, they should be covered with rust-resistant smooth
impermeable material.
 Double-acting doors should have a glass (reinforced) panel at eye level.
 Plastic strip doors are not much suitable for fitting in abattoir because they are difficult for proper cleaning

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

Equipment design aspects as well as operating efficiency, durability etc. to be considered.

 Faults in construction and design include: Use of wood for equipment and tools. Wood cannot be cleaned and disinfected
with ease and is liable to deteriorate rapidly in moist surroundings.
 Use of unsuitable fastenings, which can work loose and contaminate the product.
 Provision of ledges and corners where meat, fat etc., can lodge and cause bacterial build up.
 Badly recessed nuts, bolts and screws can also gather scraps and hinder cleansing.
 Use of expanded metal for decks, walkways and staircases especially near conveyors. All these should be constructed
from non-slip solid plate.
 Metal joints, which are rough. Joints should be welded and then ground to a smooth finish.
 Fixed covers for conveyors that makes cleaning difficult.
 The design and location of equipment should be such as to allow for ease and efficiency of cleaning and disinfection.
 The slaughter house must be fitted with overhead weigh bridges, stunning pens, stunning equipment, overheads rails
(twin bar runways), electric hoists, pulley, beef trees, hooks, electric hide removers, tail pullers, carcass splitting saws,
trolleys, hot water sprayers, etc.
 The special requirements for the slaughtering of pigs include, gaseous stunning, pig
traps, scalding and dehairing machinery.

PEST CONTROL

 The entrance of birds, rats, mice and insects such as flies and cockroaches can cause serious problems like dirt and may
carry food-poisoning organisms -responsible for zoonoses.
 Birds - sparrows, starlings, feral pigeons and gulls inhabit areas where food and nesting material are available.
 They feed on meat scraps, dung, insects, grain and food scraps, discarded or even on occasions purposely laid by
personnel.
Control

 Rats and mice are also attracted by the presence of food and may gain entrance from adjoining properties.
 Mice are introduced into an abattoir in polystyrene insulation for use in chill rooms.
 Droppings and musk trails are indicators of their presence.
 A sketch plan of the premises indicating numbered bait points should be produced and a record of usage of each point
noted, as well as dates of inspection and any structural defects.
 Insects are drawn into food premises mainly by the presence of pre-digested food, such as excreta, and by warmth.
 Nearby breeding grounds such as waste pits, stagnant ponds and sewage works may be responsible for the advent of flies.
 Plant location and design are important factors in prevention of fly infestation; for e.g, the manure bay must be sited
away from meat areas.
 Insecticidal sprays should be avoided in the abattoir considering meat is a consumable commodity.

SMALL ABATTOIR UNITS

 Smaller plant is cost effective can be located in remote areas close to production areas thereby reduction in transport
costs.
The FPE plant (Food Processing Engineering Plant)

 A prefabricated unit conisiting of a slaughter section with dimensions of 9.14 m (30 ft) length, 3.7 m (12 ft) width and 4.6
m (15 ft) height.
 This is combined with refrigeration, cutting and boning and by products facilities, etc.
 Capacity of 10 cattle, 20 sheep and 10 pigs daily.
Mobile slaughter facility
 Many animal welfare organisations are coming up with such mobile units with slaughter facilities aimed to hygienic meat
processing cum humane aspect of slaughter particularly for the birds.
 Based on a large trailer unit on an a vehicle.
 Fitted with a stunning box, hoists, bleeding area, dressing cradles, chill room, storage for by-products, detained and
effluent material.
 The unit operates from a home base and visits farms on request
 The farms provide basic facilities of water, electricity, lairage pens, toilet and changing rooms.
 Careful attention is given for animal welfare and organization of ante-mortem and post-mortem inspection.

BUILDINGS AND THEIR DISPOSITIONS

The slaughterhouse may consist of (a) main department and (b) accessory department.

Main department

This department may have the following units

 Lairage Weighment room


 Stunning chamber
 Slaughter hall
 Cooling hall
 Hide and skin store
 Manure house
 Detention room
 Condemned meat room
 Boiler house
 Facilities for Personnel
 Mess rooms
 Bath rooms
 Veterinary Office
 Office accommodation
 Superintendent’s office and
 Veterinary Laboratory
Accessory department

 The accessory department may consist of the following units


 Gut and tripe room
 Red offal room
 Edible Fat room
 Cutting rooms
 Inedible Area
 Equipment Wash
 Digester room
 Blood drying yard
 Fresh Meat Dispatch Area
 Residential quarters
 Isolation block
 It will be observed from the above list, that each of the rooms is intended to serve certain special needs in the slaughter,
dressing and subsequent disposal of food animals’ carcasses in the order of operations taking place here.
LAIRAGE

 Lairage is a place near to the slaughterhall to give rest prior to slaughter for a period of 6 to 36 hours.
 Period of rest before slaughter has marked beneficial effect on the meat and subsequent marketability of the carcass.
 Consist of pens for live animals.
Livestock reception area

 Roofed to protect animals and staff, particularly during identification, handling and sorting of stock.
 The off-loading dock should be about 1.2 m high to permit careful offloading, especially of stock carried on upper tiers
of Lorries. The slope should not be more than 30 o.
 A suitable office for reception area staff is essential for maintaining slaughter records.
 Sufficient room should be allowed for manoeuring and temporary parking.
 The entry point to the meat plant for livestock should have a display board containing ‘All stock must be handled gently
and quietly’.
 Irregularities in transportation can be noted at the reception area and the appropriate action taken.
Facilities

 The ramps must slope up rather than down.


 Drain inlets in the centres of passageways should be avoided.
 Sharp corners should be avoided and projections of any kind and gates should preferably be placed at the end, not in the
middle of the pen side.
 The horizontal bars should be correctly spaced to prevent strangulation if tubular partitions are used.
 Strident voice and noises, dark objects (especially if these are moving), sudden movements of personnel, drain openings
in the centres of passage was sharp corners, etc., are contraindicated.
 The final drive races should have solid sides, non-slip floor surfaces and lighting to encourage the animals to go forward.
 In larger plants it is necessary to have two single-line crushes for cattle to allow for stock movement so that an animal
fall in one race.
 Side gates should be installed to handle such emergencies and also to provide escape gates for personnel in the drive race
when they are confronted with wild animals.
 The length of the final race is determined by the overall throughput of the meat plant.
 In a large plant this race can be 36 m long, with stop gates to prevent the animals going backwards, 80 cm wide, and
reach to about waist height.
 Catwalks must be provided alongside the race to enable handlers to control stock movement, check identification etc.
 Equipment used should be noise-free.
 Gates located in the drive race and sliding or one-way gates in the single file race should be made of expanded metal or
closely spaced bars to enable the animals to see through them.
 Constant vigilance is requiredto ensure that there is
 No bullying by dominant individuals and
 No females in oestrus.
 Horned stock must be kept separate.
Ante-mortem (AM) inspection facilities

 Ample natural or artificial lighting which is even and diffuse.


 An isolation pen with a crush for clinical examination of animal.
Pen size

The following pen sizes are recommended for housing of livestock in abattoirs.

 Cattle
 Loose - 2.3-2.8 m2 /animal.
 Tied - 3.25 m2 /animal.
 Pigs
 Bacon and small porkers - 0.6 m2 /animal
 Heavy pigs and calves - 0.74 m2 /animal
 Sheep and goats
 0.56 m2 /animal
A further 30% - added for reception areas and passageways.

Lairage sizes have been calculated to hold one day’s average kill
CATTLE LAIRAGE

Dimension of pens

 7.6 m x 6 m - to hold 20-25 cattle.


Facilities

 Drinking water must be always available to animals with a gravitational force.


 One cistern sufficient to feed three troughs.
 Automatic water bowls.
 In tie-up type lairage long water troughs satifactory for easy cleansing than individual troughs or bowls.
 Hayracks to be provided.
 Animals are fed twice daily except on the day of intended slaughter or from the afternoon preceding the morning of
intended slaughter.
 Hydrant points are placed conveniently so that all parts of the lairage can be reached.
 An estimated amount of about 680 litres of water per cattle slaughtered is sufficient for cleaning.
 Passage should be wide enough to admit entry of a vehicle for the removal of manure and dead animals.
 Ease of cleaning, comfort for the animals and ease of handling to be emphasised.
SHEEP & GOAT LAIRAGE

Dimension of pens

 Sheep and goat pens should be 0.9 m high with passages 0.9 m wide between them
Facilities

 Rails should not to be more than 15 cm apart to prevent strangulation.


 Double-hinged gates to facilitate entry and exit of stock
 Sliding gate provided between the pens to accommodate an overflow of animals.
 Water troughs are placed some 50 cm from the floor to prevent fouling.
 Hay racks provided above the level of the sheep and goat heads.
 Straw provided for solid floors to help keep the sheep and goats dry.
 Clean or expanded metal floors to keep clean and dry.
 Cattle and sheep and goats or pigs and sheep & goats lairages can be accommodated in the same building
PIG LAIRAGE

Dimension of the pens

 Bacon and small porkers - 0.6 m2 /animal


 Heavy pigs - 0.74 m2 /animal
 Pig pens are constructed with solid walls.
 Rails used should be stronger than required for sheep lairage
 The lower horizontal rails of the pen should not be more than 15 cm apart to prevent pigs putting their heads between the
rails.
 The pens are long and narrow to allow more pigs to rest against the walls.
 Automatic filling and emptying of the pens is achieved by controlled lifting/driving gates.
 The system is said to improve welfare standards with reduction of damage due to fighting.
 Two single files are employed in the race section where some manual assistance is required.
 A fine water spray and/or litter in the lairage pens are useful means of reducing fighting among pigs, cooling them and
reducing the incidence of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) pork.
WEIGHMENT ROOM

 A weighment room with a weighbridge, suitably located, is a useful facilit

WASHING OF LIVESTOCK

 Washing of animals is contraindicated in temperate regions, except for pigs.


 In tropical and subtropical countries washing is practiced.
 Facilities for footbath spray system or bath with an adequate draining area prior to slaughter to be provided.
 A system for recovering solids and a final potable water wash must be included.

MANURE DISPOSAL

 Considerable quantities of lairage waste in the form of bedding and dung require periodic removal, preferably to an
elevated, covered site near the lairage, from which it can be conveniently reloaded for removal.
 It is convenient to load it directly on to a large trailer, which can be removed as necessary.
 The manure obtained from the stomachs and intestines of slaughtered animals requires separate treatment.
 It is sometimes used as compost and manure production.
SLAUGHTER HALL

 The place where actual slaughter and dressing animals take place after stunning.
 Form of ‘bays’ or ‘booths’ of 6.5m x 6.5m or in the form of an open hall with generous floor space, well ventilated and
lighted.
 The space requirements of this chamber will depend on the kill @ 3 sq. m per cattle and 0.5 sq. m per sheep or goat.
 The transfer of animals from lairage to slaughter hall will be easy in a well designed abattoir
 In upper kill floor the animals are walked directly on the slaughter floor by a ramp provided with battens and a catwalk
 Cattle and sheep and goat can readily be driven up a ramp as steep as 1 in 6
 If animals are stunned on the ground level then hoisted after bleeding for subsequent dressing on the top floor.
 Cattle and sheep can be slaughtered in the same slaughter hall provided such operations are conducted at different
periods.
 Hot water and steam facilities should be available for washing and sterilizing purposes.
 Floors should be impermeable, non-slip, monolithic screed, sloping at 1:50 into screened drains.
 The walls should be of solid construction, finished in a smooth impermeable granolithic screed and be tiled, grouted with
a impervious material or covered with an epoxy resin paint designed to function as a ‘tile’ to a height not less than 2
metres.
 Above this level, the walls should be finished in flake free high quality, light coloured lead and arsenic free gloss paint.
 Ceilings and superstructures similarly finished.
 All floor/wall/ceiling junctures are rounded or coved.
 The illumination requirements are 220-lux units in the slaughter hall and 540 lux units in place where inspection is done.
 Overhead rails should be 3.3 m high for cattle dressing, although 4.5 m would be required for the bleeding rail.
 Small stock and pigs may be slaughtered and dressed from a 3 m rail.
 The overall height of the building should not be less than 6 m at the point of the cattle bleeding.
 Floor levels should slope in such a way that water and materials on the floor flow into drains from clean to dirty areas.
 Water should not flow from one room to another.
 The slaughter hall should be provided with conveniently placed chutes for disposal of offal.
Sterilisers

 An adequate number of efficient sterilisers operating at 82°C for hand tools, shackles, etc. to be provided on all
slaughter/dressing floors, all conveniently placed for operator use.
 Bootwash / apron wash facilities are necessary for cleanliness of operative
STUNNING AREA

 The area in front of the stunning pen should be at least 3 m in width to the opposing wall or bleeding trough and be fitted
with upright bars 5 cm in diameter and 1.2 m high, spaced at 40 cm intervals for safety purposes should improperly
stunned animals regain their feet.
 The floor must be properly drained and possess high-impact and non-slip properties.
 A raised sturdy frame of expanded metal on to which the animal is ejected aids cleanliness and reduced wetness.
 Effort to be made to reduce hide contamination.

BLEEDING AREA

 Blood is collected in shallow trays or basins or a separate channel be constructed.


 The bleeding trough should be at least 1.5 m wide, possess a good gradient, side walls of the same height, and two drains,
one for blood only and the other for water.
 The length of the bleeding line depends on throughput and the system of conveying carcasses
 The bleeding trough has two points for the reception of blood: one at the actual point of sticking where the greater
volume of blood will be handled; and thereafter a longer gradual slope that collects ‘drip’ blood classed as inedible.
 The bleeding trough must have smooth impervious surface, often a suitable grade of stainless steel.
 For hygienic bleeding for edible purposes, the stainless hollow knife combined with cleanliness and a sodium
citrate/phosphate anticoagulant is used.
 The knife is held in the wound by hand, by a rotating endless screw; or by other means.
 For small meat plants individual containers are used for holding the blood
 For large throughputs and high rates of slaughter several blood draining knives (as many as 14) can be used in a
‘carousel’ which rotates synchronously with the bleeding conveyor.
 Arrangements to be made for routine sterilization of the knives and adequate staff to man this additional operation.
 The hollow knife is made of stainless steel in two sizes, for cattle and pigs.
 Consist of a tubular handle with a defector plate and two blades set at right angles to each other.
 They are easy to strip for sharpening and cleaning and are combined with an anticoagulant dispensing tube.
 The broad blade should be directed in the longitudinal direction of the animal
 A collagen tubing connects the knife to containers where the blade is cooled prior to collection.
 A system which correlates each batch of blood to the carcass from which it originates must be operated so that if a
carcass is subsequently condemned the blood from that animal may also be condemned.
 In the bleeding trough for sheep and pigs both sides are enclosed and have a width of 1.1-1.2 m.
 For sheep the overhead bleeding rail is 2.7 m high, and dressing rail is 2.3 m high.
 For pigs the overhead bleeding and dressing rails should be 3.4 m high.

DRESSING AREA

 Platforms are fixed at suitable positions and heights for operatives and inspectors to work efficiently and without
unnecessary stooping and labour for subsequent leg, hide or fleece removal, evisceration, carcass splitting, inspection,
kidney and channel fat (KKCF) removal, carcass washing and shrouding stations.
 The position of the viscera inspection table is of particular importance
 For adult cattle where the size of the top of the table should be about 2.7 m x 1.5 m wide.

SHEEP SLAUGHTER HALL

 Sheep is driven to a passageway adjoining the slaughter hall, carried by hand into the slaughter hall and placed on crates
(cradles, cratches, crutches) preparatory to stunning and dressing. Sheep line slaughter is carried out on and a line
employing 17 operatives for production of 150 sheep / hour with the following stations.
 Shackling and hoisting
 Sticking
 De-elevating to crutch conveyor
 Conveyor dressing (removal of feet, commencement of fleece removal, sawing brisket)
 Elevating to overhead rail
 Clearing tail and commencement of backing
 Back and fleece chutes
 Removal of the head
 Eviscerating the abdomen.
 Washing
 Eviscerating the thorax
 Weighing and tagging
 Final washing.
 Feet removed
PIG SLAUGHTER HALL

 Pig slaughter is carried out in a separate hall due to the use of scalding of pigs and not conducive to the good setting and
drying of beef and mutton carcasses.
 As per the EEC regulation a special place must be provided for slaughtering pigs.
 If the slaughter of pigs and that of other animals takes place at different times then scalding, depilation, scraping
and singeing must be carried out in special places clearly separated from the slaughter line either in an open space of at
least 5m or by a partition of at least 3m high.
 After bleeding, pigs are scalded and then scraped to remove the hair
 In the smaller abattoirs and bacon factories a mechanical dehairing machine is used.
 If the throughput of pigs is some 200 on two to three days per week a dehairing plant is necessary.
 An extraction system removes steam from the canopies over the scalding tanks which keeps the temperature of the steam
raised by heated air serves to prevent condensation and fogginess.
 Provisions are made to identify carcass and its offal easily.
A typical pig slaughter operation are performed in the following units

 Shackle and hoist


 Sticking
 Operate scalding and clearing machine
 Insert gambrel and hang-off
 Singeing
 Shave hams
 Shave bellies
 Shave shoulders
 Shave heads and fore feet
 Remove heads and place on table
 Open and evisceration
 Trim bruises and enucleate kidneys
 Head, viscera and rail inspection
 Final inspection
 Pull leaf fat and remove kidneys
 Wash necks
 Viscera and head take-off
 Head work-up
 Open stomachs
 Wash hearts and livers
SCALDING

The factors to be considered relating to scalding and dehairing are

 Hourly rate of slaughter


 Size of pigs to be handled
 Efficiency of cleansing and corrosion.
 Vertical scalding of pig carcasses involves the use of a double-walled tunnel in which steam, generated from a water bath
in its bottom, is blown over the carcasses and through a ventilator located over the condenser.
 A thermostat at 62˚ -64˚C controls the temperature of the tunnel.
 The cooling water from the condenser in the tunnel is used to flush the pig carcasses during the dehairing process.
 Before entry into the tunnel, the carcass should hang for three minutes and then lie on its side for two minutes.
 The pig carcasses are then transported to the tunnel on a rising rail so that the head is under the other parts of the body
during the whole scalding process, which lasts six minutes.
 Trimming and singeing take place afterwards.
Advantages of Vertical Scalding

 To greatly improve the bacteriological standards of the pork.


 To produce bacteria-free lungs.
 To reduce muscular degeneration.
 To reduce incidence of PSE (pale soft exudative muscle) due to the fact as here the body temperature does not go above
41˚C.
 To have better dehairing.
 To reduce operating costs.
COOLING HALL

 Carcasses are retained for specified periods of time before release to be transported to retailers.
 Fresh meat intended must be chilled immediately after the post-mortem inspection and kept at a constant temperature of
not more than 7°C for carcasses and cuts or 3°C for offal.
 It is essential that the specified temperatures be achieved quickly. Where hot boning is carried out, the resultant joints
must be chilled before dispatch.
 It is necessary to provide a series of chilling units suited to the capacity of the meat plant and possessing a system of high
rails for beef and low rails sheep and pigs.
 In some smaller plants it may be possible to combine species, utilising the high rails for double-tiered pork and lamb
carcasses.
 A number of small rectangular chill room s will reduce the time during which the chill room doors are open, speed up the
chilling process and increase efficiency by reducing the mixing of hot and cold carcasses.
 The carcasses must be hung in such a way as to allow free movement of cold air around them
 Rail spacing should be
 0.9 m for beef,
 0.7 m for pigs and
 0.5 m for lambs and goats
 The minimum space between carcasses on rails should be 0.3-0.4 m.
 The chilling facilities is providing chilling to protect carcasses against spoilage by microorganisms leading to surface
slime formation or bone taint in deep muscles.
 Refrigeration also protects against oxidation of fat, adverse changes in the colour of the superficial tissues and their
undue desiccation.
 The risk of spoilage and deterioration of carcass meat is less likely when consumed rapidly after slaughter (within 24-36
hours), as happens in many of the rural areas and townships served by abattoirs with low animal throughputs.
 For optimal plant performance, chill rooms should be rectangular, with a width to length ratio of 1:2 and a maximum
length of 70 m.
 Temperatures and relative humidity are recorded to control the chilling process, preferably by using charts or computer-
generated records.
 The air temperature must not fall below –1°C and relative humidity should be between 87-91%.
 It has been assumed that ambient conditions are 38°C with a relative humidity of 75%.
 The rate of cooling of carcasses depends upon the size and heat capacity of those carcasses.
 If the relative humidity is not maintained between 87-91%, moisture losses or shrinkage in beef cattle is 4% and in lamb
5%.
 The weight loss poorly covered carcasses will be greater than that from those having a heavy fat cover, for any given
condition of chilling
 Chill doors should be made of durable, high-impact materials such as stainless steel, aluminium or reinforced plastics.
 They may be sliding or single- or double-hinged and if hinged should open outwards.
 Internal finishes should be durable and impervious, with good insulation and floor drainage.
 Areas of walls where contact with carcasses occurs on loading should be protected with stainless steel or aluminium or
plastic sheeting.
 Chill and freezer doors be close fitting and that they be provided with an internal opening device to avoid personnel being
closed in the rooms.
 Space must be enough to accommodate carcasses at least for 2 days.
 Several smaller chilling rooms can also be put up for convenience.
 The temperature of the chilling rooms must be between -10C and 40C.

HIDE AND SKIN STORE

 Hide and skins must be removed from the slaughter hall straight to the hide store which should have a airconditioned
temperature and it must be despatched to tannery within 10 to 12 hours if more time is needed, a primary treatment with
dry salt at the inner aspect of skin and hide can also be practiced to extend the shelf life to prevent initiation of microbial
spoilage.
 At the planning stage itself suitable arrangements be provided for all areas where by-products are held pending dispatch,
not only in relation to their position, size, layout, chute system with slaughter hall floor, etc., but also in connection with
the facilities for easy loading on or off vehicles.
 A system of handling hides and skins in palletized containers is of value.
 For handling hides and skins gravity feeding is easier if the slaughter hall floor is on a higher level, and connected with
the various by-products departments by stainless steel chutes

MANURE HOUSE

 All refuse like dung and ingesta are retained here before removal.
 This should be sited near the lairage and / or on the dirty side of the plant.
 In some cases stomach and intestinal material is handled along with manure or it may be processed separately.
 Size and design depend mainly on throughput but in all cases of transport vehicles should be made priority, which
usually means having the bay in an elevated position.
 Its floor and sides should be impervious, with provision made for overflow liquors to be drained away.
 In certain whether conditions the manure has to be treated to prevent problems with flies.
 Disposal of waste material must be carried out before development of foul odour and objectionable conditions.
DETAINED MEAT ROOM

 Carcasses suspect for unwholesomeness are brought directly by a special rail to the detained meat room, which should be
located adjacent to the main slaughter hall inspectionpoints in order to achieve close liaison over disease findings.
 All parts of the carcass must be identifiable pending the final decisions.
 They are detained here for a further detailed inspection by the meat inspector.
 This room may be maintained a temperature of 150C to 200C.
 There should be ample space for the examination of carcasses, which being hot at this stage and prior to final inspection,
should not be allowed to touch each other.
 If they are to be held for any period, e.g. pending laboratory examination, chilling accommodation is necessary.
 Good lighting of an intensity of not less than 50 foot-candles (540 lux) is required, which does not distort colours.
 The normal facilities of good drainage, easily cleaned surfaces and adequate sterilisation and recording equipment are
also necessary.
 A hydraulic lift stand is an advantage for detailed examination.
 If this department is situated adjacent to the meat plant laboratory, this is an added advantage, since microbiological,
pathological, parasitological and biochemical examinations, as well as photography, can be more conveniently carried
out.
 This room should be enclosed and entry restricted to authorized personnel. It must be kept locked
CONDEMNED MEAT ROOM AND BOILER ROOM

Condemned meat room

 Condemned meat and organs are stored here under lock and key before final disposal.
 This room must be located in a place, which is in a direct line of vision from the Meat Inspector’s room.
 It should have adequate space for proper sorting and holding of materials unfit for human consumption prior to dispatch,
refrigeration and drainage along with the supply of durable and lockable containers and weighing facilities.
 A suitable rail linkage with the detained meat room and other means of handling materials complete this important area.
Boiler room

 This room is meant for the location of a boiler.

FACILITIES FOR PERSONNEL

 Facilities for the workers to keep their clothing, valuable articles, etc., under safety in locker rooms, a sufficient number
of water closets, showers and wash-hand basins must be provided (one for every 15 employees).
 Alternatively, individual wash-hand basins may be replaced by suitable communal hand washing facilities of an
elongated or circular type, which are more easily maintained.
 Separate units must be provided if both sexes are employed.
 The dressing rooms should be properly separated from the toilets and these must not open directly on to working areas.
 Lockers should be of made of metal with sloping tops and placed 40 cm above the floor in order to facilitate cleaning.
 A plastic, stainless steel or wooden bench along the front of the lockers at this level completes the furniture.
 Separate lockers should be provided to each employee.
 Soiled working clothing should not be stored in lockers but be directed to the laundry.
 Urinals should be installed in toilet rooms for male personnel.
 It is well worthwhile giving close consideration to the layout and design of changing facilities for staff.
 Ventilation in these areas is of great importance.
 Separate welfare facilities may be provided for those employees working in inedible and other unwholesome areas.
 The efficient operation of a meat plant depends on he well-being of its personnel.
 Although a fully trained industrial nurse and a well appointed first aid room are considered beneficial, especially for the
larger premises, not only to deal with the many cuts and other problems associated with slaughtering operations but also
to assist materially in raising hygiene standards and preventing the onset of zoonoses, they have mostly been replaced by
a trained first-aider.
 In a modern meat plant a laundry and a conveniently sited car park are necessary.
 A comprehensive system of communication comprising internal telephones, a staff location system of the VHF-radio
type and loudspeaker equipment should be installed along with adequate security arrangements.
Mess room

 This room is built for the convenience of the workers for their lunch etc.
 The access to this room should be restricted to employees.
Bathroom

 Here workers can clean themselves after their day’s work

VETERINARY OFFICE, OFFICE ACCOMMODATION, SUPERINTENDENT’S OFFICE AND VETERINARY


LABORATORY

 An adequately equipped lockable room for the exclusive use of the veterinary service is advocated.
 The rooms should be provided with hand-washing and shower facilities, and lockers for clothing (clean and dirty) and
meat inspection equipment.
 A convenient means of cleaning footwear before entry into changing rooms is an advantage.
Office accommodation

 Official work concerning the slaughterhouse is performed here.


Superintendent’s office

 This building is so placed that it commands the best view of all slaughter operations and also as much of the abattoir as
practicable.
Veterinary laboratory

 A well-equipped laboratory is essential, for the preliminary diagnosis of animal disease and also to maintain the overall
hygienic standards.
 These premises are very often also utilised for training of meat inspectors and other employees.
ACCESSORY DEPARTMENT

 Gut and tripe room


 Red offal room and the edible fat room
 Cutting rooms
 Inedible area, equipment wash and digester room
 Blood drying yard, fresh meat dispatch area and residential quarters
GUT AND TRIPE ROOM

 Cleaning of the stomachs and intestines and preparation of tripe are done here.
 The stomach of the ox and the sheep, constitute the raw material for tripe.
 The rumen and reticulum are processed together the omasum and the abomasum separately.
 The stomachs are first emptied and washed.
 The fat is trimmed off.
 The stomachs are then scalded in water containing washing soda, scraped and placed in cold water for cleaning them.
 They are finally cooked for 3 to 3 1/2 hours at 49 ºC to 60ºC.
 In some establishments the omasum is discarded because of the difficulty in removing its mucus membranes.
 In sheep and goat the omasum is discarded.
 It is convenient to have moving-top tables, with an arrangement for discharging to a macerator or holding pending
collection for composting, etc.
 Heavy cattle stomachs should be handled either by mechanical equipment or by suitable gradients.
 The cattle-paunch emptying table should be at a convenient height in relation to the moving-top table or be provided with
a power-operated hoist for elevating paunches to the higher level.
 The table must be fitted with an “umbrella” of spray rods fro cleaning the inside and the outside of the paunches.
 Subsequent processing of stomachs and intestines should take place in a separate unit.
RED OFFAL AND EDIBLE FAT ROOM

Red offal room

 Offal such as liver, lungs and kidneys should be trimmed and then placed in a chill or freezing room depending on the
ultimate system of disposal.
 Offal for edible purpose must be held at a temperature not exceeding 3°C.
The edible fat room

 This is a completely separate holding room, usually situated near the gut room and where edible fat is held
pending dispatch.
CUTTING ROOMS

 In the cutting rooms hygienic procedures on fabrication of carcasses are carried out.
 So these rooms and the techniques employed in them that legislation usually gives special consideration to them.
 During the cutting process the temperature of the building must not exceed 10°C and the rooms must have sufficient
refrigeration accommodation to keep meat at an internal temperature of not more than 7°C.
 There must also be a thermometer installed in the cutting room.
 Adequate facilities are necessary in the form of suitable equipment, an adequate supply of hot, potable water to keep the
whole area hygienic, and a waste disposal system that meets hygiene requirements

INEDIBLE AREA, EQUIPMENT WASH AND DIGESTER ROOM

Inedible area

 All materials unfit for human consumption, with the exception of hides and skins, are handled in this area.
 Handling of omasum after separation from cattle paunches is very difficult, since improper handling of these organs may
result in unhygienic conditions.
Equipment wash

 A properly designed equipment wash adjacent to work rooms is essential.


 There should be a one-way system through the washroom, to avoid the mixing of clean and dirty equipment,
good drainage and most importantly good steam extraction.
Digester room

 The digester apparatus is located in this room


 This apparatus is utilised for dealing with condemned mea

FRESH MEAT DISPATCH AREA AND RESIDENTIAL QUARTERS

Fresh meat dispatch area

 The fresh meat dispatch area must be sited away from the dirty area and access to it restricted to vehicles associated with
meat and offal for human consumption.
 The floor level of the loading bay should be at vehicle floor height and the whole area should be roofed so that personnel
can work in inclement weather conditions.
 A system whereby the meat plant rails coordinate with those of the meat transport vehicles is of great value in efficiency
and hygienically loading meat for delivery.
 There must be protection against pests of various kinds as well as stops to prevent damage to plant walls.
 This is best achieved by a docking system whereby there is no air movement from outside the premises into dispatch area
or vehicle.
 If quartering of carcasses or any other butchering takes place in this area, it should be refrigerated to 12°C.
Residential quarters

 Provision must be made for the Superintendent of the abattoir, a mechanic and watchman to reside within the area to be
of ready assistance during emergencies.
ISOLATION BLOCK

 This is also known as Emergency Slaughter Unit or Miniature Abattoir.


 In large abattoirs isolation block is necessary for detention of suspected animals for observation and if necessary
slaughterhouse in structure, with a small lairage up to four cattle, slaughter hall, cooling hall, bacteriological laboratory,
incinerator and sterilization rooms.
 This block must be located at a distance from the main buildings and workers should not move from here to the main
buildings. It should be situated near to the suspect meat detention room and should be in direct communication with the
by-products departmen
DISPOSITION OF BUILDINGS

 The design varies from country to country and from town to town in the same country with usage and customs.
 In principle every abattoir should be so constructed as to render maximum service at low cost and great convenience.
The following points have to be considered while constructing an abattoir

 A most desirable arrangement in abattoir lay out is that in which the live animal enters at one end of the abattoir, and the
finished produce leaves at the other end of it, with the whole process working in one direction only.
 A cooling hall should occupy a central position in front and connected with covered passages to the slaughter hall.
 Cattle and sheep slaughter blocks should be on one side and behind the cooling hall.
 Pig slaughter block should occupy a similar position on the opposite side separately.
 Hide store, Tripery, Guttery, Manure house, Boiler room, condemned meat room, etc. should be in the rear.
 Detention rooms and condemned meat rooms should be just behind the cooling hall on the other side of the passage.
 Cattle and sheep blocks should comprise of 2 separate buildings, one in front for slaughter and dressing of cattle and
sheep and one in the rear providing lairage accommodation, the two being connected by an open passage.
 From the lairage the animals after weighment if necessary, are led to stunning pens and from thereon to the bleeding
passage.
 Then removed on to the dressing block.
 There should be a sufficiency of water in the lairage.
 For pigs, in addition to the above, stunning traps and provision for scalding and scraping are to be made available
EQUIPMENT USED IN ABATTOIR

For cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry dressing

 captive bolt pistol,


 dressing rail,
 shackle hoist,
 shackles,
 rail system,
 transfer hoist,
 transfer platform,
 skinning platform,
 skinning machine,
 evisceration,
 platform and trucks,
 brisket saw,
 splitting platform,
 splitting saw,
 pneumatic spreader,
 trolleys,
 pluck hooks,
 hose pipes,
 gambrel elevator,
 gas singeing unit,
 electric stunner,
 scalding tank,
 defeathering machine,
 chilling tank,
 packaging unit
 sealer
 Different sets of knives to undertake specialized slaughter operation
MANAGEMENT AND PRACTICES IN ABATTOIR

There are two main management systems are in practice in abattoir.

System 1

 This system may be of Central or State government or of local government like municipal boards, Co-operatives or any
private enterprise.
 Permanent staff of workers may be employed by the authority to carry out the slaughterhouse operations.
 In this system the organisation either takes over the livestock from the owners and return it to traders.
System 2

 In this system the management only hires the place to private owners, who bear the responsibility for butchering
operations with their own or hired labour.
Practices

 In system 1, the abattoir is divided into sections for each operational stage.
 All are connected by overhead rail system and each section has its own staff specially trained.
 When the chain or line system is operated for slaughter and dressing of animals, work is carried out while the animals are
hanging from a track bar or rail, along which they are slowly and continuously pushed by a mechanical conveyor or
chain.
 Men work in a team and the work on each animal is subdivided among them.
 A definite part of every animal is allotted to each person and he must confine his activities to the part assigned to him.
 To prevent staleness setting in and resulting in the lowering of efficiency, each worker is assigned a new job at regulated
intervals.

HYGIENIC ASPECTS OF ABATTOIR OPERATION

 Meat hygiene and sanitation perform the function of quality control to safeguard public health and enhance the keeping
quality of meat and its products.
 Sanitation in meat industry is concerned with aseptic preparation, processing, packing, storage, preservation and
distribution of the meat.
BUILDINGS

 The area surroundings the slaughterhouse building must be well maintained.


 It should be properly drained leaving no scope for water logging.
 Inedible material and manure should be collected in closed containers and removed regularly.
 Building proper should be vermin and fly proof.
 The junction between ceiling and walls should be rounded for convenient cleaning.
 Floor angles and corners should be imperviously sealed.
 Paint should be lead-free.
 The machinery installed in the building should be smooth and its functional surfaces should be easily accessible for
cleaning.
 Wood fittings are not allowed.
 There must be adequate washing facilities for personnel hygiene.
 Adequate facilities for disinfection of knives and tools should be there in the plant.
 Eating and smoking is prohibitted except in the designated places.
SANITATION

This is a process (an attempt) to kill or eradicate most of the organisms on or from equipment surfaces and other related places or
articles.

The types of contamination

 Microbial
 This is related to food safety and keeping quality.
 Chemical
 This implies to remaining minerals, detergents, scales, sanitizer, etc.,
 Physical
 This is degree of sanitation where no visible and remains where it should not be.
 Apparent
 This relates to efficient cleanliness, disposal of waste water, oil and sewage.
 Sanitation is one of the most important functions in any meat plant.
 It involves a technology more detailed than that of slaughter and carcass dressing.
 It demands good working conditions, well-trained and responsible operatives influencing on meat quality and
product shelf life.
 It costs less to be clean than to be dirty.
 The chief function of sanitation is the protection of the product from contamination.
 Work areas are to be visually clean and odourless.
 Personnel have to be protected from contamination and possible infection.
 Poor hygiene standards can lead to
 bad product quality,
 loss of customers
 outbreaks of food poisoning.
 affect the shelf life and
 can lead to actual production delay and condemnations.
 Cleaning and sterilization of trolleys and gambrels and other equipment in the meat after each run are the most
important tasks.
 There must be a sterilizing room or rooms managed by specialised personnel.
 Inspection by a responsible and competent individual should include a pre-operations and on
operational inspection.
 The ultimate aim must be to achieve a physically, chemically and microbiologically clean environment.
Sanitation report

 This is an integral item of any good sanitation programme, which deals the state of the various plant areas and the action
taken by the inspector, copies being given to Management and to Licensing authorities.
 The Sanitation Report is completed daily and rendered weekly.
 To develop an effective sanitation programme it is necessary to identify needs and defects
 Establish detailed cleaning instructions for all areas and equipment
 Set up and further improvement of the working programme
 Ensure that all personnel receive proper training in hygiene, environmental and personnel safety
BACTERIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PLANT SANITATION

The contamination occurring in abattoirs is largely derived

 From the animals entering it. The accumulation of animals in lairages further increases the possibility of cross-
contamination (Salmonella is often incriminated).
 Inside the meat plant bacteria can spread by contact with personnel, clothing, surfaces and equipment.
 Vermin, birds, insects and animals are other means of spread of bacteria.
 Visitors and other personnel and their vehicles employed in the ancillary trades can also spread microorganisms into the
premises of plant.
 A heavily contaminated hide or fleece will transfer considerable amounts of contamination to the carcass at the dressing
process.
 Improper washing of hands and clothing, regular sterilization of equipment and efficient hygienic techniques are also
responsible for the occurrence of contamination.
 After skinning about 10,000 to 100,000 bacteria/cm2 can be found on the tissues.
 About 80,000 to 40 million organisms could be found in each blade of knives.
 As many as 3 x 109 bacteria/gm of scrapings has been noticed in leggings of operatives after skinning 100 carcasses in
six hours.
 As many as 2 million bacteria can be noticed in the hands of meat operatives.
 Hence it is necessary to minimise the initial contamination on the animals as low as possible and strict hygiene
precautions at all stages in the abattoir itself has to be supplemented
CLEANING OPERATION

 An ample supply of good, hygienic, soft and hot water at a temperature of not less than 82° C and adequate number of
hose points are essential.
 The usual method of applying hot water in meat plant is through high-pressure jet cleaners with 14kg f/cm2.
 The manual operation of spray guns in which the pressure is in the 35-49 kg f/cm2 range, the volume of water being low,
averaging about 9 litres/minute.
 Application of detergent followed by sanitizer or a combination of both is necessary for an actual meat premises under
adequate pressure and temperature (not less than 14 kg f/cm 2and 82°C).
 Dry cleaning should commence immediately after operations have ceased and should embrace the whole premises, where
disinfectant should be used.
 This good system will ensure the final daily operation after the completion of slaughtering rendered more effectively.
 Cleansing operations must be done frequently to prohibit any built-up of bacteria on trolleys, hooks, gambrels, etc.,
which come in contact with the meat.
 Instead of using highly sophisticated cleansing installations, manual cleansing has been found to be more effective in
some parts of the slaughterhouse.
 It is essential to have a schedule of cleansing.
 It involves a constant use of cold hosing and a daily application of hot water (82°C) plus detergent.
 At less frequent intervals other cleansing methods may be necessary.
 Recently two methods of detergency have been introduced which greatly reduce the need for manual work. They are
foam and gel cleaning .
 The foam or gel adheres to the surfaces allowing time for the chemical to breakdown the soil, which is then rinsed away
with hot water under pressure.
 Depending on whether protein or fat is to be removed an acid or an alkaline compound respectively is used.
 The foam and gel cleaning solutions are usually applied rapidly through a lance from a unit operated by compressed air
or by an electrically operated compressor.
 45 litres of foam solution expands to 729-909 litres, sufficient to cover 55.7 – 92.9 cm2 of surfaces in 15-20 minutes.
 The gel does not collapse and can be applied in a very hot form and is useful for thin, tenacious protein or fat films where
longer contact times and/or heat may be advantageous.
Advantages of foam cleansing

 It saves on labour. Surface areas can be covered in a relatively short time. It can penetrate inaccessible areas, often
eliminating the need for the dismantling of equipment.
 It is economical since the foam clings to surfaces and does not run to waste. Foam can effectively substitute for other
cleansing compounds in the cleaning schedule.
 It is biodegradable and does not give rise to effluent problem. Foam does not splash and is comparatively safe to use,
although strong alkalis and acids must be used with care.
PROCEDURE AND REQUIREMENTS FOR CLEANSING OPERATION

 Remove all gross fat, skin and most scraps. In the slaughter hall this is round-the-clock operation and must be associated
with tidy working methods
 Application of cleaning compounds at proper temperatures for their optimum activity
 Rinsing with hot water
 Sanitation.
Requirements

 Temperature, force or agitation, time and chemical concentration are involved in cleaning efficiency.
 The use of light mineral oil has been found to be on surfaces and as an aid to maintenance.
 Hoses must be equipped with proper nozzles.
 The pressure, volume and shape of the stream of water are critical for effective cleansing. e.g. a fishtail jet of water is
much more effective than a round stream.
 Hoses should be adequate in number (both hot and cold) and of short length.
 If hung vertically they can be more effectively applied to restricted areas.
 Lengthy unwieldy hoses are both a nuisance and a danger.
 Fat, soil, clay, seed, hay, straw, hair, wool and blood are common entities to be dealt within the meat industry.
 Water for cleaning, hand washing, carcass spraying, etc., must be of potable quality.
 For refrigeration, steam production and fire precautions water may be of a lower standard
AUTOMATED CLEANING SYSTEMS

There are several automated systems to cope with what is probably the most important problem in the food
industry sanitation. Three main types of automated cleansing systems are

 Cleaning – in – place system (CIP)


 Central cleaning system (CCS)
 Self – contained cleaning system (SCCS)
The Cleaning-in-place system

 The CIP was first developed for the dairy industry.


 It is a closed system in which cleaning compounds are circulated by a pump through a series of pipes to the components
to be cleaned.
 It is basically designed for cleaning internal surfaces only but also used for external cleaning.
 Even though it is used for the internal cleaning of mixers, choppers and other equipment that necessitates the use of
tanks, at present, it has a limited application in the meat industry.
Central cleaning system

 CCS has a central pumping source supplying cleaning solutions under pressure to remote locations in a meat plant.
 In one CCS the cleaning materials may be mixed centrally and delivered to the various points through one manifold, the
plant water supply being used for rinsing.
 The unit should be capable of achieving pressures of 35-49 kg f/cm2 and a flow of 136-181 litres/min.
 It is a flexible system in that if a pump fails a unit from another area can be used, whereas in the CCS the
entire sanitation process stops if this eventuality should occur.
 Continuous cleaning of viscera conveyors and other equipment in contact with edible material is another essential task.
 In the other CCS the detergent is transported through a separate manifold to each remote station where it is mixed with
the high pressure water system as required and used through a cleaning gun. With these two separate lines (which are
more costly), both pressure wash and pressure rinse can be carried out. The self-contained cleaning system.
Self contained cleaning system

 SCCS has the pumping source and chemical spray systems contained in one unit and may not have facilities for foam
production.
 Some units produce hot water while others employ a steam-mixing valve or utilise the separate hot-water system of the
plant.
 Some SCCS are able to use an alkaline cleaner and acid cleaner and a sanitizer at each remote station.
 Some forms of this automated cleaning equipment are portable and can be removed from one location to another, being
connected to an electrical or air and water source of power
EMPLOYEES

 Different levels of training in the various functions of a meat plant are required for different staff members in meat plant.
 But the level of training is the same for all from the company director to the latest recruit in relation to cleanliness,
clothing attitudes and behaviour.
 Basic training in hygiene on induction would include the nature of hygiene, how it affects the operative, his or her
colleagues and consumer, hygiene practices, regulations and procedures of meat plant and health requirements of
personnel.
 These items can be fully explained in a reasonable booklet given to the new employees in whom the nature of viruses,
bacteria, yeasts and moulds is explained, along with occupational hazards.
 On the job training can deal with the use of equipment and tools and their sterilization, protective clothing, good
housekeeping in relation to hygienic practices, accidents and their reporting, use of dressings and first aid room (if
available) and safety measures.
 On-going training programmes are concerned mainly with furthering awareness of the need for good hygiene practices
among personnel by way of posters, lectures, personal approach, etc.
 Since cuts of various types are the most common form of injury encountered in a meat plant the need for personal
hygiene, hair and hand care, toilet, general cleanliness and prompt treatment of cuts abrasions and other skin lesions must
be stressed.
 The elements of sanitation, refrigeration, the awareness of hazards for consumers, reporting procedures and
responsibilities also have to be communicated to employees.
ABATTOIR EFFLUENT TREATMENT

 Effluent means dirty water with organic matter such as blood, dung, urine, fat, trimmings, fascia, etc.
 The disposal of effluent of abattoir is essential because of possibility of pollution leading to human health hazards.
 Large quantity of water is utilised in the abattoir to clean blood from slaughter section, pen manure and similar material
containing organic matter as suspended solids.
 This wastewater has got a high pollution capacity and hence should not be connected to municipal sewer line.
 However, water from the toilet lines and cooling towers should be directly connected to sewer system.
 The concentration of effluent solids is measured in terms of biological oxygen demand (BOD) usually expressed in parts
per million (ppm) or mg/litre.
BOD5

 Biological oxygen demand is the amount of O2 required during the first five days for decomposition of organic matter at
20°C by aerobic biological action.
 Higher the BOD level, greater is the organic matter content and greater its pollution capability.
 Domestic sewage – BOD5 = 250-300 mg/litre normal and permissible one
 Slaughterhouse - BOD5 = 1500-2000 mg/litre normal and permissible one
In general, abattoir effluent treatment involves the following steps

 Primary treatment
 This consists of screening out solids and removing fat by hands.
 It is carried out in a tank constructed below the ground level.
 It is divided by a partition of strong steel meshes.
 The main trunk line drainage of meat plant or abattoir opens into the first part.
 The gross solid materials like bits of fat, flesh, stomach, intestine, hide, etc., are filtered through the mesh.
 The waste water free of gross solids is pumped to the secondary filtration unit.
 Secondary treatment
 This system depends upon cost, BOD level required, land area available, odour level etc.
 This unit is erected at the first floor level and contains two vibrating screens with fine mesh which are arranged
at an angle.
 This unit separates the suspended solids. Subsequent treatment is done in tanks erected at the ground level.
Fat separation

 It is a specially designed tank where waste water is agitated by pumping the air at several points.
 The separated fat rises to the top and is skimmed off at regular intervals.
Equalization tank

 It is a large tank fitted with floating level mechanical aerator.


 Here waste water is continuously agitated to have a uniform quality for proper biological oxidation.
 As a biological stimulant, a small quantity of activated sludge is also recycled into this tank.
 This method is capable of reducing up to 90% of the fats, 65% of the solids and BOD 5 by 35%.
Biological oxidation tanks or ponds

 Further treatment of waste water depends on the availability of land or open space.
 In limited land area, anaerobic process and if enough land area is available, aerobic process is adopted.
Anaerobic process

 This is used in which reduction of BOD5 is performed by bacteria in the absence of O2.
 Ponds of 4.5 m deep and loaded to 7.5 kg BOD 5 per 5000 litres pond volume will give a BOD5 reduction of 60-80% at
temperatures of 32.5 – 35°C.
 The effluent is digested in enclosed digester at 32.5°C.
 The gas being burnt and heat generated for heating.
Aerobic process

 In this the process, O2 assists bacterial action to reduce the BOD5.


 Shallow ponds 0.9 – 1.2 m deep having a loading of 7.3 – 9.3 kg BOD5 per day per hectare of pond surface are mainly
restricted to final treatment following other processes.
Activated sludge process

 Involves utilizing biologically active sludge in small amount mixed with screened, pre-settled effluent and then agitated
in presence of ample supply of aeration tank. This is a well-known method of treating domestic sewage but it is not
commonly used for meat plants.
The oxidation ditch system

 It was developed by Dr. A. Pasveer in Holland in 1953.


 It is an one-stage process for purification of sewage by oxidation using an aeration rotor.
 The raw sewage flows into the aeration zone where it is mixed with ditch contents; oxidation is effected by the rotor.
 Flow of the mixed liquor from the ditch to the final settlement tank is controlled by means of an adjustable outlet weir
which can regulate rotor blade depth and thereby oxygen input.
 Settled sludge from the final settlement tank is returned continuously to the oxidation ditch.
Biological filtration process

 Percolating filters consists of 1.8 -2.4 meter beds of stones 50 -1000 mm in diameter.
 Purification is accomplished by the action of a film of microorganisms covering the stones on the organic matter.
 At loadings of 75-87 kg BOD5 per 5000litres of packing per day a BOD5 reduction of 40% is possible.
 This system is costly since it has a tendency to block and require a large area.
 Before treating the effluent, data on flow rate, BOD levels, fat, solids should be determined over a period of time
OPERATION OF CATTLE IN SLAUGHER HOUSE

INTRODUCTION

 The Standard was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 27 April 1979 after the draft finalized by the Meat
Industry Sectional Committee had been approved by the Agricultural and Food Products Division Council.
 Abattoirs have not been constructed on modern lines and they do not fulfil the requirements of hygiene, sanitation, public
health and of the prevention of cruelty to animals.
 This standard has been formulated to help in improving the present conditions of abattoirs and in guiding the construction
of new abattoirs on modern lines specially with a view to having greater utilization of slaughter-house by-products.
 This standard was first published in 1967.
 The present revision incorporates a number of modifications and additions like those of improved lay-outs, flow
diagrams and requirements for installation and plant wastes disposal.
 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value, observed
or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance with IS: 2- 1960.

SCOPE

 This standard covers the typical layout plan, hygienic and sanitary and basic requirement for an abattoir for carrying out
slaughter of sheep, goats, pigs and large animals.

LAYOUT PLAN

The abattoirs shall have the following essential facilities:

 Resting place for animals before slaughter


 Adequate facilities for ante-mortem inspection
 Carrying out humane slaughter
 Flaying, dressing and washing of the carcasses
 Hanging carcasses and edible offal
 Handling by-products
 Inspection of meat and disposal of meat unfit for human consumption
 Laboratory
 Social welfare
 Seggregation ward for sick/diseased animals and
 Adequate water supply
 Inaddition the facility may also be provided for rendering plant and an incinerator.
LOCATION

 Abattoirs may be located outside or on the periphery of a city or town and shall be away from an airport.
 Care should be taken to see that these are easily accessible to the patrons and do not adversely affect the transport of meat
to the market place.
 Main services, such as potable water, electricity and proper hygienic sewage disposal facilities are a prerequisite and
should be provided.
UNITS OF AN ABATTOIR
 Reception area
 Lairage
 Slaughter hall
 Ancillary accommodation
 Refrigerated Room
RECEPTION AREA

 The animals are received and subjected veterinary inspection before passing to lairage.
 Ramps for unloading of animals from trucks shall be provided.
 Office room for veterinary inspector should be located in the reception area.
 Adequate holding area shall be provided according to the class of animals to be slaughtered.
 The holding area shall have water and feeding facilities.
 The resting grounds should have overhead protective shelters.
 Separate isolation pens shall be provided will watering and feeding arrangement for
 Animals suspected to be suffering from contagious and infections diseases, and
 Fractious animals, in order to segregate them from the remaining animals.

LAIRAGES

 The lairage shall be adequate in size for the number of animals to be laired. The space provided in the pens shall be not
less than 2.8 m2 per small animal.
 The animal shall be kept separately depending upon their type and class.
 The lairage shall be so constructed as to protect the animals from heat, cold and rain.
 The lairage shall have adequate facilities for watering and ante-mortem inspections.
 Separate lariages are to be provide for livestock meant for ‘JHATKA’ ‘HALAL’ or ‘JEWISH’ slaughter.
 Complete visual separation shall be effected and entrances shall be as far apart as possible
SLAUGHTER HALLS

 Separate provisions shall be made in an abattoir for slaughtering, dressing and processing of sheep and goat (‘JHATKA’
‘HALAL’ or ‘JEWISH’), pigs and large animals.
 Separate space shall be provided from stunning, bleeding and dressing of the carcasses.
 The curbing should be not less than 150 mm high and 100 mm wide with the top sloped not less than 45 0.
 The knocking section and dry landing area shall be accomplished with vertical pipes 150mm in diameter 1.5 m high on
prepared vertical inserts; about 120 mm high placed not less than 500 mm apart.
 A curbed in bleeding area of adequate size should be located such that the blood shall no be splashed on other animals
being slaughtered or on carcass.
Dressing area

 Should have means and tool for dehiding or belting of the animals and means for immediate disposal of hides or skin
through closed wheel barrow or chutes.
 A floor wash point, hand wash basin and sterilizer should be provided in bleeding area and dressing area.
Viscera inspection area

 Facilities for immediate separation, identification, inspection and correlation of carcass, viscera and head should be
provided for various type of animal slaughtered.
Carcass washing

 A curbed and separately drained area with slope 33 per mm to a floor drain should be provided.
ANCILLARY ACCOMODATION

 A separate room and hanging space shall be provided for emptying and cleaning of stomach and intestines.
 Viscera cleaning and separating departments should be divided into edible and inedible sections for further processing.
This room shall have separate exit, provided with solid, self- closing doors and separated from the slaughter floor.
 Separate facilities provided for the isolation of meat which requires further examination in laboratory located within the
premises of the abattoir.
 Separate provision for retention of meat condemned as unfit for human consumption is needed.
 Hide and skin room for separate storage must be provided.
 Labour welfare facilites:
 Toilet rooms provided away form the slaughter hall.
 Separate hall with lockers and shower facilities shall be provided.
 Adequate drinking water and washing facilities at convenient locations shall be provided.
 Canteen and first aid facilities shall be provided.
 Separate rendering facilities should be provided or the condemned material should he denatured and kept in inedible
product room in water type metal containers and disposed daily,
 Refigerated Room, Hanging halls air-conditioned with temperature not more than 100C
RAILS FOR CARCASSES

 Rails (IS: 6628-1972) with suitable hooks of rust proof metal or mild steel for hanging of carcasses and plucks shall be
provided.
 The height and length of rails provided for bleeding and dressing are
Carcass Height Length of carcass (mm)
(mm)

Bleeding rail for sheep, goats and 3 450


pigs

Bleeding rail for large animals 4.5-5 600

Dressing rail for sheep, goats and 2-2.2 900


pigs

Dressing rail for large animals 3.2 1800-for legging 2400-for evisceration and
processing.

 Requirements of space per carcass and distance between rails in hanging or chill room
Carcass Space per carcass Distance between rails Height of rails (mm)
(mm) (mm)

Sheep and 300-400 300-400 2000-2200


Goats

Pigs

>70kg 450-600 450-600 2000-2200

<70kg 300-400 300-400 2000-2200

Large animals 450-600 800-1000 3200 for halves 2000-2200


for quarters

CIVIL CONSTRUCTION

Antemortem and pen area

 The area should be made of impervious material such as concrete non slippery herring bone type to stand wear and tear,
pitched to suitable drainage facilities.
 Curbs of impervious material 150-300 mm high should be provided around the borders of livestock pen area which
should be covered.
Plant building

 Material should be impervious, easily cleansable and resistant to wear and corrosion.
 Floor should be non absorbent and non slippery with rough finish, and shall have suitable gradient for drainage.
 Coves with radii sufficient to promote sanitation installed at the juncture of floors and walls not less than 100mm.
 Interior walls should be smooth and flat, provided with sanitary type bumpers to prevent damage and constructed of
impervious materials such as glazed brick, glazed tile or other non toxic, non absorbent material. Walls should have
washable upto the height of 2m from the floor so that the splashes can be washed easily.
 Ceilings should be of good height (5m or more in work rooms), constructed of portland cement plaster or asbestos boards
or other impervious materials, finished to minimize condensation. Walls above glazed portion and ceiling may be painted
with water resistant paint to maintain them clean.
 Window ledges should slope at 45° to promote sanitation. Window sills should be 1200mm above floor level.
Proper ventilation through mechanical venting or through working vents should be provided in roof structure.
 Doorways and Doors shall be atleast 1500mm wide, rust resistant, the juncture of door and wall shall be sealed with a
flexible sealing compound.
 All windows and door ways should be equipped with effective insect and rodent screens. Fly chaser fans and ducts or air
curtains provided over doorways in outside wall of food handling areas.
Vehicular areas for trucks

 Concrete paved areas properly drained and exending atleast 6m from building, loading docks or livestock platforms shall
be provided.
 Pressure washing jets and disinfection facilities for trucks carrying animals are to be provided.
Drainage

 One drainage inlet for each 37m2 of floor space with slope of about 20mm per metre to drainage inlets should be
provided.
 Floor drains should not be provided in freezer rooms or dry storage areas.
 Each floor drain should be equipped with a deep seal trap.
 Drainage lines shall be properly vented to the outside air and equipped with
 effective rodent screens.
 Sanitary drainage lines should not be connected with other drainage lines
 within the plant and may not discharge into a grease catch basin.
 All floor drains should be easily cleanable.
 U drains set with satisfactory covers, made fly and rodent proof should be used.
 Floor drainage valleys of 600 mm wide, slope of 10mm per metre to drain with the valleys are essential under the
dressing rails for hogs, calves and sheep
LIGHT AND VENTILLATON

 Work rooms shall be provided with direct natural light and ventilation or artificial light.
 Uncoloured glass with high transmissibility of light may be used in skylights and windows.
 The glass area should be 1/4th the floor area of a work room.
 The ratio can be increased where there is interference to admittance of natural light.
 Sockets for the use of inspection lamps shall be provided at convenient places.
 Well distributed artificial light of an overall intensity of not less than 200 lux throughout the slaughter hall and work
rooms and at places where meat inspection is carried out, the overall intensity shall be not less than 500 lux.
 Sufficient and suitable ventilation shall be provided to the outside.
 Construction of the slaughter hall should be so arranged that the dressed carcasses are not exposed to direct sunlight
WATER SUPPLY

 Sufficient, safe, potable and constant supply of fresh water of pressure 200 -300kPa- floor cleaning and 1000-1700 kPa-
washing of carcasses shall be available throughout the premises.
 Floor washing points may be provided preferably for minimum 37m2 on slaughter floor and working departments.
 Water distribution plant may be located at the load centre.
 A constant supply of clean hot water at not less than 82°C shall be available in the slaughter hall and work rooms during
work hours.
 Non potable water is used for fire control is carried in completely separate lines identified by colour.

EQUIPMENT CONSTRUCTION

 Equipment should be constructed of rust-resisting metal such as stainless steel, easily demountable and should be
accessible for cleaning.
 Plastics which are abrasion and heat-resistant, non-toxic, shatter-proof may be used.
 Internal corners of equipment should have radius of minimum 6 mm, greater radius required to facilitate
easy drainage and cleaning.
 All welding with in the equipment should be continuous and smooth.
 All parts of the equipment shall be free of recesses, open teams and gaps, crevices, protruding ledges, inside threads,
inside shoulders, inside bolts or rivets and deal ends.
 Metals like copper and alloys, cadmium in equipment should not used for edible products, equipment painted surfaces
should be avoided in product zone and lead in the enamel containers are not desirable.
 The working table should be at waste height of the worker to work in standing position.
 Working platform for on-the-rail operations should be of such height that the person able to reach operation zone in his
natural standing position.

INSTALLATION

 All permanently mounted equipment be installed sufficiently away from walls or above the floor (minimum of 300 mm)
for easy cleaning and inspection or it should touch the wall or floor.
 Wall mounted cabinets and electrical connections shall be installed at 25mm from equipment or walls or shall be
completely sealed to the equipment or wall.
 Water washing equipments, sausage stuffing tables, can sterilizers and casing preparation equipment shall be installed so
that waste water from each unit is delivered through an interrupted connection into the drainage system without flowing
over the floor.
 Soaking and cooking vats should be provided with overflow pipes atleast 50mm in diameter.
 All tables or equipments having water on the working surface shall be provided with turned up edges of less than 25mm.

PLANT WASTE WATER DISPOSAL

 Plant waste may be discharged into a municipal sewer system as permitted by local bye-laws.
 Waste may be discharged into streams provided the sewage is free of organic material and the flow of water is
continuous to carry away from the plant.
 Catch basins for grease recovery should have inclined bottoms, without covers and should be located away from edible
products department.
 Grease is skimmed from the basins by mechanical or other means before disposal.
 A hose connection for carrying hot water for cleaning purpose may be provided near the basin.
 The area surrounding an outside catch basin should be paved with impervious materials like concrete and provided with
suitable drainage facilities.
 A separate drain line for water containing manure should be provided, the waste water may be pumped by wet pit or dry
pit non clog pumps and manure screened out and disposed of by mechanical means.

SAFETY REQUIREMENT

 Adequate fire fighting arrangement and portable first aid fire appliances shall be fixed in accordance with IS: 2190-1971
PRE-SLAUGHTER CARE OF FOOD ANIMALS

 Animals are to be handled with the minimum of disturbance and as quietly as up to the point of slaughter to safegaurd
meat quality.
 It is necessary to rest fatigued and excited animals before slaughter - because of the complete development of acidity of
the muscles and also the early invasion of the system by putrefaction bacteria from the intestinal tract. These bacteria
cause of bone taint in cattle and of ham taint in pigs.
 The meat of animals slaughtered while exhausted, appears dark fiery due to decreased oxygenation of
the blood haemoglobin and muscle myoglobin. Allowances of molasses or sugar solution will reduce the incidence of
PSE in pigs and also it helps to maintain glycogen level. This glycogen is useful for better acidification of the carcass for
higher shelf life.
 A period of 6-24 hours with a maximum of 36 hours detention and rest in a lairage is essential for such animals before
slaughter.
 The actual duration of the resting period depends on many factors such as; species of animals, age, sex, class and
condition, time of year, length of journey, method of transportation, etc.
 Check to ensure that there are no defects, which could cause bruising or even death. V-race with catwalk arrangement
should be provided for movement of food animals from lairageto slaughterhall to avoid obstruction of the passage and
minimize stress.
 The animals should be provided with adlibitum potable water which facilitates flaying and reduction of intestinal
microbes with chances of possible cross contamination.
 Aggressive animals and females in oestrus must be isolated likewise horned from polled stock.
 Mixing of animals from different origins leads to fighting and injury.
 The use of fine sprays of water on pigs awaiting slaughter in lairages has a beneficial effect in the prevention of fighting.
 Only physiologically normal animals should be slaughtered thereby preventing any loss of body weight.
 Electrical goads should be used for movement of stock.
 Weight loss suffered during transit could be restored to some extent by providing adequate rest

WATERING

 Animal should receive ample drinking water during their detention in the lairage as this serves to lower the bacterial load
in the intestine and facilitates removal of the hide or pelt during dressing of the carcass.
 If animals receive unlimited water during their rest period prior to slaughter stunning of animals by electrical and gaseous
means becomes more efficacious.

FEEDING

 Withholding feed from animals prior to slaughter helps in better bleeding and the carcass appear brighter.
 In cattle withholding feed for a period of 6 hours prior to slaughter minimizes the emigration of bacteria from the
intestinal tract during digestion.
 Very young calves cannot be induced to take feed in lairage pens and because of the danger of cross infection they should
be slaughtered forthwith on arrival at an abattoir.

FASTING

Animals with full stomachs will cause

 excessive contamination of carcass and offal if accidentally cut during the dressing procedure
 wet hides and fleeces encouraging the transfer of faecal material particularly to areas such as the shanks brisket and
hocks
 The withholding of feed begins at the time the animals leave the farm and causes loss of body weight.
 It is important to know how long animals can be fasted before body weight losses commence and the extent of these
losses.
 Adult cattle lose no weight three days after removal from pasture but loss severely after four days withdrawal of food.
 Adult sheep would not lose as much body weight as lambs in comparable periods.
 Younger the animals lose greater the live weight following fasting.
 Therefore, resting periods should be geared accordingly and stock for slaughter should be drawn from production areas
as close to slaughter points as possible.
 Cattle in good condition should not be held for too long a period before slaughter in cold weather.

TRANSPORT OF FOOD ANIMALS

 Transport affects adversely the condition of the animal and the consistency of the flesh.
 There are regulations in different countries, which govern the transport of animals by rail and road and these should be
strictly enforced.
 The careful handling of food animals before slaughtered has great importance.
 Unsuitable conditions of rail or road transport frequently lead to injury, lameness, and suffocation or transit fever.
 The danger is great for fat animals than for lean and is accentuated, the more closely animals are loaded, the higher the
temperature and the longer the journey.
 Large and small cattle and animals of different species must be separated by partitions.
 Animals undertaking a journey of 24 hours or more must be fed and watered before hand.
 And if the journey is of 36 hours duration they must be fed and watered in transit.
 Water assists all animals to withstand heat.
 Fowls must only be transported in cages or other airy receptacles. Their transport in sacks and also tying and carrying by
their feet should be prohibited .
 Transportation may take place by driving, trucking, rail and by boat or ship.
DRIVING ON FOOT

 Transportation by driving affects animals to a great degree corresponding to their being accustomed to outdoor exercise
and the temperature of the season.
 Sheep and cattle raised under range conditions are least affected but difficulty is experienced with stabled cattle, calves
and pigs.
 As driving of fattened animals affected them unfavourably in proportion to their fleshiness; they are driven only over
short distances. Travel for long distances should be allowed, if they are accustomed to it.
 The voice, sticks and dogs are employed in driving the animals. While dogs can scarcely be separated in driving as they
cause considerable excitement among animals of other species. Cruel treatment to animals during transport causing
injuries should be avoided.
 Animals always get excited and tired during transport and if slaughtered immediately they bleed out incompletely and in
most instances cause decrease in keeping quality of meat.
 Pigs when driven should never be struck with a stick. Skin discolourations and bruising become obvious especially
after scalding of carcass with a resultant depreciation in value. Driving is best done with a flat canvass strap.
 Only cattle, sheep and goats can be successfully moved on hoof, and here certain risks are involved. The journey should
be planned, paying attention to the distance to be travelled, opportunities for grazing, watering and overnight rest.
 Animals should be walked during the cooler times of the day and, if moving some distance to a railhead, they should
arrive with sufficient time to be rested and watered before loading. The maximum distances that these animals should be
trekked depend on various factors such as weather, body condition, age etc.
 It is illegal to make animals walk in heavy rain, thunderstorms or extremely dry or sultry conditions.
 Animals who have not been given shoes cannot be made to walk on hard cement, bitumen-coated or metalled roads,
steep gradients or hilly and rocky terrain, regardless of weather conditions.
 Every animal shall be given a break of 20 minutes after being given water and a break of one hour after being given food.
Time of the day

 High environment temperatures will increase the risk of heat stress and mortality during transportation.
 It is important to transport animals in vehicles during the cooler mornings and evenings or even at night. This is
particularly important for pigs.
 A combination of high humidity and high environment temperatures is especially deadly to pigs.
 Heat can rapidly build up to lethal levels in a stationary vehicle. Wetting pigs with water will help keep them cool
MAXIMUM DISTANCES FOR TREKKING

Species One day Journey More than one day

First day Subsequent days

Cattle 30 Km 24 Km 22 Km

Sheep/Goat 24 Km 24 Km 16 Km

DISTANCE, TIME, REST INTERVAL AND TEMPERATURE RESTRICTIONS DURING


TRANSPORT

Species Maximum Distance Maximum Number of Hours of Period of Rest (Interval) Temperature Range
Covered Per Walking in One Day Minimum/Maximum
Day/Hour

Cow 30 km/day 8 hours Every 2 hours for water; 4 12°C to 30°C


4 km/hour hours for food

Buffalo 25 km/day 8 hours Every 2 hours for water; 4 12°C to 30°C


3 km/hour hours for food

Cow, Buffalo, Calf 16 km/day 6 hours Every 1 hour for water; 3 15°C to 25°C
2.5 km/hour hours for food
Goat, Sheep 34 km/ hr 6 hours Every 1 hour for water; 4 12°C to 30°C
hours for food
0 km/day

Kid, Lamb 16 km/day 6 hours Every 1_ hours for water; 15°C to 25°C
2.5 km/hour 3 hours for food

Pig 15 km/day 8 hours Every 1_ hours for water; 12°C to 25°C


2 km/hour 3 hours for food

Piglet 10 km/day 6 hours Every 1_ hours for water; 15°C to 25°C


1.5 km/hour 3 hours for food

TRUCKING

 Transport by trucks is no doubt comfortable but the vehicles should be suitably constructed for carrying different species
of animals and must permit a careful loading and unloading of animals.
 Animals should be secured only to reasonable extent, so as not to allow them to jump out of the truck.
 Forcible and painful tying of legs of calves and sheep especially with thin cutting strings is unwarranted.
 Overcrowding of animals in small spaces should be condemned. In summer they should be protected from sun.
 Pigs should be kept cool by sprinkling water over them or by transporting them during night.
 Only four adult cattle or six calves may be carried per small truck. In any case, each cow should be given 2 square metres
and an attendant should be able to move freely between the cattle.
 Only 40 sheep or goats may be carried per truck, and an attendant should be able to move freely between the animals.
The minimum space for poultry within cages is 1'x1'x1' (feet) for chickens and 2'x2'x2' (feet) for hens and cocks.
 All trucks carrying animals must be fitted with a ramp. Animals must be accompanied by an attendant. Food
and water must be provided during long journeys.
 Animals must be accompanied by a veterinary certificate verifying that the animals are free from disease. The name and
address of the owner, the number of animals being carried and the destination must be clearly marked on the truck.
 Vehicle floors should be matted or grooved to prevent slippage. The vehicle must travel at a measured, uniform speed to
avoid discomfort to the animals (PETA)
FLOOR SPACE FOR TRANSPORTING SHEEP IN TRUCK

Approximate weight of sheep (in KG) Space required in Square metres

Wooled Shorn

Not more than 20 0.18 0.16

More than 20 but not more than 25 0.20 0.18

More than 25 but not more than 30 0.23 0.22

More than 30 0.28 0.26

RAIL TRANSPORT
 This is the most important means of transporting animals and is generally carried out under specific regulations.
Specially constructed wagons meant for transport of animals are used. It is of prescribed size and is equipped with
appropriate ventilation along with contrivances for feeding and watering.
 Rail transport is advocated for distances above 500 km. Animals should be provided ad lib water and feed at least for an
hour before the journey commences.
 Arrangement can be made to unload the animals after about every 1000 km and offer feed and water before reloading.
This mode ensures comparatively less losses due to shrinkage and death. In fact, shrinkage losses may come down to as
low as 5 percent.
 The average space provided per cattle in Railway wagon or vehicle shall not be less than two square meters.
 When cattle is to be transported by rail an ordinary goods wagon shall carry not more than ten adult cattle or fifteen
calves on broad gauge, not more than six adult cattle or ten calves on meter gauge, or not more than four adult cattle or
six calves on narrow gauge.
 Every wagon carrying cattle shall have at least one attendant. Cattle wagons should be attached in the middle of the train.
 Cattle shall be loaded parallel to the rails, facing each other. Rations for padding, such as straw, shall be placed on the
floor to avoid injury if a cattle lies down and this shall not be less than 6 cm thick.
 Rations for the journey shall be carried in the middle of the wagon. To provide adequate ventilation, upper door of one
side of the wagon shall be kept open properly fixed.
 Cooking shall not be allowed in the wagons nor hurricane lamps without chimneys.
 Two breast bars shall be provided on each side of the wagon, one at height of 60 to 80 cm and the other at 100 to 110 cm.
 As far as possible, cattle may be moved during the nights only. During day time, if possible, they should be unloaded,
fed, given water and rested and if in milk, milking shall be carried out. When cattle are to be transported by goods vehicle
the following precautions are to be taken namely:
 Specially fitted goods vehicles with a special type of fail board and padding around the sides should be used.
 Ordinary goods vehicles shall be provided with anti-slipping material, such as coir matting or wooden board on
the floor and the superstructure, if low, should be raised.
 While transporting, the cattle, the goods vehicle shall not be loaded with any other merchandise; and to prevent
cattle being frightened or injured, they should preferably, face the engine.
 First-aid equipment shall accompany the sheep or goats in transit. Suitable ramps shall be provided for loading and
unloading the sheep or goats.
 In the case of a railway wagon, when the loading or unloading is done on the platform the dropped door of the wagon
shall be used as a ramp.
 Sheep and goats shall be transported separately; but if the lots are small special partition shall be provided to separate
them. Rams and male young stock shall not be mixed with female stock in the same compartment.
 Sufficient food and fodder shall be carried to last during the journey and watering facility shall be provided at regular
intervals.
 Material for padding, such as straw, shall be placed on the floor to avoid injury if an animal lies down, and this shall be
not less than 5 cm. thick.
 The animals shall not be fettered unless there is a risk of their jumping out and their legs shall not be tied down.
AFFECTIONS INDUCED BY TRANSPORT

 Transit-fever or shipping fever is a catarrhal disease which affects mainly cattle in poor condition that get fatigued due to
long journey by rail or sea without sufficiency of food. It develops due to Pasteurella and requires proper treatment,
otherwise virus may act as secondary invader and aggravate the condition. It is common in colder months, on post-
mortem lobar pneumonia is noticed, the interlobular septa being some time thickened due to serious infiltration. Acute
enteritis is usually present, though spleen appears normal. The affection does not respond well to treatment early
slaughter is advisable before the on-set septic lung changes.
 Transit-tetany or rail-road-sickness occurs under similar circumstances but almost invariably in cows, particularly those
in advanced pregnancy and in warmer month of the year. It is a disease, which bears resemblance, to milk fever and the
affected animals usually respond to calcium therapy. There is no specific post-mortem lesion.
 Stress and fatigue conditions are inevitable sequel to transportation and do have a bearing on meat quality.
 Loss of weight or shrinkage occur due to dehydration and depletion of muscle glycogen during the period of journey. In
general, it ranges from 3 to 10 % depending on the conditions and duration of transport.
 Bruises, torn skin and broken bones are noticed due to transportation in most of the species. The instances are
particularly high in sheep and pigs. Muscular bleeding may occur especially in pigs.
 Death may occur during long transportation. Sheep and pigs are particularly susceptible if animals of unequal age and
size are loaded in road trucks without proper partitions due to suffocation. Sheep and goats could also die in long
distance transportation by ship due to non-inflammatory diarrhoea.
BOAT OR SHIP

 The transportation of food animals by boat comes principally into consideration from across the sea and for this service
specially equipped steamers are employed.
 Under favourable weather conditions no difficulties are encountered by boat the sheltering of animals is necessary.
 Confinement of animals for long periods without unloading or without proper feeding and watering is prohibited under
the prevention of cruelty to animals act.
Minimum floor space required for different animals

Pig 4½ square feet

Sheep and 2 and 3/4th square feet


goat

Calves 3½ square feet

Cattle 4½ x 2 and 1/6 = 16¼


square feet

 Large and small cattle and animals of different species must be separated by partitions.
 Animals undertaking a journey of 24 hours or more must be fed and watered before hand. And if the journey is of 36
hours duration they must be fed and watered in transit.
 Water assists all animals to withstand heat.
 Fowls must only be transported in cages or other airy receptacles. Their transport in sacks should be prohibited and also
tying and carrying by their feet.
 Amongst food animals fat pigs are most likely to suffer during transport as their heat eliminating powers are very limited
and they soon succumb to over exertion.
 In case of sheep frequent inspection during journey is advisable as they are frequently found dead due to suffocation.

REST AFTER TRANSPORT

Rest after transport is desirable as an animal slaughtered without an adequate period of rest shows a reduction in keeping quality
of flesh due to

 Incomplete development of acidity in muscle,


 Early invasion of the system, by putrefactive bacteria from the intestinal tract.
 Stress and fatigue lower the quality of meat in several ruminant species due to depletion of glycogen in muscle. Due to
low acid production, the ultimate pH of the muscle remains high causing a condition called dark cutting meat or dark,
firm and dry (DFD) meat in cattle. Thus, the keeping quality of meat is reduced and it looks dark due to
high watercontent. Such meat is unusually tender on cooking.
 In pigs, acute stress or excitement before slaughter causes another abnormal condition wherein low ultimate pH is
achieved within 45 minutes due to rapid glycolysis even when the temperature of muscle is quite high. Such pale, soft
and exudative (PSE) pork has higher drip and cooking losses.
 Animals fasting atleast 24 hours before slaughter has beneficial effect on carcass quality particularly in sheep.
 Animals, which are fasted bleed better, the carcass is easier to dress and has a brighter appearance than when animal are
allowed to feed up to the time of slaughter.
 It is claimed that removal of hide is facilitated, if the animal has received plenty of water during fasting period.
 A period of atleast 12 hours detention and rest in lairage is therefore, essential before slaughter, except in the case of
injured animals, which must slaughtered without delay.
 Animals are frequently detained in lairage for 2-3 days and during this period they should be subjected to routine ante-
mortem examination.

FLOOR SPACE FOR TRANSPORTING DIFFERENT CLASSES OF ANIMALS

Classes of Stock Floor Area/Animal (m2)


Mature cattle 1.0 - 1.4

Small calves 0.3

porker 0.3

Pigs
baconer 0.4

sow/boar 0.8

Sheep/goats 0.4

EFFECTS OF TRANSPORT
(Click here to view the picture)

a. Stress Leading to DFD beef and PSE pork

b. Bruising Perhaps the most insidious and significant production waste in the meat industry

c. Trampling This occurs when animals go down due to slippery floors or overcrowding

d. Suffocation This usually follows on trampling

e. Heart Occurs mostly in pigs when overfed prior to loading and transportation
failure

f. Heat stroke Pigs are susceptible to high environment temperatures and humidity

g. Sun burn Exposure to sun affects pigs seriously

h. Bloat Restraining ruminants or tying their feet without turning them will cause this

i. Poisoning Animals can die from plant poisoning during trekking on hoof

j. Predation Unguarded animals moving on the hoof may be attacked

k. Dehydration Animals subject to long distance travel without proper watering will suffer weight loss
and may die

l. Exhaustion May occur for many reasons including heavily pregnant animals or weaklings
m. Injuries Broken legs, horns

n. Fighting This occurs mostly when a vehicle loaded with pig stops, or amongst horned and polled
cattle

HISTORICAL APPROACH OF MEAT INSPECTION

 Since long various civilizations developed through the world has attained importance to the source of handling of his
meat supply.
 As per the Old Testament it says,”And Ye Shall be Holy Men unto Me, neither Shall Ye eat only Flesh that is torn of
beast in the field, Ye Shall cast it is the dogs”.
 As per the Jewish Holy book “Talmud” there are definitions for “Terepha”- under or unfit meat and “Kosher” clean or fit
meat.
 The inspection of meat was done everyday during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in the city of Florence. They
insisted that all butchers should annually renew their licences and pledge themselves to observe the law of the land.
These laws prohibited many kinds of fraudulent practices and unsanitary practices. These pattern of meat control paved
way for improvement in the science of meat and hygiene.
 Gradually the system of meat inspection improved and enlarged to various aspects.
 Whenever there are epidemics in the country serious investigation are conducted which in most of the time indicated that
the etiology of these diseases are due to the consumption of unwholesome meat and meat products.
 When public realised the reasons they also realised the importance of wholesome and hygienic production of meat for
human consumption.
The meat inspection is done to produce

 Wholesome meat
 Meat from healthy animals,
 Meat by carrying out humane slaughter and
 Meat with hygienic handling and its proper disposal.
The following factors have to be controlled for safeguarding a country’s meat supply and diligent implementation of legislation
relating to meat inspection

 The use of chemical and pharmaceutical preparation on the farm.


 The promotion of high health standards in livestock and their general care during transportation, at auction markets and
in meat plant lairages.
 Ante–mortem examination to eliminate unfit animals and to make provision for special post-mortem examination to
eliminate unfit animals.
 Post-mortem of the carcass and offal immediately after slaughter including laboratory testing where necessary.
 Removal of material unfit for human consumption and its efficient destruction at processing plants located outside the
meat plant.
 High standards of hygiene at all stages from the farm to the meat plant, meat processing factory, cold store, restaurant
kitchen and the consumer’s home.
Requisites for conducting efficient meat inspection

 For uniform set of rules throughout the country


 For uniform teaching of meat inspection
 For uniform practice
 To have well constructed slaughterhouse with all amenities
 To provide system of licensing for people who want to slaughter the animals.
OBJECTIVES OF MEAT INSPECTION

 To prevent diseased or otherwise unwholesome meat being marketed or being offered for sale for human consumption.
 To detect outbreaks of animals plagues, such as Foot and Mouth disease, Contagious Bovine Pleura Pneumonia,
Rinderpest, Anthrax, Swine plague, etc.
 To assist the location of diseased flock.
 To assist in establishing and fostering large meat export trade by ensuring that all meat shall be clean and wholesome and
that the regulations of the importing countries are observed.
 To ensure that all meat intended for human consumption shall be prepared, stored and marketed under hygienic
conditions.
 To enforce humane methods of slaughter.
 To protect man and lower animals indirectly by interrupting the life cycle of certain parasites, e.g. Echinococcus
granulosus.
 To protect the honest butcher from unfair competition.
 To prevent fraudulent substitution.
 To ensure that flesh and organs which have been condemned shall be disposed off in a harmless and when practicable in
an economic manner
NECESSITY FOR REGULATIONS

To fix a uniform system and standard of Meat Inspection in the country following salient points are to be borne in mind.

 To lay down code by which the Meat Inspectors all over the country will be uniformly guided in their judgement of
diseased meat.
 To fix the requirements of those who aspire to become Meat Inspectors or their assistants.
 To fix certain important requirements for the grant of licenses for the construction of the slaughtering, packing, rendering
and meat preparing establishments.
 The person having requisite background on animal diseases, its occurrence and possible impact on human health should
spearhead the total process of making regulation and rules in this regard.
 To formulate the requirements of sanitation in meat establishments.
Essential requirements for the establishment of a satisfactory method of meat inspection in any country

 The concentration of slaughter animals in all centers of population with special arrangements for rural areas.
 An adequate number of qualified and or lay inspectors.
 A definite system of inspection.
 A recognized legal code of judgement to ensure uniformity of procedure.
 Special laws and regulations, which are not applicable to foods in general.
 An inspection to be satisfactory and as perfect as possible is to conduct ante-mortem and post-mortem, the latter is more
valuable of the two, but both are necessary
ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION OF FOOD ANIMALS

 Meat inspection may be defined as expert supervision of all meat products with the object of providing wholesome meat
for human consumption and preventing danger to public.
 One of the aspects of meat inspection is examination of the live animals on entry to the slaughterhouse known as ante-
mortem inspection.
 This is an important inspection as it can represent at least 50% of meat inspection, for it is an adequate inspection of
carcasses or meat, and makes the post-mortem examination much more efficient and less laborious.
 This is done in the pens and alleys (lairage) of the official establishments or in large slaughtering centers in the public
stockyards.
 A proper meat inspection service consists of a veterinary examination of the carcass and offal and where necessary,
laboratory tests (pathological, microbiological and chemical) of body tissues and fluids.
Definition

 Ante-mortem inspection is defined as the inspection of live animals done in the lairage within 24 hours prior to slaughter
by a qualified Veterinarian to produce wholesome meat
REASONS FOR CONDUCTING ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION

 For the immediate detection and isolation of animals affected with infective diseases such as Food and Mouth Disease,
Black quarter, Rinderpest, Hemorrhagic Septicemia, Contagious Bovine Pleura Pneumonia.
 To prevent the infection of those engaged in slaughter with diseases contagious to man such as anthrax, rabies, ganders,
etc.
 For the detection of intoxications and infective diseases in which viscera and flesh shown only slight changes, e.g.
tetanus. In order to simplify and render more easy the examination after slaughter.
 Where any system of insurance exists, to detect those which are evidently or presumably diseased so that they may be
excluded from insurance.
 To defer the slaughter of the animals which are exhausted or overheated through transportation.
 Ante-mortem Inspection facilitates Postmortem Inspection for e.g.FMD and Nervous symptoms
 To prevent inhumane handling of livestock.
 To help in export trade of meat.
 To produce wholesome meat to the consumer.
 Ante-mortem inspection is of special importance in the handling and examination of casualty and emergency slaughter
stock
INSPECTION FACILITIES

 Adequate identification of the live animal is a legal requirement and is essential for farm use for accurate disease
information and for identifying the carcass after slaughter for proper payment to the producers for the correct carcass, etc.
 Among the many recommendations is the need for care in the marking of animals, and the avoidance of unnecessary pain
and distress.
 Many different forms of identification exist including metal, plastic or nylon ear tags; ear tattoos; neck, tail and leg
brands; freeze brands; and marking aerosols and paints for cattle, some of which are also use for sheep and pigs.
 Now-a-days electronic identification and temperature monitoring of animals for the purpose of herd management and
disease control through improved trace-back are also in practice.
 The system combines a substantially implanted transponder having a temperature measuring capability, several digits of
identification, an interrogator receiver and a data-logging device and will eventually be linked with a computer to handle
the large volumes of information.
 Animals that are designated for slaughter must be accompanied by adequate documentation, which along with individual
identification, is utilized in the elaboration of the slaughter programme.
 Ante-mortem facilities must also include properly designed and well-lighted large pens, which must possess an isolation
pen and a crush for examination of individual animals.
 Assistant staff, competent in the handling of livestock, is also necessary components of an efficient veterinary ante-
mortem service.
ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION PROCEDURE

 Livestock should be inspected while at rest and in motion.


 In case of sick or diseased animals and those in poor conditions, the species, class, age, condition, colour and marking are
recorded.
 Special attention must be paid to casualty and emergency slaughter, none of which should escape ante-mortem.
 The general behavior of the animals, their level of nutrition, cleanliness obvious signs of disease and any abnormalities
should be observed.
 In addition to the segregation of diseased and suspected stock, females in estrus, aggressive animals and horned and
polled stock should be isolated.
 An effective reporting system should operate from the ante-mortem area giving details of normal stock released for
slaughter as well as those affected with a localized condition or one not advanced enough to render them unfit for
slaughter.
 Animals showing signs of systematic disturbance and an elevated temperature should not be slaughtered but retained for
treatment preferably outside the meat plant.
 The immediate purpose of ante-mortem inspection is to separate normal and abnormal stock.
 Normal animals are sent forward for slaughter, abnormal animals being classified as either unfit for slaughter or affected
with a localized condition or one which will show post-mortem lesions.
Stock unfit for slaughter

 These includes emaciated animals, those affected with certain diseases, such as tetanus or a communicable disease, e.g.
rabies and those know to be carrying toxic residues, although these may be held until the residues are excreted.
Localized conditions

 Animals showing evidence of localized condition such as injuries, fractures, abscesses benign tumors (e.g. papillomata)
or condition which will show up lesions on post-mortem inspection need to be segregated and given a detailed
examination such animals are passed forward for slaughter as part of the regular kill if the condition proves to be a minor
one or slaughtered separately and given a through post-mortem examination.
Suspect

 Suspect animals sent for slaughter must be clearly marked and accompanied by a full veterinary report not only for the
information of the meat inspection staff but also to inform operatives in lairage and slaughter line of the existence of any
communicable diseases.
 Ante-mortem signs, post-mortem findings and the results of any laboratory tests are all considered in making final
judgment on the carcass and offal.
 Recumbent animals should be given special attention, the nature and extent of the disease involved will determine
subsequent, action i.e. immediate condemnation, passing for immediate slaughter or holding for further examination.
 In the handling slaughter and carcass dressing of animals, which may represent a source of infection to plant, staff should
be handled with the greatest care.
 Such animals should be handled separately from normal stock; staff should wash hands and arms frequently; avoid cuts
and contaminating of the eyes with body fluids, etc.
MORIBUND CASES AND CONDEMNED CASES

 Those classified as "condemned" e.g. animals affected with tetanus and “moribund" cases, should be identified with a
"condemned" tag, and consigned to the inedible by-products department, a detailed post-mortem examination if
necessary, being carried out before hand.
 On occasions, dead animals will be countered during ante-mortem inspection.
 Anthrax must be borne in mind, a blood smear taken, stained with anthrax is polychrome ethylene blue and examined
for B. anthracis.
 When Anthrax is eliminated, hypo-magnesium tetany to be considered in cows in good condition held over night in
wintertime.
 Observation of dead animals the nature and color of blood from the natural orifices is of great value in determining
Anthrax or otherwise the blood is dark and tarry in case of Anthrax if it is light red & thin in nature it in unlikely to be
Anthrax.
 The onus on the Veterinary Surgeon is to obtain a blood smear at the outset.
 The importance of ante-mortem inspection (AM) may well be further emphasized in the future by the institution of pre-
slaughter tests, e.g. the use of a modified enzyme - labeled antibody (ELA) test in the detection of certain parasitic on
other latent conditions.
 Such procedures would change the nature of current post-mortem examination techniques.
 The importance of ante-mortem inspection (AM) will be emphasized by the institution of pre-slaughter tests, e.g. the use
of a modified enzyme - labeled antibody (ELA) test in the detection of certain parasitic on other latent conditions.
 Such procedures would change the nature of current post-mortem examination techniques.
SIGNIFICANCE OF ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION

S. Condition Symptoms Ante-mortem Significance


No

1. Anthrax: Forage Fever, boldly diarrhea and red U, D.


poisoning dark blood discharge from natural orifices

2 Actinomycosis Lumpy jaw – a chronic granulomatous disease CU S.

3. Actinobacillosis Wooden tongue – fibrous tissue causing CU S.


enlargement and hardening of tongue

4. Black Quarter Severe inflammation of muscles followed by U.


crepitating swelling on shoulder, neck, breast,
loins or thigh.

5. Foot and Mouth Dullness, depressed appetite, lameness, U


Disease salivation

6. Listeriosis Stiffness of neck, inco-ordinated movement of U. P. S.


(Circling Disease) limbs, paralysis of muscles of jaws and pharynx

7. Rabies Manifestation of neurological disorders U.

8. Salmonellosis Severe diarrhea with foul smell, many U


contain blood, fever, loss of appetite, dullness,
dehydration
9. Swine Erysipelas Acute septicaemia, skin lesions, chronic CU S.
arthritis and vegetative endocarditis

10. Selenium Peeling of skin U. P. S.


Poisoning

11. Swine fever (Hog Acute highly contagious disease – septicaemia U


cholera) in the form of multiple haemorrhages

12. Tetanus Acute highly fatal infective disease U, D.


characterized by spasmodic contraction of
voluntary muscles especially masseter muscle
often causing lock jaw condition

13. Tuberculosis Chronic inflammation of lungs, swelling of Generalised Localised


retropharyngeal lymph gland -U -S

14. White Scour in Large abscess in the abdominal wall near CU S.


Calves umbilicus which becomes hard and swollen

Note:

 U - Unfit for slaughter


 P - Postpone slaughter and treat
 S - Handle as suspect
 D - Destroy and dispose
 CU - Conditionally Unfit
POST-MORTEM INSPECTION

Post-mortem inspection is defined as examination of dressed carcass, their organs including blood immediately after
slaughter to produce wholesome meat, in a hygienic manner under adequate amount of light by a qualified meat inspector.

Points do be followed while conducting post-mortem

 Slaughtering is limited to certain specified hours, which will be convenient to the Inspector, butcher and purchasing
public.
 There should be sufficient time and light for inspection after slaughter.
 Slaughtering should be done as far as possible in the presence of the Inspector by any of the popular methods.
 The animal is bled, skinned (the preliminary portion only done in cattle), the feet removed, the carcass is hauled up, off
the ground and further skinning carried out
 The abdomen is then incised and the abdominal organs allowed falling in front for the Inspector to inspect them.
 The organs are then received into a handcart and wheeled to a little distance on one side.
 Uniform procedure to be followed. The outline of the total procedure should be drawn and should be followed step by
step.
 Never skip any step.
 Record the age, sex, and give a number to the animal (Carcass).
 While inspecting an organ, always look for the associated lymph nodes and look for abnormalities.
 Post-mortem inspection is the examination of the carcass after dressing is completed and done as early as possible.
 If the examination is delayed, particularly in beef and pork carcasses, which set rapidly the examination of the carcass
lymph nodes is more difficult.
 The main purpose of post-mortem examination is to detect and eliminate abnormalities, including contamination, thus
ensuring that only meat fit for human consumption is passed for food.
 The other subsidiary important aspects are checking the efficiency of slaughter and carcass dressing techniques and
diagnosis of disease conditions for disease control purpose.
 Many abnormalities, which may not be evident on ante-mortem examination affecting the animals, may be detected at
post-mortem inspection
FACILITIES FOR POST-MORTEM INSPECTION

 Each inspection point should have well distributed lighting, which does not distort colours and at least 540-lux units (50-
foot candles) in intensity.
 In addition to the above, the major facilities like structural and mechanical facilities, which provide for good working
conditions to enable carcasses and their parts to be delivered for inspection in a satisfactory manner.
 There must be one or more hand-washing units (lavotories) with a supply of hot and cold running water, a mixing faucet,
liquid soap and towels or roller toweling.
 Sterilizers for the complete immersion of knives, saws, cleavers, etc., are essential.
 These requirements must extend to the routine inspection points on the slaughter line and to the "detained" areas where
further detailed examination is performed.
 It is important that there should be coordination between inspection points and that those on the slaughter line be grouped
to allow for correct identification of carcasses and viscera and recording of disease data.
ROUTINE POST-MORTEM INSPECTION OF BOVINES - ORGANS

Post-mortem inspection of a beef carcass and its organs should proceed in the following order, which should always be adhered
to:

Head

 The outer surfaces and eyes are to be examined initially. The gums, lips and tongue for foot and mouth disease, necrotic
and other forms of stomatitis, actinomycosis and actinobacillosis are to be inspected. The tongue is palpated from dorsum
to tip. Incisions of internal and external masticatory muscles for cysticercus-bovis are made parallel to the lower jaw.
 Retropharyngeal, submaxillary and parotid lymph nodes are incised for T.B. lesions. Roaring in cattle is associated with
enlargement of retropharyngeal lymph nodes and about 50 per cent roaring is due to T.B. or encapsulated abscesses. The
tonsils of cattle and pigs frequently harbour T.B. bacilli and should always be examined and removed as unfit for food,
even though apparently normal.
 In young unthrifty cattle showing symptoms of cerebral disturbances or incoordination of movements, the brain should
be exposed and search made for tuberculous meningitis, for evidence of tubercles in the brain substance or T.B. of the
spinal cord.
Lungs

 The bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes are to be incised for T.B. and the lungs substances should be exposed by a
deep long incision from the base to the apex of each lung. If there is an adhesion in the chest cavity it indicates some
form of lung or peritoneal disease. If the lung tissue is of a grayish or yellowish appearance and in masses or nodules it
indicates tuberculosis.
 A healthy lymphatic gland is of a pale brown colour throughout and tuberculosis lymph glands contain small white
nodules and or a semisolid cheese like grayish white or yellowish mass.
 Visual examination followed by palpation should be carried out for pleurisy, pneumonia, tuberculosis, fascioliasis,
hydatid cysts, etc.
Heart

 Pericardium should be examined for traumatic or T.B. pericarditis.


 While incising the heart ventricles attention is to be paid to petechial haemorrhages on the epicardium or endocardium or
for cysticerci or hydatid cysts in the myocardium is often associated with septic conditions in the cattle.
Liver

 A visual examination is to be made for fatty changes due to actinobacillosis, abscesses and parasitic infections such as
hydatid cysts, Cysticercus bovis, fascioliasis and the larval stages of oesophagostomum.
 A routine incision should be made in the thin left lobe for fascioliasis. The portal lymph nodes should be incised.
Stomach and intestines

 The serous membranes of these organs may show evidence of T.B. or Actinobacillosis.
 Anterior aspect of reticulum may show evidence of penetration by a foreign body.
 Mesenteric lymph nodes should be incised for T.B. (or Linguatulae nodules).
Spleen

 The surface and substances should be examined for T.B, anthrax, heamotomata or the presence of infarcts.
Uterus

 Has to be opened and examined for septic conditions, evidence of pregnancy or of recent parturition in a well bled and
well-set carcass are of no significance.
Udder

 Should be carefully examined by multiple deep incisions about 2 inches apart, for mastitis or abscesses, supramammary
lymph nodes even in dry cow should be incised for evidence of T.B.
CARCASS AND ORGANS- EXAMINATION

Carcass

 The carcass is examined externally for bruising on injuries especially to the angle of the paunch and of the pelvic cavity.
 Inspection of thoracic and abdominal cavities should be made for inflammation, abscesses and T.B. Diaphragm may be
lifted and the T.B. lesion may be hidden between the diaphragm and thoracic wall.
 Cut surface of the carcass bones should be examined. Kidneys loosened and visually inspected and the renal lymph nodes
incised.
 If the above routine examination reveals no abnormality the carcass may be passed for food.
 When a disease or other abnormal condition is found during the routine postmortem examination the carcass and its parts
are retained for a final examination which is more extensive then would otherwise be given to the carcass.
 In those cases where the abnormal condition is benign and localized the inspector disposed off the localized condition
summarily.
 If no other abnormal condition is found during the inspection the normal portion of the carcass and its parts are passed for
food without requiring it to be retained for final examination.
 Carcasses, parts of carcasses and accompanying viscera, are found to be unfit for food are condemned by inspector and
placed in condemned meat room to be properly disposed off under his own supervision.
 Where T.B. has been found on routine examination it is customary to in incise the following carcass lymph nodes;
prepectoral, nodes of upper and lower thoracic wall, prescapular, lumbar, precrural, external and internal iliacs,
superficial inguinal and the popliteal.
 Inspection of the mesenteric lymph nodes by making longitudinal incisions through them for Tuberculosis especially and
also for the general conditions of the lymph nodes of the carcass.
Organs

 A rapid examination is made of the head, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, stomach and intestines, (Uterus and Udder) if
stamped healthy.
 These organs are wheeled off in a tray for the preparation of tripe etc. If there is an evidence of Tuberculosis or some
other affection, the abdominal content or contents are marked for destruction

CALVES, SHEEP AND GOATS AND PIGS

Post-mortem inspection of calves

 The detailed examination of lymph nodes of the head is not warranted; but a visual examination of the mouth and tongue
should be made for Foot and Mouth disease and calf diphtheria.
 The abomasums has to be examined for peptic ulcers and the small intestines for evidence of dysentery and white scour
in.
 The portal lymph nodes have to be examined for evidence of congenital Tuberculosis.
 The umbilicus and joints are to be looked for evidence of septic omphalophlebitis.
 The lungs, kidney and spinal cord are to be examined for melanotic deposits.
Post-mortem inspection of sheep and goats

 These require a less detailed inspection than calves and pigs.


 Examination for satisfactory bleeding and setting the carcasses of sheep and goats.
 The lungs are examined for parasitic infections especially hydatid cysts or nematodes, the liver for fascioliasis and the
knee and stifle joints for arthritis.
 Fractured ribs and septic pleurisy may often be encountered.
 For accurate identification of carcasses and their relative organs and to provide reliable information for any subsequent
examination on the "detained" line synchronization of conveyorised lines carrying carcasses and offals is absolutely
necessary.
 Systems for recording disease data vary according to the particular operation and the type and rate of slaughter.
 While there is ample time to make good records on re-inspection, this is not the case for rail inspection especially in
plants with large throughputs, where a form of auto link with a central recording office would seems to be the best
system.
Post-mortem inspection of pigs
 Pig carcasses are examined as that for cattle.
 The skin has to be examined for swine erysipelas, swine fever, urticaria and for ‘shotty eruption’.
 The tail has to be examined necrosis, the feet for abscess formation and the udder for mastitis or actinomycosis.
 The viscera has to be examined as for cattle and particular attention to be made to pneumonia and secondary
complications that develop in virus pneumonia, mainly pleurisy, pericarditis and peritonitis.
 The submaxillary, bronchial and mesenteric lymph nodes have to be inspected for T.B. Abscess in the submaxillary
lymph caused by passage of sharp foreign bodies through the wall of the pharynx.
 Liver is incised in case of cirrhosis and portal lymph nodes as a routine procedure. The kidney surface should be
examined

CARCASS IDENTIFICATION

 Live animal identification has to be retained on the carcass until it is dispatched.


 A slaughter programme has to be compiled giving details of stock, their class, and identification, name and address of
owner, lot, pen and slaughter sequence, numbers, etc., for the day's kill, or batches within this.
 Copies of these are to be made available to appropriate persons including the meat inspection staff.
 It is important to have a reliable system of substituting dead for "live" identifications so that accurate details of producer,
ownership, carcass weight, grade classification and disease information are maintained.
 Carcass meat are identified by different ways, clip or tie-on labels (paper or plastic) stick on tickets, plastic strands,
marking inks, knife marks in superficial muscles, etc.
 Unless offal is pooled it too will require individual identification.
 A recent innovation is an instrument, which injects a small plastic or cellulose fastener holding a paper or plastic label
into the meat.
 A system is being developed in Australia, which consists of gelatine strips preprinted with appropriate details and stuck
on the carcass fat.
 This form of identification is said to be edible, waterproof, non-smearing non-dissolving and abrasion-resistant.
 If details can be added after the strips are applied, this could be a useful system of carcass identification.
 Metal and hard rubber stamps with marking ink, are in common use for carcass identification and roller script for
indicating grades.
 The inks should be applied to a relatively dry meat surface to pressure legibility and for event carcass disfiguration.
 Other forms of carcass meat identification include marking pencils and probel measurements in pigs.
 Vegetable dye is used, since it is
 Easily available
 Causes no harm to the carcass
 Does not spread over
 Causes no harm to the users and
 Does not damage the slaughter
 In the Kosher method of identification a wire is pushed through the legs of sheep of beef flank, a pair of pliers imprinting
the joining lead seal with letter and numerals.
 Practically all the current forms of meat identification have drawbacks from the standpoint of hygiene, legibility or
practicability. For example, the commonly used labels with copper-plated clips can cause discoloration of the
surrounding meat due to corrosion, necessitating trimming.
 A good system of carcass meat identification must be clearly legible easily applied, cheap, non-toxic, non-corrosive and
suitable for use with modern data retrieval systems.
 The meat inspector will adopt one or more of the above forms of marking meat "retained"
"detained" and "condemned" in addition to appropriate labels indicating any specific lesions.

EXAMINATION OF CARCASS

Every carcass should be examined for

 Its state of nutrition


 Healthy animals - muscle water, protein (75.5%; 22%) less than 4:1
 In emaciated animals - muscle water; protein (80%; 19%) over 4:1
 Any evidence of bruising, hemorrhage or discoloration
 Evidence of traumatism is usually discernible on the surface of the carcass.
 If severe - cut it into joints before serum infiltrates in between muscles.
 Any local or general oedema
 Oedema - localized - hydrothorax, ascites, oedema of brisket, traumatic pericarditis.
 Oedema - generalized (Anasarca) - serious.
 In healthy cattle: bone marrow contains 25% of water.
 In Anasarca: Bone marrow contains 50% of water.
 Efficiency of bleeding
 Degree of bleeding of a carcass
 In beef carcass: Intercostal veins are always discernible in poorly bled carcasses.
 In sheep carcass - examine prescapular lymph node: which in badly bled carcasses is often deeply congested.
 Differentiate between imperfect bleeding, due to insufficiency of glycogen and "black beef" and due to point of
exhaustion proper to slaughter.
 Any swelling, deformities or other abnormality of bone joints, musculature or umblicus
 May not be obvious always.
 Age and sex of the animal
 Age and sex is determined from the records
 Any abnormal odours
 May make completely unsaleable.
 Consumption of strong smelling substance: fish meal, cod liver oil, for pigs administration of drugs prior to
slaughter.
 Sexual odour of male animals - boar odour, goat odour.
 Products of abnormal metabolism - acetone.
 Abnormal odour readily detected in large connective tissue sheaths, in the kidney fat, and in muscular tissue.
 Condition of the pleura and peritoneum.
 Any other evidence of abnormality
INTRODUCTION- SLAUGHTER

The methods of slaughter vary greatly not only in different countries but in different parts of the same country sometimes.

 Those in which the animal is rendered unconscious before being bled and
 Those in which they are bled without previous stunning.
 Slaughter implies putting an animal to death and subsequently preparing the carcass and organs for human food

HUMANE METHOD

Stunning by means of instrument, which render an animal unconscious

 These are known as humane killers and there are two kinds
 those which discharge a free bullet and
 those which effect their purpose by means of a Captive bolt arrangement.
 In the latter, the animal is stunned by a bolt, which is shot into the skull by the discharge of a cartridge and automatically
withdrawn therefrom by means of recoil.
Prerequisites of stunning

The choice of a particular method of stunning depends on many different factors –

 class of animal intended,


 line speed,
 humane aspects,
 capital and maintenance costs,
 efficiency of equipment,
 ease of operation,
 safety of personnel,
 effects on carcass and brain,
 along with religious and legal requirements.
STUNNING INSTRUMENTS USING FREE BULLETS

 The one common objection to all such instruments is, should they be restive or suddenly moves its head, the bullet may
deviate from its course and injure some one either by direct shot or miss hot.
Greener’s humane cattle killer: (Click here to view the picture)

 Has a short rifled barrel, chambered to receive a cartridge with steel pointed bullet.
 It is terminated by a bell shaped chamber, which serves to deaden the sound, protect the operator from the flash of the
explosion and to direct the bullet through the brain into the spinal cord, thus avoiding the necessity of pitching.
 The animal is killed instantaneously and can be bled without danger.
 Animal sustains minimal suffering.
 The pin that explodes the cartridge is struck with a wooden mallet.
 The head of the animal must be in a suitable position and must be kept still.
 Both the hands of the operator are required, one to hold the instrument in position and the other to strike the pin with the
mallet.
 It is dangerous to human being and other animals, if proper care is not taken, because it dislodges free bullets.
 Lot of sound is generated which will scare other animals. The cylinder gets heated up quickly. So it cannot be used for
many animals continuously
Swedish killer

 Similar to Greener’s killer except that instead of a protecting cap, there is a spring on the firing pin which acts as a safety
device.
Spragg pistol

 A pistol firing a free bullet, which is discharged by pulling a trigger as in an ordinary pistol.
R.S.P.C.A. humane killer and slaughtering pistol

 The slaughtering pistol consists of a revolver with a rounded, expander and which enables it to be pressed correctly upon
a chosen spot.
The large humane cattle killer

 It similar in principle, the revolver being mounted on a wooden shaft through which runs a wire attached to the trigger.
 An advantage of the killer is that there is no risk of the animal falling against the operato
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USING GREENER'S HUMANE CATTLE KILLER

Caution

 Never leave the instrument loaded. No one to stand at the side of animal's head.
 Never load until ready to operate.
 Keep the instrument higher than the middle of the Forehead rather than the lower.
 The point aimed at should be in a line with the spinal column.
 Load the instrument by unscrewing the breech piece and inserting the cartridge, taking care that the Bell is pointing
towards the ground.
 When loaded, place the instrument well up on the animal's forehead. Great care must be taken to see that the notch and
word "Top" on the instrument are pointing upwards between the horns, so that the barrel is on a line with the pith,
otherwise the bullet may penetrate to the root of the tongue, or damage the neck.
ESCRIPTION OF THE GREENER CATTLE KILLERS

Original model, humane cattle killer as illustrated.


Gun metal bell with safety loop, complete in box with
mallet, cleaning rod and brush
Safti killer, black finish, suitable for sheep, pig and
small animals only, complete in box with rod and
brush

Pocket pattern for veterinary surgeons and horse


slaughters use with cleaning rod and brush

STUNNING INSTRUMENTS WITH CAPTIVE BOLT ARRANGEMENT

Captive Bolt Pistol – Percussive Stunning (Click here to see the picture)

 Many different types of captive bolt pistol/percussive stunning pistol are in use of throughput the
world, having been introduced at the end of the nineteenth century.
 They are generally operated by means of a blank cartridge, although some are pneumatic in design.
 With the most common pistol, the captive bolt pistol, a bolt is propelled forward on discharge of the
blank cartridge and automatically recoils into the barrel.
 Ideally, the bolt should be recessed into the body of the pistol so that when the muzzle is held firmly
against the animal’s head, the bolt can gain velocity before penetration of the skull occurs.
 It is important when using captive bolt pistol to ensure that the correct strength of cartridge is used for
the different species.
 With the Cash instruments these range in strength from 1 grain for small animals such as milk lambs,
up to 3 and 4 grains for large cattle and mature bulls (1 grain = 0.065 grams).
 In most cases a 0.22 or 0.25 cartridge is used while in horses a 0.64 blank cartridge may be required for
certain guns.
 In this method three types of blank cartridges are used, viz.
 green topped cartridges are used for larger animals (cattle),
 black topped ones for medium sized animals and
 red topped ones for the small sized animals (sheep).
 Properly used, the captive bolt pistol is very effective in cattle, sheep and calves but less so in bulls and
pigs, especially sows and boars, in which the frontal bone structure is very thick.
 This penetrative type of percussive stunner produces immediate and permanent insensibility by
destruction of the cortex and deeper parts of the brain, a rapid rise and then fall in intracranial pressure
and the sudden jerk due to the energy the bolt imparts to the head, producing what is known
as acceleration concussion.
 These effects result in depolarization of neurons in the brain, including those of the cerebral cortex.
 The important force in producing unconsciousness with the captive bolt pistol is the actual velocity of
the bolt and the speed at which it strikes the brain, rather than the penetration of the brain per se.
 A velocity of about 76-91 m/s is aimed at, this in practice being about 73 m/s.
 The strength of the cartridge must be matched with the robustness of the gun to prevent metal fatigue
and breaks in washers, etc.
 The captive bolt pistol is a very useful instrument but it cannot be used for slaughter at rates of over
240-250 per hour owing to difficulties in reloading. In this case an automatically resetting gun can be
used.
 As for all forms of stunning it is vital that stunning-box design should be good. Very
deep stunning boxes where the operative has to bend very low to reach the animal's head are unsuitable
and require a percussion stunner with a long handle rather that the smaller instrument.
 Pneumatic stunners, where the bolt is activated under high pressure of 80-120 psi, require somewhat
complicated actions to fire them, and there may be occasions when air pressure is inadequate. With
proper pressure, however, a high bolt velocity can be achieved.
 Non-penetrative percussion stunners using a mushroom head are sometimes used in calves when
brains are collected for edible use and are in regular use in the USA.
 Properly used, this method is capable of producing immediate insensibility, which lasts for more than
30 seconds in calves.
 It is probably not as useful in older cattle, but can be applied successfully in sheep. In young calves
with thin skulls intracranial hemorrhage may occur, but the occurrence of bloodsplashing in muscle in
sheep rarely happens.
 In older animals, especially cattle, the method probably does not produce an adequate degree of
insensibility.
 Much depends on the operative as to whether or not blood splashing results, especially in the case of
lambs.
 If the animals are handled properly and there is no long interval between stunning and
bleeding, blood splashing in muscle will be minimal.
 In any case, the period between stunning and sticking should not exceed 30s with non-penetrative
percussive stunning of cattle.
 This compares with a recommended stun-to-sticking interval of less than 60s with penetrative
percussive stunners in cattle, <15s for sheep and goats and <10s for calves.

THE CONTACT-FIRING TYPES OF CAPTIVE BOLT PISTOL

 The contact-firing types of captive bolt pistol are much more satisfactory than the trigger-operated ones, only a light tap
on the animal’s head being necessary to fire them.
 They are quicker and easier to operate and can be loaded and fired 10-12 times a minute.
 However, if they are dropped on the floor or struck against the stunning box wall, the whole gun can become a dangerous
missile.
 A defect of percussive stunning and the use of the free bullet is noise.
 Most of the really serious defects, however, arise from misuse or from instruments in poor state of repair, as is the case
with all forms of stunning.
 The European Directive on the Protection of Animals at the time of slaughtering makes it a responsibility of the Official
Veterinarian to ensure that the instruments used for stunning, and for restraint, are in a good state of operation.
 The importance of regular maintenance if the pistols are to function correctly cannot be overemphasized.
 The velocity of the bolt may be significantly reduced by a build-up of carbon or corrosion on the pistol, which drives the
bolt forward, or by excessive wear in any of the moving parts. While some manufacturers recommend cleaning every 70
shots, daily dismantling and thorough cleaning must be carried out.
 A common indication that a pistol requires cleaning is the tip of the bolt protruding from cleaning from the muzzle more
than the usual distance between shots.
 The tendency on the part of many operatives to stun a group of animals, especially sheep, before bleeding, this obnoxious
practice should be avoided which leads on occasions, to recovery of consciousness and a high incidence
of blood splashing.
 All forms of mechanical stunning devices should be fitted with safety levers to minimize the chances of accidents and
should be easily cleaned and maintained.
 It is vital that the impact end of the penetrating type be kept sharp.
 A back-up pistol should always be on hand in cases of emergency
OTHER CAPTIVE BOLT PISTOLS

Cash captive bolt pistol

 This is a penetrative type captive bolt pistol produces immediate unconsciousness by the velocity of the bolt and the
speed (73 m/s) at which it strikes the brain.
 Brain is destructed physically.
 Changes in intra-cranial pressure and the sudden jerk produce acceleration concussion
 The instrument has a captive bolt arrangement.
 The bolt is in the form of iron rod of about 6 inches in length and is capable of moving in and out from the pistol.
 It automatically recoils upon firing a cartridge.
 The bolt is driven with great force into the skull of the animal penetrating to a depth of 2.5 to 3 inches.
 In this instrument blank cartridge are used.
 Strength of the cartridge 1¼ to 7 grains.
Advantages

 It is quite safe as blank cartridges are used.


 Animal falls to the ground unconscious after the shot.
 No objectionable noise.
 Bolt becomes automatically free.
 Only one hand is required to operate the instrument and the other hand is free to control the animal.
 Instrument never gets heated up even after stunning many animals.
 Easy and rapid working and hence can be used for many number of animals. Instrument requires ordinary care.
 It can be cleaned rapidly and easily.
Schermer humane killer

 Same principle as captive bolt pistol.


 Greatly used on the European continent.
 Large sized ones for small animals.
 The instrument has the advantage of being almost noiseless when fired and easy for operation.
Temple cox-universal pistol

 Same principle.
 The new universal model is popular.
 The bolt can be felt discharged by the firing of a Red or Green cartridge according to the size of the animal to be
slaughtered.
 Easy to handle, easy to clean and extremely quiet when fired.
Convoy captive bolt pistol

 Same principle as the other pistols.


 Used commonly in Danish countries.
 Here the same cartridges can be used for the larger and smaller animals.
Contact firing type captive bolt pistol

 It is much more satisfactory than the older trigger operated ones.


 A light tap on the head of the animal is necessary to fire it.
 They are quicker and easier to operate and can be loaded and fired 10 to 12 times per minute

POINTS / SITES FOR PERCUSSIVE STUNNING

 With both types of percussive stunners, care must be taken to hold the instrument reasonably firmly against the animal's
head at the proper point and direction.
 In adult cattle the correct point is in the middle of the forehead where two lines taken from the medial canthus of each
eye to the base of the opposite horn or horn prominence cross.
 The gun is placed at right angles to the forehead and after firing is lifted away from the falling animal.
 In calves the pistol should be placed slightly lower to the head than for adult cattle,
 while for bulls and old cows the muzzle is placed 1.5 cm to the side o the ridge running down the centre of the forehead.
 Cattle should never be shot in the poll position.
 In hornless sheep and goats the pistol is placed on the top of the head and aimed towards the gullet,
 while for horned sheep and goats the muzzle is placed behind the ridge, which runs between the horns, the direction of
aim being the same.
 For bacon weight pigs the pistol is placed about 2.5 cm above the level of the eyes and fired upwards into the cranial
cavity.
 In older animals captive bolt stunning is less reliable owing to the massive nature of the skulls and the large frontal
sinuses of older pigs.
 The muzzle should be placed about 5 cm above the level of the eyes to the side of the ridge, which is in the mid-line of
the skull, and at right angles to the frontal surface.
 The muzzle of the pistol is placed at right angles to the frontal surface ~ 1 cm above the point where imaginary lines from
eye to ear cross as the brain is in the upper part of the head

STUNNING BY MEANS OF GAS

Stunning by Carbon-di-oxide gas


 Carbon dioxide was first used to induce preslaughter anaesthesia in animals in 1904, but not successfully on a
commercial scale until 1950.
 Since then the method has been modified in several different ways and is now used fairly widely throughout the world
although not as extensively as it could be, probably because of the high cost of installation and operation.
 Some authorities suggest that the struggling witnessed in pigs for a period of some 15-20s when they first come into
contact with high concentrations of gas is due to the very irritant properties of carbon dioxide.
 The others are of the opinion that the struggling is equivalent to the induction stages of anaesthesia and that the pig is in
the unconscious state during this period.
 The recommended concentration of CO2 should be at least 70%.
 Experiments have shown that nitrous oxide (NO2) may be an alternative anaesthetic gas for stunning pigs.
 Its density is close to CO2 and so it can be used in similar equipment.
 The indications are that although meat quality may be improved the induction time is unacceptably long.
 However, currently, CO2 is the only gas that is widely used for stunning animals commercially.
 It is usually stored in cylinders or bulk tanks as a liquid under pressure.
 It is also available in solid form for which a converter is necessary.
 The gas is non-inflammable and has a higher specific gravity than air, sinking to the bottom of any container, a fact that
has to be borne in mind when it is being used for anaesthesia or euthanasia purposes.
 When properly used it presents no hazard to the operative.
 A concentration of 80-95% CO2 in air is the most suitable for pre-slaughter anaesthesia.
 If the concentration is too low the pigs will not be properly stunned and if it is too high there is a tendency of the pigs to
become stiff, show reflex muscular activity and bleed poorly.
 If the exposure period is too long, superficial congestion of the skin occurs and when pigs are scalded the skin is bluish in
colour.
 Pigs subjected to CO2 anaesthesia will regain consciousness if they are not subsequently bled, the recovery time varying
with the concentration of the gas, but averaging about 90%.
 It is important, therefore, that in addition to the concentration of gas, the period of exposure should be 45s and bleeding
should take place as soon as possible and certainly within 30 seconds of the pigs leaving the gas chamber.
 It is possible that some adverse effects observed on occasions are due to incorrect concentration of gas and air and/or
inadequate or too long exposure times.

TYPES OF GAS STUNNING

The type of apparatus employed to administer the gas depends mainly upon the required rate of slaughter. There are three main
forms:

 The oval tunnel (Combi) system


 This is used for killing rates of up to 600 pigs per hour.
 The gas tunnel is in the form of an oval through which a slot conveyor carries pigs, the actual tunnel sloping
downward at an angle of 30˚ to the anaesthetizing chamber.
 On exit the pigs are shackled, hoisted to an overhead rail and bled.
 The actual conveyor in the tunnel is divided into ten compartments, one pig being accommodated in each
compartment.
 Pigs up to 113 kg can be handled in this equipment, which is not suitable for other species.
 The dip lift system
 This is suitable for any size of pig as well as calves and sheep.
 It consists of a cage 213 cm long, 68 cm high and 53 cm wide which, when the animal enters it, descends
vertically to the CO2 pit where it remains for the pre-set time and then automatically returns to ground level,
ejecting the unconscious animal for shackling and bleeding.
 The greatest advantage of the system is that it allows several pigs to be stunned simultaneously, assisting
immediate per-slaughter handling.
 This is suitable for small meat plants.
 The compact CO2 immobiliser
 This is a horizontally-revolving apparatus divided into four to eight compartments operating in such a way that,
when one section is uppermost for loading, the others are rotating to submerge in the gas chamber.
 The unit usually has a capacity of up to 300 pigs per hour.
 In commonly used design the pigs are exposed to 10% CO2 at the first position, 30% for 10s at the second, 60%
for 10s at the third and over 90% for 20s at the fourth and fifth, after which the pigs are discharged from the
unit.
 Pigs go into the machine quietly, become unconscious and remain as far one to two minutes, allowing plenty of
time for sticking, they bleed out well, heart action is strong and their is no spasm to delay for continuous flow
of blood, very little distress.
 Concentration of Carbon-di-oxide approximately 65% first 15 seconds apparently unaffected by Carbon di
oxide.
 15 seconds later state of excitement when they bend their heads backwards and fall over on to their sides.
 5 seconds later the sense of pain seems to have been lost.
 CO2 anaesthesia has been utilized for turkeys and domestic fowl, mostly on an experimental basis.
 A concentration of 73-77% CO2 has been found to be most suitable for turkeys and 70% for chicken.
 Chickens lose consciousness in about 15 seconds and may retain it in 1.5 minutes; with an exposure of 1 minute
unconsciousness may extend for 4 minute
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

Advantages

The advantages claimed for CO2 anaesthesia include:

 Meat and offal are free from harmful residues.


 Carcasses are relaxed allowing easier dehairing and dressing.
 There are less noise and reduced labour requirements.
 It has also been contended that the yield of blood from pigs stunned by this method is 0.75% better because CO2 stimulates
respiration and thus favours blood circulation and consequent bleeding.
 Muscular haemorrhages are avoided.
 The pH of the meat is lower.
 The gas is non-inflammable
 The gas has a higher specific gravity than air sinking to the bottom of any container
 When properly used it presents no hazard to the operator
 The efficiency of this method is higher thus reduces costs.
 This method is not only humane but superior to the other forms of stunning.
Disadvantages

 It is questionable whether this system is labour saving. It needs more space.


 It is not more rapid than other methods although it does ensure a steady throughput.
 It causes convulsive struggling.
 Varying degrees of excitement and even cardiac arrest, especially if the exposure period exceeds 45 seconds
 It is too expensive for smaller slaughterhouses.
 Only pigs are stunned by this method.
STUNNING BY MEANS OF ELECTRICITY

 A low voltage alternating current is passed through the brain of animal, rendering it instantaneously unconscious in
which state, it remains for about 5 minutes during which time it can be hoisted, removed to the bleeding section and bled.
 Different types of electrical stunning systems in use;
 manually operated and
 automatically operated, especially in pigs and poultry.
 The instrument that is most commonly employed resembles a pair of tongs.
 This is to make the animals unconscious before they are bled.
 Now mostly used for pigs, poultry, sheep and pigs.
 The great advantage of this method is that there is no squealing, struggling or kicking and no sound of a shot.
 The current causes massive depolarization of neurons in the brain, resulting in an epileptiform seizure.
 Electrical stunning was first introduced in the 1930s.
 But there is still a lack of knowledge on its efficiency in producing insensibility.
 It must be agreed that if certain requisites are not complied with the method may be inhumane, for the electrical current
may produce a condition known as ‘missed shock’ in which the animal, though paralysed, is fully conscious.
 The electrical stunning may be regarded as efficacious and humane method in as much as it causes incoordination of the
cerebral nerve cells and what may be aptly defined as a confusional state of the brain.
DESIDERATA NECESSARY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF GENUINE ANAESTHESIA

The following desiderata are necessary for the production of genuine anaesthesia: The strength of the electric shock should be of
sufficient magnitude; the strength of the current should not be less than 250 milliamperes, and the voltage should not be less than
75 volts.

 This strength ensures that the animal is killed outright by cardiac arrest or remains insensible until death occurs by
exsanguination. The time recommended for a genuine electroplectic shock should be not less than 10 seconds.
 Every electric stunning apparatus should be fixed with indicators, which provide a warning if the current drops due to
fluctuation in mains voltage or the time of application falls short of 10 seconds. The position of placing the electrodes so
that the current will pass through the thalamus and cortex, the chief sensory centres in the fore-brain.
 The electrical resistance of the hair and skin may be lowered by ensuring that the electrodes are kept moist by immersion
in brine and the skin of the head clean but dry.
 Passage of current is facilitated if the calorific intake of the animal is reduced and its state of hydration increased.
 The animal should be bled immediately after unconsciousness has been produced, otherwise it may regain consciousness
though still remain paralysed.
 The failure of operators to observe these criteria has been the cause of criticism of electrical stunning methods.
 Firstly the method was not considered as humane and secondly haemorrhages were often observed in the muscular tissue
of animals stunned by electrical means.
 The production of a genuine electroplectic shock and unconsciousness may be assumed if after application of the current
the hind legs are stretched out violently, the fore legs are stiff, the head is bent back and respiration has ceased.
 In the absence of these manifestations it may be assumed that the animal has not been effectively stunned.
 The production of haemorrhages in the muscular tissue and lungs of animals stunned by electrical means has been unduly
emphasised.
 These can be obviated or reduced considerably by prior resting, correct stunning and immediate bleeding.
 Keeping the electrical apparatus in position on the head and maintaining vaso-constriction until the moment the throat is
cut, muscle haemorrhages can be reduced.

ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRICAL STUNNING

 The bleeding is excellent after electrical stunning.This is due to:


 The continued function of the heart and maintenance of the arterial blood pressure (at a higher level than when
animals are stunned by captive-bolt type instrument)
 The nature of the muscular contraction, which expels the maximum amount of blood from the skeletal, muscles
in a manner similar to the squeezing of a sponge.
 The violent and incoordinated muscular contractions are noticeably absent after electrical stunning and during
the act of sticking.
 The efficacy of electrical anaesthesia is dependent on the total quantity of electrical energy supplied, expressed
in watt-seconds (watt seconds = voltage x amperage x time)rather than the individual factors of voltage,
amperage or time.

ELECTRICAL STUNNING OF CATTLE AND SHEEP

 Electrical stunning of cattle


 Not proved entirely satisfactory anaesthesia, due to the insulating effect of the fine hairs on the head of the animal,
although continental authorities have found it satisfactory.
 Electrical stunning of sheep
 Proper unconsciousness can be assumed if there is immediate flexion of all four limbs, closing of the eyes followed
by extension of the hind limbs in a few seconds.
 After some 10 seconds this is followed by gradual muscle relaxation and then vague walking movements of the
hind limbs.
 The eyelids are usually opened at this stage and the eyes rotate upwards so that the pupil cannot be seen

DIFFERENT EQUIPMENTS USED IN ELECTRICAL STUNNING

The higg’s electrolethaler

 This consists of a transformer from which an insulated lead connects it with the electric current, from the transformer a
second insulated lead conducts the current to one handle of a pair of tongs; at the ends of which are fixed electrodes or
gripping devices rather like the ear phone of a wireless set, on each of which are a number of short teeth.
 The operator grips the pig behind the ears with the electrodes and allows the switch in the handle of the tongs.
 The current of low voltage of about 70-80 volts is applied for about 5-10 seconds (longer if the pig is large) and the pig
slowly rolls unconscious.
 The period of unconsciousness lasts about 5 minutes during which time the animal lies perfectly still and anaesthetized
and can be hoisted and stuck before consciousness returns.
 Bleeding is reported to be good and splashing (muscular hemorrhages in various part of carcass) does not occur.
The elther apparatus

 The Elther apparatus can administer a large quantity of electrical energy over a very short period.
 This method of stunning renders the animal instantaneously and completely unconscious and it is significant that cattle
stunned by this method exhibit the same syndrome as animals stunned by the ordinary electrolethaler.
 It is claimed that the bleeding of animals stunned by the Elther apparatus is very rapid and complete, that haemorrhages do
not occur and that the method is superior to the electrolethaler because there is built-in devices to control the current and
application time.
Ray’s electrical stunner

 It consists of a pair of tongs provided with a sponge and attached to a step-down transformer.
 The operator grips the animal behind the ears with the electrodes and allows the current to pass into the animal by operating
the switch in the handle of the tongs.
 The electrodes are furnished with a sponge dipped in salt solution to enable the current to pass more easily through hair and
hide.
Modified electrical stunner

 Apart from the above said features in the Ray’s electrical stunner, the tips of the electrodes are modified to form metal cups
with serrated edges and the cups are fitted by absorbent pad
DIFFERENT TYPES OF ELECTRICAL STUNNING SYSTEMS

Low voltage electrical stunning

 The voltage used is 75 volts.


 The time of application not less than 7 seconds
 In order to create a better contact, the electrodes are immersed in a saline solution before use or possess in-
built water jets.
 Since some doubt exists about the overall effectiveness of low-voltage stunning and the length of time for which it should
be applied, more use is currently being made of high-voltage systems.
High voltage electrical stunning

 The voltage used is 300 volts or more and the application time must be atleast 2 seconds and usually 2-3 seconds.
 This system uses automatic restraints to ensure operators safety.
 Fractures (vertebrae and scapula) may occur in pigs stunned on the floor.
 High voltage electrical systems are available in a fully automatic form, which incorporates two V-shaped restrainer-
conveyors.
 These are placed in series and move at different speeds so that the pigs are separated sufficiently to present their heads
for stunning to a set of specially shaped electrodes suspended on hinged metal plates which hang down inside the second
conveyer and contact the animal’s head as it passes through.
 The stunning voltage is of the order 600-1000 V.
 Ninety per cent of the pigs are killed; the remaining 10% are only stunned.
 Difficulties may be encountered with this system in maintaining a consistently correct positioning of the electrodes
across the brain of the pig.
 It is particularly important that a back-up stunner is always present to deal with any animal, which suffers poor
positioning of the electrodes, resulting in only partial stunning.
Head to back or leg stunning

 Current is applied simultaneously to the head and the back or leg.


 High-voltage electrical stunning in addition to being used for head-only application, may incorporate special tongs
through which current is applied simultaneously to the head and back/leg.
 In this system the brain is anaesthetized and the heart put into arrest, thus cutting off the blood supply to the brain, which
suffers death before the anaesthesia ends.
 Research work carried out at the Meat Research Institute in Bristol, UK, has shown that brain function ceased 23s after
this system of stunning, whereas this time was extended to some 50s with head-only stunning.
 The animal is killed, thus improving animal welfare and making the stunning-to-sticking interval less important.
 Sticking is to be performed intrathoracically within 3 minutes for satisfactory bleeding.
 A minimum current recommended for pigs is 1.3A applied with a minimum of 250 V and for lambs 1.0A at 375 V.
 In order to be fully effective, head-to-back/leg stunning must be combined with automatic restraining systems which
prevent adverse reflex muscular movements and the possibility of fractures besides making the task of shackling and
bleeding easier for operatives.
 ‘Pelt-burn’ in sheep occasionally occurs on the back with this method.
 Whatever type of electrical stunning is used, a back-up stunner, in the form of portable captive bolt pistol should be
available for use, not only in incorrectly stunned animals, but also for casualty animals in their transport vehicle or in
the lairage.
 It may be advisable to have an additional set of stunning tongs for use in several electrical sockets positioned throughout
the lairage and casualty accommodation.
 This is particularly useful if sows and boars, which are difficult to stun effectively with a captive bolt, are to be
slaughtered.
High-voltage head-to-brisket system

 This system operates in New Zealand for religious slaughter.


 Electrodes are applied to the animal in a purpose-built stunning pen following capture in a neck yoke.
 On capture, a chin lift operates from which a nose contact plate is applied.
 A current of 2.5 A (at 550 V) is applied between the nose and neck yoke for 3 s to stun the animal, with an additional
current applied between the neck and a brisket electrode to produce cardiac arrest.
Head-only system

 For Head-only electrical systems, a minimum electric current of 400 mA for pigs and 250 mA for sheep and lambs has been
recommended to produce an effective stun when the electrodes are placed in the ideal position.
 However, most experts set their recommendations considerably higher at 1.3A for sheep. 0.6A for lambs, 1A for pigs and
1.5 A for cattle, having made the assumption that tong placement on the head would frequently be far from ideal.
High-pressure water jet combined with electro immobilization

 A high pressure water jet (pressure of 3900 bar) applied via tubes to a fixed nozzle which was positioned frontally about 2
cm from the skin of the head and had an output opening of 1.0mm.
 During operation, 2 ml water is injected within 50ms for use in stunning slaughter animals has been in development for a
few years.
 A disadvantage is the occurrence of convulsions immediately after stunning.
 The convulsions cause danger to the operator and can prevent proper bleeding.
 To overcome the inexitable occurrence of convulsions the stunning method is combined with an immobilizing electric
current.
STUNNING BY USING MECHANICAL DEVICES

In course of newer inventions and sophistications in stunning devices, the following methods which were in practice in
early days were obsolete now-a-days. Moreover, to the provisions of animal welfare some of the methods were considered to be
more inhumane and cannot be permitted as a part of humane slaughter in the form of animal stunning.

Hammer mallet or club

 In some cases a hammer does stunning.


 In the case of small animals, a mallet or club is used.
 These are not advocated for the following reasons.
 A hard blow on the head with a hammer may kill the animal outright but a clumsy workman may require repeated blows
to attain his purpose.
Pole axe

 This is extensively used in Scotland in the hands of really expert operator.


 It is astonishing to see how quickly the animal is killed and how seldom the aims missed.
 That part of the weapon, which is the actual killing structure, is an elongated iron bar at the back of the axe, which is fixed
in a strong wooden handle.
 When properly used the instrument never fails to produce immediate unconsciousness in the animal.
 The bore made by the penetrating portion is sufficiently large to admit the pithing rod and which is applied directly after the
axe is withdrawn.
 The head is secured and immovably fixed by after the rope to an iron ring in the wall.
 After the pitching the animal is perfectly still and is immediately ready for bleeding.
 Killing depends upon the accuracy of the arm.
The Gothenburg's swine killer

 It is the most satisfactory method of rapidly dealing with the animal.


 This is only a method of securing in a position where struggling is eliminated and the actual method of killing is not part of
this invention.
 It contains of an oblong iron chamber into which the pig enter directly from the yard through the wall, which is then closed
from behind.
 At the other end in the front wall, the pig puts its head and is then enable to withdraw when the chamber is closed.
The dutch pig trap

 It is equally satisfactory for the same purpose, used in the principal abattoirs in Holland.
 The principal is the same.
Neck stabbing
 This is one method of slaughter largely used in Africa, India and Australia.
 It consists essentially in dividing the spinal cord with a long sharp point knife, which is thrust into the neck of the animal
between the first cervical vertebrae and the occipital.
 This immediately renders the animal paralyzed, but does not immediately destroy consciousness.
 Bleeding is done as soon as the animal falls down
TYPICAL SIGNS OF UNCONCONSCIOUSNESS DUE TO STUNNING

 In the act of slaughter it is essential that a state of unconsciousness or insensibility be instantaneously produced to ensure
total freedom from suffering, this being further ensured by immediate exsanguination.
 Where cardiac arrest has been created there is an almost immediate insensibility, which is permanent.
 The discovery that adequate bleeding ensues despite cardiac dysfunction in this method makes this a most important
development in the slaughter of animals.
 It has been always thought that a beating heart was necessary for proper bleeding, but this has been discounted
provided sticking is performed soon afterwards.
 The time taken to reach insensibility due to exsanguination depends upon the technique utilised in sticking, the species,
the age of the animal, whether the carcass is suspended or method of pre-stunning used.
 Based on electroencephalographic data, sheep have been shown to become insensible in 2-7 seconds, pig in 12-30s
(average 18s) and cattle in 20-120s (average 55 s).
 The species differences are due to differences in the arteries, which supply the blood to the brain via the Circle of Willis.
 In all cases, in the interests of the animal, it should be assumed that the upper limit applies.
The typical signs of effective stunning by electricity

 The immediate collapse of the animal with flexion, followed by rigid extension of the limbs, ophisthotonus (extreme
arching back of the neck and spine), down ward rolling of the eyeballs with tonic (continuous) muscular spasm changing
into clonic (repeated violent) spasms and eventual muscle flaccidity.
 The term electroplectic fit has been used to describe these signs of an effective stun.
 The tonic spasms last for some 10-25s, and the clonic phase 15-45s, in both pigs and sheep.
The typical signs of an effective stun using percussive methods

 Cattle are immediately collapsed followed by tonic spasm lasting about 10-15s, and then slow clonic movements of the
hindlegs and eventually vigorous hindleg movements.
 In pigs the tonic phase lasts 3-5 s.
 Normal rhythmic breathing must cease, and the eyeball should face outwards with a fixed gaze and not be rotated inwards.
The typical signs of effective stunning by carbon dioxide

 In pigs the effects are those of a chemical anaesthetic, with the eventual onset of insensibility.
 A period of increased respiratory rate follows slow respiratory movements and final dyspnoea (difficult breathing).
 Corneal and palpebral reflexes are absent and extreme muscle flaccidity supervenes.
 The limbs and jaw are consequently relaxed.
 The use of palpebral, corneal or papillary reflexes to ascertain the effectiveness of stunning is inappropriate for most
methods of stunning.
 Palpebral and corneal reflexes are not under cortical control and may therefore be present in an animal or bird, which has
been rendered insensible.
 Conversely, the palpebral reflex may be absent in an animal, which has been ineffectively electrically stunned.
 Although complete papillary dilatation a reliable sign of total insensibility of an animal nearing the point of death, it is of
little practical use since, for example, it has been demonstrated that while sensibility as measured by electrical activity
occurs 8s after the decapitation of a sheep’s head, complete papillary dilatation does not occur until 87s.
 The most reliable objective sign of loss of sensibility is the absence of respiratory activity.
 The return of regular respiratory movement after stunning, but not irregular respiratory gasps, should always be a cause
of concern.
 ‘Gagging’ - respiratory movements are generally signs of imminent brain death
RITUAL METHODS OF SLAUGHTER

 Ritual method of slaughter as opposed to humane slaughter is slaughtering of animals while they are conscious.
 Ritual method of slaughter as the name suggests is bas on religious tenets of a particular religion.
 The most commonly adopted ritual methods of slaughtered globally are
 Kosher method, as per the Judaism followed by Jews.
 Halal method, as per Islam followed by Muslims.
 There are a few more traditional methods adopted which are less common and adopted in confined areas, for
instance,
 The Evernazione method followed in Spain, parts of Italy, Mexico and some South American countries.
 It is also called as neck – stab method.
 Cattle are slaughtered by the neck-stab or evernazione method, in which a short double edged knife (puntilla) is
plunged into the occipito-atlantal space at the nape of the neck, severing the medulla oblongata in this method.
 The Jatkha method of slaughter as per Sikhism is followed by Sikhs.
 This method is followed in India albeit in few pockets only.
 Sheep and goats are decapitated by one stroke with a sword.
 In parts of northern India skilled operators can decapitate buffaloes by a single stroke with a special
sword.
 In the Arcitc, reindeer are killed by a curved single-edged knife, which, after being inserted into the occipito-
atlantal space, is directed forwards to destroy the brain.
 In India Halal method is practiced extensively.
JEWISH METHOD

 The Jewish method of slaughter is controlled by the Jewish Board of Schechita and Jewish slaughter man have to
undergo several years of training before being licensed by the Rabbinical Commission.
 They must also conform to British law that the slaughterhouse act of 1974 specifies that slaughter by either the Jewish or
Muslim method must not inflict unnecessary pain.
 Animals must be slaughtered and dressed according to ritual methods specified in the Talmud, the body of the Jewish law
and legend based on the Torah in order for meat to be kosher i.e. right fulfilling the requirements of Jewish law.
 Talmud prescribes that the animal must be alive and healthy at slaughter and must not have suffered any injury.
 Prior stunning is forbidden.
 The act of killing for food is known as Schechita.
 Animals that do not conform to these ideals and any defects at slaughter in the form of faults in schechita or disease
lesions discovered in the carcass render the meat terepha, unfit for consumption by Jews.
 Animals that lie quietly and cannot be made to rise must not be slaughtered according to Jewish ritual.
 Schechita is performed by a Shochet who slaughters the fully conscious animals with a single, deliberate, swift action of
a razor-sharp knife, roughly twice the width of the animal’s neck and which is devoid of any notch or flaw, and has been
examined before the slaughter of each animal.
 All the soft structures anterior to the cervical spine are served, including the carotid arteries and jugular veins.
 It is essential that the neck be fully extended in order to keep the edges of the wound open and thereby prevent any pain.
 The five rules of Jewish ritual slaughter, in their traditional order, are that the neck incision shall be without pause,
pressure, stabbing, slanting and tearing.
 The Shochet (cutter) is normally assisted by Shomer (sealer) who is responsible for putting the kosher mark on the
brisket and on edible offal.
 Besides performing the act of slaughter, the shochet offers prayers and carries out a post-mortem examination by making
an incision posterior to the xiphoid process and inserting the arm to detect any adhesions in the thoracic cavity
(searching).
 Full meat inspection may be performed by a shochet or by the government or local authority inspector.
 If the carcass should be held in the chill room for more than 24 hours it must be washed in order to remove blood,
further washing and curing (meliha) or broiling being carried out in the home.
 Carcasses found fit for consumption must have the meat porged by removing the large blood vessels in the forequarter
prior to retail sale.
 Only forequarters are normally used, since the hind quarters, which are said to contain over 50 blood vessels, can only be
porged by highly skilled kosher butchers and are therefore rarely eaten.
 It is claimed that the Jewish method of slaughter does not involve any act of cruelty because the knife is particularly
sharp, the cut is made dexterously by a trained person, and the severance of the carotid vessels is followed by a very
rapid fall in blood pressure within the cephalic arteries.
 It is therefore contended that the anoxia from the diminished blood supply to the brain tissues brings about almost
immediate unconsciousness.
 But the opponents contended that blood via the cerebral artery may still reach the brain of the cattle and prolong the
period of consciousness.
HALAL OR MUSLIM METHOD OF SLAUGHTER

 Halal slaughter is carried out as per the tenets laid down in the Quran.
 Many of the practices adopted in the slaughter of animals and consumption of meat are the same for both Jews and
Muslims.
 The actual act of slaughter is virtually the same for Jewish and Muslim methods.
 The Quran describes the procedure of severing both the carotid arteries and jugular veins to drain blood.
 The welfare of the animal is the major consideration in Halal slaughter too and the eating of dead animals, consumption
of blood and of swine is forbidden.
 The act of cutting the skin with a sharp knife is regarded as painless or almost so, and the rapid loss of blood is said to
produce instantaneous insensibility.
 It is believed that the brain and the skin of animals are less sensitive than that of man.
 Islamic law demands that the animal is alive at the time of slaughter and that it is slaughtered in the most humane
manner.
 Animals must not be slaughtered in the sight of other beasts and those to be killed are to be fed and watered beforehand.
 Unlike Schechita the Muslim method of slaughter is not controlled by a central board but is overseen by the local Islamic
authority (Muftis) who decide whether or not particular acts and thoughts conform to the tenets of Islamic law (Shariah).
 Muslim ritual permits stunning of animal prior to bleeding provided the stunning instruments had never been used on
pigs
SLAUGHTER AND DRESSING OF CATTLE

Equipment

 Halter, stunning hammer, shackle, hoist, sticking or skinning knife, itch or cradle, beef spreader, beef trolleys, splitting
saw, scribble saw, neck pins shrouds, shrouding pins.
Steps

 Animal is held off feed 24 hours prior to slaughter, but provided ample drinking water.
Stunning

 A stunning instrument is usually used to stun at the point where the diagonal lines from the horn pit to the opposite eye
cross will usually prove adequate. It is not necessary to crush the skull.
 Stunning may be done in a stunning pen or the animal may be stubbed to ring in the floor. The electric stunner may be
used, instead of a stunning pistol.
Sticking

 Sticking may be done on the floor, but most cattle are hoisted by shackling both hind legs and raising to a convenient
height, or dropped on to a striking rail.
 An incision is made in the hide just below the point of the brisket and extended it 12 to 18 inches toward the anterior end
of the jaw then the carotid artery and jugular vein are cut in a manner similar to that in hogs except that the incision will
be much deeper (6-8 inches). Bleeding is allowed out completely.
Heading

 The head and neck are skinned out and the head removed at the atlas joint. The esophagus should be tied off immediately
above the larynx before severing.
 Head is placed on a bench or a rack, washed thoroughly, and tongue, cheek meat and brain are removed.
 The animal is lowered on to the floor. Usually a killing bed with pitch plates will be available. If not, a cradle is used to
hold the cattle securely on its back.
 The shanks are dropped and are sometimes called shanking or legging.
Fore shank

 The tendons are cut on the posterior surface close to the hoof head and again about nine inches further up the leg. This
will leave the leg limp. The hide is opened around the coronet and holding the knife flat, an incision is made from the
hoof head to the point of the arm. The shank is skinned out and removed at the flat joint.
Hind shank

 The tendons are cut in manner similar to that of the fore shank. The hide is opened around the coronet, and holding the
knife flat, an incision is made from the heel to the point of the hock. The shank is skinned out and removed at the flat
joint.
 The hide is opened from the point of the original incision made when sticking, over the brisket and lung the midline to
the rectum. The flesh over the brisket to the bone is cut, the thymus removed, and the trachea and esophagus are
loosened.
 The hide is skinned over the brisket and down the sides. The hide should be held tight over the knife and the pressure of
the knife should be against the hide. Endeavored to use long smooth strokes and short jerky strokes with the knife are
avoided. Hide is split from about the midpoint of the brisket on the lower point of the shank, and from the flank to the
side of the hock. The beef is sided down as far as possible.
 The penis is loosened in case of steers and bulls.
 The breastbone is saw.
 The midline is opened from the posterior end of the brisket on the aitchbone, from this point the white connective tissue
to the aitch is followed. The aitchbone is split. In most cattle this can be done with a knife, but in older cattle it may be
necessary to saw the aitchbone. With steers, heifers, and dry cows, the split is to made through the middle of the cod or
udder but with cows the udder, but with wet cows the udder should be removed before opening down the middle.
 The caul fat (Paunch fat) is removed.
 The tendons are split at the hock and spreader or trolley hooks are inserted.
 The carcass is hoisted until tail is about waist high.
 The bung is cut around and dropped into the body cavity.
 The hide is split down the under side of the tail and hide is stripped from the tail. The tail may be removed at this time or
later.
 The flanks and rump are skinned out and the carcass raised as required for convenience of skinner.
 The intestines and stomachs are pulled out, leaving kidney fat in the carcass. Liver is removed, the gall bladder pulled
off, then liver washed, weighed and hung on a hook. Stomachs and intestines are weighed and ruffle fat from intestines
stripped.
 The diaphragm membrane is removed and pulled. The lungs, heart, trachea and esophagus are removed.
 Heart is removed from thoracic entrails, washed and weighed. Pluck is also weighed.
 Skinning is completed over the shoulders and neck. The hide is pulled off, weighed, salt applied and placed in hide room.
 The carcass is washed.
 The carcass is split down the center of the spinal column, endeavored to split all processes beginning with the last lumber
vertebrae.
 Hung on rail, neck pinned up, the flanks dropped and the featherbones (thoracic processes) are scored with the scribe
saw.
 Carcass is washed completely and weighed.
Shroud

 The shroud should be applied wet and hot, and must be pulled tight. Shrouding improves the appearance of the carcass,
smooth the fat on the outside, and also bleaches the fat.
 Each side of carcass is tagged, indicating carcass number, hot weight and the date.
 Rolled into chill room to cool and set.
 First and second stomachs are cleaned for tripe if desired
 Intestines are cleaned if desired for casings.
 There are numerous variations in the above procedure, depending to some extent upon the available equipment; however,
each of the items mentioned must be done at some point in the dressing procedure.
 During the process of dressing, some attention should be paid to the following items; Thyroid gland, thymus gland,
pancreas, liver, gall bladder stomach (nature of content of each and type of living), small intestines, (length, diameter,
nature of living, pH of content) large intestine, (the same), adrenal glands, brain, pituitary, lymph nodes etc.
SLAUGHTER AND DRESSING OF PIGS

Hog slaughter is carried out in a separate hall from that used for sheep or cattle as the moist atmosphere due to
the scalding of hog is not conducive to the setting and drying of beef or mutton carcasses.

Equipment

 Shackles, Gambrel, Sticking knife, Scalding tank or vat, Bell scraper, Stunning instrument, Hoist, Dressing knife,
Splitting saw.
Procedure

 Hold hogs are off feed for 24 hours prior to slaughter, but ample water is available. Some evidence indicates that hams
will cure better and livers will weigh more if some feed is available. Hogs should always be well rested before slaughter.
Dirt and manure are washed from hogs.
 After stunning the hog is hooked and shackled around one pastern and the hog hoisted to a convenient height
for sticking (hogs may be conveniently stuck by holding the hog on its back on the floor).
 Using a sticking knife or skinning knife, small incision is made on the skin just anterior to the point of the breastbone.
Knife inserted above the breastbone at a distance of 2 -1/4 inches, pointing the knife towards the rectum, then completed
a quarter circle with a downward motion. The motion will sever the carotid artery and jugular vein providing a thorough
bleeding. The knife should be kept on the centre line otherwise a shoulder stick will result, and this will require
unnecessary waste when trimming the shoulder.
 Bleeding is allowed thoroughly (4-10 minutes). All blood is washed off and dropped into the scalding vat.
 The scalding water should register (60–640C). This should be checked with the thermometer and the finger test. Hog is
kept moving in the scalding water until hair gets pulled out easily, usually for 4-5 minutes, then removed and scraped
with bell scraper, or mechanical scraper. All dewclaws and toenails should be removed.
 Carcass is washed down with hot water and shaved off all remaining hair while on cambering table.
 The tendons attached to the gambrel are loosened and hung on hog trolley.
 Singeing: This is done with blowtorch, blowgun or blowlamp but if neither is available, any remaining hair around the
eyes, ears, etc., should be shaven off with the knife.
 Washed thoroughly with hot water, then with cold water, and scraped up - the hog is now ready for dressing.
Dressing of hogs

The following outline includes all the steps that must be taken in a manner
 The pig should be thoroughly scraped and cleaned. The mid-line of the ventral side form the rectum to the point of the
jaw is opened down.
 The breastbone is split.
 The bung loosened and pulled out several inches to be sure that it is free. Then tied with string.
 Body cavity is opened (be careful to avoid cutting entrails). If a barrow or boar, the penis must be loosened.
 The intestines are loosened. The kidney and Kidney fat are left intact.
 Intestines, liver and stomach are lifted out.
 Hands are slipped down the inside of the body cavity, then forward along the diaphragm, lifting out all
abdominal entrails with an upward motion.
 Oesophagus is cut.
 Liver is removed - gal bladder stripped off - liver washed and weighed.
 All abdominal entrails are weighed.
 Diaphragm removed. Membrane only has to be cut out, leaving muscle intact.
 With a downward motion, lungs and heart are pulled out, including the aorta. These are known as the thoracic entrails,
sometimes called the pluck.
 Inside of each jawbone is cut down, then along the dorsal side of the tongue to loosen, and then the pluck is to be pulled
out.
 Heart and tongue are removed - washed, weighed and plattered.
 Head at the atlas joint is removed, leaving the jowls on the carcass. The head is weighed.
 Cheek meat and other head trimmings including brain are removed.
 The inside of the carcass is washed.
 An incision is made down the median line of the back, all the way from the tail to the anterior end. (The fat layer should
not be cut cleared through)
 The carcass is split down the middle of the backbone using splitting saw.
 Endeavoured to split each vertebral process evenly.
 Flesh or back fat are left attached near the anterior end. (This will prevent carcass from slipping off the gambrel)
 Carcass is washed again with cold water, both outside and inside.
 The carcass is weighed and tagged. Tag should show the number of hog, date and hot dressed weight.
 The carcass is chilled as rapidly as possible. A cooler temperature of (-10C) when hot carcasses are rolled into the cooler
will produce an internal temperature of (4.40C) or lower in the ham within 24 hours.
 The carcass and all entrails should be examined to determine whether carcass and all edible offal are fit for human
consumption
BACK FAT THICKNESS

 The back fat of the carcass is assessed by measuring the thickness of the back fat at three places with the help of back fat
measuring gauge. Viz.
 At the level of first rib
 At the level of last rib
 At the level of last lumbar vertebra.
 The average of the three measurements will be equal to the m ensure taken at the level of 7th rib.
 This is of considerable importance in grading of pig carcasses along with other factors such as carcass weight
and carcass length.
STYLES OF DRESSING AND YIELD

Shipper’s style

 Unsplit carcass with head on and leaf fat in.


 Yield -74 to 76%
Packers’ style

 Two sides with jowl attached, but head removed and leaf fat out.
 Yield -68 to 70%.
Farmers’ style

 Carcass split on either side of the back bone making two sides and back bone
SLAUGHTER AND DRESSING OF SHEEP AND GOATS

 The animal is weighed on a platform scale.


Equipment
 Skinning knife, Shackles, Trollies, Cradle, Stunning instrument, Procedure
Stunning

 Mechanical or electro narcosis.


Sticking

 The animal is elevated off the floor on a box or sheep cradle. (In federally inspected plant in USA, sheep are dressed on
the rail).
 Sheep is t held with back towards the sticker and head to the left.
 The neck is stretched with the left hand and with the knife in the right hand the jugular vein is to be cut. Then pierced
through the pelt at the base of the ear or at the angle formed by the jawbone and the neck vertebrae and then is cut out.
 Bleeding out is allowed completely.
Skinning

 Sheep or goat is laid on its back on a platform or cradle.


Fore legs

 The pelt is opened down the front stripped from knee to coronet of hoof and removed by holding the knife flat in order to
avoid cutting through the pelt. Pelt from the knee to the point of the brisket is opened. The shank is skinned out and hoof
at the break joint (The flat articulation at distal end of shank, or meta-carpal) is removed (in the case of lamb). One leg is
done first and then the other.
 The pelt is opened from point of brisket to head and the neck and head are skinned out.
Hind legs

 The pelt is opened down the rear of the hind leg from the bung (Caution - the knife should be held flat and the point
elevated in order to avoid cutting through the pelt).
 Foot at the round joint is removed immediately above the heel (First phalangeal bone). This will leave the tendons intact.
The other leg is done in the same manner.
Fisting

 The triangular flap of pelt over the brisket is pulled up and by using the fist, burrowed or fisted a channel down the
midline and over the udder or cod (in case of a wether or ram detoured around each side of the penis). Begun at rectum
the channel starting from anterior end is met. When fisting the hands should be clean. A pail of lukewarm water with
soap and towel should be available. Care to be taken to avoid breaking the while fisting.
 The carcass is hung on a hook (or hooks) by the tendons of the rear legs or by tying the hind legs together and hung on a
hook.
 With a knife the fisted channel from posterior to anterior end is opened.
 Beginning at the midpoint, the pelt is fisted free. Fisted from the navel towards the back and then upward. It is sure to fist
over the flank from the rear, then upwards over the leg. One side is fisted and then the other side is done. From the
midpoint, fisted down and out over the fore flank and pulled from the fore shank.
 When pelt is fisted free, knife is used to remove the pelt from the tail. Then the pelt is pulled free to the neck. Fisted
down the back of the neck and the pelt is pulled off. The pelt is weighed later.
 The head at the atlas is removed. Tongue, cheek meat, and brain from the head are then removed.
 The outside of the carcass is washed.
 The trachea and the esophagus are loosened.
 The bung is cut around, pulled out about 6 inches to be sure that it is free and tied with a string.
 The penis is loosened.
 Underline form point of the cod or udder to the brisket is opened, and then the brisket or breastbone is split.
 The caul fat is removed
 The large intestines are pulled down (Carefully the kidney and kidney fats are left in the carcass). The intestines and
stomach are lifted out. The liver and gall bladder from the liver are removed. The liver is washed and weighed. Then the
intestine and stomach are weighed.
 The membrane of the diaphragm is cut away and the pluck pulled out (Thoracic entrails). The heart is removed, washed
and weighed.
 The carcass is washed thoroughly then inspected carefully and weighed. Fore shanks are pinned up and locked.
 The carcass is tagged showing animal number, date and dressed weight and rolled into the chill room.
 Liver is inspected for "Spots" and parasites; also the intestines examined for nodules and the fourth stomach for stomach
worms.
 Sheep entrails make an excellent specimen for examinations of the compound stomach, large and small intestines and
mesentery colon.
 During the season of long wool, it will prove advisable and economical to shear sheep before slaughter. The
shorn wool is usually of much greater value than the woolen pelt, and dressing will be much easier
SLAUGHTER AND DRESSING OF POULTRY

Slaughtering involves stunning and bleeding

Stunning

 Stunning prevents struggling and relaxes the muscles holding the feathers.
 However, it is generally not practiced in case of chicken.
 A low voltage electric stunning of 50 volts AC for 1 minute has been found to be satisfactory.
Bleeding

 This process is carried out in an inverted cone shaped equipment to rest the body of the bird and keep the head out and
down.
 There are several techniques of slaughtering poultry in order to seek proper bleeding.
 The technique most commonly used these days is “modified Kosher Method” in which jugular vein is severed just below
the jowl taking care not to cut trachea and oesophagus.
 Another technique for slaughtering the birds is decapitation, which is not so common.
 Still another method, which involves piercing knife through the brain, has become obsolete.
 In general, a bleeding time of 1.5 to 2.0 minutes is allowed. Incomplete bleeding
Scalding

 Scalding refers to immersion of birds in hot water for loosening the feathers. It should be done when all reflexes have
ceased.
 The birds are transferred into scalding tank.
 Broiler and young birds are scalded at 55°C for 15 minutes whereas culled birds and spent hens are scalded at 60°C for 2
minutes.
Defeathering

 The process is carried out in a feather plucker consisting of two drums with rubber fingers, which revolve in opposite
directions pulling of feathers from the carcass. Any remaining feathers are picked up manually.
Singeing

 The carcasses are now singed over a blue flame for 5 to 10 seconds to remove hair like appendages called filoplumes.
Washing

 The singed carcasses are washed with spray water to remove dirt and reduce the microbial load.
Removal of feet and oil gland

 The next step involves cutting of feet from tarso-metatarsal joint with a sharp knife and removal of oil gland.
Evisceration

 The carcasses are hung by hooks to the shackles for evisceration.


 By a slit opening from the tip of breastbone, abdominal cavity is opened by means of a transverse cut.
 A circular cut is made around the vent.
 The viscera is drawn outside but allowed to remain attached to the carcass for postmortem inspection.
 Meanwhile, a slit is made in the skin of the neck for easy removal of crop and neck.
 After postmortem inspection, inedible offals, including trachea, lungs, oesophagus, crop, intestines, gall bladder and
kidneys are removed whereas giblet consisting of heart, liver and gizzard should be collected, cleaned and packed in a
wrapper.
Chilling and draining

 After washing, the dressed birds are chilled in a chilling tank containing slush ice or crushed ice for 30-45 minutes in
order to cool the carcasses to an internal temperature of about 4°C.
 The chilled birds are kept on the draining rack for 10 minutes to remove the excess water.
Washing

 Dressed birds are thoroughly washed again with clean spray water preferably maintained at 15±5°C.
 Special care should be taken to wash the interior and sides.
Grading

 Dressed chickens are graded on the basis of conformation, degree of fleshing, bruises, cuts and other quality attributes.
 Indian Standards for dressed chicken are given in the table below.
Packaging
 Before packaging, dressed chickens having gizzard without mucosal layer, heart without pericardium and liver without
gall bladder are placed in the abdominal cavity of the carcass and packed in polyethylene bags (200 gauge).
 Shrink packaging may be adopted if dressed chickens are to be stored in a frozen condition.
Storage

 Dressed chicken can be stored in a refrigerator at 2°C for 7 days and deep freezer at –18 to –20°C for a period of 4-6
months.
Indian standards for dressed chicken

Sl. Quality Grade 1 Grade 2


No. attributes

1. Conformation  Free of deformities that detract  Slight abnormalities such as


from its appearance or that dented, curved or crooked back
affect the normal distribution or mis-shapen legs or wings
of flesh. which do not materially affect the
 Slight deformities such as distribution of flesh or the
slightly curved or dented appearance of the carcass or part.
breast bones and slightly
curved backs may be present.

2. Fleshing  The breast is moderately long  The breast has a substantial


and deep and has sufficient covering of flesh with the
flesh to give it a round carrying upto the crest of the
appearance with the flesh breast bone sufficiently to
carrying well upto the crest of prevent a thin appearance.
the breast bone along with its
entire length.

3. Fat covering  The fat is well distributed so  The fat under the skin is
that there is a noticeable sufficient to prevent a distinct
amount of fat in the skin in the appearance of the flesh through
areas between the heavy the skin, especially on the breast
feathers tracts. and legs.

4. Defeathering  Free of pin feathers,  Not more than an occasiona


diminutive feathers and hair protruding pin feather or
which are visible to the diminutive feathers shall be in
inspector or grader. evidence under a careful
examination.

5. Cuts and tears  Free of cuts and tears on the  The carcass may have very few
breast and legs. cuts and tears.

6. Discoloration  Free from discoloration due to  Discoloration due to bruising;


bruising, free of clots; flesh free of clots; moderate areas of
bruises and discoloration of discoloration due bruising in the
the skin such as “blue back” skin or flesh.
are not permitted on the breast
or legs.

7. Freezer burn  May have an occasional pock  May have a few pock marks due
marks due to drying of the to drying of the inner layer of
inner layer of skin (derma), skin (derma), provided that no
provided that none exceeded single area exceeds that of a
the area of a circle 0.5 cm in circle 1.5 cm in diameter.
diameter on chickens.
METHODS OF DRESSING

I. Line or On-the-rail Dressing

 This type of dressing is adopted in the American Continent, which was originally emanated from Canada. This method
consists of conveying the carcass by gravity or power through an overhead rail to various places
after stunning and sticking. The process of dressing is divided up into various stages. Men will be standing at various
places and carcass will reach them and they will attend to their allotted work. In this system manual labor saving devices
such as brisket saw, hock cutter, hide puller, aitchbone cutter, etc., are used in the dressing process. This helps in
complete dressing at a higher rate of slaughter. Besides reducing the labour load, this arrangement also makes for better
job satisfaction. In modern meat plants, which may be as high as 5,000 cattle, 10,000 sheep and 3,500 pigs every 10
hours the line method of slaughter is highly essential to reach the high production.
 Several systems of line dressing are in operation, the type depending mainly on the level of throughput, equipment
design and species, being most complicated in cattle. Constant research is undertaken with a view to effecting more
efficient methods of line dressing.
 A line system of slaughter with a rate of 60-75 cattle/h needs approximately nine meat inspectors and one veterinarian for
initial and final inspection. Correspondingly smaller numbers are necessary for pigs and sheep inspection. Adequate
space and facilities for inspection must always be provided. Indeed all-too-common tendency to over-save on space when
installing line slaughter systems must be resisted.
In this line system there are four types.

 Gravity rail system


 In this method, carcass will be suspended from a spreader and single-wheel trolley or runner, gravitated to each
station and stopped by a manually-operated stop on the overhead rail.
 The system is used for lower slaughter rates of 10 to 40 cattle/h. Among the systems this is probably the most
compact and economical. Here generally no mechanical means are used. Since the design is the simplest there
isles chance of serious breakdowns with consequent loss of production. Various items of equipment may be
used with the gravity rail, e.g. a moving-top viscera inspection table or a paunch truck, but, because throughput
is small, a mechanical hide-puller is rarely used. Adequate ceiling height is necessary because of the pitch of the
rail to gravitate the carcass.
 Intermittent powered system
 In this system carcass is suspended on a spreader (gambrel) and trolley, and moved mechanically on a level rails
at intervals by means of variable timing device which can be pre-set to suit the slaughter rate. Here slaughter
rate is 10-75 cattle/h.
 Continuous power system
 In this system the dressing line will be in continuous motion. More sophisticated instruments are used in the
slaughter line (mechanical hide puller moving top inspectiontable, etc.). In this system carcass can be revolved
to a full 3600. So, while on the rail allowing the operator can work on all sides from one place.
 The work platform may be fixed or movable, elevated or lowered, which enables the operator to work easily.
Rate of slaughter will be about 40-120 animals/h.
 Canpak system
 This is a continuous conveyorised method in which heavy beef trolleys or runners suspend the carcasses from
the overhead rail; no gambrels or spreaders are used as in other methods. Here everything is done systematically
and most of the work is done by mechanical means. Rate of slaughter is 50-150 animals/h.
 It is probably the most common form of line system now used in large modern meat plants. In this system from
the time of arrival of animals till it is completely dressed the work is divided into 32 divisions. Each work
carried out by one man specifically stationed at one place along the moving rail system. When the carcass
reaches to his place he will attend to only his allotted work.
 So in this system for one labour operative force will be not less than 32 persons. This system is developed and
patented by the Canada Packers Ltd., Canada; hence it is called Canpak system.
II. Booth System

 In this system one man does all work in one place. No individual allotment of work. If a worker starts sticking cattle
and he will finish all the operations of dressing completely and then he will go for the next animal.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

Advantages of line system over booth system

 Since carcasses are conveyed to each dressing station there is no need for operation to be idle while carcasses are being
hoisted. Thus time is saved. Compared to traditional system of slaughter the line system is said to be safer for operation.
 Because the carcasses do not touch the floor the dressing is more conveniently carried on the rail and it is hygienic.
 Elimination of handling of heavy shackles trolleys, spreaders, unnatural stooping by the personnel and use of mechanical
tools reduces the tedious labour operation being carried out by the operatives. A comfortable operative position either at
floor level or on stationary or elevating platform is provided.
 The reduction of loss of motion and unnecessary movement of the carcass enhances the saving of space.
 The use of efficient line system makes for increased output and enhances the value of the carcass, hide and offal because
of the superior workmanship.
Disadvantages

 Since, line system is mechanically complex high standard of engineering maintenance is needed and when breakdowns
do occur production ceases completely. The repetitive nature of the work can be largely offset by job rotation if
personnel are so trained.
 Meat inspection is sometimes made more difficult and possibly less efficient.
 Proper carcass and offal conveyor synchronization, a good identification system, adequate, efficient and
conscientious inspection staff, proper inspection points with ability to coordinate findings, an efficient recording setup
and adequate time for the examination of each carcass are to be essential to have an efficient meat inspection.
 Since higher rates of slaughter are involved, separate recording staff particularly for detailed information should be
utilised.
 A system of audio links should be used for communication between inspectors and recorders, one of whom is required
for each line
NEW METHOD OF DRESSING

 The New Zealand Meat Industry Research Institute (MIRINZ) has developed a superior method of automatic pelt
removal to produce blemish-free and hygienic carcasses with the minimum of labour.
 The valuable hindquarter is completely untouched and there is no stretching of the pelt.
The inverted method

 The carcass is suspended by the forelegs or in a near-horizontal position on twin conveyors.


 A ‘Y’ cut is made from forelegs to throat releasing the ‘vee’ flap, is split by hand.
 The head is removed and discarded.
 The pelt is further prepared for automatic removal by skinning the belly and groin.
 The carcass is now ready fir the operation of two pelting machines – the shoulder puller and final puller, the former
drawing the shoulder flaps in a downward/backward direction while the latter (a hydraulically-operated arm and clamp)
grips the fleece centrally and strips it downwards off the hindquarter and shanks.
 The fleece is then released through a floor chute to the pelt room.
INTRODUCTION- GRADING

 Grading is defined as categorization and segregation of some items on the basis of stipulated norms. It is generally of two
types 1) Quality grading 2) Yield grading. In case of live animal grading, grading of carcasses and grading of meat and
meat products.
 Usually in animal grading traits of maturity (age), conformation and marbling are primarily considered.
 Different countries have their own grading pattern and detailed specifications to suit their market and consumer
requirements. Most of them have been adopted from USDA and modified as per the local needs.
 Live grading is a guide to quality grading and quality grading is guide to preparation.
 Grading is a guide to selection.
 Grading is a guide to improve plans.
 In general the grade of an animal is determined on the basis of three grades factors.
 Conformation - Morphology of animal
 Quality - Neat
 Finish - Fatness of animal
Conformation

 It is the build, shape and outline (contour) of animal and its different primal cuts (wholesale cuts).
 It is largely due to shape and size of the bones and muscles and the fat covering.
 It is otherwise attributable to breeding, and care of the animal.
Quality

 It is the character of the muscle or the lean meat (without bone) of the animal and of the intermuscular and intramuscular
fat (marbling) contained in the meat.
 It refers to firmness of the texture, freedom from coarseness to a certain extent.
 External evidence of quality is found in the refinement of head, hide, hair, bone.
 It is important as it is related to eating desirability i.e., tenderness palatability, colour, juiciness,
odour, water holding capacity, etc.
Finish

 Refers to the fatness of an animal.


 This includes
 The fat on the outer surface of the carcass and
 Inside of abdominal and thoracic cavities and also,
 Inter and intramuscular fat.
 It involves the quality, quantity and inherited factors, breeding and to a large extent on
 Kind and quality of the animal,
 Age and sex of the animal,
 Methods of handling
IMPORTANCE OF GRADING

 Grading helps the producer through authorized agencies to certify animal and carcasses for class, quality and condition.
 Grading helps the producer to recognise the quality he produced and paves ways for better planning to improve breeding
programme and to produce high-grade animals and carcasses.
 Grading helps the producer to select the required types according to the needs of the market and consumer.
 Grading helps the processor to adopt or decide methods and procedures for disposing animals and carcasses.
 Grading helps the consumers to purchase assured quality of meat and gives satisfaction over the money spent on
purchasing the meat.
 Grading enables the consumer to utilise meat most efficiently by preparing it in the manner for which it is best suited.
GRADING OF CATTLE

 In live cattle the traits of maturity or conformation are rather easily recognised after some training and experience.
 It is very difficult to estimate marbling on a live animal.
 The use of supplemental information or details such as length of time on feed, composition of ration, genetic background
may be at times help in estimating marbling on live animal.
 Some characteristics on live animals such as fullness of fore and rear flanks, fullness of twist, the fleshing between the
hindlegs may relate to overall firmness and therefore indirectly the marbling.

QUALITY POINT OF BEEF ANIMALS

When viewed from the side the following features are noticed:

 A straight back and underline with a good depth,


 Body generally rectangular in form with the head short and broad between eyes.
On viewing from the back

 The rump should appear long and broad,


 The ribs well barrelled and thighs thickly fleshed,
 Legs should be straight and short,
 Meat will extend down to the hock and the bone fine.
 A coarse tail frequently indicates a big boned animal,
 Skin should be mellow and the hairs fine.
Handling points of beef animals

 Flank: Grading a double fold in the flank region can have a general idea of the quality of fat laid down. In poor animals a
little more than a double layer of the skin can to be grasped.
 Degree of fat on barrel: By placing the thumb and fingers on either side of the last rib fat can be felt.
 Rump: The rump is to be felt for smoothness.
 Cod fat: By holding the tail with the left hand and passing the right hand between the back legs the cod fat can be felt.
Fat deposition can be handled and felt at the two pockets on either side of the base of the tail.

SUGGESTED SCALE OF POINTS FOR JUDGING BEEF ANIMALS

a. General 40 marks

1. Form Straight top line and underline; deep, low and well sprung ribs 10 marks

2. Conditions Development of muscle and degree of fattening 10 marks

3. Weight According to age and trade requirements 10 marks

4. Quality Fine hair, mellow skin, uniform finish, sufficient firmness to indicate large ratio of muscle 10 marks

b. Hind quarters 36 marks

1. Back Straight, smooth and even 10 marks

2. Loin Thick and broad 8 marks

3. Thigh Full and well finished 4 marks

4. Hip bones Smooth and well covered 2 marks

5. Rump Long, wide, even and smooth 3 marks

6. Pin bones Well apart, not too prominent 2 marks

7. Flank Fuller level with underline 2 marks

8. Legs Fine bone, straight and short 2 marks


c. Fore quarters 22 marks

1. Ribs Well barreled, thickly fleshed 8 marks

2. Chest Large girth and full crop 4 marks

3. Shoulders Well fleshed, meat and smooth 3 marks

4. Shoulder vein Full 2 marks

5. Neck Short and thick 2 marks

6. Brisket Well forwarded and side 1 marks

7. Legs Straight and fine shank 2 marks

d. Head 5 marks

1. Muzzle Broad, wide jaw and large 2 marks

2. Face Short and broad 1 mark

3. Horns Fine 1 mark

4. Ears Medium sized ears 1 mark

Total 100 marks

DIFFERENT GRADES OF CATTLE

There are six to eight grades used to cover range in quality of cattle and calves in USA.

Prime cattle

 Slaughter steers are fed into prime grade.


 A 500 kg steer of prime grade when viewed from the side should present fullness in the brisket region and fore and rear
flanks as an evidence of intense feeding.
 Fullness represents fat.
 When viewed from the rear prime cattle must have enough width through the middle and fullness of twist, again as an
indication of good feeding, well fattening and potential to marbling.
 These cattle have excess fat as a result of low feeding.
 Feeding of prime cattle is very expensive and the daily gain of weight is also slow.
 These cattle will dress from 63 to 67%.
 The highest reported dressing percent to date is 76.6% made by a spayed Angus heifer shown in the Smith Field Fat
Stock Show in England.
Choice cattle

 Choice grade cattle have most of the characteristics of the prime grade in moderation.
 A 475 kg choice steer when viewed from the side should appear to be more up standing, but the brisket and fore shank
must be moderately full indicating some fatness.
 When viewed from the rear choice cattle may appear to be firm in the twist and lower round but may show evidence of
some fatness over the edge of the loin.
 They dress from 59 to 61%.
Good grade cattle

 Good grade cattle carry less finish than choice cattle and lack uniform beef conformation of that grade.
 They are uneven on the top, slightly higher up the ground and do not show uniform depth of the body nor the
muscling characteristics of the choice grade.
 They dress between 54 to 60%.
 Dairy breed steers fed on concentrate ration for a period of time may qualify for this grade.
 A 450 kg good steer will have lightweight, trimmers about brisket and flanks as well as behind the shoulder indicating
the short time on feed.
 A good steer is narrow behind lacking muscling and bulge to the round, which will lower the conformation grade.
Standard cattle

 Young soft bone lightweight, unfinished cattle of either sex, deficient in conformation belong to this grade, especially
young dairy bred steers weighing 500 kg.
 Many dairy steers on the other hand move upto good grade, some even move upto choice grade, conformation being the
factor, which holds them back.
 The standard steer is narrow and up standing behind and shows little evidence of external finish.
 The yield is from 52-58%.
Commercial cattle

 Cattle showing advanced maturity and consisting in the main of breeding calves make up this grade.
 These cattle have angular conformation, fullness in brisket and behind the shoulders.
 When viewed from the rear the angular conformation is most obvious.
 Commercial cow has sufficient thickness to qualify to commercial grade.
 The yield is from 52 to 56 %.
Utility cattle

 Cattle are ranging, angular and thinly fleshed and vary considerable with age.
 A 450 kg utility cow when viewed from the side shows an extreme angularity from front to rear and is obvious.
 The ribs are protruding indicating practically a complete void of cover.
 From the rear concave rounds and sunken sirloin indicate utility conformation.
 Utility cows are normally dry before going for markets.
 They dress in the low 50s.
Cutter and canner cattle

 These grades are represented mainly by old cattle having the characteristics of dairy breeds, which lack in the inherent
qualities of beef animals.
GRADING OF VEAL AND CALF

Prime grade

 Vealers of this grade are usually crossbred or high-grade animals of beef type or exceptional individuals of the dairy
breeds.
 They are smooth, deep, thick, and compact, and the udder or scrotum shows a marked fullness, indicating good
condition.
 Vealers of this grade range from 4 to 8 weeks of age, weigh between 20 and 40 kgs and dress from 62% and 67%.
 They are rather scarce on the market.
Choice grade

 They are similar to prime veal in every respect except finish.


 They are more plentiful on the market than prime veal and are usually slightly younger.
 They range in weight from 25 to 30 kgs and dress around 60%.
 Some beef breeding is represented in this grade, although animals of dairy breeding predominate.
Good grade

 Vealers of this grade posses a moderately high degree of the quantities of the higher grades
 They carry less finish and show more bone and less uniformity.
 They range between 3 to 6 weeks of age, usually weigh from 25 to 27 kgs
 They dress from 55% to 60%.
 They show mostly dairy breeding.
Standard grade

 Vealers of this grade are of dairy type or scrub breeding.


 They lack finish, are rather leggy and hippy, rough in the shoulder, and light in the round.
 The market supply is greatest during April, May, and June.
 They are relatively young, weigh from 20 to 25 kgs, and dress from 50% to 55%.
Utility grade

 This grade is deficient in every respect, the vealers being thin, rangy, and angular.
 They include a rather wide range of weights (20 to 40 kgs) and individuals may be very fine boned and small, or large
boned and coarse.
 The breeding is very plain and the dressed yield averages 50%.
Immature veal

 Many dairy farms calves are allowed to suckle the dams for several days to remove the colostrum milk and are sold to a
dealer for slaughter or it may be sold to a farmer or dealer who keeps some cows for the purpose of vealing calves.
 The carcasses of these immature vealers are usually designated as bob veal.
 Vealer calves refer to the feeding of young calves either by hand or by letting them suckle strange cows and
supplementing the milk ration with a grain gruel.
Market classes of slaughter calves

 Market class of calves is selected on age, sex, size and weight for slaughter or further feeding purposes.
GRADING OF SHEEP

 In live animals conformation can readily be determined and mouthing can check up maturity. However, the quality traits
must be estimated in live animals by evaluation of overall finish of or packing.
 Sight alone is always misleading especially in wool lamb evaluation. So most buyer wade through the group making spot
check of fatness over the rump, croup and back on a number of lambs.
Prime

 Lambs to grade prime must have the wide, deep, smooth, compact conformation characteristic of animals of the meat
type.
 Shoulders should be thick and neat, back broad and thick, and the legs exceptionally plump.
 The finish must be sufficient to cover the backbone so that the backbone is not noticeable to the touch.
 The finish must be firm and evenly distributed. Only a small percent (8.7%) of the total lamb population is graded U. S.
Prime.
Choice

 Eighty-seven percent of the lambs graded qualify for the U. S. Choice grade. Thus, it is almost ‘all-inclusive’.
 Lambs of this grade are slightly deficient to prime lambs in conformation and differ primarily in a more moderate
amount of finish.
 Choice lambs have sufficient quality to satisfy consumer requirements.
Good

 Less than 1% of lambs graded qualify for U.S. Good. This grade includes lambs that are somewhat deficient in meatiness
and finish and includes a number of the better animals of the fine wool breed.
 It represents a grade that produces carcasses that are in demand because of their lacking of trimming fat.
Utility

 Approximately ¼ of 1% lambs graded, grade Utility. Lambs that are narrow and somewhat rangy, with long legs, high
twist, and unsymmetrical conformation come in this grade.
 The backs of these lambs will show a decided prominence of bone, have rough, prominent shoulders, bare ribs and loins,
and show inferior breeding.
Cull

 Representatives of the Cull grade are practically non-existent.


 Thin, unsymmetrical, gaunt, leggy, rangy, narrow, long necked, and low quality lambs make up this grade
GRADING OF HOGS

 To assure that the U. S. grades for swine and pork are of maximum benefit to the industry, the grades for slaughter hogs
are correlated directly with the grades for pork carcasses.
 Similarly, the grades for feeder pigs are also correlated with the grades for slaughter hogs.
 Thus a U. S. No. 1 slaughter hog, which in turn should produce a U. S. No. 1 carcass.
 Since sex condition has exerted little if any on secondary physical characteristics, barrows and gilts are treated as a single
class, and the grade standards are equally applicable to both.
 The standards have not been made applicable to stags and boars, but a separate measurement standard has been made for
sows

BIS GRADES FOR BUFFALO AND BEEF CARCASSES

 According to Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) –IS:2537, six are there for beef and buffalo carcasses based on
conformation, finish and quality.
Prime

 Prime beef or buffalo meat is the top quality, produced form young and well fed bovine animals. Prime grade beef
carcasses and wholesale cuts are thick fleshed, blocky and compact.
 The fat covering of the carcass varies depending on the age of the animal, from slightly thin in young animal to
moderately thick in mature animals.
 The colour of meat usually ranges from light red to slightly dark red. It is usually uniform in colour but may be slightly
two toned or shady.
 The chine bones are soft and vary in colour from red to tinged with white.
Choice

 Choice grade beef is of high quality but usually has less fat than prime beef. Choice grade beef carcasses and wholesale
cuts are moderately thick fleshed, blocky and compact.
 The fat covering of the carcass varies moderately abundant depending on the age of the animal. The colour of the meat is
usually ranges from a light red to slightly dark red. It is usually uniform in colour buit may be slightly two toned or
shady.
 Chine bones vary from soft red in colour to tinged with white.
Good

 Good grade beef or buffalo meat carcasses and wholesale cuts are moderately thick fleshed, slightly compact and blocky
in appearance.
 The fat covering of the carcass may be somewhat soft or slightly oily and varies from thin in young animals to slightly
thick in more mature animals.
 The colour of meat varies from light red to slightly dark red but may be two toned or slightly shady.
 The chine bones are soft and vary in colour from red to tinged with white.
Commercial

 Commercial grade beef or buffalo meat carcasses vary over a fairly wide range, in conformation, finish and quality.
Young animals are angular and slightly thin fleshed, mature animals are slightly thick fleshed but irregular in contour.
 Fat covering varies from thin in young animals to moderately thick in mature animals and may be patchy or wasty.
 It is moderately soft or oily in young animals and usually firm in mature animals. The rib eye muscle or young animals is
soft and watery, whereas in mature animals it is coarse.
 The colour of the meat varies form light dark red to dark red but may be two toned or shady. Chine bones in the young
animals are red and in mature animals are hard and white.
Utility

 Utility grade beef is produced mostly from cattle advanced in age and is usually lacking in natural tenderness and
juiciness.
 Utility grade beef carcasses and wholesale cuts may be rangy, angular and irregular in confoirmation. They are thinly
fleshed and the fat covering varies from very thin in young animals to maderate in mature animals and is ususlly soft.
 The cut surface of the lean muscle is usually soft and watery in younger animals, fairly firm but coarse in mature animals
and shows practically no marbling.
 Colour varies from light red to very dark red and may be two toned or shady. Bones are usually hard and white.
Cutter and Canner

 These are the lowest grades of beef or buffalo meat.


 The meat is less tender but nutritious and wholesome.
 It is generally cured, canned or used in making sausages and other meat specialties
BEFF CARCASS JUDGING

Max. marks Marks awarded

General

Conformation Compact, Well fleshed, small bone 15

Finish Smooth, even cover of firm creamy fat 10

Quality Flesh marbled, fine grain, good colour 5

Internal fat Suet in proportion to general finish 2

Weight According to trade requirements 5

Soundness Well dressed, free from bruises and scores 3

Total 40

Hind quarters

Loin Well fleshed not excessively fat 15

Rump Full, evenly fleshed to tail head 5

Round Full, extending well down hock 12

Flank Thick and full of meat 2

Leg Fine bone, fat extending well down shank 2

Total 36

Fore Quarters

Ribs Well fleshed, deep, good eye muscle, smooth finish 15

Shoulder Compact well covered 2


Neck Short and thick 2

Brisket Short and well fleshed 4

Shank Fine bone 1

Total 24

Grand total 100

GRADING OF POULTRY CARCASSES

Grading

 Dressed chickens are graded on the basis of conformation, degree of fleshing, bruises, cuts and other quality attributes.
 Indian Standards for dressed chicken are given in the table below.
Indian standards for dressed chicken

Sl. Quality Grade 1 Grade 2


No. attributes

1. Conformation  Free of deformities that detract  Slight abnormalities such as


from its appearance or that dented, curved or crooked back
affect the normal distribution or mis-shapen legs or wings
of flesh. Slight deformities which do not materially affect
such as slightly curved or the distribution of flesh or the
dented breast bones and appearance of the carcass or
slightly curved backs may be part.
present.

2. Fleshing  The breast is moderately long  The breast has a substantial


and deep and has sufficient covering of flesh with the
flesh to give it a round carrying upto the crest of the
appearance with the flesh breast bone sufficiently to
carrying well upto the crest of prevent a thin appearance.
the breast bone along with its
entire length.

3. Fat covering  The fat is well distributed so  The fat under the skin is
that there is a noticeable sufficient to prevent a distinct
amount of fat in the skin in the appearance of the flesh through
areas between the heavy the skin, especially on the breast
feathers tracts and legs.

4. Defeathering  Free of pin feathers,  Not more than an occasiona


diminutive feathers and hair protruding pin feather or
which are visible to the diminutive feathers shall be in
inspector or grader evidence under a careful
examination.

5. Cuts and  Free of cuts and tears on the  The carcass may have very
tears breast and legs. few cuts and tears.
6. Discoloration  Free from discoloration due  Discoloration due to bruising;
to bruising, free of clots; free of clots; moderate areas
flesh bruises and of discoloration due bruising
discoloration of the skin in the skin or flesh.
such as “blue back” are not
permitted on the breast or
legs.

7. Freezer burn  May have an occasional  May have a few pock marks
pock marks due to drying of due to drying of the inner
the inner layer of skin layer of skin (derma),
(derma), provided that provided that no single area
none exceeded the area of a exceeds that of a circle 1.5 cm
circle 0.5 cm in diameter on in diameter.
chickens.

BIS GRADES FOR SHEEP AND GOAT CARCASS

 According to BIS, IS2536: 1995, sheep and goat carcasses are divided into the main classes based largely upon age.
They are
 Lamb (12 months or below)
 Yearling mutton (12 to 20 months)
 Mature mutton (above 20 months)
 The above three classes are divided into six grades based on conformation, finish and quality of the
carcasses or cuts.
 Prime
 Prime grade carcasses are practically ideal in conformation, finish and quality.
 The general outlines of the carcasses of this grade are specially attractive, being symmetrical to a marked degree
owing to an abundance of highest grade palatable flesh.
 They are compact and blocky; have short, thick and plump legs; broad backs; thick, well fleshed loins, ribs and
chucks; well proportioned breasts; and full thick flanks.
 All fats are firm and of excellent quality.
 The outer covering of fat is smooth, moderate depth and evenly distributed over the back and sides.
 The fat covering is interspersed with strips of pink flesh. Interior fats are plentiful but not excessive or wasty.
 The lean flesh is firm in all parts, fine grained, and the cut surfaces feel smooth and velvety to touch.
 Choice
 Choice grade carcasses have good conformation, finish and quality, but are usually slightly deficient in one or
more aspects as compared with prime grade carcasses.
 They have relatively short, stocky legs, thick loins and ribs, full fleshy shoulders and thick breasts.
 The outer covering of fat is smooth and well distributed over loins, ribs and shoulders.
 All fats are of good quality and the flesh is moderately fine grained, firm and of proper colour.
 Good
 Good grade carcasses have good to excellent conformation, finish and quality, but are deficient in one or more
respects as compared with prime grade carcasses.
 Carcasses of this grade are well proportioned and reasonably plump, but may be slightly deficient in breadth or
depth across the backs, hips or shoulders.
 There may be slight indications of paunchiness or a slight tendency towards the rangy type, indicated by long
tapering shanks and somewhat longer body.
 The outer covering of fat is smooth and even over the back and hips, diminishing sharply towards the shanks
and flanks. Interior fats may be plentiful but they are not evenly distributed.
 All fats are of good quality. The flesh is moderately firm and fine grained.
 Commercial
 Commercial grade lamb and mutton carcasses have fair conformation, finish and quality.
 They are usually somewhat angular or rangy in conformation with moderately long thin necks and shanks and
relatively narrow hips, back and shoulders.
 They have moderately long tapering legs and they lack the plumpness of the better grades.
 Ribs and loins are lacking somewhat in depth of flesh.
 Carcasses of this grade usually have a moderately thin outer covering of fat but it is not evenly distributed.
 Some carcasses in this grade have excessive quantities of fat which disqualify them for higher grades.
 Interior fats are relatively scarce, the kidneys being only partially covered.
 The flesh is inclined to be soft, spongy and moderately fine grained.
 Utility
 Utility grade carcasses are low grade carcasses which are distinguished by the marked lack of quality and finish
and the high percentage of bone to flesh.
 They have poor conformation and the contour of the back bone is plainly visible form neck to tail.
 There is hardly any exterior fat and the interior fat is also lacking.
 The flesh is generally moist, soft and flabby and dark red in colour.
 They are angular and all bones are prominent.
 Such carcasses are disproportionately long and narrow.
 The fat may have a bluish tinge. Flesh is also coarse and fibrous.
 Cull
 Cull grade carcasses are of the lowest grade.
 Such carcasses are usually from poorly developed or old animals, with all bones markedly prominent and with
total deficiency of exterior and interior fats.
 The flesh is dark, coarse, soft and watery.
 The proportion of bone to flesh is very high, and the appearance is unattractive.

JUDGING OF MUTTON CARCASS

Max. Marks
marks awarded

General

Weight According to trade requirements 10

Conformation Compact, well fleshed legs and loin 10

Condition Smooth covering of white fat, well fleshed 10

Quality Flesh sappy and food colour 10

40

Carcass Well dressed, clean, free form cuts and bruises 10

Shoulders Neat but well fleshed, smooth finish 7

Ribs Well barrelled, short and well fleshed 6

Loins Eye muscle* ( broad and long, correct cover of fat ♣ )( kidney far not 20
excessive)

Legs Thick, plump ♦ (uniform layer of fat, extending well down the shank.) 15

Neck Short and neat 2

60
Grand total 100

 * A good eye muscle should measure about 1.4 inches (3.5 cm) in depth on a carcass of about 45 lbs (20 kg) at nine
months old or under. Eye muscle or rib eye area is measured at 10th rib level. Loin eye area is measured at the lumber
area.
 ♣
The optimum thickness of fat over the eye muscle is about 0.25 inches (6mm).
 ♦
In a good leg the width across is equal to or greater than the length or the bone.

GRADES FOR BARROW, GILT AND SOW CARCASSES

 Carcass weight and carcass length along with back fat thickness is used as a guide for grading pig carcasses.
 The table given below shows the normal length range for given weight. The final grade is determined subjectively.
 Carcass weight is based on chilled shipper style carcasses.
 The back fat thickness is measured at the level of 1st rib, last rib and last lumbar, which is equal to the measurement of
back fat thickness at the 7th rib level.
Carcass weight or length Average back fat thickness (cm) by grade

US1 US2 US3 Medium Cull

Barrow and Gilt

Under 55 kg Under 70 cm 3.0 to 3.75 3.75 to 4.75 4.75 and more 2.0 to 3.0 Less than 2.0

55-75 kg 3.25 to 4.25 4.25 to 5.25 5.25 or more 2.5 to 3.25 Less than 2.5
70-76 cm

75-95 kg 3.5 to 4.5 4.5 to 5.5 5.5 or more 2.75 to 3.5 Less than 2.75
77-84 cm

95 kg and more 3.75 to 4.75 4.75 to 5.75 5.75 or more 3.0 to 3.75 Less than 3.0
85 cm and more

Sow 3.75 to 5.0 5.0 to 6.25 6.25 or more 2.75 to 3.75 Less than 2.75
( on BFT grade)

FABRICATION OF CARCASSES OF FOOD ANIMALS

The term meat cutting may aptly be defined as the art, skill or craft of separation of carcass wholesale primal cuts into different
portions as to suit various needs in the meat trade and to facilitate easy handling by the butchers.

 There are few primary objectives in cutting all kind soft meat.
 Separate thick from thin thick muscles which are better adapted for certain methods of preparations than the thin
muscles, therefore, they should be separated when breaking down a carcass.
 Separate fat from lean cuts with a high degree of fat should be separated from these cuts more muscular in
nature, and with a lesser degree of fat.
 Always cut at right angles to the grain. When in doubt as to how a piece of meat should be cut, study the grain
and cut at right angles to the grain of the dominant muscle.
 Always use knives for cutting meat and saw for bones.
 The specialized operation of cutting the carcass requires besides, good deal of expertise on the part of the butcher-
acquired over considerable length of experience at job, a thorough understanding of the carcass types, anatomy,
consumer’s diet habits and a sound knowledge of human psychology.
 The procedure of cutting varies in different geographical areas and as it is there are different methods practiced in
different countries. “British cutting”, “American cutting”, “French cutting”, “Australian cutting”, etc., are the terms used
to signify cutting procedures in different countries.
 Even in the same country, slight variations are being noticed from region to region and these are not generally of major
importance. Whichever system is adopted, the underlying principle is separation of more valued cuts from the lesser-
valued counterparts.
 In India we have cuts recommended by the ICAR, New Delhi and cuts performed for academic purpose in the
Department of Meat Science and Technology, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai.
Factors in meat cutting

 Carcass
 A neat job of cutting and trimming can be done only in a thoroughly chilled carcass and it is essential that the
chilled carcass should possess an internal temperature of 1-20 C.
 Butcher
 Must be adequately trained at the job and should possess + 3% dexterity or accuracy in cutting techniques.
 By this, it is meant, that a given cut should be identical in all the carcasses and variations in its size and shape is
permitted only to the extent of + 3%.
 This factor has got profound impact on the economics of meat merchandising as examplified
Loin Flank

Accurate cutting might give 75% 25%

Value ratio 9:5

 In terms of cost, the above ratio represents (75x9) + (25x5) = 800 money units.
 Inaccurate cutting (5% error) results in (70x9) + (30x5) = 780 money units
 Loss = 20 money units
 The loss of 5% error in cutting is 20/800 money units or 2.5% i.e. a loss of 2½ rupees for every 100 rupees in
the cost of meat.
 Cutting procedure
 Must be an approved one and in line with a standard procedure and steps mentioned in it should be scrupulously
followed.
 Cutting room
 The cutting operation should be carried out only in a specialized meat cutting room with a temperature at 4.4 0C
and 70 to 80% relative humidity.
 The environment helps to maintain the wholesomeness of the meat.
 Besides, the room should have enough sanitary and cleaning facilities.
 Equipment and machinery
 All the required equipment like different kinds of knives and saws, stainless steel top meat cutting tables and
machinery, like electrically operated meat cutting saws, should be available in the meat cutting room and they
should be sufficient sharp and in good working condition.
 Cutting principles
 Three basic principles of cutting techniques are to be adopted.
 The muscular portion must be cut with knife,
 The bone structures must be severed with saw, and
 Whenever joints are involved, “breaking” or “disjointing” with far less physical effort must deal them
with.
 Outlets for cuts and trimmings
 There should be organized outlets for all the cuts and trimmings and the meat cutting room should present a
synchronized working atmosphere.
 For example, the fresh cuts must be immediately packed properly and sent to the trade or chilling room, fats
must be transferred to the fat rendering unit, and trimmings may be taken to mincing or processing hall: certain
primal cuts such as ham, shoulder and side and spare ribs should be sent to the curing room.
 In many of the developing countries a recent trend is to have a half in the slaughter hoist itself for the centralized
preparation of cuts rather than transport of chilled carcasses to the retail butchers.
 In the assembly line operation the cuts are cryovaced for extended shelf life and are transported to retail stalls or
super bazaars.

BEEF CUTTING/ FABRICATION OF BEEF CARCASSES


 Beef carcass before cutting, it is split into two halves or sides of beef carcass.
 The side of beef carcass consists of one fore and one hind quarter from each side equally matched.
 Separating the sides between the 12th and 13th rib, where the 13th rib remains on the hindquarter – this is also known
as ribbing/quartering, produces the fore and hindquarters.
 The thymus, mediastinal tissue and heart fat are usually removed from the beef carcass when shipped.
 The diaphragm may be removed, if not, the tendinous portion is trimmed down to the lean muscle tissue.
 The lamb or mutton carcass is the entire un-split dressed carcass with the heart, liver and lungs (Pluck), spleen and caul
fat removed.
 The diaphragmatic muscles and gullet may or may not be removed from the carcass.
 A veal carcass is an unsplit dressed carcass without hide. The heart fat is usually trimmed. The diaphragmatic muscles
and gullet may or may not be removed from the carcass.
 The hog carcasses when dressed by Packer Style the head, liver, heart, lungs and kidneys are removed. The leaf fat is
removed along with the most of the lumbar, pelvic and heart fat. The jowl remains intact with the carcass.
 The process of dividing of chilled carcass into various commercial parts is referred to as the cutting operation
or fabrication of carcasses of food animals.
Steps for making wholesale cuts of beef carcass

 The right side of beef carcass is known as in CLOSED OR TIGHT SIDE (Kidney close) and the left side as the OPEN
SIDE (Kidney free).
 Each side is made into different cuts as outlined below.
Step 1: Ribbing or quartering

 The beef side is separated into forequarter and hind quarter by making cut between the 12 th and 13th rib, leaving the last
rib on the hindquarter (Chicago style).
 This procedure is known as “Ribbing” or “Quartering”.
Step 2: Wholesale cuts of forequarter

 The posterior RIB and PLATE portion is separated from the anterior CHUCK, BRISKET and SHANK complex
by cutting between 5th and 6th ribs.
 The upper RIB is separated from the lower PLATE by a straight and parallel cut to the backbone by joining the two
points at the loin and chuck ends. These points are located at a distance of 8 inches from their respective protruding
edges of chine.
 The chunk, brisket and shank complex are placed on the table with rib side down. The SHANK is removed by cutting
parallel to the underline and just dorsal to the prominence (lateral condyle of the humerus) on the lower extremity of
the humerus.
 The cutting is continued through the breastbone and lower ends of ribs from the point of shank and parallel to back
bone and BRISKET is removed. This can also be separated by a cut that is perpendicular to the 4 th rib at a point about 4
cm proximal to the olecranon process of the elbow.
 The large thick square cut remaining is CHUCK.
Step 3: Wholesale cuts of hindquarters

 The kidneys along with their adjoining fat are removed leaving very little fat on the tenderloin and it is known as
“KIDNEY KNOB’.
 The FLANK is removed by cutting from a point immediately ventral to the aitchbone and following the natural
seam until the thick muscle of the flank is reached and then making a straight cut to a point about one and a half inches
below eye muscle.
 The ROUND is separated from the LOIN by cutting at a point about one and half inches anterior to the aitch
bone and parallel to the rib end of loin. This cut usually removes a section from the half of the femur, about the size of a
silver dollar.
 If desired, the RUMP can be divided from the ROUND by making a cut immediately parallel and ventral to aitchbone.
 The cut left out is the LOIN.
 The loin is usually divided into anterior and posterior section at the anterior tip of the hip and between the lumbar and
sacral vertebrae. The posterior third portion containing the hip bone (ilium) is known as the SIR LOIN and the anterior
portion containing five lumbar and one thoracic vertebrae is known as SHORTLION.
Percentage of wholesale cuts of beef carcass

Forequarter ( 51%) Hindquarter (49%)

Rib 9.0% Kidney Knob 4.0%

Plate 9.5% Flank 4.0%


Shank 4.0% Loin 17.5%

Brisket 4.5% Round 23.5%

Chuck 24.0%
 In the U.S. in order to provide the traditional cuts demanded by the public there are different methods of cutting of beef.
 The latest standardisation in cutting beef exists through Middle West, West and South West where the method is Western
or Chicago style of cutting the beef.
 The Eastern Sea bound states use a method known as Eastern or New York style of cutting the beef.
 In Chicago method of cutting the quartering is done by dividing between 12th and 13th ribs and leaving one rib in
hindquarter.
 In New York method of cutting also the quartering is done by leaving one rib in the hindquarter.
 In Boston method of cutting the quartering allows three ribs on the hindquarter.
 In Philadelphia method of cutting all the ribs are left in the forequarter

FABRICATION OF PORK CARCASSES

Steps for making wholesale cuts of pork carcass

Each side of pork carcass is subjected to the following cutting procedure:

Step 1

 The feet are removed in the case of the front feet at about 1” above the knee and for the hind feet at the lower edge of
hock.
Step 2

 The anterior “ROUGH SHOULDER” is separated from the posterior “ROUGH MIDDLE” and “ROUGH HAM” portion
by cutting between second and third ribs.
 Thus “ROUGH SHOULDER” is made into three wholesale cuts as described below
 The JOWL is trimmed by cutting close to the neck line.
 The BOSTON BUTT is the upper one third of the skinned shoulder and is separated by cutting parallel to the back from
a point just vertical to the exposed section of the shoulder blade. The lower two third portion is known as PICNIC
SHOULDER.
Step 3

 The “ROUGH HAM” is separated from the rough middle by cutting between second and third sacral vertebrae at right
angles to the line of the leg and a REGULAR HAM is made form this rough ham by suitably trimming the fat and
lean on the exposed surface of the ham.
Step 4

 The “ROUGH MIDDLE” is separated into upper LOIN and lower SIDE & SPARE RIBS or BACON by a parallel cut to
the backbone, made at a point 3 fingers width below the vertebral column at the shoulder end and extending it up to the
leg end in a manner just to miss the tender lion muscle.
 The wholesale cuts obtained from each side will be Jowl, Boston Butt, Picnic Shoulder, Loin, Side and Spare Ribs and
Ham

FABRICATION OF LAMB CARCASSES

Steps for making wholesale cuts of lamb carcass

 The carcass is divided into FORE-SADDLE and HIND-SADDLE by cutting between the last 2 ribs. The left and right
sides are not separated in case of beef carcass.
 The thin meat is taken off from the natural seam between flank and leg. Cut is made forward to the last rib at a point
midway of the last rib. This cut is continued forward to a point 1/2” above the elbow joint. The SHANK & the ROUGH
BREAST are obtained.
 The NECK is removed at a point where it blends with the shoulder.
 A cut is made between the fifth and sixth ribs to remove the SHOULDER
 The portion left behind from the sixth rib to the twelfth rib is the RACK.
 The LOIN is removed from the hindquarters by sawing just in front of the hipbone and the last two lumbar vertebrae.
 The remaining portion is the LEGS.
 From the rough breast the FORE SHANK (TURKEY LEG) is removed.
The final cuts are

 Fore-saddle 53%
 Rack Rib 10 %, Shoulder 25%, Neck 4%, Shank 6 % and Breast 8 %
 Hind-saddle 47%
 Leg 32%, Loin 10%, Flanks 3% and Suet and Kidney 2%

FABRICATION OF RABBIT CARCASSES

Steps for making wholesale cuts of rabbits

 There is an increase in the consumption of rabbit meat.


 Hence the popularity of wholesale cuts of rabbit carcasses is also increasing.
 They invariably realize more per pound of meat than wholesale carcass.
 In USA, the small rabbit carcass weighing about 800 – 900 gm is referred to as FRYERS.
 This lends itself to be cut off and easily preferred for marketing.
 It is normally practiced to cut the carcass into seven jointed pieces consisting of two hind legs, two fore legs, two pieces
of chest and back and one loin piece.
 The larger carcass is cut into more portions depending upon the weight of the carcass, which may vary from 9 to 12
pieces where the hind legs are divided into two pieces.
 The loin and back portion of rib are cut into 5 pieces and front portion of the ribs and each foreleg into one piece.
 The intermediate (medium) sized carcass is cut into lesser cuts so as to form individual cuts.
 The small carcasses can be prepared and pre-packed and sold as jointed whole rabbit with larger joint may be
individually prepacked or combined to make up certain weight ranges depending upon the local demand.

FABRICATION OF CHICKEN CARCASSES

Steps for making cutup parts of chicken carcass

 The carcass is divided into front/anterior portion and rear/posterior portion by cutting between the 6th and 7th ribs.
 Anterior/front quarter - A longitudinal cut is made beginning at the first thoracic vertebra and extending posteriorly
through the sixth thoracic vertebra cutting the keel in half. The Wings are removed by a cut through the shoulder joint at
the proximal end of the humerus.
 Breast with back cut - The Breast is split by a longitudinal cut beginning at the first vertebra and extending
posteriorly through the sixth thoracic vertebrae column and sternum.
 The Keel cut breast is made at the distal end (or tip of the sternal crest) and continued dorsally across the fifth
and sixth vertebral ribs until the pectoralis muscles are separated from the whole breast. The remaining breast
portion is then split in the manner of the split breast with back.
 The Wishbone or Clavicle cut is removed from the carcass by a cut beginning at the anterior end of the sternum
and extending dorsally along the coracoid. This piece is separated from the breast at the junction of the clavicle
and coracoid. The remainder of the breast was split as previously described for the split as previously described
for the split breast with back.
 Quartered breast – Breasts are quartered using two cuts – (1) a longitudinal cut to yield two halves as in the
breast with back cut; (2) a cut through each half beginning at the point of the sternal ribs and across the fifth and
sixth vertebral ribs, severing the spine at approximately the seventh lumber vertebra.
 Split breast – This piece is obtained by cutting on each side of the vertebral column beginning at the mid-point
of the sternal ribs until breast is completely severed from the back. The last cut split the whole breast through
the mid-point of the sternum. A portion of the back is removed.
 Breast with ribs – A cut is made on each side of the vertebral column beginning at the position posterior to the
seventh rib and extending anteriorly to a point where the breast with ribs and scapula were completely separated
from the back. The breast is then split down the centre of the sternum.
 Stripped breast with scapula – By placing a knife in the body cavity at the anterior end of the vertebral column,
a cut is made in the ventral posterior direction to split the breast through the centre of the sternum. The skin is
then cut along the entire length of the vertebral column and around the last thoracic rib in such a fashion as to
loosen the skin from the carcass. Manual pressure is applied on the breast portion and split breast with the
scapula are pulled away from the remaining ribs.
 Wings with breast portion These are cut by removing approximately 2.5 cm of pectorals major with the shoulder
joint.
 Wing segments The wing tip is removed at the distal end of the forearm; the forearm is removed by cutting the
joint at the distal end of the humerus. And the proximal wing portion by cutting through the shoulder joint. The
distal by a cut through the shoulder joint at the proximal end of the humerus.
 Posterior portion cuts
 Rear quarter - The rear quarter is obtained by cutting at the seventh thoracic vertebra and extending posteriorly
splitting the lumbar-sacral vertebra in half.
 Drumstick - The drumstick is separated from the thigh by a cut through the joint formed by the femur, fibula and
tibia.
 Three piece leg - The entire leg with back is cut into three pieces employing a band saw. Each leg is cut at a
point 2.5 cm above and 2.5 cm below the joint formed by the femur, fibula and tibia. The remaining portion
consisting of the back and the upper portion of the two thighs is then cut longitudinally beginning at the seventh
thoracic vertebra and extending posteriorly splitting the lumbar-sacral vertebra
 Thigh with back portion - A longitudinal cut of the thigh-back portion was then made beginning at the seventh
vertebra and extending posteriorly on either side of the lumbar and sacral vertebra completely removing this
portion of the back bone.
 ‘Strip cut thigh’ - This piece was obtained by a cut through the junction of the thigh muscles with the pelvic
girdle to the hip joints disjointing the femur. The leg was then separated from the back by pulling the loin or
‘oyster’ muscle off with the thigh. The thigh and drumstick were separated at the joints as previously described.
Notice that a portion of the back was removed. (Common name: thigh with connecting fat and skin).
 ‘Square cut thigh’ - The square cut thigh was made as in the strip cut thigh except the loin oyster muscle was left
on the remaining back. The thigh and drumstick were separated at the joint as previously described. (Common
name: thigh).
 ‘Drumstick with thigh portion’ - The drumstick with thigh portion cut was made by cutting the femur 2.5 cm
above the joint formed by the femur, fibula and tibia. The resulting portion contained the fibula and tibia and
approximately 2.5 cm of the femur. (Common name: drumstick with thigh portion).
 ‘Thigh thigh back’. The initial cut was made as described w/back in the three piece leg section.
 In 1986 the Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) of the USDA published guidelines for specified cuts of poultry (FSIS,
1986). These guidelines are to clarify and assure compliance with the provisions of regulations regarding cut-up poultry
parts, especially for labeling purposes. These guidelines are:
 Proper cut of thighs, drumsticks and wings. Thighs, drumsticks, and wings should be separated from other parts
with clean cuts through connecting joints. These parts may still be considered properly cut if the medullar cavity
(marrow) of the bone shaft is not exposed. If the part is improperly cut, both ends shall be labeled portions of
drumstick, thigh, or wing, unless the parts are acceptable for, and identified with, an official USDA Grade Mark.
For example, if the bone of a part is cut short (i.e., medullary cavity exposed), but the entire meat yield
associated with that part is not materially affected, then the part may qualify for a grade other than ‘A’ grade.
 Patella (knee bone). The patella (knee bone) may be included on either the drumstick or thigh.
 Skin and Fat. Skin or fat not ordinarily associated with a part may not be included unless stated on the label.
 Thighs. The regulation states that thighs may include pelvic meat but shall not include the pelvic bones. Thighs
may also include abdominal meat (flank meat) but shall not include rib bones.
 Legs. The regulation states that legs may include pelvic meat but shall not include the pelvic bones. Legs ma
also include abdominal meat (flank meat) but shall not include rib bones.
 Halves. The regulations states that a poultry carcass is cut so as to produce approximately equal right and left
sides. The cut must be made so that portions of the backbone remain on both halves, and the cut may be no more
than one-fourth inch from the sternum (breastbone).
 Leg quarter. The regulation states that a leg quarter consists of a poultry thigh and drumstick with approximately
one-half of the associated back portion attached. A leg quarter may also include attached abdominal fat and up
to two ribs.
 Leg quarter with back portion. This is a leg quarter with a complete or entire rear back portion must have all
associated meat and skin. If the meat and skin are missing, this cut should be labeled as leg quarter with striped
back portion.
 Breasts. Abdominal muscle (flank meat) shall not be included except for occasional small pieces. Skin or fat
from other parts may not be included. The end of bone shaft is not exposed. If the medullary cavity of the
humerus is exposed, then a portion of wing bone is attached and this cut must be labeled as breast with ribs with
portion of wing bone.
 Breast with ribs. Abdominal muscle (flank meat) remaining on the breast shall not extend beyond the midline of
the internal side of the sternum (breastbone) when folded inward from its natural attachment to the breast. If this
abdominal muscle has been partially cut at its natural attachment to the breast, then the cut edge is to be
approximated before folding. Skin or fat from other parts is not allowed. The end of the humerus may be
included on the breast if the medullary cavity (marrow) of the bone shaft is not exposed. If the medullary cavity
of the humerus is exposed, then a portion of wing bone is attached and this cut must be labeled as breast with
ribs with portion of wing bone.
INTRODUCTION, DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATION

 Basically the term by-products and offals are used to denote the part or particles, which is not included in the dressed
carcasses.
 So, by-products may be defined as, “everything from the abattoir or butcher’s shop that is not sold directly as food”.
 Some of the by-products are organs, such as kidney, brain, liver, heart, lungs and intestinal tract, gullets and sweet bread,
stomach, blood, bones, hooves, horns, hair and bristles, hide and skin, etc.
 Animals, which die at abattoir prior to slaughter, or those animals or parts of animals, which have failed to pass
meat inspection as, fit for human consumption, are also included in the by-products.
 Ears, lips, snouts, teeth, foetus, gall bladder, trimmings, fleshing and dew claws are also listed under by-products.
 Organs such as kidney, brain, liver, heart and tongue are classified as edible by-products while the others are classified as
inedible by-products.
 The basic factors making the deviation between edible and inedible products are determined by the purchasing power of
the consumer, his food habits, religious taboos and customs.
 On the border line between these two extremes is a small group of organs which depending upon the food customs and
purchasing power of the consumer may be considered either edible or inedible.
 Among these are organs such as uterus, spleen, testicle, lungs, intestines, stomach and blood may be considered fit for
human consumption provided, they are derived from sound animals and were not contaminated during the process of
slaughter and dressing.
 These by-products can be further sub-divided into
 Principle by-products including hide and skin, blood, hooves and horn and
 Secondary class of by-products which includes a wide range of items manufactured from the principle by-
products for example, blood meal, fibrin, haemoglobin, bloodalbumin, serum, plasma and so on from blood, Fat
yields glycerin and soap; bones yield gelatin and nitroglycerine, Hides yield leather shoes, bags, belts, clothing,
etc.
 Collection and utilization of by-products will be very difficult in small and widely scattered slaughterhouses with smaller
throughputs.
IMPORTANCE AND BENEFITS

Importance of utilization of by-products

 The need for efficient treatment of the by-products is based on


 The necessity for their rapid, hygienic disposal thus avoiding decomposition and formation of obnoxious odours.
 If abattoir by-products are not removed and treated properly, then these will become a serious source of contamination to
fresh meat.
 The efficient process of abattoir by-products, which secure some economic return on material, which would otherwise be
wasted.
 Therefore, the efficient processing of by-products is agreed on both by the meat trade and by public health authorities.
 So, it becomes the obligation of the local authority to see the unsound meat is hygienically disposed off.
Benefits derived from the by-products

 Improvement of the environmental sanitation


 Blood, trimmings, fleshiness, condemned organs and all unused offals attract flies, rats, dogs, vermin causing
public health nuisance and even danger of spreading diseases.
 Sanitary disposal of such offals often present great difficulties, as offals tend to clot drains, decomposed rapidly
and produce objective odours.
 Meat slaughtered and kept in unsanitary surroundings created by undisposed offals results in products not only of
inferior keeping quality but also serving as a potential vehicle for disease transmission.
 Healthier and more productive livestock
 Use of bones as bone meal, as mineral supplement for stock feed improves the health of the Livestock.
 Meat, bone and carcass meals contribute as valuable sources of sterile protein food supplement.
 Secondary rural industry
 The manufacture of by-products of animal origin leads to the establishment of secondary rural industries.
 Examples are tanneries, tallow, soap, glue and bone meal manufacture, etc.
 Price structure
 By-products influence the price of meat and the price paid to the producer for livestock.
 Creation of new employment
 The conversion of offals in to by-products creates new employment and skills not only at the primary industry level
but also at the secondary industry level.
 Better crops
 The offals converted into fertilizers will help in increasing the yield of crops
PLAN AND LAYOUT OF BYPRODUCTS UTILIZATION PLANT

 Due to our vast livestock population, it is very important to harvest animal byproducts for their economic value as well as to
provide employment to marginally educated masses.
 In our country, livestock density demands the setting up of atleast one animal by products processing plant at each 50 km
range.
 Establishment of animal by products processing plant within or in the vicinity of each abattoir will also alleviate the
pollution problem.
 The biogas production unit for the mutual benefit could utilize the resultant waste from both.
 Important considerations during the establishment of a byproducts utilization plant are: In tropical and subtropical countries,
a byproduct plant should be established adjacent to the slaughterhouse or it may be a part of the same building connected
through chutes or gravity pipes. In earlier case, the passage between slaughterhouse and by product plant must be
constructed with concrete, stones or bricks and the slope should be towards byproduct plant. The establishment should
preferably be away from inhabited area. As far as possible, there should be provision of overhead rails from slaughterhouse
to the byproduct plant. A byproduct plant should have its own-screened drainage with a gully fitted with individual grease
traps. The byproduct plant should have clear clean and unclean sections. Charging platform or raw materials inlets form a
part of unclean sections whereas processed and sterilized byproducts are prepared, stored and disposed of from clean section
having separate exit point.
 The floor, walls and ceiling should be made up of smooth and concrete material so that these can be easily and frequently
washed. A floor slope of ½” per ft. is generally recommended.
 A byproduct plant should invariably have a hide/skin salting room, renderers, tripery, boiler, manure bunker, store besides
common amenities.
 The plant building should be open and ventilated to prevent humidity build up leading to corrosion
of equipment and building. It will also check the growth of moulds and bacteria in the building. The roofing material may
preferably be corrugated asbestos sheeting. There should be provision of exhaust fans from each partition.
 The equipment to be installed should cope up with the byproduct or offal accumulation expected each day. Renderer, fat
settling tank, fat expeller, blood press, grind mill etc., are essentially required. A boiler of suitable capacity is inevitable for
processing as well as cleaning operations. It should have a steam pressure of > 80 psi.
 At the initial stage, processing of one or two byproducts can be taken up. The operations can be further extended in stages.
 A byproduct plant should have the following main sections:
 Hides and skins section with salt store.
 Tripery/Gut processing section with cleaning tables, water taps etc.,
 Carcass utilisation plant with renderer, bone digester, fat settling tank, fat expeller and adjoining milling
room and store.
 Besides boiler, worker lockers, amenities and adjacent manure pit are other important requirements.
 The boiler should be of suitable capacity keeping in view the availability of raw material; and
consumption of renderer.
 The requirement of steam has been worked out to be 1.25 lb per lb of raw material to be processed

BLOOD

 The processing of blood can yield both inedible products and products suitable for animal feeding.
 Blood can also used as human food as it is very valuable source of protein.
 It is used in the preparation of black puddings and sausage making.
 Occasionally, slaughter does not lend itself to economical treatment of blood, as the quantities are small.
 Only plants, whose daily kill is large, can make use of the blood fully by installation of a suitable plant by which the
liquid can be dried.
 The desirable feature in the construction of the abattoir is that the animals should be bled at a central point by which
arrangement a greater degree of hygiene and facilities can be achieved.
 An animal body contains nearly 5-7% blood of its live weight.
 However, during slaughter blood is not fully recovered, where spilling, or faulty management always loses some of it.
 Fresh blood must be processed at the earliest moment as otherwise it decomposes rapidly with an appreciable loss in the
nitrogen conten
AVERAGE YIELD OF BLOOD/ANIMAL
Time of bleeding of different food animals
Species Yield

Cattle 6 minutes
Buffalo/cattle 10-12 kg

Sheep 5 minutes
Goat/ sheep 1-1.5 kg

Calves 5 minutes
Pigs 2-3 kg

Pigs 6 minutes
Poultry 30-50 g

Calves 1.5 kg

 The amount of blood yielded


 The yield of blood meal is about 1/5th of the initial weight of blood.
 It is an excellent source of essential amino acids, lysine being 6-8%.
USES

 Animal blood is used in several ways and its collection method also depends on the specific end use.
 Some of the uses are listed below.
 As human food
 Only a small quantity of available blood is used as human food, such as for preparation of black
puddings and sausages.
 Blood used for human food must be of fresh and derived from animals, which have been inspected and passed.
 It is very difficulty to collect clear blood from animals slaughtered according to Jewish or Mohammedan rituals
as such blood is often contaminated with regurgitated food.
 The collection should be done in clear receptacles in such a manner as to prevent contamination.
 Blood containers should be identified with the carcass, so that, if the carcass is condemned, the blood may be
destroyed.
 The blood after leaving the body clots quickly due to formation of fibrin, which enmeshes most of
the blood cells squeezing out the serum.
 Liquid blood is required for certain manufacturing purposes both for food and industry.
 This can be achieved by defibrination and is done by stirring the blood, with a wooden ladle or by whipping it
with a wire whip.
 The fibrin will gradually settle on the blade or whip, which will be dark–red in colour.
 It is a valuable food for man and poultry or can be used for the manufacture of peptone or lecithin.
 The fibrin can be washed nearly white in water and dried and preserved until required.
 Plasma is used as protein boosters in foods and used as binder or stabilizer in meat products.
 For industrial use
 Preservation of blood by chemicals is necessary when the blood is used in tanneries and other commercial use.
 But, however, because of the addition of chemicals, there is some loss of quality.
 Chemical preservation may add some undesirable properties to the blood.
 The addition of chemicals should be done only after consultation with the buyer.
 For industrial use when liquid blood is needed, anti-coagulants such as oxalate or citrate is added.
 The blood is then centrifuged to separate the red and white corpuscles from the serum.
 Plasma is used as waterproof adhesive in plywood industry.
 Used in lithographic coloured solution, this contains albumen and ammonium dichromate.
 Used in textile dyeing, and as stabilizer for feed mixtures and pet foods.
 Used as foam compounds in fire extinguishers; as substitute for egg albumen (blood albumen); in ceramics and
is cosmetic base formations.
 As stock feed
 Only fraction of the blood available can usually be used for human food or industrial use.
 All the remainder should be utilized for stock feed production as blood meal, mixed blood meal and lysine
supplement.
 As fertilizer
 Used as compound fertilizer containing nitrogen and phosphates, seed coating and soil pH stabilizer.
 As biochemical and pharmaceutical
 Amino acids – lysine, leucine, histidine and phenylalanine are used as biochemical.
 Thrombin and prothrombin are used as blood clotting agents. Immununoglobulins, serotonin, peptone and
plasma extenders are used as pharmaceuticals.
 As laboratory and biological media
 Blood agar, tissue culture media, albumin and globulin, sphingomyelin and catalase are used as laboratory and
biological media.
PROCESSING AND PREPARATION OF BLOOD MEAL

 Blood may be processed by heat treatment or without heat treatment.


 Processing of blood without heating will cause problems while feeding the meal to livestock.
 Raw, unsterilized blood meal is not recommended for feeding purposes.
 But in small abattoirs provision of blood processing plant is a costly affair.
Heat-treated blood

 Although dried raw blood has not been sterilized during manufacture, it is possible to sterilize the meal itself by heating it in
a stove.
 Blood can be cooked together with offal and condemned carcasses.
 If blood only is available, this can be processed in the following manner.
 The blood is heated with constant stirring until it coagulates, care being taken to avoid burning or charring.
 An equal amount of boiling water is then added to the blood and the mass boiled together 4 to 5 lbs raw blood are equivalent
to 1lbs of dried blood meal or 8 lbs of the mass prepared by adding water.
 Bran, pollard or other finely ground vegetable mater can be; mixed with the blood to add consistency.
 The feed prepared in this method has no keeping qualities whatever and efficient arrangement must be made for daily
collection and feeding to livestock.
 Apart from blood collection, a speedy collection and feeding to livestock, a speedy collection without the addition
of water and rapid elimination of moisture prior to drying are essential in order to obtain a good product.
 This is achieved by coagulation and pressing.
PRINCIPLES IN MANUFACTURE OF BLOOD MEAL

The simple principle in the manufacture of blood meal is as follows:

 Blood collection
 Blood should be collected in such a way as to avoid floor washings, detergents, insecticides or any other extraneous
material.
 Storage and transport
 Whole blood may be properly mixed with equal amount of rice bran, which will absorb it.
 Such a mass can be transported in gunny bags in rainy or low sun season, whereas it can be dried in summer or hot
sun on a concrete platform to nearly 10-12 % moisture.
 To whole blood, 1% quick lime is added by weight, which will give it a black rubber like consistency.
 This mass will not adhere to the transport containers, keep well for 24 hours and it will not attract flies.
 Addition of lime also increases the calcium of the end product.
 Alternatively, common salt can be added @ 20% of the blood by weight to increase its storage life and enable safe
transport to the plant.
 Coagulation by heating
 The blood should not be charred.
 The blood will turn black. It should be boiled for 15 to 20 minutes to destroy pathogenic organisms.
 Injecting live steam may coagulate the blood.
 Pressing
 Blood mass is collected in Hessian bags or any other porous bags, hung and 40 to 45% of moisture from blood can
be squeezed out simply by pressing.
 This reduces the time and expense of drying.
 Drying
 Blood can be dried in the sun on concrete floors.
 Many methods of mechanical driers can be also employed.
 Up to this process it should be done quickly to avoid nutrient or quality loss. Drying is done in two methods
 Sun drying
 In hot and dry climate, pressed blood mass can be dried by spreading in shallow trays.
 Cabinet drying
 In pilot plant, a cabinet drier with steam coils at the bottom and exhaust fan at the top can accommodate
many trays at a time and remove the moisture efficiently.
 Cooling
 Sun dried blood can be milled immediately. But blood dried by other methods should be allowed to cool.
 Milling
 For preparing stock feed, the blood is milled. Any hammer mill can be used.
 If preservation is done, 3% salt is to be added. Rapid chilling is required.
 Fumigation
 Blood meal can be disinfected with methyl bromide, ethylene oxide, etc., for long-term storage.
 Packaging
 Blood meal is packed in polyethylene bags or airtight containers.
 It is advised to avoid undue exposure to high temperature and moisture during storage.
 Lime treated blood meal has a storage life of several months

LARGE SCALE PROCESSING

 Blood can be spray dried or batch dried.


 Wet blood should be dried daily.
 Well-dried blood can be milled whenever convenient.
 Spray drying
 This is similar to (that of) milk powder manufacture and yields a very fine water-soluble powder of light colour.
 The defibrinated blood is blown through a fine nozzle into a heated chamber and falls down in the form of powder.
 Installation is very costly and this is designed for larger production.
 Batch drying
 This is a blood drier, which is a matter similar to that of dry rendering of meat offal, but with a very smooth inner
shell.
 In this method, overcooking leads to over agitation and loss of fine particles in the wastewater whereas, under
cooking has the same effect, as some uncoagulated blood will be lost.
 Blood after coagulation, should have moisture content of slightly over 70%.

DIFFERENT METHODS OF PROCESSING

Where equipment is available, blood can be processed in several ways, as follows:

 Dried without previous treatment


 Here blood is dried under steam pressure and by constant agitation. A blood drier is a standard horizontal dry -
rendering matter.
 With other offal
 Blood can be wet or dry–rendered together with inedible or condemned matter and used for enriching the
protein content of the whole material.
 Dried after coagulation and pressing
 The coagulated blood may be transferred either to draining tanks, with a perforated bottom, which allows the
liquid to drain off by gravity, or it can be put into a press with a top fitted with handles for screwing down.
 The coagulated blood, which now contains only some 40% moisture, is fed in to a dry-rendering matter, either
alone or mixed with other offal.
 Speed
 Wet blood rapidly deteriorates and hence daily processing is essential.
 The thoroughly dried blood can be milled whenever abattoir supplies have been accumulated.
 Test
 Moisture and ammonia content are the two factors determining the quality of blood meal.
 Keeping quality is good only when the moisture is approximately 10 to 12%.
 The protein content of blood meal should be 75 to 85%.
 Low protein content indicates the presence of extraneous matter.
 It has a characteristic iron odou
PLASMA AND SERUM

 Blood consists of plasma in which erythrocytes, leucocytes and thrombocytes (platelets) are suspended.
 Plasma, in turn consists of serum and fibrinogen.
 Action of thrombin on fibrinogen separates out fibrin.
 Serum is rich in albumin and globulin.
 Thus, plasma is recovered from unclotted blood by centrifugation, whereas serum is obtained from clotted blood.
 It may be noted that normal blood clotting time of most domestic animals is 3 to 6 minutes.
 Only from those abattoirs where slaughter is carried out on bleeding rails blood can be collected for human use.
 Trocar knife (with hollow handle) and canula are used for hygienic recovery of blood, which is collected in clean and
sterile stainless containers.
 An ideal vessel should have a diameter of 45 cm and a depth of 15 cm.
 It can be washed with hypochlorite or steam sterilized.
 To prepare plasma
 blood collection is done quickly in an anticoagulant (trisodium citrate 4%, 1 ml for each 10 ml of blood,
otherwise oxalate, EDTA or heparin is used).
 Blood is then centrifuged, which will separate plasma from cell mass.
 Plasma is stored in bottles or polyethylene bags in frozen conditions.
 To prepare serum
 blood is collected carefully and allowed to clot and subjected to further processing in a cold room.
 Chilled clotted blood is cut into smaller lumps to bring about quick contraction of clots.
 Serum collected in first 12 hours is generally clear except for some suspended RBCs.
 It is centrifuged in a bucket centrifuge at 100 rpm and filtered through Seitz filter.
 The yield of serum is about 10-12% of the weight of whole blood.
 It keeps well at 4-5oC for one month and at –20oC for six months.
 Dried blood serum is referred as blood albumen and is used as the cheapest substitute for dried egg albumen
powder in the industry.
 To prepare it, to clear yellow serum is added 0.05% phenol on weight basis.
 It is sprayed or vacuum dried to soluble fine powder.
 The yield of albumen is 10-20% of the weight of the serum.
 It is stable in airtight containers in cool places for several months

FIBRIN AND ITS PRODUC

Fibrinogen

 Blood collected with anticoagulant is centrifuged to obtain plasma.


 This plasma is buffered with sodium citrate acetic acid buffer with simultaneous addition of aqueous ethanol until pH of
the solution becomes 7.2 and ethanol concentrates reaches 8%.
 Now fibrinogen is precipitated and removed by centrifugation.
 It is filtered, sterilized, freeze-dried and stored.
Fibrin foam

 Plasma is suitably treated with citrate buffer of pH 6.


 The solution is clarified by centrifugation and diluted to contain less than 2% fibrinogen and pH is adjusted to 6.25.
 The solution is vigorously beaten to obtain fibrinogen foam.
 This is converted to fibrin by the addition of thrombin.
 The fibrin foam is frozen, cut into cubes and then freeze-dried.
 Fibrin foam is white to cream coloured spongy material.
 It can soak up liquid upto 30 times its weight and is very useful in nerve as well as arterial surgery and prostate
operations.
 It does not inhibit the action of antibiotics and eventually digested in the body system.
Fibrin powder

 It is used to arrest bleeding where coagulation is delayed in skin injuries.


Fibrin bioplasts

 These are moulded materials resembling plastic, which are prepared from fibrin powder.
 They can be moulded even as bone joints and need not be removed from the body

FOAM COMPOUNDS

 From blood protein foam compounds are derived which are the cheapest foam type fire extinguishers.
 These are quite effective in dealing with fire involving petrol, fat, naphtha, etc., although generally unsuitable for spirit or
alcohol related fire
ORGANIC FERTILIZER

 Split and soiled blood is collected in drums and transported in closed vehicles in 4-6 hrs for processing as fertilizers.
 This blood is preserved by treating with 2% formalin or 2% Lysol solution and dried in sun.
 Dried blood contains about 12% nitrogen with traces of phosphorus, iron and copper.
 It is generally used as compound fertilizer after supplementing with super-phosphates.
 Thus, animal blood can be subjected to multiple uses and the list is so varied.

BONES

Yield

 Bone account for an average of 15% of the weight of a dressed carcass.


 This amount varies with breed, age, state of nutrition, etc.
 It may be as low as 12% in beasts of top condition, and as high as 30% in emaciated cattle.
 The bones of sheep and goats average from 20 to 30% and of pigs from 12 to 30%.
Composition

 Bones contain 50% water, 15% red and yellow marrow, 12% organic matter and 23% inorganic matter.
 Bone marrow (red and yellow) consists 96% fat.
 The defatted and dried bone contained organic matter and inorganic salts material in a ration of 1: 2.
 Bone collagen is called ossein, which is the main constituent of the organic matter and accounts to approximately 33 to
36% when boiled.
 This organic matter yields gelatine.
 The inorganic matter consists of approximately 32.6% calcium, 15.2% phosphorus, small amount of sodium, potassium,
magnesium, traces of copper, cobalt, zinc, iron, manganese, sulphur, etc.
Uses of bones

 In the past, bones have had many uses, for example, in the manufacture of dice, buttons and knife handles.
 Today plastic has replaced bones for these purposes and; this use for bone will not be described here.
 Because of the complex nature of bones, different processes have been designed to recover different components like fat,
protein and inorganic material.
 Owing to its high calcium and phosphorus content, bone meal is used as a constituent of poultry feeds and as a fertilizer.
 Calcined bone, obtained by roasting in air, is used in the manufacture of high-class pottery and china, in the refining of
silver and in copper smeltin

VARIOUS METHODS OF TREATING BONES

 The various methods of treating bones while recovering the fat can be summarized as follows:
 Processing under pressure
 In this method the bones with all adhering meat and tendons together with other offals are processed
under pressure to obtain bone and other meat meal.
 Boiling bones in open kettle
 In this method all adhering material is freed by dissolving a small part of the ossein.
 The bones are then lifted from the boiling liquid and milled to produce raw bone meal.
 Boiling bones under pressure
 In this method the ossein gets free and this protein is used in meat meal production and milling
the bones for steamed bone meal.
 Conserving the ossein for gelatine manufacture
 By subjecting the bones to prolonged cooking in open vats avoid boiling by not exceeding 87.8°C
(190°F).
 This results in the loss of the fat while preserving the ossein.
 Such weathered bones may be used for the manufacture of gelatin, raw or steamed bone meal.
SOURCES OF BONES

 In the United State, Australia and Argentina, bones are left over as a by-product of large establishments producing
boneless meat and sausages or in canning factories.
 Fresh bones from whole carcasses are rarely available in developing countries.
 The skull and feet are the bones, which usually considered, as abattoir offal.
 In poor countries, even these are sold as food.
 In such abattoirs negligible amounts of bone are recovered from the whole carcass.
 Sometimes only the jawbone is recovered from a whole carcass.
 The main source of bones is those remaining after they have been boiled for soups or from animals, which have died in
the field.
BY-PRODUCTS OF BONES

 Bones contain 33 to 36% of organic substance, bone collagen or ossein, which is the mother substance for gelatine and
glue.
 Gelatine
 Gelatine can be obtained by boiling ossein or by boiling degraded bones in water acidified with Hydrochloric
acid, which separates the gelatinous substances.
 It is a derived protein of albuminoidal class, which has both – edible and inedible (technical) uses.
 Edible gelatine is manufactured from fresh bones obtained from slaughtered and inspected animals under strict
hygienic conditions.
 Pure gelatine is an amorphous and transparent substance devoid of any colour, taste and smell.
 It is brittle when dry, softens on heating and then decomposes with burnt hair smell.
 It swells in cold water absorbing 5 to 10 times its weight and dissolves on warming upto 30oC.
 Glue
 Glue is the inferior gelatine and is obtained in the same manner as gelatine.
 It is low-grade gelatine with comparatively dark colour and has only inedible uses.
 Chemically there is no difference between gelatine and glue.
 Glue is used as an important adhesive in plywood, furniture, sand paper, gummed tape, etc.
 Ossein
 Ossein is obtained by breaking the bones in weak acids, which dissolves the mineral components leaving the
organic matter.
 Bones may by collected from
 Abattoirs where large quantities of bones are available.
 In the field where bones may be collected from eating houses, refuse dumps or from carcasses.
 Skull and jawbones are non-gelatine-yielding bones.
 Gelatine manufacturers grade the bones in five different groups as Grade I, II, III, IV and V.
 Only long bones are selected not the flat bones.
PREPARATION OF BONES FROM ABATTOIRS

 The aim in preparation of bones is


 To select only those bones which contain gelatine
 To deprive the bones of all the adhering fat, tendons, meat, sinews and blood.
 To dry the bones.
 During all the above operations, care should be taken that gelatine-yielding material is not lost through over heating.
SELECTION OF BONES

 This process involves selection of mainly six long bones-femur, tibia, metatarsus, humerus, radius and ulna, metacarpus,
etc.
 Cutting
 Only thighbones (tibia), buttock bones (femur), flat (meta-tarsus), and round (meta-carpus) skin bones, blade
(Radius and ulna) and cannon (humerus) bones should be used.
 The first is to saw of the knuckles and kneecaps with a power driven circular saw.
 The cutting is done through the line of the nerve hole, the aim being to expose the marrow to the direct action of
hot water.
 Heating
 A tank provided with perforated steam coils, which allows the injection of live steam, can be used.
 When steam is unavailable cooking can be done in open tank. The tank is filled with cold water and then
charged with bones.
 Then the water is heated gradually.
 The temperature should not exceed 87.8°C (190°F) for about 6 hours, which is sufficient to melt the fat and
loosen all the adhering meat.
 The bones should not be boiled nor did the bones put into boiling water.
 Cooking
 Cooking may be taken for about 10 hours.
 After cooking the tank is allowed to cool.
 The fat will rise to the top and can be skimmed off.
 The bones are washed and then dried.
 Then the dried bones are crushed.
 These crushed bones are dispatched for preparation of gelatine.
 Gelatine is extracted under carefully controlled pressure.
 A strong solution is run off from the digester.
 Washing
 After removal of fat, the bones are washed with warm water.
 Drying
 These bones are dried in sun on wire netting.
 In wet weather, drying is done in hot room.
 Crushing
 The bones are crushed by a simple stone crusher to a size ranging from 1-2 cm cubes.
 Crushed bone pieces, which pass through 0.2 cm mesh, are considered bone mea
MANUFACTURE OF GELATINE AND GLUE

 Principle
 Gelatine is produced by the action of hot or boiling water on collagen or ossein by the process of hydrolysis
 Procedure
 Washing
 Defatted and uniformly crushed bones to a size of 1-2 cm are washed with water.
 Similarly, the glue stock is washed and soaked with water.
 It is decreased by prolonged exposure to sun or brined or limed (saturated Ca(OH)2 solution, 10% by
weight) for several weeks to remove the non\collagenous material and fat.
 Demineralization
 Then it is washed and is demineralized by soaking in 4-10% HCl for 1-2 days.
 It is washed with water to yield a clean, soft stock or ossein.
 Extraction or cooking
 60°C (140°F) highest quality glue
 It is done by controlled hydrolysis to recover different grades of gelatine.
 Extraction is done in steam-jacketed pans and it takes place in several runs of 3-5 hours at successively
higher temperatures.
 No direct flame is used.
 The heat treatment yields glue as follows
 At At 65.5°C (150°F) medium quality glue
 At 80°C (176°F) low quality glue
 At boiling point the quality is the lowest.
 Residue is pressed and dried for use as livestock feed or fertilizer.
 Filtration
 The liquor or soup is drawn off from each cooking by pressure filtered to increase clarity.
 Concentration
 The liquid extracts are vacuum evaporated to yield gelatine of 30-40% concentration.
 Drying
 The concentrated gelatine is spread on a thin sheet of a large drum, which is heated by steam (spray
drying).
 Then the gelatine cut and removed in few minutes with the help of a knife
GENERAL INFORMATION AND USES OF GELATINE

 It is difficult to make gelatine or even glue of good quality under rural conditions and therefore rural abattoirs are advised
to collect the glue stock and sell the stock to glue or gelatine manufacturers.
 So the fresh glue stocks have to be preserved before delivery.
 These can be dried in air or wet or dry salted.
 The gelatine may be sold in sheets, broken to flakes or powdered as per the requirement of the user industry
 The rejected hides and skins, hide trimmings such as marks, snouts, ears, shanks, skin from (slunk) unborn animals,
tendons, sinews, horn pith, casings and loose connective tissues are materials which can be used to produce glue or
gelatine.
 These are known as glue stock.
 Zinc sulphate is used as preservative to extend its keeping quality.
Uses of gelatine

 Gelatine is used in food industry for making brown pies, ice cream, jellies and soft chocolates making as foaming agent.
 As capsules in medicine
 As binder in tablets
 As plasma extender in blood transfusion
 As a sizing agent in textile and leather industry
 In photography
 As culture medium for bacteria
 Used in the manufacture of smokeless gunpowder.
 Now Gelatine is also manufactured from pig’s skin in Germany.
 100 parts of beef bones yields 6 parts of gelatine.
 100 parts of veal bones yields 50 parts of gelatine.
BONE MEAL

 Bone pieces of les than 2 mm size constitute bone meal.


 Sterilized bone meal a good source of phosphate supplement in livestock feed.
 Animals deprived of adequate phosphorus in feed and fodders suffer from osteophagia, osteoporosis, rickets, etc.
 Collection of desert bones and their conversion to bone meal is an economically viable proposition.
 It is also important from sanitary point of view.
 It can provide employment to very poor and illiterate people with meager means at their disposal.
 It will invariably bring about improvement in the livestock.
 It should be noted that sterilization of such bones is a must.
 The yield of bone meal is one third of that of raw bones (1:3).
 Quality of bone meal is determined by the presence of phosphorus and calcium that should ideally be present in the ratio of
1:2.
 The average composition of bone meal is
 Calcium : 30.5%
 Phosphorus : 15.5%
 Protein : 7.0%
 Fat : 1.0%
 The bones are cooked under pressure to remove the remaining blood, fat, meat and dirt.
 Then the bones are drained.
 The bones will be dry little and sterile.
 The bones are then milled in a disintegrator.
Uses of bone meal

 Used as mineral supplement in stock feeding or as phosphate fertilizer.


INTESTINES - CASINGS

 Intestines of food animals have many uses.


 When used as food containers, these are known as Casings.
 Casings serve the purpose of providing a container or the sausage material during the subsequent cooking and smoking procedures.
 India has been exporting salted sheep casings to many developed countries like Japan, Germany, Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Denmark,
etc., after due inspection from Directorate of Marketing and Inspection under the Animal Casings and Marketing Rules, 1964.
 This is due to the fact that many countries are not able to meet their demand for casings of small caliber.
 Dried cattle casings are exported mainly to Gulf countries.
 During 200-2001, India exported 574 tonnes of animal casings fetching Rs. 12.30 crores.
 Casings can be classified as one of the general types.
 Natural
 Artificial and
 Reconstituted collagen.
NATURAL CASINGS

 Prior to the development of manufactured casings, only natural casings were available to meat processors.
 They are derived almost exclusively from the gastro-intestinal tracts of swine, cattle, sheep and goats.
 The bladder is also used for products such as mortadella.
 It is of historical interest that skins from the neck of chicken are of the first casings used for sausage.
 The small intestine, stomach, bladder, caecum and oesophagus are cleaned off their contents, mucous linings and external fat, after
which they are preserved using dry salt.
 The casings are prepared from the sub mucous layer of the small intestines of cattle, sheep, pigs or horses.
 The other three coats of intestines are removed.
 Casings are grouped and sorted on the basis of length, diameter and quality (holes, workmanship, and strength).
 Natural casings have the advantages of being edible, allowing greater smoke penetrations and conforming to the size of the sausage
during cooking and drying.
 Some processed meat products have unique or characteristic shapes because of the casings in which they are placed
EXAMPLES OF NATURAL CASINGS

Natural casings Sausages

Small intestine of cattle Knackwurst

Small intestine of cattle Ring Bologna

Small intestine of cattle Mettwurst

Large intestine of cattle Beef salami

Bung from cattle Bung bologna

Bladder from cattle Beef salami

Small intestine from swine Smoked pork sausage

Stomach from swine Pork headcheese

Caecum from swine Italian pork sausage

Bladder from swine Minced pork luncheon meat

COMMERCIAL TERMS

Rounds Animal casings derived from the small intestines of cattle, calves, sheep, goats and hogs.

Middles Animal casings derived from large intestines of cattle and pigs.

Middle Cap or Cap A casing prepared from the caecum of blind gut of the hog.

Bungs Made from the caecum (beef bung and hog bung) containing approximately 5 to 6 feet (3
to 6 ft) of intestine starting from the anus called the “Crown”.

Bladders Casings prepared from the urinary bladders of pigs and cattle

Weasands Made from the mucosa of oesophagus of cattle.


Pig Stomachs Casings prepared from stomach of pigs.

Runners Casings prepared from small intestines of Cattle.

Small casings Prepared from the small intestines of the hogs

Chitterlings or Casings prepared from a part of large intestines of hogs.


Black Guts

Sheep Casings Prepared from small intestines of sheep.

Goat Casings Prepared from the small intestines of goats.

Stomach Casings prepared from the cleaned and sealed hog stomach; also called as “maws”.

INTESTINAL STRUCTURE

 There are five distinct layers of tissues, viz. the mucosa, the submucosa, the circular muscular layer, the longitudinal muscular layer and
the serosa, from the inside to the outside in order of appearance.
 The mucosa surrounds the intestinal lumen.
 It consists of the mucosal membrane, composed of epithelial cells, many of which are specialized into glands that
perform various functions, including digestion, secretion and absorption.
 Lymphatic tissues are also present near the basal portion of the mucosa in the form of nodules and there are a number
of blood vessels and nerve plexuses.
 The next layer, the submucosa consists mainly of collagenous and elastic fibres.
 This collagen-rich submucosa forms the main source for natural casings.
 The circular muscle layer contains smooth muscle cells, which are arranged with their longer axis around the digestive tube.
 In hog this layer is thicker than the longitudinal layer.
 The longitudinal muscle layer has its cells oriented at right angles to those of the circular layer and has a relatively high content of
collagen.
 In living animals these two layers function in the peristaltic movement of the intestine.
 The fifth layer is the serosa, which is relatively thin as compared to the other four layers.
 It is composed of collagen and elastic fibres with some connective tissue cells.
 In hog intestine this layer is thinner than in cattle and much less tightly bound to the other layers.
PREPARATION OF CASINGS

 The preparation of casings derived from different species of animals is basically similar.
 The main difference is pig; sheep and goat casings being very fragile require more careful treatment than that of beef’s casings.
 Because of this removal of fat from the casings of the small animals must be performed by hand, helped with a scrapping sticks while
patting of beef casings require harsh treatment.
 A beef casing has to be turned inside out, whereas sheep and goat casings are sold unturned.
 Pig casings, if possible, should be turned after defattening.
CASING RECOVERY

 The removal of entrails should be done in such a way that the whole intestinal tract comes out without being damaged by cuts or
unnecessary contamination.
 The separation and division in to different parts should take place on a table with a supply of running water.
 The casing should be detached and the ligature made so that the contents do not run out.
 As soon as the different parts are separated they undergo further treatment.
 When the quantity is large, it is essential to have different casings treated separately.
 For example, the bladder and weasand that are to be dried should not be mixed with those, which are to be salted.
 Sheep and goat casings are generally stored wet and salted whereas cattle casings are generally dried in processing and sprinkled with
insecticide to safeguard during storage period.
APPROXIMATE LENGTH OF CASING FROM ANIMALS

Casings are measured in hanks

 1 hank = salted sheep and goat casings of 92 metres in length


 1 hank = dried cattle casings of 180 meters in case of runners or 90 meters in case of middles.

Species Type Length

In meters In feet

Cattle Runner 25-40 90-135

Middle 5.5-7.5 20-25

Bung 1-1.5 4-4.5

Weasand 5.5 18-20

Bladder 20-35 cm wide 8-15 inches wide

Sheep Round 27 90

Goat Round 22 75

BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR GUT PROCESSING

 Casings should be manufactured from gut of healthy animals, which have been properly slaughtered, inspected and passed.
 Intestines for processing should not have ulcers and heavy parasitic infestations with nodules.
 Sanitary handling conditions should be maintained from slaughter to final packing.
 The product should be clean with good colour and without objectionable odour. It should have proper length and be sufficiently
cured. The casings be graded as per the Indian Standards IS: 1981 (1962).
SMALL PROCESSING UNITS

Equipment

 Scrappers made up of wooden or plastic knives Gut cleaning table with a central drainpipe.
 Two stainless vessels one for fermentation and the other with chilled water to collect cleaned intestines.
 Table for grading and salting.
 Storage containers.
LARGE PROCESSING UNITS

Equipment

For salted sheep/goat casings

 Casings stripper with rubber rollers


 Casings crusher with rollers of bronze.
 Casings finisher with smooth and fine rollers
 Casings flushing table with tap
 Inspection and grading table.
For dried cattle casings

 Cattle casings stripper and fatters. Casings turning tank.


 Cattle casings crusher and slimmer.
 Cattle casings cleaner.
 Equipment for inflation and drying.
THE STEPS IN PREPARATION OF CASINGS

 The essential steps in prepartion of casings are associated with the removal of the intestinal tract at the slaughtering plant are pulling,
running, chilling, stripping, fat removal, fermenting, turning sliming, measuring and inspection.
 Removal
 The intestinal tract should be removed carefully to avoid damage due to cuts.
 A ligature is made to check the escape of contents.
 Pulling
 Pulling is a term applied to the process of separating the mesentery and fat from the sheep and goats or pigs intestinal tract and
dividing into parts, which require different treatment.
 It is done by hand without using any instruments as intestines from these animals being very thin and fragile or easily removed.
 Running
 Running is the same process (of pulling) but, performed with a knife, which cuts the intestines from the mesenteries and fat.
 The operator holds the knife vertically in his right hand pulls the intestines with his left hand so that, the sharp edges of the knife
cuts off the fat and mesentery from the intestines itself.
 Running is done only on cattle intestine, which are much thicker and stronger.
 Chilling
 Whenever it is impossible to process casings at once the intestine should be chilled (10oC) to as low temperature as possible to
reduce changes due to bacterial fermentation process.
 There are certain merits by chilling.
 Chilling is essential were casings are not manufactured at the abattoir but are purchased as green intestines and removed
elsewhere for processing.
 Chilling is desirable as a routine after casings are finished and ready for inspection, grading, salting and curing so that, all
bacterial or fermentation process are arrested and any excess of made visible and Chilling greatly facilitates further handling.
 Stripping
 The intestinal contents are stripped from the intestines either by hand or by machine under a spray of water, which washes away
the contents as they are expressed.
 The water spray also serves to clean the casing.
 Flushing
 Flushing is done by forcing tap water is through the gut in order to remove the remaining intestinal contents.
 All the operations up to this stage can be undertaken in the slaughterhouse itself.
 Fat removal or fatting
 There are varying amounts of fat associated with the mesentery and its attachment to the gut depending upon the nutritional
status as well as the species of the animals.
 Removal of the fat is usually by a manual knife operation and it is also termed running.
 The fat must be removed as completely as possible because fatty residues left on the casing will become rancid after a time and
render them unfit for human use.
 Greatest care should be taken that the casings should not be damaged during this operation.
 Sheep and hog small intestines, which are called as runners, are generally removed from the fat by hand pulling as opposed to
using a knife.
 Fermenting
 In this process, the intestines are immersed in warm water, where enzymatic and bacterial action will loosen the different layers
so that the undesirable parts can be removed easily.
 This is done only with sheep, goat or pig intestines, which have a very thin muscular layer, which cannot otherwise be removed
by knife.
 Cattle intestine having stronger muscular layer can be cleaned without fermenting.
 Fermentation time depends on weather; sheep, goat and hog casings are ready after one or two days.
 The ideal temperature for fermentation is 21°C (70°F).
 Temperature much higher than this may lead to “blown casings” due to over fermentation, which is easily toned and have
objectionable odour where temperatures are below 21°C (70°F), the water should be warmed.
 Soda has been claimed to accelerate fermentation in these conditions.
 Turning
 It means turning the casings inside out, generally applied to beef casings only.
 Sheep goat, and pig casings being thin can be cleaned adequately during the process of stripping and sliming, without turning.
 While beef casings and hog bung having a hard muscular tissue must first be turned before efficient sliming can take place.
 Turning is done in a tank of warm water.
 Sliming
 Sliming is the removal of the mucosa and the technique used depends on the size and origin of the casing.
 Small hog and sheep runners are first crushed between rollers and then are passed between successive rollers or strippers, which
remove not only the mucosa, but also the smooth muscle layers and the serosa associated with the mucosa, leaving only the
submucosa.
 A sliming stick or plastic knife or shell or wooden knife can also do the process of sliming.
 The knife is placed at an angle of about 30o with mild scrapping movements.
 If the casings are dipped in a sliming solution consisting of 0.2% sodium pyrophosphate and 1% sodium chloride for 10-15
minutes the process becomes easier.
 The final cleaned casings are white and nearly transparent.
 Measuring
 The width is measured by letting the inflated (cattle) or water filled (sheep and goat) casings rest against the walls of a
calibrated casing gauge, which is divided into compartments of different widths.
 The length is measured in hank.
 Inspection and grading
 Casings are inspected for cleanliness, odor, colour, parasites, blood spots, ulcers, holes, scores and generally speaking or any
defects which would either prevent the casing from being used as an imperforated container or make it objectionable to the
consumer.
 Then the casings are graded in their respective calibrations.
 Salting and curing (Preservation)
 After inspection and measuring, casings are ready for salting and curing.
 Clean fresh salt of medium fineness should be used for this operation, which is carried out by merely embedding the coiled
casings in salt where they are turned several times and then rubbed evenly by hand.
 Rock salt or coarse, crystalline salt should never be used in salting, as it would damage the whole of the casing, even to such an
extent as to perforate it in many places.
 During the process of curing, the casings will loose moisture, thus absorbing salt and improving in keeping quality.
 During the initial stages of curing, substantial amount of brine is formed.
 For this reason, curing is done in curing bins, which has a slatted bottom for easy drainage.
 Packing
 Containers such as barrels or boxes preferably of hard wood should be used with recommended insecticide for dried cattle
casings.
 They should be leak-proof, so that brine, which may have accumulated, is kept inside the container.
 For wet salted sheep casings metal tins, which are completely lined from inside with food grade polyethylene are used for
storage and transport.
 Resalting
 Properly prepared casings, well packed and kept under refrigerated conditions will not deteriorate quickly.
 However, casings stored under tropical conditions or in transit from small producers to the main exporters, often undergo
deteriorative changes.
 Sometimes, they become too dry, but often too much of moisture is absorbed and they start to decompose.
 To prevent deterioration, such consignments must be treated periodically.
 If they are too dry, sprinkling with a little brine is often sufficient.
 It is preferable, however, to take out the casings, check each bundle and soak them for a brief period in strong brine, then hang
to drain, re-salt and replace in the barrel.
DEFECTS IN CASINGS

 Dull colour: (grayish or greenish instead of white or milky) due to defective cleaning .
 Nodules: due to oesophagostomum (a round worm) in the intestines of sheep, goat and pigs
 Holes and lacerations: caused by negligence or rough handling of guts during processing.
 Salt burns: due to long storage of guts in the salt or packed loosely leaving the air inside. Such patches may also develop due to
defective salt, which has calcium and magnesium ions.
 Defective grading
 Cicatrices: caused by scars of healed up intestinal wounds
 Domestics: small grease spots in casings
 Kink: twisted loop in the casings
 Rust: black spot caused by putrefaction due to bacterial or fungal action

GRADING OF ANIMAL CASINGS

 According to the Bureau of Indian Standards IS: 1981-1962, adopted by Agmark also, as Animal Casings Grading and Marking Rules.
1964, there are three grades for sheep and goat casings while there are four grades for dried cattle and buffalo casings.
Salted sheep and goat casings

 The calibration ranging from 12 to 26 mm in steps of 2mm e.g. 12 to 14 or 14 to 16 mm is indicated.


Dried cattle and buffalo casings (Runners and Middles)

 The calibrations in flat measurement ranging from 35 mm to 60 mm in steps of 2 or 5 mm are indicated.

PRIME QUALITY (PQ)

Grade I

 The casings shall


 Be of natural colour throughout without any discoloration
 Be free from defects like holes, blisters, laceration, nodules and cicatrices
 Be intact and not torn or lacerated
 Be free from salt burns, rust, domestics, black nodes, slime, mucous, dung or mould infestations.
 Not burst when filled with air or water to its normal capacity and slightly pressed.
 Be of uniform natural colour, lustrous throughout without any spot or mark and be free of discoloration
 Be intact, free from any tear or laceration
 Be perfectly rolled.
 Be free from black nodes, lacerations or cicatrices.
 The rings or hanks shall have been cured properly with common salt.
 As per the Grade PQ except that a slight variation in colour and folds and a few black nodes may be permitted.
Grade II

 As per the Grade PQ except that a slight deviation shall be allowed in respect of colour and / or strength and wall. The material should be
fit for use in the preparation of sausages.
Grade III

 As per the Grade II, except that nodules will be permitted.


 (For exports only, an additional grade X exists under Agmark for agreed requirements between the purchaser and exporter).

FIBRIN AND ITS PRODUCTS

 Four classes of manufactured casing are available, namely:


 Cellulose
 Inedible collagen
 Edible collagens and
 Plastic.
 Artificial casings include:
 Plio form casings (synthetic rubber)
 Saran casings (synthetic resins)
 Hydrocellulose casings (regenerated cellulose derived from wood pulp).
 Collagen casings

CELLULOSE CASINGS

 Cellulose casings are usually classified into three types:


 Small cellulose,
 large cellulose and
 Fibrous (paper impregnated with cellulose).
 Cellulose casings are prepared from a special grade of cotton lintels, which are solubilized, and regenerated into casings of any desired
like.
 A clear cellulose casing is commonly used for sausage, which is not coloured or which is to be coloured by adding dyes to the water in
the cooker.
 Coloured cellulose casings, which impart the colour to the surface of the frankfurters, are also available and used rather extensively
where external colour is designed.
 Plain cellulose casings are available in a variety of sizes with stretch and shrink characteristics (similar to those of natural casings)
used for bologna and small sausages
FIBROUS CASINGS

 Fibrous casings are those, which are re-inforced with cellulose fibres, which give additional strength for stuffing out large sausages,
low items and liver sausages.
 Fibrous casings are used to make either a round of a square product.
 All cellulose casings with the exception of those for frankfurters and their walled casings used for pork sausage are soaked
in water for 30 minutes or longer before stuffing to provide proper stretch characteristics and for easy stuffing
NATURAL vs CELLULOSE CASINGS

 In comparing with the natural casings, cellulose casings are more uniform in size and can be extended in any desired sizes.
 They are less subject to breakage and generally free of bacterial contamination than are natural casings.
 Although cellulose casings must be placed before consumption of product the overall cost of using this is less than that of natural
casings.
 While being non-edible, cellulose casings can be manufactured into a variety of sizes and shapes as well as being easy to handle,
resistant to breakage and permeable to smoke when moistened.

RECONSITUTED COLLAGEN CASINGS

 A recent development is the production of (edible and inedible) re-generated collagen casings.
 This has some of the desirable features of the both natural and cellulose casings and is quite often used for making dry sausage,
where advantages are taken for their permeability and shrink characteristics, which are similar to those of natural casings.
 They substitute natural casings because of the uniformity both in size and wall thickness.
 Their primary shortcoming is fragility and poor abuse resistance.
 Another recent development is the edible synthetic casings (plastic tubes or bags), which is widely used for pork sausages.
 It is produced from alginates.
 Product, which receives no smoke during processing, may be stuffed into an impermeable film of casings known as “Saran”

MEAT, OFFAL AND ORGANS

 Abattoir offal and organs can be utilized as stock feed simply by boiling, which renders them safe to feed to livestock.
 This has to be done in the following way.
 All inedible offal, including the condemned parts, is put into a kettle or into oil or petrol drums, which have been split along
their longitudinal axis.
 If the intestinal tract is used, it must first be thoroughly cleaned and washed.
 Water, to one and a half time to the weight of the offal, is to be added.
 The contents are boiled for one hour.
 All the meats from the bones scraped.
 Bran, pollards or a similar product is added, equal in weight to the mass, and rigorously stained in.
 The mixer after cooking for further half an hour should be of a thick porridge consistency, and equivalent to 10% of meat
meal.
 The disadvantages of processing of above method are:
 The fat cannot be recovered and used separately.
 The foodstuff obtained has poor keeping quality and must be used on the day of production or the following day.
 If a pressure cooker is available, it can be used to digest the offal.
 Bones present in the offal will yield up the gelatin but the bones must be removed after treatment.
 The utilization of offal and/or condemned material is somewhat limited and inefficient unless livestock are available at the site.
 So, a small abattoir might consider keeping pigs to utilize their processed offal.

SMALL - SCALE MEAT MEAL MANUFACTURE

 It is rarely possible to make immediate use of boiled offal or condemned material.


 The direct conversion of raw, uncooked material into meat meal by sun drying often attempted in very dry countries, is inadvisable
because of the risk of spreading disease.
 Such raw meat meal, is virtually impossible to mill since, the dried material contains a substantial amount of fat, which will cause
rancidity.
 Hence, the small, home production of meat meal may be, (it must) comply with three general principles viz.
 Sterilizing and making the product safe for use as stock feed.
 Reducing the moisture to a minimum creates a condition unfavourable for bacterial growth and therefore, prevents decomposition and
economizing on transport.
 Recovering the fat from the sterilized and dried meal, this would otherwise cause rancidity.
 The above-mentioned requirements can be met by simple methods using simple equipments.
 If carefully prepared, the final products should have a low fat and moisture content a high protein percentage good keeping qualities
and a pleasant odour.
 The steps in production are
 Boiling
 Draining
 Pressing
 Drying and
 Milling
BOILING AND DRAINING

Boiling

 The purposes of boiling are


 Sterilization of the material, making it safe for use as stock feed.
 Partial removal of the moisture which is squeezed but during shrinkage and
 Separation of fat
 Fat is removed for two main reasons such as
 Economic
 Sold for industrial purposes (for soap-making or tannery use) and fat realizes a higher price than stock feed.
 As stock feed, sold on a protein basis, payment is made for proteins only and not for fat or moisture (moisture
should not exceed 5 to 6%).
 Keeping quality
 Fat causes rancidity thus rendering the product unpalatable, unsound and therefore unsaleable.
 Boiling may be done in any kettle or oil or petrol drum on an open fire, as there is no danger of burning.
 Before boiling starts, the meat is cut or mixed prior to rendering.
 Wherever possible, the meat should be minced or at least chopped.
 Bones should be boiled together with the meat to recover the fat and loose tendons, cartilages or meat.
 First, water at the rate of twice the amount of material to be cooked is added and brought to boil and then the offal are to be added.
 The meat is quickly removed from water leaving fat and water in the drum. The fat is then drained off for refining.
Draining

 To remove further moisture, mass is drained the in a basket for 10 to 20 minutes


PRESSING, DRYING AND MILLING

Pressing

 The drained meat is put into conical pockets made from ordinary jute or sisal bags.
 After the bags are filled, they are tied with string at the top and put on a sloping wooden, stone or cement surface with the pointed end
downward, covered with a board and pressed down with a few heavy stones.
 After, about an hour, the water will have to be drained off and the mass can be crumbled easily and laid out for drying.
Drying

 Natural drying (sun drying) on mats, concrete platform or boards, can be relied on only if it can reduce the moisture before
putrefaction, discoloration, rancidity or contamination takes place.
 This is possible only under very dry and hot climatic conditions. So, artificial methods of drying have to be devised.
 For this, trays made of galvanized iron sheets with reinforced by a few flat mild iron strips are excellent.
 When sun is sufficiently strong the meat can be dried on these trays without fire.
 At other times, the tray is placed on 6” stones and fired from beneath.
 When fire is applied, it should be gently and gradually increased and the mass should be turned continuously and broken upto achieve
uniform drying.
Milling

 Although some manufacturers of stock feed will purchase unmilled meat meal, a better price and a standard product will be obtained by
milling it.
 Any hammer mill grinder with a screen will do.
 Where large quantities of meal are produced, a grinding and sacking unit is used.
MEAT FATS

 Fat from animals has been used for many purposes - both edible and inedible.
 They may be obtained from all food animals and poultry.
 Greater quantities are obtained from beef and pork and lesser quantities from sheep, goat and poultry.
 With the exception of hides and skins, fat is the most important by-product of the slaughterhouses.
 The term edible and inedible fat refers to human consumption.
 Inedible fats are widely used in the animal feeds.
 Edible fats from swine is called lard or rendered pork fat and from sheep and cattle are known as Edible Tallow.
USES OF FAT

 Edible uses
 For household cooking, frying and soon and commercially for preparation of pastry, cakes, breads and so on.
 In medicine, swine fats are used in Foot and mouth diseases along with plantains.
 Inedible uses
 For manufacture of soap, lubricants, and animals feed and so on.
 Animal fats are cheaper as compared to other edible oils.
 They are generally used as adulterants for ghee.
 Bakeries also use animal fats for the preparation of cakes, pastry, biscuits, etc.
 But vanaspathi is gradually replacing them.
 Animal fat which are not used for human consumption are rendered and utilized for industrial purposes such as soap, greases
and candle making, for stiffening leathers in the sports and in textile industries.
 Animal fats contains relatively simple mixture of component acids namely palmitic, stearic and oleic acids with minor amounts of
myristic and hexadecenoic acids and traces of other acids.
 Fats differ in their properties and are mainly conditioned by relative amounts of oleic and stearic acids present.
 Fats like carbohydrates contain the three elements, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which are mainly utilized in the production of body
energy or heat, but do not contribute directly to the building up to tissues.
 Although to some extent, they are deposited in various parts of the body tissues as a reservoir.
 Because of the larger proportion of carbon and hydrogen fats liberate more heat than carbohydrates, when digested furnishing
approximately 2.25 times as much heat or energy on oxidation as do the carbohydrates.
 As regards the relative rapidity of assimilation and breakdown with release of heat energy, unsaturated fats are more easily disposed of
than saturated compounds.
 Fats also supply fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, which are essential for health and vigour.
SOME LOCATION OF FATS

 Fats are obtained from the following localities


 Beef fats are obtained from the intestine and other internal organs.
 In pig carcasses fats are obtained from many regions, the best quality is obtained from peritoneal lining (leaf fat).
 The next best fats are obtained from the back fat, mesentery and omentum.
 A pig of 200 lbs. of live weight will yield about 14 lbs. of lard.
RENDERING OF FAT

 Animal fat occurs initially mixed with tissues or cellular structure making the raw fat, a sort of fatty membrane.
 Rendering refers to the extraction of fat from animal tissues by the action of heat, which causes the cells to burst and the
melted fat run.
 Raw fat should be removed as quickly as possible after slaughter, as delayed cause resolution of fat into the fatty acids and
glycerol (rancidity) in the presence of moisture and lipase especially with the aid of high temperature.
 In case, the fat is to be kept for a period extending a day, it may be chilled and preserved at a low temperature under dry
conditions.
 Normally, fat should not contain more than 1% of free fatty acids.
 Its higher content of free fatty acids indicates that there has been some delay in rendering the raw fat after the slaughter of
animals.
Procedure

 The raw fat is cut into small pieces to promote rapid and uniform rendering.
 The cut raw fat is spread on to the floor for about 2 to 3 hours or for a day to remove the moisture.
 Edible ox fats are rendered down to yield premier jus, which is separated into oleo oil and oleo stearin, but in wartime all edible ox fat
is converted into dripping.
 Fat which is unfit for use is suet, dripping or premier jus goes chiefly for soap manufacturing, though some of the very low grades are
used for the dressing of leather.
 Rendering is carried out in steam-jacketed containers (double jacketed vats).
 The tissues begin to burst as the temperature of raises and the fat contained in the tissues starts to melt.
 The whole mash has a milky appearance in the beginning but latter when about all the moisture has evaporated fat becomes clear.
 The tissues become brown in colour and settle down.
 At this stage, the heating is stopped and allowed to cool for sometimes.
 It is then sieved through to an iron sieve or strained through muslin cloth to separate the fat from the tissues and other impurities.
 The residual meat fibres left behind after all the fats have been extracted is called Cracklings or Greaves, which is used in poultry
feeds.
 The tissues, which are removed after straining, are pressed in a machine to extract the lard or fat.
 During the entire period of heating, the fat is stained to prevent charring of the tissues.
 Heating on an open fire reduces the value of the products due to over heating and discoloration.
 After processing, the liquid fat is rapidly cooled to get a product, which is smooth, white and uniform in appearance.
 Pig fat and mutton fat also can be rendered in the same manner, but generally raw mutton fat is sold along with meat and only rarely
rendered. If it is rendered it could also rendered along with beef and pork fat.
 Fat occurs in many regions of the pig carcass, the best quality fat being obtained from the peritoneal lining (leaf fat), the next best from
the back fat, mesentery and omentum.
 The surplus fat of pigs is worked up into various qualities of lard.
 A pig of 90 kg live weight yields about 6.3 kg of lard.
 Sheep fat is rendered in the same way as beef fat or lard and, though it is not conve rted into oleo oil or oleo stearin on account of its
strong flavour, it may be used as dripping when blended with other fats.
 Mutton fat is firmer and contains more stearin than ox or pig fat, and is used as preservative layer on the top of glass jars of meat paste.
 Subsequent processing of these fats produces commercial glycerine, a valuable commodity used in many commercial processes,
including medicinal preparations, nitroglycerine, gunpowder, cordite and dynamite.
 Fat is also obtained from bones.
 Fresh bones are processed under a steam pressure of 1.75 kg/sq. cm (25 lbs. per square inch) for one hour is sufficient to
render the fat which is allow to trickle off.
 Fat extraction is done earlier to the gelatin extraction
HORNS AND HOOFS

 Horns vary in size, shape colour and curvature according to the breed, age, sex, etc.
 The term horn in everyday language is commonly applied to both the horn pith, the inner part and the horn proper and these are used
for different purposes.
 Horn pith is also called horn core and similar to bone.
 It contains more ossein.
 As a result it is a very valuable raw material for gelatin production.
 Alternatively may be used for the production of bone meal.
 The Horn, on the other hand, has as its main component keratin.
 It is unpalatable and indigestible as stock feed; horns should not be used in the production of bone meal.
 After the animal is slaughtered, the horns are cut off with a saw or a cleaver at their base.
 The horn pith can be removed by steaming for a few moments or by immersing the horn in hot water at approximately 65.6°C (150°F).
 After this, a blow from a hammer will separate the pith from the horn.
 The horns are used for the manufacture of articles like buttons, knife handles, combs, snuffboxes, toys and fancy articles.
 The most valuable part is the pith (its tip) and therefore any horn showing the slightest damage to this part should be discarded.
 Hence, it is worthwhile, separating the good horns suitable for manufacture from those, which are only good for grinding into meal.
 Hoofs (shine bones) are used for similar purposes to horns and are removed from the feet in the same way that is by
steaming and immersing in warm water.
 The hoofs must be dried carefully without direct heat or sun.
Horn and hoof meal

 The horn and hoofs of cattle are steamed digested crushed and disintegrated for preparation of horn and hoof meal.
 This contains from 16 to 17% nitrogen and is specially used as manure in tea gardens, coffee plantations.
 The horn and hoof meal should not be mixed with cattle feed bone meal because it is partially indigestible to livestock and
unpalatable but may be mixed with bone meal, which is used as a fertilizer.
 Horns and hoofs of sheep and goats and hoofs from pigs are usually allowed to go waste.
 It can also be profitably processed wherever facilities for the production of bone meal exist, that is, either wet-or dry-rendering
machinery.
 Horns and hoofs from cattle, sheep, goats and pigs are digested in the renderer for 8 hours, dried and milled to a fine powder.
 This meal is not used as livestock feed supplement due to its unpalatablity and very poor digestibility.
 However, horn and hoof meal enriches the fertility of the soil because of its high nitrogen content.
 This fertilizer commands a price approximately 50 percent higher than bone meal

GLANDS
Glands are utilized for human consumption and for medical purposes

 Human consumption
 Most of the glands are eaten along with the meat. In the case of cattle and buffaloes ovaries and testes are thrown away and
other glands are consumed.
 In the case of small animals all the glands are consumed except the ovaries, which are thrown away.
 Liver is largely used for human consumption as it is highly nutritive and is beneficial to those who suffer from anemia and
poor vision which being rich in vitamin ‘A’ and ‘D’.
 Medicinal uses
 Glands produce active principles of hormones, which are beneficial in the treatment of anemia, diabetes and other ailments.
 They are also responsible for the development of male and female secondary sexual characters.
 Glandular extracts are very useful for the health of people as they make up the deficiency of hormones in the body.
 The utilization of animal glands for the manufacture of valuable pharmaceutical products is one of the most notable triumphs
of modern scientific research.
 Considerable attention has been paid in Western Countries to the question of proper collection and utilization of glands as
they form a good source of revenue to the slaughterhouses and meat packing industries.

SCOPE FOR UTILISATION OF GLANDS IN INDIA

In India proper collection and utilization of animal glands is neglected which is deplorable.

 The establishment of such a highly beneficial industry in this country should receive national importance.
 Considerable quantities of glandular products worth several lakhs of rupees are imported annually into India from the United States of
America, the United Kingdom and other foreign countries.
 Unprocessed glands were also imported from abroad for the preparation of glandular products in India, as the requisite facilities do not
exist in the abattoirs for collection and storage of glands.
 Utilization of glands is economically possible only in large cities such as Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Baroda, etc.,
where large numbers of animals are slaughtered.
 The economical used of glands such as pituitary and pancreas could be possible only if they become available in much larger
quantities than at present.
 The throughput is enough to warrant collection, whether there is a market for glands at a price, which allows for a reasonable margin
of profit then adequate equipment could be installed.
 It is believed that, income from the sale of glands will offset the cost of building costly installation in the abattoir or permit the
employment of extra slaughterer and staff perhaps, this was true at the beginning of the “gland era” but today many active principles of
the glands are produced synthetically.

COLLECTION OF GLANDS

 Glands should be collected from healthy animals.


 While removing the glands it is necessary to see that, the protective (serous) membrane is not cut since otherwise some of the active
principle will leak out and will be lost.
 Cutting the membrane also opens the way for the entrance of bacteria always present in the surroundings causing damage.
 The glands have to be removed within half -an–hour after slaughter, particularly in the case of smaller glands such as suprarenal,
parathyroid, pituitary.
 If they are not removed immediately, the hormones will deteriorate rapidly.
 Butchers, generally, do not remove the glands immediately but allow them to remain in the carcass for an hour or so till flaying and
other operations are over with the result that almost all active principles of the glands are destroyed by autolysis.
 Glands after removal should not be washed but may be rinsed quickly with cold water if absolutely necessary to remove blood and
visceral contents.
 After removal, the gland should be frozen without any delay.
 Conditions under which animals are slaughtered and flayed in India render the proper collection of glands difficult.
 Mainly abattoirs do not have facilities to freeze glands. It is therefore, suggested that, in order to enable industry to undertake
manufacture of glandular products, abattoirs should be modernized so that, valuable glands could be extracted and prepared under
proper conditions for sale to pharmaceutical firms.
 The pharmaceutical companies should be situated near the abattoir to reduce the fright.
 The conditions prevailing and the low number of animals slaughtered in municipal and rural abattoirs in India makes it impossible for
collection of glands
PRESERVATION OF GLANDS

 The first method of preservation applicable to all glands is freezing and the production of glands should therefore only be attempted
when it is possible to freeze them within an hour of collection and deliver them in a frozen condition to the pharmaceutical producers.
 Some glands like pancreas, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, etc., may be preserved by chemical means as for instance by immersing one lbs
of gland in 1 lb. of acetone.
 After 24 hours the glands must be removed and placed in fresh acetone.
 The used acetone is then purified and used again.
 In this process, the enzymes are inactivated and thus shelf-life is increased.
 Fatty material, which generally interferes with the extraction of most proteins, is also eliminated.
 The desired protein from the acetone can be directly extracted with usual solvents. The requirement of solvent is also minimized.
 Chemical methods of conserving glands should only be used after previous consultation with the manufacturers who will indicate how
to undertake the preservations.
 Percent phenol or percent formalin is sometimes used.

IMPORTANT GLANDS

 Pancreas
 Insulin (Pharmaceutical) and other enzymes, which are used by tanneries (industry), are obtained from pancreas.
 It is a mixed type of gland.
 It remains attached to liver and embedded in fat.
 Insulin is the main hormone, an antidiabetic, which is extracted from the b-cells of this gland with the help of acidified
methanol.
 One kg of fresh bovine or pig pancreas yields about 150 mg of crystalline insulin with an activity of 254 IU/mg of insulin.
 Other biochemicals extracted from pancreas are:
 Pancreatin – (Extract of pancreas)
 Trypsin
 Chymotrypsin
 Amylase
 Glucagon (a-cells)
 Pancreas also contains several enzymes, which are used in the tannery or cleaner industries.
 For this purpose, glands can be preserved for a week or so with some application of salt. These are packed in drums with a cover of
salt.

SUPRA RENAL, THYROID AND PITUITORY GLANDS

Supra renal or adrenal


 This gland is of two parts – outer cortex and inner medulla.
 Cortex of adrenal gland yields corticosteroids, which are used in the treatment of Edison’s disease, to overcome shock in surgery and
as a non-specific treatment.
 Medulla of adrenal glands yields adrenaline (epinephrine) nor-adrenaline hormones.
 Yield of adrenaline is 0.2% on fresh weight basis and 1% on dry weight basis. It is extracted in water or alcohol.
Thyroid gland
 These are two maroon coloured bodies situated on either side of trachea.
 Acetone dried powder of this gland is used to extract thyroxin hormone with the help of Barium hydroxide.
 Yield of the hormone is 0.08%.
Parathyroid gland
 These are located near thyroid gland.
 Parathromone is extracted from them.
 It is used in the prevention of tetany and increase to the rate of calcium excretion.
Pituitory gland
 It is a very small gland and has to be carefully collected.
 From the anterior lobe the following hormones can be prepared
 Growth hormone, FSH, LH, ACTH and MSH
 From the posterior lobe the following hormones can be extracted
 Oxytocin:
 This can be extracted in 2 % acetic acid.
 It initiates the uterine contraction and also milk-ejecting factor.
 Vasopressin
Anterior lobe and Posterior lobe
 Posterior lobe is an important vasoconstrictor and also an antidiuretic hormone

OVARIES,TESTES, STOMACH GLANDS AND GALL BLADDER

Ovaries

 These are collected only from mature animals i.e. those having corpus lutea.
 Ovaries are irregular, lobulated in appearance with large follicles projecting like small grapes.
 All ovaries with cysts are discarded.
 Sex hormones – estrogen and progesterone are extracted from ovaries.
Testes

 These are also collected from mature animals that have been passed in antemortem examination and postmortem inspection.
 Testosterone, a sex hormone is extracted from testes.
 Hyaluronidase enzyme is made from bull or rams testes.
 It is a very good spreading factor and used in several drugs to intensify their effect.
Stomach glands

 Rennin or rennet:
 This is an enzyme obtained from the lining of fourth stomach (abomasum) of milkfed and unweaned buffalo or cow calf.
 The abomasum is cut out, packed and frozen without any washing.
 Pepsin:
 This is an enzyme obtained from the mucosal lining of the hog stomach.
 Pink-red colour wrinkles and folds distinguish this part of hog stomach.
 The glands are situated between the folds.
 The hog stomach is cut and the glandular linings are pulled away from the stomach wall and frozen as quickly as possible.
 These can be preserved in 1% H2SO4 or the acetone-dried powder of the glands can be stored at room temperature but very
low temperature is required during its preparation.
 Peptone can be prepared from the remainder part of the hog stomach.
Gall bladder

 It is attached to liver and contains bile, a dark golden-greenish viscous fluid of bitter taste.
 Bile is slightly alkaline (pH 7.15) and has a specific gravity of 1.025.
 It can be used as detergent in slaughter in slaughterhouses by dissolving in warm water (1:5 v/v).
 Dried bile has medicinal use as a substitute in secretion deficiencies.
 One kg of bile can be obtained from the gall bladder of 6 buffaloes or 55 sheep/goats, stored frozen

BILE PRODUCTION

 Bile is treated as follows for further use

SOME EXTRACT FROM GLANDS

 Corpus luteum extract


 Liver extract
 Mammary gland extracts – source of substance, which stimulate the flow of milk and helps to control menstrual disorders.
 Brain extract
 Pancreatic extract
 Whole pituitary extract
 Anterior pituitary extract and posterior pituitary extract
 Testicular extract
 Thyroid extract
 Insulin
 Heparin (from lungs and liver of ox)

FUTURE SCOPE

 Increased modernization of slaughterhouse is improving the scope of utilization of glandular byproducts.


 Although many synthetic preparations have been evolved, products from natural resources are still cheaper.
 Efforts are being made to create adequate facilities for the timely collection, immediate freezing and create trained manpower for
preliminary processing of these glands in our country.
 Various research laboratories are equipping themselves to develop new processes and improve the existing technologies.
NEATS FOOT OIL

 This is pale, golden yellow oil prepared from cattle feet.


 This oil does not solidify or gets dry even at freezing temperatures.
 The average yield is approximately 0.75 to 1 pint of oil from one animal.
 The oil is used for dressing leather, lubricant for delicate machineries in textile industry and in aeroplane machinery, ships, costly
watches, etc.
 The oil is also used widely in the preparation of ointments in pharmaceutical laboratories and fetches higher price.
 It fetches a very high price but yield per animal is only a few millimeters.
 The production of neats foot oil is economic only in places, which are adjacent to the large abattoirs.
 The preparation of neats foot oil involves the following procedure.
 Collection and cleaning of the hoofs:
 The hoofs are cut off from the feet, fresh from the killing floor and washed to free from blood, dirt, etc.
 Scalding:
 The hoofs are immersed in boiling water for sometime and shell is removed with the help of a hammer.
 Thus, shin bones are fully exposed.
 Cooking or extraction:
 Shinbones are cooked in water at 85oC for about 8 hours in open tank or large kettle.
 The oil will come floating on the top.
 Purification:
 Floating neats foot oil is taken in another kettle and again heated at 85oC for 8 hours.
 The impurities are allowed to settle for 2 hours and the oil is filtered out.
 Dehydration:
 The moisture is removed from neats foot oil by heating at 100oC for nearly 2 hours.
 Packaging:
 It is done in suitable containers
RUMINAL CONTENT

 The undigested food material found in the rumen is wet, bulky and fibrous and so present considerable problem in their disposal.
 Because of its rich content of crude protein, carbohydrates and vitamins, it can be profitability used in poultry feeds.
 The Ruminal contents are composed and are converted into valuable manure.
METHANE GAS, CATTLE LICK AND BONE ASH

Methane gas

 The slaughter waste, the ruminal contents, bedding used in the lairage, the dung and other material could be used to produce methane
gas in bio gas plants.
 The gas is used for production of heat and light and fetches more prices.
Cattle lick

 Cattle lick is generally prepared from bone meal consisting of:


 Bone meal : 66 parts
 Red oxide salt : 33 parts
 Copper sulphate, Potassium or sodium iodide,
 Cobalt nitrite, sulphate or chloride or other trace elements : 1 part
Bone ash or calcide bone

 In places where no other option is available, collected bones can be burnt on grills or by trench firing to yield spongy and
brittle bones and pieces, which can be ground to ash.
 Being a good source of phosphorus, it serves as a fertilizer.
 In areas where soil is deficient in phosphorus, it enriches the soil resulting in better crop production
GLUE STOCK

 Both glue and gelatine are made from the same material, as there is no basic difference between them, Gelatine is the term used for the
highest quality glue.
 Gelatine is further divided into two classes namely edible and technical.
 The edible one being manufactured under sanitary conditions from fresh materials derived from the slaughtered inspected and passed
animals.
 Bones and horns, which contain a gelatine or glue yielding material called ossein (bone collagen), a part from bones, some soft parts of
animal’s offal are also rich in collagen.
 This is a protein, which is insoluble in cold water. In prolonged contact with warm water collagen changes into gelatine or glue, which
is soluble in water.
PREPARATION OF ACETONE DRIED POWDER OF GLAND

 The gland is collected within 15-20 minutes of slaughter


 The connective tissues, blood vessels, adhering fat, etc., should be removed and immersed in 4 volumes of chilled acetone
for 3 hours.
 The glands are cut into small pieces, immersed in 3 volumes of chilled acetone for another 2-3 hours.
 The tissue is minced in a mincer and treated with 3 volumes of chilled acetone.
 The minced tissues are dried and ground into a fine powder.
 The third method of preservation is by vacuum drying.
 Even glands, which have been dried under vacuum, must reach the manufacturer quickly to avoid the fat becoming rancid which
reduces the potency of the active principles.
 Generally speaking the collection of glands is troublesome and requires skill, the preservations are difficult and the income is often
low.
 But, considering the health of the population on one hand and the need to import these principles at the cost of enormous foreign
exchange, there is reason to bestow more attention on the necessity to save as much glands as possible.
GENERAL INFORMATION

 Animal farm residues such as dung, droppings, urine, etc., have to be gainfully utilized.
 It is required to also use slaughterhouse waste such as ruminal contents, blood, urine, meat and fat trimmings to derive maximum
advantage.
 It is necessary to devise ways and means for thorough and innovative utilization of all the inedible parts of the animal.
 By utilizing the slaughterhouse waste the pollution problems and the light and heating source to the slaughterhouse itself can be
alleviated.
 Buffalo and cattle dung is converted into dried cakes and used as a cooking fuel in almost all the Indian villages and sub urban areas.
 The dung compost, when applied to soil, retains its humus content and maintains its fertility.
 Of the total quantity of dung produced from buffaloes and cattle, almost 2/3 is used as fuel and 1/3 as manure.
 Dung and urine are rich source of organic matter and nitrogen. Cattle dung is also used to give a thin covering to the floor of the huts
for ages.
 This cover serves as a temporary plaster and is repeatedly applied after a week or so.
 It is a practice in many parts of India that the sheep flock owners are paid for grazing their stock on the fields after harvest for the
value of manure.
 By grazing sheep faeces and urine deposited on the land will contribute to the soil fertility and crop yield.
 The organic waste available through animal industry can be utilised in several different ways.
Production of biogas for light and heat

 It involves the anaerobic fermentation of faeces, urine and slaughterhouse waste to produce biogas (largely methane).
 This process also yields high quality manure as a byproduct.
A biogas producing plant comprises of three components

 Digester:
 It is a tank wherein fermentation causes production of gas.
 Gasometer:
 This is a gas storage tank
 Pipes:
 These are used for gas distribution at desired points.
 A digester is made up of bricks as a circular cylinder.
 In small plants, gasometer is an inverted iron movable cover of digester itself, which rises or descends according to the gas it contains.
 The entire assembly has to be water and gas proof.
 The receptacle or inlet feeds the digester with animal blood, urine, dung, ruminal contents, effluents, etc., at regular intervals.
 These organic and nitrogenous animal wastes undergo anaerobic fermentation.
 As a result, biogas consisting of nearly 60% methane, 30% carbon dioxide and traces of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, etc., are produced.
 Methane burns with a blue alongwith traces of orange flame and does not form any smoke.
 Impure methane as produced in this plant burns in a mixture of 93% air and 7% gas.
 During filling of digester with waste material, water is so added that it remains almost 0.5 m above the waste.
 Some old sludge is also added for rapid fermentation.
 Gas production will start after a week.
 A discharge hole is provided near the bottom of the digester for periodic removal of the digested or spent slurry, which is an excellent
compost fertilizer.
 Biogas plants have a great potential in augmenting the development of rural industries.
Production of compost manure

 In places where no better utilization of organic matter of animal origin is feasible, it can be composted to yield manure of reasonably good
quality.
 This manure contains nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace minerals essential for plant growth and improved soil structure.
 Compost making units at some distance from the slaughterhouses will utilize the blood, ruminal and intestinal contents, bedding waste
from lairages, meat and fat trimmings, floor washings, hair, feather, etc.
 Even condemned meat and offal, if reduced to chunks and spread out in the middle of the heap, can be used in compost making.
 Compost pit or bunkers can be made up of bricks leaving enough open spaces in the walls.
 Coarse materials such as maize or millet stalks or small twigs are laid at the bottom for proper ventilation.
 Then alternate layers of ruminal and intestinal contents or vegetable matter and slaughterhouse waste are laid upto 2 metres.
 The outer side and top of the heap is protected clean soil or grass.
 In tropical climate, the temperature inside the heap will go up to 75oC killing the larvae and checking the entry of undesirable pests.
 In dry weather, it has to be wet periodically to allow aerobic bacterial decomposition.
 That is why proper ventilation of the heap is also essential.
 Some people use rejected pieces of corrugated sheets to ensure it.
 To achieve uniform decomposition, the material has to be turned atleast three times after 20, 40 and 60 days.
 In about 90 days, the material is fully decomposed into compost manure.
Production of animal glue

 Hide trimmings and fleshing, pig skin, sinews, tendons scattered and weathered bones and their pieces can be used for the production
of glue.
 Horns and hoofs, ears, lips, snouts, tails, etc., can also be utilized for the same purpose.
 It requires simple equipment and people with very little education can be trained to produce this good value material.
 Glue is extensively used in match, paper and rug industries, plywood making, carpet sizing and production of imitation leather.
Production of pig feed from paunch and intestinal contents

 The average weight of the paunch contents of cattle, sheep and lambs are 27, 2.7 and 1.7 kg, respectively.
 The liquid fraction of the material can be separated from the fibrous residue by using a press.
 The fibrous fraction can be used as a fuel whereas the protein in the paunch contents can be concentrated for utilization as pig feed.
 It has been suggested that this use will reduce the cost of disposal of paunch contents by about 50%.
 Slaughterhouse waste posed a big disposal problem for a long time but it has now been realized that with the advancement of
technology, this waste can be recycled to several different uses to derive financial and sanitary benefits.
 In this context, simple equipment should be designed and available manpower within the country should be engaged.
 It will create new employment an dskill as well

TERMINOLOGIES

 The skin from a fully–grown large animal is called as hide


 Those from small stock (i.e., sheep, goats and pigs) is called a skin.
 The terms skin is also applied to calves.
 The slunk is the term applied to the skin of an unborn calf, which is often used for parchment, light suede or drumbeats.
 The skin from the older calf, which has not yet reached maturity, is called a kip.
 There are a number of terms in each country, which varies with terms of the countries.
 The nomenclature of hides and skins expressed in green weight is as follows:
Calf skins 15 lb.

Overweight kip/heifer skin (heifer) 25 to 30 lbs.


Hides (cow) Over 30 lbs

Extremely light steers (steer) 30 to 48 lbs.

Light steers 48 to 58 lbs.

Light cow hide Less than 53 lbs.

Heavy cow hide Over 53 lbs

Heavy steers Over 58 lbs.

Bull hide (bull) 60 - 100 lbs.

 The United States has its own terminology.


 The term native is used to denote hides, which have not been branded.
 Colorado is one, which has one or several brands.
 Texas is referred to the compact, narrow and plump steer hide.
 Packer hide is a term reserved for hides originating in large meatpacking plants.
 These are usually of the finest quality because of the excellent conditions under which they are flayed and preserved and also
because of the high skill of the operators.
 Frigorifico is the term used for the ones originated in South American meatpacking plants, which are of even better material.
 These are prepared by a good method of brining prior to salting and hence have an improved quality.
 Freezer is the term applied to goods produced by a meat-freezing establishment, particularly in Australia or New Zealand.
 They are of uniform high quality because; they are prepared from centralized slaughter and supervision.
 Big packer hides – Hides obtained from highly skilled flayers.
 Small packer hides – Hides obtained from less skilled flayers.
 Big packer hides - Flayed by highly skilled workers.
 Small packer hides - Flayed by less skilled workers
CLASSIFICATION AND GRADING OF HIDES AND SKINS

Classification of buffalo hides

 In India, buffalo hides are generally classified as


 Buffalo (buff) calf skin
 Buff heifer hide
 Buff hide
 Buff bull hide
Classification of goat and sheep skin

 In India, this is done on the basis of weight and length (Baba and Bhote, 1966)
Class Weight (kg) Length (cm) Region

Big goat skin 1.3 96.5 and above Punjab, Kashmir-Punjab border, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh

Medium goat skin 0.91 96.4 Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka

Small goat skin 0.86 76.2 Eastern part of India

 It may be noted that sheepskins are mostly of medium size without much regional variation.
Grading of hides and skins

 FAO Expert, Aten (1995) suggested a useful system of grading hides based on the degree of faults
S. Grades Properties
No

1. First grade  Shape or pattern regular and symmetrical, Minor scores and gouges may be over looked

2. Second  Good shape or pattern


grade  Reasonably free from knife damage i.e. upto 1/16th of area may show concentrated scores
or gouges or 1/8th of area may show dispersed scores or gouges.
 One or two cuts may be allowed on the edges of belly

3. Third  Irregular shape or pattern


grade  Upto 1/2 of the area damaged by knife showing cuts, scores or gouges.

4. Reject  Irregular shape or pattern


grade  Extensive damage of the back or butt.

LEATHER INDUSTRY IN INDIA

 In the past, India had been one of the largest exporters of hides and skins.
 However, a few decades back, the policy of exporting only value added material was adopted and presently finished leather is exported
to many countries.
 Interestingly, there is a marked difference in sources of hides and skins in our country.
Source of hides

 20-25% of hides are obtained from slaughtered animals.


 75-80% of hides are obtained from fallen animals.
Source of skins

 80% of skins are obtained from slaughtered animals.


 75-80% of skins are obtained from fallen animals.
 Skin and hides are sold for use as raw material for leather making.
 The tannery is the ultimate destination.
 Skins from healthy animals without the slightest blemish properly removed, preserved and delivered to the tannery without damage in
transit is in great demand and fetches more money.
 Tanning is the conversion of hide or skin in to a rot– and insect–resistant material, leather.
 Leather must be durable, flexible and elastic.
 The tanning process is a combination of mechanical and chemical actions.
 The yield of hides and skins varies between species.
 In cattle, the average yield of hide is 7 percent of the live weight, whereas in sheep and goat the average yield of skin is 11 percent of
live weight.
 As per FAO estimates (2001), India produced the following quantities of fresh hides and skins.
Hides and Skins Weight (MT)

Cattle hides 4,66,000.00

Buffalo hides 5,10,000.00

Goat skins 1,28,880.00

Sheep skins 52,380.00

Sheep skin with wool 524.00


STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES

Structure of hide

 Epidermis
 This is the outer layer of the hide, consisting of an outer-pigmented surface and tubular invaginations of hair follicles.
 Corium or dermis
 This layer has Elastin, reticulum and collagenous fibres.
 The inner portion of corium is interwoven with bundles of collagen. It is this part, which makes up the leather.
 Subcutis
 This is a loose membrane network and contains fatty deposits.
Properties and utilities of leather

 It has an excellent flexibility due to high tensile strength over a wide range of temperature and moisture.
 It has high tear and is puncture resistance due to in-built fibrous network.
 It has the ability to breath, which provides coolness in hot weather and insulation in cold weather.
 It has the moulding ability.

FLAYING

 Flaying refers to the skinning operation performed by skilled workers following a uniform pattern.
 Being a valuable byproduct, improper flaying will lower its value.
 In modern large animal abattoirs, skinning of buffalo and cattle is done on pritch plates.
 These are steel plates of 20 cm diameter about 120 cm long and 60 cm wide, anchored to the floor with bolts.
 The animal is lowered onto this plate for skinning and is held in position by a pritch bar - a metal rod.
 On a smooth floor, skilled workers can very well accomplish this task.
 If this facility is not available, it can be efficiently done on a skinning cradle made up of steel tubings or smooth round timber rods.

FLAYING OF BUFFALOES AND CATTLE

 The hide is first opened from the neck or slaughter incision with the help of a flaying knife and continued straight along with the middle
of dewlap and belly to the middle of the tail.
 By making an encircling cut between knee and hot joint each leg is opened. The cut on the foreleg is continued to the breastbone and that
of the hind leg upto scrotum or udder to meet the longitudinal cut as mentioned in the above step.
 The hide is then separated from the carcass by cutting from the lower part of the breast towards the neck on one side and towards the
navel on the other side. This is done by careful use of the knife.
 Now with the help of tail grip and gambrel, which are connected to the hook of the hoisting gear, the hind legs are hung and hide is
removed from the tail.
 Carcass is further raised and hide is pulled off the back to the hump and then to the shoulder and neck separating the thick subcutaneous
tissue with the help of a knife.
 The hide is severed from the carcass by giving a cut behind the horns.
 A properly flayed hide has
 rounded rumps
 equal width from centre line of the back to the belly edge on each side
 Medium length in the shanks
 regular dewlap and
 square outline

CASE-ON FLAYING OF SHEEP AND GOAT SKINS

 This technique is quite popular in tropical and subtropical countries.


 It has the advantage of giving skins with minimum cuts and excellent keeping quality.
Procedure
 After bleeding the carcass, a small incision is made on the inner side of the hind leg above the hock joint.
 A narrow steel rod or a smooth wooden rod is now inserted in this incision and pushed under the skin towards the grain for about 45
cm. (This rod tears or loosens some of the connective tissue between the skin and body, thus minimizing the use of knife which could
cause cuts, scores or gouge marks).
 After removing the rod, a hand cut is made around the incision hole and air is blown inside with the help of bicycle pump or car foot
pump.
 Due to inflow of air, carcass is uniformly inflated like a balloon.
 Now, the carcass is lifted from the ground and hung up by the hind leg on the hook or tripod.
 The skin is then removed from the carcass in a case form.
The following cuts are made in this technique:

 Circular cuts around the knee and hock joint.


 Cuts on the scrotum, udder, etc.
 A circular cut on the neck to severe the head skin.
 Now the fingers followed by fist are inserted into the incisions on the hind legs.
 The skin is pulled downward and the knife is used only when it is absolutely necessary.
 When it reaches the chest, the skilled worker holds the skin with the both the hands and rigorously pushes with his foot to remove it
from the carcass.
 The only disadvantage in this method is that asymmetrical skins are obtained many a time.
 Careful flaying a small part of the belly by knife can prevent this defect.

DEFECTS OF HIDES AND SKINS

Defects due to disease and insects


 The animals in tropics fall a prey to a number of parasitic, bacterial and viral conditions affecting the hide and skin.
 The damage that results depends on the duration of the infection and its severity, and may range from slight marring of the grain to
destruction of the corium itself.
 Such damage is often attributable not so much to the disease itself, as to secondary infection, rubbing and scratching because most skin
diseases are accompanied by severe itching.
 Starvation during excessive drought and lack of green fodder, combined with heavy internal parasitic infestation, aggravate skin
diseases.
 Tick damage and damage due to strong concentration of tick killing drugs are some of the causes of defects of hides and skins due to
disease and insects.
 Follicular or demodectic mange
 One of the most commonly seen disease defects is made by a mite called Demodex folliculorum, a parasite burrowing deep
into the hair follicle, where it establishes its nest; this disease is called follicular or demodectic mange.
 The damage is clearly visible on the flesh side of the hide or skin, in the form of raised whitish spots.
 These lesions are erroneously called pox marks by the trade.
 True pox is caused by a virus and leaves very slight marks only, located mostly on the udder and on the inner surface of the
thighs.
 When a vesicle bursts, the lesion may occasionally become infected, because of the severe irritation and the subsequent
scratching by the animal.
 Sarcoptic and soroptic mange
 Sarcoptic and soroptic mange (commonly called scab) are widespread because of the warm climate and primitive
management.
 As these parasites tunnel between the fibres of the corium of the skin, the result is rough pitted leather with damaged grain.
 Streptothricosis
 Streptothricosis is another widespread disease caused by a microorganism of the genus Actinomyces.
 It is known in tropical countries by various local names such as Krichi in Nigeria, Senkobo in Northern Rhodesia
(Zimbabwe) and Uasin Gishu in Kenya.
 The lesions made by this disease vary from slight inflammation of the skin, resulting in leather damage on the grain side
only, to large areas deeply affected; in severely damaged areas, scar tissue is formed and there may be general thickening of
the hide, giving it the appearance of elephant or rhino hide and making it quite unsuitable for leather.
 Nodular dermatitis
 Nodular dermatitis is a disease most probably caused by a virus and principally affects goats.
 It causes lesions similar to those made by Demodex.
 Other minor skin lesions may be caused by a fungal infection of ringworm of the Tricophyton genus.
 Ringworm itself does not produce heavy damage to the skin, as the pathological changes are restricted to round, bald
patches.
 However, due to rubbing and secondary infections, deeper lesions may appear, affecting the resulting leather.
 Lumpy skin disease
 Lumpy skin disease, which occurs widely in the continent of Africa south of Sahara, also contributes to damage on cattle
hides.
 This appears in the form of lumps and nodules or round patches, deprived of grain, or as button-like defects reaching deep
into the corium.
 Photosensitization
 The ingestion of certain plants or drugs may sensitize the skin to sunlight; this is known as photosensitization.
 The areas usually affected are those where the actual skin is unpigmented; these are generally covered by white hair, and
therefore known as white-haired animals.
 Particular breeds such as Ayrshire and Friesian, imported from the temperate zones, suffer the most.
 Dermatitis
 Dermatitis is caused by strong concentration of tick-killing drugs or by their improper use, also contributes to the list of
lesions to be found in hides and skins derived from territories where tick control is practiced.
 In addition to the diseases mentioned above, certain insects (as mentioned below) attack the living animal and damage the
skin.
 Warble Fly (Heel Fly or Grub)
 Warble flies cause very great losses in the temperate zones than in tropical and subtropical zones, since, these insects do not
live in the true tropics.
 The fly belongs to the family Hypodermidae and atleast three, namely, Hypoderma bovis, H.lineatum and H.crossi, exist on
the northern fringe of subtropical countries.
 The ova deposited by the fly on the hair of an animal hatch into very small larvae, which penetrate the skin and, after
migrating through the body, settle on the back in the subcutaneous tissue, causing visible lumps, often referred to as Grub.
 The parasite breathes through small openings, and after one or two molts, emerges as a whole warble, falls to the ground,
molts again and appears as the mature parasite, starting the cycle again.
 The damage to the hide skins depends on the stage of this cycle when the animal is slaughtered.
 Open grubs are unhealed places where the grub was imbedded or from where the warble emerged, resulting in holes, while
wounds leave scarred tissue.
 Tick damage
 Tick damage is extremely frequent.
 Ticks leave the hides and skins doted with pinhole spots at each site where they were attached.
 Tick-eating birds often cause damage to the deeper layers, especially if bacterial infection of the wound occurs.
 Lice damage, biting flies and other stinging insects may leave spots on the grain, but these are of minor
importance.
 Insects may cause extensive damage to hides and skins after they have been removed from the animals. Of these
insects, the hide beetle (Dermestes) is responsible for tremendous losses to hides and skins, which have not been
properly protected. The beetle itself and its voracious larvae are able to consume a large part of the entire hide in a
very short period.
 Treatment
 In the past, the only drugs suitable for destroying skin parasites were nicotine, derris root, rotenone, lime, sulphur and
creolin.
 Now modern chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides such as DDT, lindane, BHC, toxaphane and chlordane, which allow mass
control of the parasite, are used.
 Thus give great hope for the reduction of damage to the hides and skins due to parasitic infestation
DEFECTS DUE TO FAULTY HANDLING

 Fallen hides
 Hides removed from animals died of natural causes are known as fallen hides.
 These are inferior not only because the hide substance was reduced due to fever or starvation but also, because the flaying of
a dead animal is difficult as subcutaneous connective tissues hardens after death.
 Ground drying
 This is a defective method of preservation and leads to visible and invisible damages such as hair slip, taint, blisters which
leads to cracks etc.
 Smoke damage: occurs due to tanning materials, if they are kept in the vicinity of open fires.
 Used hides and skins
 Hide and skins are used as sleeping mats or garments before selling them.
 By this, they are generally torn, cracked, smoked, oil-tanned or damaged by insects.
 Brand marks
 Brand mark when carelessly made, seriously reduces the value of the hides.
 The hot iron should be used only on the less value part. Branding for identification or for disease reduces the value of the
skin.
 Wire damage
 Inserting wires into the brisket, dewlap, and shoulder area or side region causes this.
 This damage should be differentiated from animals, which suffer scratches when confined to areas fenced with barbed wire.
 Cracks
 Cracks occur when over dried hides are folded during transport, which leads to damage.
 Pressure sores
 This is also called as deductible gangrene, which is a very common defect seen on hides derived from animals due to illness
or starvation for a prolonged periods.
 The hip and shoulder blade regions are mostly affected.
 Bad shape or patterns
 Damage by vermin, such as hyenas, rats and dogs with subsequent trimming of the damaged parts contribute to an
asymmetrical hide.
 Knife Damage: This occurs due to use of sticking knives for flaying or knives with spear shaped blades leads to hide
damage.
 Carelessness, unskilled speed, lack of experience, poor visibility and the flaying of cold or undressed carcasses also lead to
hide defects and damage.
 Bruises
 Bruises are common either before they reach the abattoir or during the slaughtering operation.
 Insufficient Bleeding: In incomplete bleeding, the blood vessels are not drained; such hides are called as “veiny” leather an
undesirable defect.
 Dragged or rubbed grain
 Pulling the carcasses over rough ground or damaged cement floors causes this fault.
 Thorn scratches
 During the dry period, the animals browse on the bushes and thorn trees and in consequence, thorn scratches and grain
damage results.
 Infrequent transport
 Transport defects and damages occur due to difficulties in transport of hides during the rainy seasons, when the goods are
stored for long periods without proper protection from rain and insect.
 Rubbing and soiling during transport may contribute further damage.
 Adulteration
 By smearing and plastering the hides with mud, manure, ashes or by leaving excessive amounts of fleshing is a common
custom in a number of less developed countries.
To overcome the defects and damages of hide and skins the following are to be taken into consideration.

 Programs to improve the hide should be drawn.


 Training and demonstration of proper methods of flaying should be given.
 Abattoirs should be provided sufficient facilities for hide and skin handling as it fetches substantial revenues.
 Skinning cradles should be provided.
Treatment after flaying

 Hide and skin may leave the abattoir premises either in green or preserved form.
 Green hide or skin: Green hide or skin is the term applied to hide or skin, which have only been flayed, fleshed, trimmed and
washed
PRESERVATION OF SKINS

 Preservation of hide or skin is done either by suspension drying or by curing, i.e. salting.
 The green skins contain approximately 62% water.
 As most of the hide substance is protein, which forms good nutrient for bacteria, all that is needed for them to develop is
time and favourable temperature.
 Contamination with blood, manure or dirt will increase bacterial growth.
 The deterioration, which occurs during the curing of hides and skins, may be attributed to the fact that the bacterial growth
was not checked in time.
Principles of preservation and its merits

 The basic principles of preservation, therefore, lies in creating such conditions that bacterial flora cannot multiply.
 This can be achieved either by immediate delivery of the hides and skins to the tannery.
 A condition very unreliable in developing countries is by reducing the moisture to a point where bacterial growth stops.
 A simple way of reducing moisture is by exposing the hides and skins to free air circulation.
 Another method is to absorb the moisture by salt.
 This combined with the penetration of the salt into hide substance acts as a kind of dehydration.
 The method of preservation had definite influence on the final weight of the hides.
 The final percentage of the moisture in the air-dried hide and skin will range from 10 to 12 percent.
 Green hide weighing 100 lbs. will contain 62 lbs water and 38 lbs of hide substance.
 In Air-dried method there is no loss in hide substance and so it will be 38 lbs.
 The final percentage of moisture will be 10 to 12 lbs.
 Therefore, the final weight of air-dried hide will be 38 + 10 = 48 lbs.
METHODS OF PRESERVATION

Wet salting

 100 lbs. Green hide will loose approximately 35 lbs of water and takes up 6 lbs of salt. Thus the final (weight) field will be 71 lbs. of
wet salted hide.
Dry salting
 This process consists of only a few days salting, followed by air-drying. 100 lbs. of green hide will yield about 55 lbs. of finished
goods. These are only approximate calculations. Many factors are responsible for the variations. The shrink is very important to
calculate the yield. The air-drying is the high test as seen above.
 The two main methods of preservation are air-drying and salting.
 So, to get good qualities of hide and skin, the preservation should be done immediately.
 The methods followed for air-drying and salting are many and varied.
 Air drying
 Ground drying
 Suspension drying
 Drying in sheds.
 While drying the hides and skins are protected from insect damage with the help of benzene hexa chloride and
arsenicals.
 Salting
 Wet salting
 Dry salting.
AIR-DRYING

 It is an age-old method for the areas where relative humidity is low it is done in three different ways.
Ground drying

 It consists of stretching out the hides with their flesh side up.
 Though it is the cheapest and easily adoptable for rural people with fallen hides, there is problem of blemishes, which become apparent
on tanning.
 There may be problem of hair-slip and blisters due to incipient putrefaction of epidermis and hair follicles.
 However, in summer months, the hides become much wrinkled and fetch only half the value of salt cured hides and skins.
Suspension drying

 It is simple, cheap and effective way of drying in tropical countries.


 It allows free circulation of air, sunrays strike the hides and skins obliquely and cooling of hides take place rapidly.
 The hides and skins become light after drying, so transportation is cheap.
 Suspension drying can be done in several ways
Frame drying

 This is done on an angled frame, which is appropriately oriented to the sun.


 The frame may be in the form of hoop, tripod or bamboo square.
 Line drying is more suitable for sheep and goatskins.
 Here skins are spread on horizontal cords with their flesh side up.
 In tent drying, the hides are supported over the ground in the shape of a tent by cords or wires.
 In any case hides and skins take a minimum of seven days to dry.
HIDE CURING

 In this case, drying is performed with the help of uniform and finally ground salt.
 It should be done immediately after flaying by either of the following two ways:
 Dry salting
 This is widely used in tropical countries.
 Salt packing helps in initial removal of moisture, the remaining being removed by exposure to air.
 Ideally, the store should have a temperature of about 15°C, a relative humidity of 85-90% with
good ventilation and slated platform.
 It involves stacking the hides flesh side up and applying fine salt (2-3 mm) evenly.
 The quantity of salt applied matches with the weight of the each hide.
 Stacking should not be more than one meter in height.
 The moisture drains onto the floor. Such hides retain only 12% water.
 Wet salting
 This is done by preparing a curing solution consisting of 23 kg pure salt and 62 kg of water for 100 kg of hides.
 A saturated brine solution can also serve the same purpose.
 The hides are soaked in this solution in a pit of 1.25 meters for a few days.
 The time varies from 48 hrs for fleshed hides and 2 weeks for unfleshed hides.
 The hides are put on the slatted platform for draining. Such hides are left with only 35% water

CONDITIONING OF HIDES AND SKINS


 The preserved hides and skins are first conditioned at the tanneries before tanning under the following steps:
 Washing and soaking:
 It is done for several hours in water containing zinc chloride and a mix of soda ash and borax.
 During this process, salt is removed along with proteins of blood and lymph.
 The hides absorb water and restore their original shape and dimension.
 Fleshing:
 It is done on a convex wooden beam by scrapping the flesh with a serrated knife.
 Liming and dehairing:
 A saturated solution of lime and 0.1% sodium sulphide remove and loosen hair and epidermal cells.
 Washing and deliming:
 The hides are now washed with weak acid to neutralize the lime.
 A mild heat can also be used if necessary.
 Bating:
 The hides are treated with proteolytic enzymes (pancreatic juice mixed with saw dust) at pH 8.5.
 It results in soft and pliable pelt, which can be tanned by vegetable tanning.
 Pickling:
 It is done for chrome tanning wherein pelts are pickled in a bath of 1% sulphuric acid and 10% salt in water at pH
of 2 to 2.5 for 2 to 3 hours.

TANNING

 Tanning is the conversion of hides and skins into insoluble and nonputrescible leather without destruction of the original structure.
 Leather posses many desirable properties such as flexibility, heat resistance, chemical resistance, abrasion resistance, dimensional
stability, etc.
 It can also withstand repeated wetting and drying.
 Tanning comprises of two types
 Vegetable tanning and
 Chrome tanning
VEGETABLE TANNING

 This is the traditional process and takes a lot of time.


 It involves immersion of hides and skins in the infusion made from the extracts of tanning bearing plants and barks.
 Some tanning producing plants are:
 Avarum (Cassis auriculata)
 Babul (Acacia Arabia)
 Myrabalan (Terminalia chebula)
 Konnan (Cassia fistula)
CHROME TANNING

 This is the modern and quite popular technique since it yields soft, supple and strong leather, which is permeable to air.
 It also takes less time.
 It can be done by any of the two processes.
 In single bath process, basic chromium salt (chromic sulphate or chrome) is directly applied in solution to the skin in gradually
increasing strength.
 In double bath process, chromium salt is formed on the fibres by interaction of chemicals.
 Usually sodium bichromate is reacted with a reducing sugar maltose and sulphuric acid to get chromic sulphate.
 It is applied in 1.5 to 3% range initially at a pH 2.8, which is then increased to pH 3.5 to increase the affinity of the collagen for the
chrome.
 Chrome tanning takes places due to the formation of cross linkages between chrome ions and free carboxyl groups in the collagen side
chains.
 Tanning operation is accomplished in 5-6 hours.
 Post-tanning operations are also necessary to get finished leather.
 Setting out or wringing is done to remove excess tan liquor or moisture by passing the hide between two large rollers.
 Splitting and shaving is done to adjust the leather thickness for the desired ultimate use.
 Dyeing of the leather is done to produce the desired colour.
 Fat liquoring is done to adjust the firmness or softness of the leather by lubricating the fibres with oil.
 It also increases the tensile strength.
 Staking refers to the softening and making the leather more pliable.
 It decides the final temper of the product in combination with fat liquoring.
 Buffing is done to smooth the grain surface of leather for the better appearance and to diminish the blemish.
 Buffed leather is called corrected grain, which is otherwise called full grain.
 Glazing is done on chromic leather after seasoning an drying.
 A glass cylinder clamped to the end of a moving arm is made to roll on the leather.
 Heat generated by friction softens the wax in the finish and produces a continuous plastic coat of high lusture on the
grain surface.
 As the leather gets ready, it is graded for temper, uniformity of thickness, colour, etc.
 The graded leather is properly packed for convenience and to fetch a better price.
 With the use of strong tan liquid and revolving drums, the speed of tanning can be improved.
 This type of tanning is good for the manufacture of sole, belts, harness, saddlery and other heavy leathers.
INTRODUCTION

Management of Organic Waste

The most important aspect of animal industries whether it is from abattoir, farms or from dead or fallen animals, is the management of the
waste originating out of it in a regular manner with a substantially higher amount. The importance of these wastes are more relevant to control
environmental pollution due to the fact that the effluent out of these sectors have been a very high BOD values and this must get a separate line
of disposal than that of normal domestic sewage system. Therefore, the planning in regard to management of these organic waste needs a very
specialised study with a very organised interrelationship between city planners, animal scientists and public health personnel. To understand the
organic waste the following topics need to be appreciated.

Disposal of carcasses

 It is utmost important to properly dispose if the carcasses of animals died of notifiable disease in order to prevent the spread of disease
and to prevent human infection in case of zoonotic disease.
 In fact, an animal died of contagious disease should be removed from the shed as early as possible; sincere it is visually unsightly, may
give offensive odour within few hours and may become a disease hazard.
 The carcass should not be dragged because discharge of its body fluids and blood during dragging may cause infection in the other
livestock. It should preferably by lifted by mechanical means such as loader etc.
 Carcasses should never be disposed of near the flowing water, otherwise it will become a potential source of infection in the areas
receiving subsequent water supply.
 It is also not advisable to open carcasses without the approval of a veterinarian even for flaying.
 The handling of the carcasses has to be restricted to bare minimum.
 The method of disposal of the carcasses has to be decided on the basis of disease responsible for death.
Isolation of carcasses and related materials on the spot

 The carcasses of animals died with symptoms of high-risk infectious diseases should be immediately isolated and their related animals
such as used feed, excreta etc., should be disinfected on the spot.
 Before removal, carcasses should be kept in dry place and covered with a polyethylene sheet.
 It will be wise to isolate the spot from the nearby environment by checking open feed as well as water supplies and drainage system
through this spot.
Veterinary advice

 Veterinary authorities should examine the suspected and exposed animals and diagnosis of high-risk infectious diseases should be
made by them.
 They should also render advice concerning the mode of transportation and methods of disposal of carcasses besides suggesting
protective measures to be undertaken.
 Further, it should be indicated as to what equipment, items etc. need to be disinfected and which method will be more suitable.
Transportation

 Carcasses or condemned parts thereof should be transported to the place of disposal with the utmost care.
 There is no need to collect such high risk infectious material from different locations at one place.
 Persons involved in handling such materials have to be provided protective clothing and materials. Such carcasses and condemned
parts should be lifted and loaded by mechanical means.
 Transportation should be done in vehicles, which are exclusively used for carrying carcasses. Such vehicles are properly covered from
all sides. These vehicles should also be subjected to proper cleansing and disinfection after every use to prevent spread of
contamination into the environment
METHODS OF DISPOSAL OF CARCASSES

 Burial method
 This is the most common method and is fairly safe if the burial pit is dug 2 meter deep or highest part of the carcass is atleast
1.5 meter below the level of surrounding terrain.
 Besides the carcass, left over feed by the dead animal, its bedding, excreta and top 5 cm soil floor are also buried with the
carcass.
 Deep burial will prevent the jackals from digging up the carcass and insects from carrying the bacterial spores to the surface.
 Once the carcass is in grave, the skin is slashed and drenched with crude phenol.
 Then the carcass is covered on all sides with quick lime and filled with mud and topped with some concrete objects.
 In case of anthrax, before removing the carcass for disposal, all its orifices are plugged with cotton soaked in 5% cresol and
body is wrapped in similarly soaked bag.
 The byre should be disinfected with 5% cresol using long handled brushes and then washed over with freshly chlorinated
lime-wash.
 Burning or incineration methods
 Burning can effectively destroy carcasses.
 It can bee conveniently done in incinerator where a temperature of 600-800C is reached and all the organisms are destroyed.
 This method is quite suitable for animals that have died due to heat resistant microorganisms such as spores of Bacillus
anthracis.
 If incinerator facility is not available, dead animals and other materials can be burnt in a pit, preferably dug near the site of
death.
 The pit or trench (about 0.5 meter deep) is first filled with wood, making air spaces with the help of cross iron bars.
 Then the carcass is placed and ignited with the help of kerosene. After complete carcass is burnt, the trench is filled with
mud.
 Chemical treatment
 If the animals die from diseases, which do not pose a potential health hazard, the carcass can be disposed of by usual means.
 Then the premises are treated with lime water (1:20) or with a suspension of bleaching powder (1:20).
 An aqueous solution of cresol or phenol is preferable for metal parts.
 Disinfection
 It is not enough to dispose of the animal died due to notifiable disease. All the related items and materials, which could serve
as contaminating agents, are disinfected.
 Bedding straw, manure etc., should be buried, burnt or disinfected by mixing with slaked lime.
 Liquids such as blood, urine etc. should be disinfected with a 30% suspension of chloride of lime.
 For walls, floors, doors and tools, cleansing with lime-water (1:20) or with a suspension of bleaching powder (1:20) may be
used.
 Metal tools or instruments of the abattoir may be disinfected by immersion in boiling water for this purpose.
 A 3% solution of washing soda (sodium carbonate) can also be used. Besides, hooks, handles, covers etc. should be scrubbed
in boiling water or solution of washing soda
TRANSPORTATION OF DEAD OR FALLEN ANIMALS

 A large number of animals die in developing and under-developed countries because of natural causes, such as diseases etc.
 Besides, slaughter of cows for food is banned in countries like India. This factor also increases number of fallen animals.
 Sometimes, condemned material from slaughterhouse is also available for byproduct utilization.
 It is necessary to hygienically dispose of these fallen animals to avoid decomposition and formation of obnoxious gases.
 It is also important to process the byproducts of such animals to secure the economic returns.
 Using road transport modes such as bullock carts or tractor trolleys can efficiently do transportation of dead animals.
 These modes have the advantages of being flexible, economic, convenient and fairly quick.
 Bullock carts are most commonly used in our country for carrying the dead animals, if the distance to be traveled is short, or else
tractor trolleys are also quite convenient.
 The floor of these vehicles should be bedded with straws and be made free from any projections, otherwise bruising of the hides or
skins of the dead animals lower the cost of material.
 The transportation of condemned material from slaughterhouse should be done in closed vehicles to the byproduct plant.
 The vehicles may be labelled as carrying as inedible animal byproducts.
UTILIZING ABATTOIR OFFAL AND CONDEMNED MEAT

 Abattoir offal and condemned carcasses or organs can be utilized as stock feed simply by boiling, which renders them safe to feed to
livestock.
 This has to be done in the following way.
 All inedible offal, including the condemned parts, is put into a kettle or into oil or petrol drums, which have been split along
their longitudinal axis.
 If the intestinal tract is used, it must first be thoroughly cleaned and washed.
 Water, to one and a half time to the weight of the offal, is to be added.
 The contents are boiled for one hour.
 All the meats from the bones scraped.
 Bran, pollards or a similar product is added, equal in weight to the mass, and rigorously stained in.
 The mixer after cooking for further half an hour should be of a thick porridge consistency, and equivalent to 10% of meat meal.
DISADVANTAGE OF PROCESSING

 The fat cannot be recovered and used separately.


 The foodstuff obtained has poor keeping quality and must be used on the day of production or the following day.
 If a pressure cooker is available, it can be used to digest the offal.
 Bones present in the offal will yield up the gelatin but the bones must be removed after treatment.
 The utilization of offal and/or condemned material is somewhat limited and inefficient unless livestock are available at the
site.
 So, a small abattoir might consider keeping pigs to utilize their processed offa

INTRODUCTION

 HACCP is the abbreviated form of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, is related to a system not to a product. The system is
synchronised, standardised and specialised in such a way that it is able to give guarantee to any product produced by the system and
thereby the product is liable to have a label against HACCP with a code number thereof as the case may be.
 The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) Concept was introduced in the food industry in 1971 to ensure that there would
be effective control of the quality of processed foods. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that this concept also be
applied to Meat Inspection and Meat Hygiene in particular to control salmonellosis. It can also be used to reduce bacterial
contamination during slaughtering and dressing and to ensure quality control in Meat Inspection
 A specific HACCP concept should be developed to abattoir and the class of animal to ensure the most efficient and effective concept
of sanitary control.
 The introduction of specific HACCP concept involves the following:
 identifying hygienic hazards
 ranking these hazards
 defining the critical limit
 identifying the critical control points
 recommending necessary control
 record keeping
 verification procedures to ensure efficiency
 tests to ensure that the concept is working

MEAT INSPECTION AND MEAT HYGIENE FOR WHOLESOME MEAT PRODUCTION

 Meat Inspection and Meat Hygiene shall make sure that meat and meat products are safe and wholesome for human consumption. The
concept of meat inspection has gradually changed over the last three decades.
 The classical ante-mortem and post-mortem procedures were designed to detect disease in an animal before slaughter and the lesions
produced by the disease after slaughter respectively. This was done by the use of senses (organoleptic tests) such as the use of touch
(palpation), sight (inspection and observation), smell (gangrenous smell) and taste (only in cooked products).
 Zoonotic diseases, particularly tuberculosis received high priority. Laboratory tests were done to confirm the disease when necessary
or as appropriate

HACCP CONCEPT TO IDENTIFY THE CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS

 With the gradual reduction in the incidence of animal tuberculosis in many countries along with the development of intensive methods
of animal husbandry and the widespread use of pesticides and veterinary drugs, new problems are emerging. These are associated with
residues on one hand and increased human infections with zoonotic agents contaminating animal foods on the other.
 There appears to be a general trend worldwide, with a few exceptions where human Salmonella infections have nearly doubled during
the last five year period and human Campylobacter infections have nearly tripled during the same period.
 Other bacteria that are causing increasing concern as food contaminants are Yersinia spp. and Listeria spp. There is simultaneously a
greater consumer expectation of a longer shelf life in the finished fresh meat product. All these factors suggest that in the practise of
meat inspection, it would be advantageous to use the HACCP concept to identify the critical control points at which these bacterial
groups and other spoilage organisms may contaminate the carcasses, so that appropriate action can be taken.
THE CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS DURING THE SLAUGHTER OF FOOD ANIMALS AND BIRDS

 During red meat production, major contamination occurs in the abattoir during skinning and evisceration, that some contamination
could occur during transport, lairage and deboning and that the most effective control point is in the chiller. Therefore, it is absolutely
essential for meat inspectors to ensure that skinning and evisceration are done properly.
 The critical control points during the slaughter of poultry are picking and evisceration. In developing countries where these tasks are
not automated, it is necessary to ensure that proper hygienic precautions are taken during each of these operations.
 In automated plants, the machinery for picking and evisceration would need to be sanitised regularly, in particular when birds from
different sources are slaughtered

Wool
INTRODUCTION

 Wool is one of the important byproducts obtained from sheep.


 In comparison to hair, it is more elastic, flexible and curly.
 It influences the quality of wool because of its shrinking, strengthening and felting conditions.
 In the living condition, the outer wool scales are with wool sweat (grease), wool soap or yolk called suint secreted from
special glands to keep the fibre in good condition.
 The term wool refers to the whole fleeces, which contain mainly three types of fibres.
 Fine wool fibres generally have no medulla or hollow core and keep on growing, e.g. Merino fibre has no medulla.
 Hairs are continuously growing long fibres with medulla in part of their length.
 Kemps are those coarse as well as short fibres, which cease growing at intervals and are shed into the fleece. Such fibres
have medulla throughout their length. The outer coat gradually gets eliminated and the inner coat becomes wool, which is
seen in Merino, Romney and Lincoln. The kemp is therefore a remnant of the original outer coat.
 Vast quantities of wool, called shorn wool, are derived from shearing.
 A fleece is a term denoting the whole coat of wool shorn from a sheep at one time.
 In the wool trade, fleeces itself are classified as Merino (or fine), crossbred or medium, lusture long wool and carpet.
 Much smaller quantities of wool taken off the pelt of the slaughtered animal are coming forward from slaughterhouses, packing plants
or tanneries.
 This type of wool is called pulled wool, in contradistinction to the shorn.
 Wool as it comes off the sheep, whether shorn or pulled, is called raw wool or grease wool. Such wool contains not only grease but
impurities of mineral and vegetable origin and suint.
 The difference between clean and grease wool is called shrinkage. This depends on the breed of sheep, husbandry nutrition, the type of
soil and so on. The buyer estimates the shrinkage and pays for clean wool only.

STRUCTURE OF WOOL

 A wool fibre has two distinct layers of cells.


 The outer protective sheath has flat, irregularly shaped scales similar to that of the fish, which overlap each other.
 These scales are loosely attached to the inner layer in comparison to hair.
 The outer layer of scales is very important.
 It influences the quality of wool because of its shrinking, strengthening and felting conditions.
 In the living condition, the outer wool scales are with wool sweat (grease) or yolk called suint secreted from special glands to
keep the fibre in good condition.
 In fact, condition denotes the degree of grease or oil present in the wool.
 A part of suint is water-soluble and can be removed during washing.
 The inner layer of wool fibre is cortex, which consists of long fibrils cemented together.
 In hair, it encloses the air-filled medulla.
 Thus, hair has less strength than wool

INDIAN WOOL

 In the Indian subcontinent each geographical region has a distinct type of sheep.
 In the northwestern India, the Bikaneri type breeds are small and coarse woolen.
 Sheep belonging to peninsular India are either coarse woolen (e.g. Deccani) or hair type (e.g. Mandya), whereas those of the
Himalayan region are woolen.
 Most of the Indian breeds have a low fleece yield, annual total yield of greasy wool remains in the range of 1-1.5 Kg.
 Wool produced from the tropical breeds of sheep is coarse and highly suitable for carpet manufacture.
 Thus, India is of the chief carpet wool producing and exporting countries of the world.
 A large quantity of carpet wool is exported to the developed countries
QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF WOOL

 The important quality characteristics of wool are colour, fibre length, fibre diameter and clean dry yield.
 These characteristics account for nearly 80% value.
 The colour of wool is important because presence of any pigment markedly decreases the possibilities of dyeing.
 The ideal colour is white or creamy white with conspicuous lusture.
 Canary staining or yellowing of wool is a general problem in Indian wool.
 It is caused by bacterial action at high pH and low grease content.
 Fine wool has a fibre diameter of 17-18mµ (micron) whereas in coarse wool it may be nearly twice (35 – 38mµ)/ Wools less than
30mµ fibre diameter (non-medullated) are only suitable for clothing textiles.
 The coarse wools are generally used for carpet manufacture.
 To determine the proportion of fibres of each type, a representative sample containing atleast 200 fibres of a fleece are taken and
sorting is done against a black background such as black velvet.
 All fibres showing chalkiness to the naked eyes are counted as hairs, unless those are kemps.
 Within the laboratory, medullation can be assessed by immersion of wool sample in xylol and examination under high magnification.
 Fibre length is an important parameter from spinning point of view.
 In temperature climate, it is the growth of staple during 12 months of age.
 Fine wool is generally less than 6cm comes in coarse grades.
 Clean dry yield refers to the yield of pure wool removing natural grease, vegetable material (grass seeds, burr etc) and soil.
 These impurities can range even upto 20 per cent.
 Further, strength of the fibre is also an important property.
 It is affected by low plane of nutrition and chronic infection especially helminthiasis.
 In field conditions, holding the ends of the staple between the fingers and giving a sharp tug measure it.
 In fine wool crimp, which refers to the waviness of wool fibre, is also considered as an important characteristic.
 It is measured in number of crimps per unit length.
 As far as elasticity is concerned, a fine wool fibre can stretch as much as 70% beyond its original length before breaking.
 Some defects generally encountered in wool are hairiness, impurities, skirting, lack of uniformity and cotts (pressing together of coarse
fibres)
SOME CHARACTERISTIC OF MAIN TYPES OF WOOL

No Wool type Use Fibre diameter (mµ) Clean dry yield (%)

1. Fine Wool High quality, light weight wooden clothes 17-20 65-70

2. Medium wool Good quality, heavier woolen clothes 22-24 70-75

3. Carpet wool* Carpets 25-32 80-90

 * Carpet wool should contain a mix of wool fibre and medullated fibre (hair) in the ratio of 65:25 (w/w). Kemp fibre should not exceed
4%.

DEFECTS IN WOOL

 Some defects generally encountered in wool are hairiness, impurities, skirting, lack of uniformity and cotts (pressing together of coarse
fibres).
Hairiness

 The presence in the true wool fleece of wool hair is a degrading factor.
Breaks

 Wool is very sensitive to nutritional factors, disease or changes of climate, pasture, etc.
 Droughts, fever, starvation or even pregnancy and lactation may result in a poorer fibre which breaks easily.
Cotts

 This term denotes a condition where the coarse fibres which are shed into the fleece become felted together.
Lack of uniformity

 Variation in length and diameter of the fibre in adjacent areas of the fleece is an undesirable factor.
Impurities

 Impurities in the fleece of vegetable or mineral origin, as well as brands made with hot irons or undesirable paint, and stains derived
from urine, parasites, plants or bacteria are taken into consideration.
 Certain parasitic skin diseases also lead to degradation.
Skirting

 Skirting is a term denoting a process of separating inferior wool, such as dirty, greasy, seedy or hairy wool, from the more valuable
part of the fleece.
 At the same time, coarse and stained britch wool and dirty bits from around the legs and brisket are removed

CLASSIFICATION OF WOOL

 The wool is classified in the similar manner as hides and skin, according to the use for which it is intended.
 Wool is roughly classified into three classes, viz., combing, clothing and carpet wool depending upon the length of the fibre.
 The long fibres are combed and then twisted during the spinning of the yarn.
 The shorter wools cannot be successfully twisted and therefore they are carded and mixed, so that the fibres point in different
directions. They are than drawn into yarn.
 The materials made from combing are called worsted; those from carded are called woolens
SHEARING AND PULLING

Shearing

 Shearing of wool is generally done twice a year in India with the help of special shearing scissors.
 It is a highly skilled task and should be given to experienced workers on contract basis.
 Sheep may be washed a few days before shearing, although it may not remove impurities like twigs and small stones.
 Shearing of soiled wool is sometimes referred as dagging.
 The entire coat of wool shorn from a sheep at one time is called fleece.
 The shearing should not expose the sheep to temperature stress.
 It should not be done in winter or rainy season and early suckling or late pregnancy.
 The best time for shearing is shortly before the onset of summer.
 Rams are shorn before mating.
 The first shearing should be done at about 8 months of age.
 The most common shearing faults are inflicting the cuts or wounds to the sheep.
 There may be double cutting, thereby decreasing the length of the fibre.
 Shearing should neither be too near nor too far from the skin.
Pulling

 Pulled wool is obtained from the skins of slaughtered and dead animals by any of the three processes:
 Sweating is the controlled putrefaction of skins in damp chamber at 20oC for 48 hours. It loosens the hair follicles.
 Painting is a very good technique.
 A dehairing agent such as sodium sulphide is applied for loosening the hair follicles.
 Liming involves immersion of the pelt in limewater
POST HARVEST HANDLING

 After shearing the fleece, poor quality material is separated and good quality material is grouped or classed.
 There are several main types of wool.
 Lox refers to wool contaminated with dung and urine along with wool from head, brisket and lower parts of the limb.
 Skirting refer to poor quality wool from bellies and edges.
 Backs refer to poor quality wool along with the back due to penetration of dust, whereas
 Brands refer to wool from the areas stained with marking ink.
 The remaining material is classed on the basis of fibre length and diameter.
 The classified or grouped wool is pressed into bales.
 It should be stored at dry places.
 Carpet wool is often a blend of coarse and medium wool and their proportion depends on the buyers' preference or demand.
 In fact, carpet wool should have good resilience and ability to withstand hard use.
 Coarse outer fibres are necessary to give strength and a fine bulky undercoat is required to provide fullness and resilience.
 It should have 85% true wool by count or 65% by weight and 15% non-kempy medullated fibres (mostly hairs) by count or 35%
by weight.
 Kemp is treated as a defect.
 More than 85% of the fibres should have a diameter of more than 25 mµ
QUALITY CONTROL OF CARPET WOOL

 With a view to improving the quality of wool and establishing well recognized standard for its sale, the Government of India introduced a
scheme for compulsory grading of wool before export.
 Wool Grading and Marketing Rules, 1961 define the quality of various types of wool, prescribe the grade specifications and by some
methods of marking, packing etc.
 Agricultural Marketing Advisor to Government of India issues Certificate of Authorization to the exporters.
 The quality of wool offered for grading under one lot should be uniformly prepared, properly cleaned and be reasonably dry in
feel.
 It should not contain excessive extraneous matter like dirt, sand, moisture, raw fleece cuttings etc. except for a few unavoidable.
 The wool is press packed in bales with complete covering of new gunny cloth and secured with sufficient number of iron hoops,
tightly placed around the bale of customary commercial weights of 100 kg to 200 kg.
 Officer on behalf of Agricultural Marketing Advisor issues a certificate of grading to Government of India
CHARACTERISTICS AND QUALITY OF WOOL

 Grade designations indicate the characteristics and quality of wool as described in Schedules I to VI.

Schedule I Indian Clipped Wool

Schedule II Indian Pulled Wool

Schedule III Indian Tannery Wool (limited)

1. Wools other than South Indian Tannery and Aden type

2. South Indian Tannery and Aden type wools

Schedule IV Indian Mixed Wool

1. Clipped - Carded

2. Clipped - Pulled

Schedule V Indian Hill Wool, Greasy

1. Clipped

Schedule VI Indian Ginned Wool

BRISTLES

 Bristles are stiff, wiry hairs of pigs, hogs or boars.


 These are used for making various types of brushes.
 Bristles are generally obtained from back, neck and tail because those growing on flank and belly are too short to serve the intended
purpose.
 Pig bristles are coarse and stiff in nature.
 They taper from base to the tip, which shows, splits or flagged appearance.
 In fact, flagged tips make them highly suitable for paint and varnish work due to their paint holding property.
 Shaving brushes made from soft bristles are superior to synthetic shaving brushes due to their water absorption and holding properties.
 China holds the leading position in the production and export of bristles followed by India and Russia.
 Bristles are mostly obtained from indigenous and crossbreed pigs in our country.
 Indian bristles are known for their coarseness and stiffness, so these are stout and strong but have longer flag (almost 30% of their total
length) that is required to be trimmed before dressing.
 This factor decreases their value.
 Bristles are plucked from living pigs or boars either once or twice a year.
 These are also pulled out from slaughtered or fallen animals.
 These are also obtained by shaving slaughtered animals after scalding in some bacon factories.
 Bristles obtained from live animals are superior in lusture and resilience than those obtained from fallen animals
CHARACTERISTICS OF BRISTLES

 Colour of bristles is one of its special characteristics. On the basis of colour, bristles are classed as white, black or grey.
 It may be noted that all those bristles, which are neither wholly black nor white, are also classified as grey.
 White colour bristles are available only in Western Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.
 Grey is the predominant colour of Indian bristles.
 The length of bristles is another special characteristic. Longer bristles fetch more prices.
 The thickness also increases with length in a particular quality. Thus longer bristles are stiffer as well.
 Bristles less than 44 mm length are called shorts and riflings, whereas those from 44 mm to 159 mm and above are put in as many as
19 grade designations as per Bristle Grading and Marketing (Amendment) Rules, 1973.
 Due to tropical conditions, Indian bristles generally vary in length from 57 mm to 159 mm.
 Bristles obtained from wild boars in Punjab and Madhya Pradesh are of good length.
 Superior quality black bristles called Darjeeling bristles are obtained from wild boars frequenting foothills of Himalayas.
These bristles are similar to Chinese variety except for more flag.
 Darjeeling is the main market for such bristles.
CLASSES OF BRISTLES

 On the basis of thickness, bristles are commercially classed as:


 Extra stiff
 Stiff / Semi-stiff
 Soft
 Extra stiff bristles are obtained from wild boars and are thicker and stiffer than stiff / semi-stiff bristles.
 Soft bristles are thinner than stiff bristles. White, soft and lengthy bristles fetch maximum price

POST HARVEST HANDLING OF BRISTLES

 Raw bristles have to be dressed before packing.


 In this process, these are first soaked in warm water containing washing soda for a few hours, scoured with detergent, then thoroughly
rinsed with cold water and dried.
 The dried bristles are collected again with the precaution that root and flag ends do not get mixed at any stage.
 These are then tied into bundles.
 The dried bristles are sorted into grade of specific lengths by dragging.
 In this process, nearly 500g bristles are tied with a strap on a small wooden platform with their root or butt ends down.
 The longest bristles are first pulled out by hand, followed by next smaller ones and so on.
 The separate sizes are tied into bundles of about 100 g each.
 These bristles are again solid dressed and finally graded into bristles of uniform length and size.
 Kanpur is the biggest dressing centre in India, the other important ones being Jabalpur, Allahabad, Gorakhpur, etc.
 Bristles meant for use in shaving brushes or exports have to be sterilized to eliminate the chances of possible presence of anthrax
spores and bacteria.
 It is accomplished by autoclaving them at 25-40 lbs pressure for about 1.30 hours.
 The wet disinfected bristles are dried in hot air oven at 60oC or so to regain their stiffness

PACKING

 Bristles of same thickness and grade lengths are tied in bundles.


 Each bundle of bristles (except for short and riflings) is made to a diameter ranging from 38 mm (1.5 inches) to 51mm (2 inches).
 These bundles are packed in clean dry wooden cases to have a net content of 10 kg or more in multiples of 2 kg subject to a maximum
of 46 kg for shipment.
 However, tin or Aluminum cases may be used for packing bristles for transit by airfreight.
 Bristles of different grade designation lengths of 121 mm or below are packed in separate cases from those of over 121 mm.
 The wooden cases and other containers are lined with waterproof paper and contain sufficient quantity of insecticide such as DDT or
naphthalene balls.
QUALITY CONTROL OF BRISTLES

 Indian bristles are exported to several European countries.


 These are shipped to London in cases of 100 lbs net weight from Bombay and Calcutta seaports.
 Bristles of 121 mm or above fetch very good prices due to heavy demand; white bristles are sold at about 25% higher rate than
dark bristles.
 It may be noted that fine, soft bristles with small flag are highly suited for making shaving brush and painting flat varnish.
 As a trade malpractice, grey and black bristles are sometimes with ox or horsetail hair or vegetable fibres or artificial fibres.
 Some traders to the extent of reclaiming bristles obtained from old and used brushes
QUALITY OF BRISTLES AS PER SCHEDULES I to XI

 Government of India formulated Bristles Grading and Marking Rules, 1969 to have a control on the quality of bristles exported from
India.
 These rules were further amended to be named as Bristles Grading and Marking (Amendment) Rules, 1973, as per these rules, there are
XI schedules, each dealing with different commercial type of bristles.
Schedule I Extra Stiff Bristles (White)

Schedule II Extra Stiff Bristle (Grey)

Schedule V Stiff / Semi-Stiff Bristles (Black)

Schedule VII Soft Bristles (White)

Schedule IX Soft Bristles (Grey)

Schedule XI Select Grade of Bristles

Schedule II Extra Stiff Bristle (Black)

Schedule IV Stiff / Semi-Stiff Bristles (White)

Schedule VI Stiff / Semi-Stiff Bristles (Grey)

Schedule VIII Soft Bristles (Black)

Schedule X Special Grade of Bristles